Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 22

Search results for: Cymbopogon nardus L

22 Anatomical and Histological Characters of Cymbopogon nardus Roots and Its Mutagenic Properties

Authors: Pravaree Phuneerub, Chanida Palanuvej, Nijsiri Ruangrungsi

Abstract:

Cymbopogon nardus Rendel (Family Gramineae) is commonly known as citronella grass. The dried root of C. nardus is used for antipyretic, anti-inflammation, anti-analgesic and anticancer in traditional Thai medicine. Transverse sectional and pulverized C. nardus root were illustrated. The volatile oil was extracted from oil gland by hydrodistillation and analysed by GC/MS. Cymbopogon nardus root was exhaustively extracted by continuously maceration in ethanol and water respectively. The mutagenic and antimutagenic properties of the ethanol extract and fractionated water extract of C. nardus root were evaluated by Ames assay using the S. typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 as the models. The result indicated that the anatomical character of root transverse section displayed epidermis, parenchyma, oil gland, phloem, xylem vessel, endodermis and pith. Histological characters of root powder showed parenchyma containing oleoresin, parenchyma in longitudinal view, reticulate vessel, annular vessel, starch granules and fragment of fiber. The root volatile oil was rich in sesquiterpenes dominated by elemol (22.87%) and alpha-eudesmol (16.09%). For mutagenic activity, the both extracts of C. nardus were no mutagenic toward S. typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100. Furthermore, the ethanol extract and fractionated water extract of C. nardus root demonstrated strong antimutagenic effect against of nitrite treated 1-aminopyrene to S. typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100. This present investigation suggested that the dried root extract of C. nardus can be further developed as promising antimutagenic agent.

Keywords: Cymbopogon nardus, volatile oil analysis, mutagenic, antimutagenic effect, Ames Salmonella assay

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21 Soil Carbon Stock in Sub-Optimal Land for the Development of Cymbopogon Nardus L. At Simawang Village, West Sumatera, Indonesia

Authors: Juniarti, Yusniwati, Anwar. A, Armansyah, Febriamansyah, R.

Abstract:

Simawang area is one of the critical areas (sub-optimal) that experienced drought from climate changes. Potential dry land belonging to sub-optimal in Simawang, West Sumatera, Indonesia not been fully utilized for agricultural cultivation. Simawang village, West Sumatera, Indonesia is formerly known as the rice barn, due to the climate change area is experiencing a drought, so the rice fields that were once productive now a grazing paddock because of lack of water. This study aims to calculate the soil carbon stock in Simawang village, West Sumatera Indonesia. The study was conducted in Simawang village, Tanah Datar regency, West Sumatera from October 2014 until December 2017. The study was conducted on sub-optimal land to be planted with Cymbopogon nardus L. (Sereh wangi in Indonesian language). Composite soil sampling conducted at a depth of 0-20 cm, 20 – 40 cm. Based on the depth of soil carbon stocks gained higher ground 6473 t ha-1 at a depth of 0-20 cm at a depth of 20-40 cm. Efforts to increase soil carbon is expected to be cultivated through Cymbopogon nardus L. planting has been done.

Keywords: climate changes, sereh wangi (Cymbopogon nardus L.), soil carbon stock, sub optimal land

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20 Soil Carbon Stock in Sub-Optimal Land due to Climate Change on Development Cymbopogon nardus L. at Simawang Village, West Sumatera, Indonesia

Authors: Juniarti Yuni

Abstract:

Simawang area is one of the critical areas (sub-optimal) that experienced drought from climate changes. Potential dry land belonging to sub-optimal in Simawang, West Sumatera, Indonesia not been fully utilized for agricultural cultivation. Simawang village, West Sumatera, Indonesia is formerly known as the rice barn, due to the climate change area is experiencing a drought, so the rice fields that were once productive now a grazing paddock because of lack of water. This study aims to calculate the soil carbon stock in Simawang village, West Sumatera Indonesia. The study was conducted in Simawang village, Tanah Datar regency, West Sumatera from October 2014 until December 2017. The study was conducted on sub-optimal land to be planted with Cymbopogon nardus L. (Sereh wangi in Indonesian language). Composite soil sampling conducted at a depth of 0-20 cm, 20–40 cm. Based on the depth of soil carbon stocks gained higher ground 6473 T/Ha at a depth of 0-20 cm at a depth of 20-40 cm. Efforts to increase soil carbon is expected to be cultivated through Cymbopogon nardus L. planting has been done.

Keywords: climate changes, sereh wangi (Cymbopogon nardus L.), soil carbon stock, sub optimal land

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19 Extraction and Uses of Essential Oil

Authors: Ram Prasad Baral

Abstract:

A large number of herb materials contain Essential Oils with extensive bioactivities. Acknowledging the importance of plants and its medicinal value, extraction of Essential Oil had been done using Steam Distillation method. In this project, Steam Distillation was used to extract oil from different plant materials like Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert, Artemisia Vulgaris L, Rhododendron anthopogon D. Don, Cymbopogon nardus L, Andropogon nardus, Cinnamomum tamala, Juniperus spp, Cymbopohonflexuosus flexuous, Mantha Arvensia, Nardostachys Jatamansi, Wintergreen Essential Oil, and Valeriana Officinalis. Research has confirmed centuries of practical use of essential oils, and we now know that the 'fragrant pharmacy' contains compounds with an extremely broad range of biochemical effects. Essential oils are so termed as they are believed to represent the very essence of odor and flavor. The recovery of Essential Oil from the raw botanical starting material is very important since the quality of the oil is greatly influenced during this step. There is a variety of methods for obtaining volatile oils from plants. Steam distillation method was found to be one of the promising techniques for the extraction of essential oil from plants as reputable distiller will preserve the original qualities of the plant. The distillation was conducted in Clevenger apparatus in which boiling, condensing, and decantation was done. Analysis of essential oil was done using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer apparatus, which gives evaluates essential oil qualitatively and quantitatively. The volume of essential oil obtained was changing with respect to temperature and time of heating.

Keywords: Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert, Artemisia Vulgaris L, Rhododendron anthopogon D. Don, Cymbopogon nardus L, Andropogon nardus, Cinnamomum tamala, Juniperus spp, Cymbopohonflexuosus flexuous, Mantha

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18 Efficiency of Wood Vinegar Mixed with Some Plants Extract against the Housefly (Musca domestica L.)

Authors: U. Pangnakorn, S. Kanlaya

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The efficiency of wood vinegar mixed with each individual of three plants extract such as: citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus), neem seed (Azadirachta indica A. Juss), and yam bean seed (Pachyrhizus erosus Urb.) were tested against the second instar larvae of housefly (Musca domestica L.). Steam distillation was used for extraction of the citronella grass while neem and yam bean were simple extracted by fermentation with ethyl alcohol. Toxicity test was evaluated in laboratory based on two methods of larvicidal bioassay: topical application method (contact poison) and feeding method (stomach poison). Larval mortality was observed daily and larval survivability was recorded until the survived larvae developed to pupae and adults. The study resulted that treatment of wood vinegar mixed with citronella grass showed the highest larval mortality by topical application method (50.0%) and by feeding method (80.0%). However, treatment of mixed wood vinegar and neem seed showed the longest pupal duration to 25 day and 32 days for topical application method and feeding method respectively. Additional, larval duration on treated M. domestica larvae was extended to 13 days for topical application method and 11 days for feeding method. Thus, the feeding method gave higher efficiency compared with the topical application method.

Keywords: housefly (Musca domestica L.), neem seed (Azadirachta indica), citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus), yam bean seed (Pachyrhizus erosus), mortality

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17 Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Cymbopogon martini Essential Oil and Comparison of Its Composition with Traditionally Extracted Oils

Authors: Aarti Singh, Anees Ahmad

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Essential oil was extracted from lemon grass (Cymbopogon martini) with supercritical carbondioxide (SC-CO2) at pressure of 140 bar and temperature of 55 °C and CO2 flow rate of 8 gmin-1, and its composition and yield were compared with other conventional extraction methods of oil, HD (Hydrodistillation), SE (Solvent Extraction), UAE (Ultrasound Assisted Extraction). SC-CO2 extraction is a green and sustainable extraction technique. Each oil was analysed by GC-MS, the major constituents were neral (44%), Z-citral (43%), geranial (27%), caryophyllene (4.6%) and linalool (1%). The essential oil of lemon grass is valued for its neral and citral concentration. The oil obtained by supercritical carbon-dioxide extraction contained maximum concentration of neral (55.05%) whereas ultrasonication extracted oil contained minimum content (5.24%) and it was absent in solvent extracted oil. The antioxidant properties have been assessed by DPPH and superoxide scavenging methods.

Keywords: cymbopogon martini, essential oil, FT-IR, GC-MS, HPTLC, SC-CO2

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16 Evaluation of Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) as Mosquito Repellent Extracted by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Assisted Process

Authors: Chia-Yu Lin, Chun-Ying Lee, Chih-Jer Lin

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Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus), grown in tropical and subtropical regions over the world, has many potential uses in pharmaceutical, cosmetics, food and flavor, and agriculture industries. In this study, because of its affinity to human body and friendliness to the environment, lemongrass extract was prepared from different processes to evaluate its effectiveness as mosquito repellent. Moreover, the supercritical fluid extraction method has been widely used as an effective and environmental friendly process in the preparation of a variety of compounds. Thus, both the extracts from lemongrass by the conventional hydrodistillation method and the supercritical CO₂ assisted method were compared. The effects of pressure, temperature and time duration on the supercritical CO₂ extraction were also investigated. The compositions of different extracts were examined using mass spectrometer. As for the experiment of mosquito repellence, the extract was placed inside a mosquito trap along with syrup. The mosquito counts in each trap with extracts prepared from different processes were employed in the quantitative evaluation. It was found that the extract from the supercritical CO₂ assisted process contained higher citronellol content than the conventional hydrodistillation method. The extract with higher citronellol content also demonstrated more effective as a mosquito repellent.

Keywords: lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus), hydrodistillation, supercritical fluid extraction, mosquito repellent

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15 The Effect of Aromatherapy Candle as Insecticide from Citrus Extract of Lemongrass (Cymbopogon) to Increase Ae. aegypti Mortality

Authors: Nurul Hidayah, Farida Rahmatika, Fathimah Azzahra, Nesty Herennadia

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Aromatherapy candles are one of the insecticide media that have not been much researched. The active ingredient that is proven to have the effect of insecticide is a citrus extract from lemongrass oil (Cymbopogon). Aromatherapy candles are added by citrus compounds to be insecticidal for Ae. aegypti mosquito that was related to the infectious disease such as dengue fever. This research aims to find out if aromatherapy candles of citrus compounds have an insecticidal effect on Ae. aegypti mosquito. We used true experimental design including posttest only with control group design. The samples are 20 male and female Ae. aegypti mosquitos with aged 1-7 days belong to the inclusion criteria. The subjects were divided into 6 groups, consisting of 1 negative control group and 5 treatment groups with variation concentration are 1%; 2%; 3%; 4%; 5%. Each group will be treated for 2 hours and observed death after 24 hours. Replication in each group is done 4 times. The results were then tested statistically using Kruskal-Wallis and probit test. Mean of death in negative control group, and treatment group 1%; 2%; 3%; 4%; 5% respectively 0; 1; 0.25; 0; 1 and 1 mosquito. The Kruskal-Wallis test in the study group found no significant difference (p = 0.178). The probit analysis showed that LC50 and LC90 were 20.069% and 31.557%. The aromatherapy candle of a citrus compound has an insecticidal effect on the Ae aegypti mosquito.

Keywords: Ae. aegypti insecticide, aromatherapy candle, citrus compound, lemongrass oil (Cymbopogon)

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14 Effects of Cymbopogon citratus, Stapf (CS) or Lemon Grass Ethanol Extract on Antioxidant and Vascular Disorders Parameters in Rat

Authors: Suphaket Saenthaweesuk, Nutiya Somparn, Atcharaporn Thewmore

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The present study aims to investigate the effects of Cymbopogon citratus, Stapf (CS) or lemon grass ethanol extract on antioxidant and vascular disorders parameters in rat. The CS ethanol extract was screened for its phytochemical contents and antioxidant activity in vitro. Moreover, the extract was studied in rats to evaluate its effects in vivo. Rats were orally administered with CS at 1,000 mg/kg/day for 30 days. Phytochemical screening of CS extract indicated the presence of tannins, flavonoids and phenolic compounds. The extract contained phenolic compounds 1,400.10 ± 0.47 mg of gallic acid equivalents per gram CS extract. The free radical scavenging activity assessed by DPPH assay gave IC50 of 168.77 ± 3.32µg/mL, which is relatively lower than that of BHT with IC50 of 12.34 ± 1.14 µg/mL. In the animals, the protein expression of antioxidant enzymes, γ-glutamylcysteine ligase (γ-GCL) in liver was significantly increased. This was consistent with elevation of serum catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. However, Protein expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in heart and aorta were not differenced from normal control. Taken together, the present study provides evidence that CCS water extract exhibits direct antioxidant properties and can induce cytoprotective enzymes in vivo.

Keywords: antioxidant, Cymbopogon citratus Stapf, VCAM-1, γ-glutamylcysteine ligase

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13 Effect of Biopesticide to Control Infestation of Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) on the Culantro Eryngium foetidum L.

Authors: Udomporn Pangnakorn, Sombat Chuenchooklin

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Effect of the biopesticide from entomopathogenic nematode (Steinernema thailandensis n. sp.), bacteria ISR (Pseudomonas fluorescens), wood vinegar and fermented organic substances from plants: (neem Azadirachta indica + citronella grass Cymbopogon nardus Rendle + bitter bush Chromolaena odorata L.) were tested on culantro (Eryngium foetidum L.). The biopesticide was carried out for reduction infestation of the major insects pest (whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius)). The experimental plots were located at farmers’ farm in Tumbol Takhian Luean, Nakhon Sawan Province, Thailand. This study was undertaken during the drought season (lately November to May). The populations of whitefly were observed and recorded every hour up to 3 hours with insect net and yellow sticky traps after the treatments were applied. The results showed that bacteria ISR was the highest effectiveness for control whitefly infestation on culantro, the whitefly numbers on insect net were 12.5, 10.0, and 7.5 after spraying in 1hr, 2hr, and 3hr, respectively. While the whitefly on yellow sticky traps showed 15.0, 10.0, and 10.0 after spraying in 1hr, 2hr, and 3hr, respectively. Furthermore, overall the experiments showed that treatment of bacteria ISR found the average whitefly numbers only 8.06 and 11.0 on insect net and sticky tap respectively, followed by treatment of nematode found the average whitefly with 9.87 and 11.43 on the insect net and sticky tap, respectively. Therefore, the application of biopesticide from entomopathogenic nematodes, bacteria ISR, organic substances from plants and wood vinegar combined with natural enemies is the alternative method of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) for against infestation of whitefly.

Keywords: whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Gennadius), culantro (Eryngium foetidum L.), entomopathogenic nematode (Steinernema thailandensis n. sp.), bacteria ISR (Pseudomonas fluorescens), wood vinegar, fermented organic substances

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12 Biochemical Studies on the Effects of Cymbopogon citratus (Lemon Grass) on Wistar Albino Rats

Authors: Adegbegi Ademuyiwa Joshua, Onoagbe Iyare

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Medicinal plants have been recognized to have therapeutic effects and they may also have toxic side effects. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of extracts of Cymbopogon citratus on normal rats. Blood glucose levels of all animals were determined. Biochemical studies carried out to determine the oxidative status by measuring activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and in the liver, kidney and pancrease. Oral administration of ethanolic and aqueous extract of C. citratus at a doses of 200 mg/kg body weight, for a period of 30 days, caused a significant (p<0.05) reduction in blood glucose levels. Effect on hormonal profile (TSH, T3, and T4) was also determined, and was found to be significantly higher in all the administered groups when compared with control. Lipid profiles levels; Total cholesterols, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol were significantly (p>0.05) higher for all treated rats as compared against control. SOD, catalase, GSH and Vitamin C activities in the tissues (liver, kidney and pancrease) of the rats treated with the medicinal plants were generally higher or statistical slightly similar to control. Histopathology result showed that both ethanolic and aqueous extracts (200 mg/kg body weight) of C. citratus was safer as no adverse effects were observed in the organs examined. Findings in this study showed that this plant has hypoglycemic properties and did not exert oxidative damage; in some instances, particularly in the liver, kidney and pancreas as well as its relative safety and possible use for weight gain.

Keywords: medicinal plants, blood glucose, cymbopogon citratus, hypoglycaemic, oxidative status

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11 Acute and Chronic Effect of Biopesticide on Infestation of Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) on the Culantro Cultivation

Authors: U. Pangnakorn, S. Chuenchooklin

Abstract:

Acute and chronic effects of biopesticide from entomopathogenic nematode (Steinernema thailandensis n. sp.), bacteria ISR (Pseudomonas fluorescens), wood vinegar and fermented organic substances from plants: (neem Azadirachta indica + citronella grass Cymbopogon nardus Rendle + bitter bush Chromolaena odorata L.) were tested on culantro (Eryngium foetidum L.). The biopesticide was investigated for infestation reduction of the major insect pest whitefly (Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius)). The experimental plots were located at a farm in Nakhon Sawan Province, Thailand. This study was undertaken during the drought season (late November to May). Effectiveness of the treatment was evaluated in terms of acute and chronic effect. The populations of whitefly were observed and recorded every hour up to 3 hours with insect nets and yellow sticky traps after the treatments were applied for the acute effect. The results showed that bacteria ISR had the highest effectiveness for controlling whitefly infestation on culantro; the whitefly numbers on insect nets were 12.5, 10.0 and 7.5 after 1 hr, 2 hr, and 3 hr, respectively while the whitefly on yellow sticky traps showed 15.0, 10.0 and 10.0 after 1 hr, 2 hr, and 3 hr, respectively. For chronic effect, the whitefly was continuously collected and recorded at weekly intervals; the result showed that treatment of bacteria ISR found the average whitefly numbers only 8.06 and 11.0 on insect nets and sticky traps respectively, followed by treatment of nematode where the average whitefly was 9.87 and 11.43 on the insect nets and sticky traps, respectively. In addition, the minor insect pests were also observed and collected. The biopesticide influenced the reduction number of minor insect pests (red spider mites, beet armyworm, short-horned grasshopper, pygmy locusts, etc.) with only a few found on the culantro cultivation.

Keywords: whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Gennadius), culantro (Eryngium foetidum L.), acute and chronic effect, entomopathogenic nematode (Steinernema thailandensis n. sp.), bacteria ISR (Pseudomonas fluorescens)

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10 Toxicity of Cymbopogon proximus (Maharaib) Oil Extract to Newzealand Rabbits

Authors: A. B. Amna, M. A. E. Samia, A. K. Hassan

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The clinical, pathological, hematological and biological changes in Newzealand rabbits groups given daily oral doses of 0.1,0.25 and 0.5 ml/kg body weight/day of Cpmbopogon proximus oil extract were investigated in an experiment durated for 21 days. Other than the dose co-related mortality rates, the clinical signs were observed daily after dosing to be low appetite and nervous signs including restlessness and increased consciousness. Pulmonary excretion of the oil extract led to bloody spots on the lungs, lymphocyte infiltration, congestion and edema. Renal glumeruli manifested lymphocyte infiltration in addition to shrinkages and easinophilic material in the medulla, if considered with the corticomedullary generalized necrosis and the significant changes in urea, they can explain the renal dysfunction. Hepatic malfunction was manifested by significant changes in serum alkaline phosphatase and aspartate transferases accompanied by the congested, fatty changed livers. The direct physical effect of the extracted oil was detected by the catarrhal inflammation of the intestines.There was no significant haematological change except for the slight changes in RBCs and MCVs in rabbits given the highest dose. Future work for Cpmbopogon proximus oil extract was forwarded and practical implications of the result were highlighted.

Keywords: toxicity, cymbopogon proximus (maharaib), oil extract, Newzealand rabbits

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9 Evaluation of Nematicidal Action of Some Botanicals on Plant-Parasitic Nematode

Authors: Lakshmi, Yakshita Awasthi, Deepika, Lovleen Jha, Archna Kumar

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From the back of centuries, plant-parasitic nematodes (PPN) have been recognized as a major threat to agriculturalists globally. It causes 21.3% global food loss annually. The utilization of harmful chemical pesticides to minimize the nematode population may cause acute and delayed health hazards and harmful impacts on human health. In recent years, a variety of plants have been evaluated for their nematicidal properties and efficacy in the management of plant-parasitic nematodes. Several Phyto-nematicides are available, but most of them are incapable of sustainable management of PPN, especially Meloidogyne spp. Thus, there is a great need for a new eco-friendly, highly efficient, sustainable control measure for this nematode species. Keeping all these facts and after reviewing the literature, aqueous extract of Cymbopogon citratus, Tagetes erecta, and Azadirachta indica were prepared by adding distilled water (1 g sample mixed with 10ml of water). In vitro studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacious nature of targeted botanicals against PPN Meloidogyne spp. The mortality status of PPN was recorded by counting the live and dead individuals after applying 100μl of selected extract. The impact was observed at different time durations, i.e., 24h and 48h. The result showed that the highest 100% mortality was at 48h in all three extracts. Thus, these extracts, with the addition of a suitable shelf-life enhancer, may be exploited in different nematode control programs as an economical, sustainable measure.

Keywords: Meloidogyne, Cymbopogon citratus, Tagetes erecta, Azadirachta indica, nematicidal

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8 Antibacterial Activity and Kinetic Parameters of the Essential Oils of Drypetes Gossweileri S.Moore, Ocimun Gratissimum L. and Cymbopogon Citratus DC Stapf on 5 Multidrug-Resistant Strains of Shigella

Authors: Elsa Makue Nguuffo, Esther Del Florence Moni Ndedi, Jacky Njiki Bikoï, Jean Paul Assam Assam, Maximilienne Ascension Nyegue

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Aims: The present study aims to evaluate the kinetic parameters of essential oils (EOs) and combinations fromDrypetes gossweileri Stem Bark, Ocimum gratissimum leaves, Cymbopogon citratusleaves after evaluation of their antibacterial activityonmultidrug-resistant strains ofShigella. Material and Methods:fiveclinical strains of Shigellaisolated from patients with diarrhoeaincluding Shigella flexneri, and 4 otherstrains of Shigella sppwere selected. Their antibiotic profile was established using agar test diffusion with seven antibiotics belonging to seven classes.EOs were extracted from each plant using hydrodistillation process. The activity of Ciprofloxacin®, OEs, and their combination formulatedinthe followingratios(w/w/w): C1: 1/1/1; C2: 2/1/1; C3: 1/2/1, C4:1/1/2 was evaluated microdilution assay. The various interactions of OEs in the different combinations were determined then the OE and the most active combination were retained to determine their kinetic parameters on S. flexneri. Results: Antibiotic susceptibility tests revealed that most Shigella isolates (n = 4) were resistant to six antibiotics tested. Ciprofloxacin (40%), Nalidixic acid (60%), Tetracycline (80%), Amoxicillin (100%), Cefotaxime (80%), Erythromycin (100%), and Cotrimoxazole (80%) were the profiles found in the different strains of Shigella. About the antibacterial activity of OEs, Drypetes gossweileriOE and C2 combination had shown a higher Shigellicide property with a Minimal Inhibitory Concentration(MIC) respectivelyranging from 0.078 mg/mL to 0.312 mg/mL and 0.012 to 1.562 mg/mL. Combinations of OEs showed various interactions whose synergistic effects were mostly encountered. The best deactivation was obtained by the combination C2 at 16 MIC withb= 1.962. Conclusion: the susceptibility of Shigella to OEs and their combinations justifies their use in traditional medicine in the treatment of shigellosis.

Keywords: shigella, multidrug-resistant, EOs, kinetic

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7 Activity of Some Plant Extracts on the Larvae and Eggs of Culex quinquefasciatus in the Laboratory

Authors: A. A. El Maghrbi

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The control of vectors like mosquitoes based on the application of chemical insecticides but due to its adverse effect on the environment, and development of resistance by most of species of mosquitoes including vectors of important diseases. Ethanol and acetone extracts of nine species of plants (Allium tuberosum, Apium leptophylum, Carica papaya, Cymbopogon citratus, Euphorbia cotinofolia, Melia azedarach, Ocimum canum, Ricinus common, and Tagetes erecta) were tested in respect of their influence on the eggs and larvae of Culex quinquifasciatus in concentration 100, 10 and 1 mg/L. In relation to the survival of larvae, ethanol extract of O. canum and acetone extract of A.tuberosum in 100 mg/L have larvicide activity against L4 of Cx. quinquifasciatus. For hatching of eggs, ethanol and acetone extract of A.tuberosum (100 and 10 mg/L) and acetone extract of C.citratus (100 mg/L) produced reduction in the number of eggs hatched of Cx. quinquifasciatus. Our results indicate that each extract of the plant have potential to control mosquito population and suggest that further studies are needed in this field.

Keywords: Cx. quinquefasciatus, plant extract, ethanol, acetone, larvae, eggs

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6 Preparation and Evaluation of Herbal Extracts for Washing of Vegetables and Fruits

Authors: Pareshkumar Umedbhai Patel

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Variety of microbes were isolated from surface of fruit and vegetables to get idea about normal flora of their surface. The process of isolation of microbes involved use of sterilized cotton swabs to wipe the surface of the samples. For isolation of Bacteria, yeast and fungi microbiological media used were nutrient agar medium, GYE agar medium and MRBA agar medium respectively. The microscopical and macroscopical characteristics of all the isolates were studied. Different plants with known antimicrobial activity were selected for obtaining samples for extraction e.g. Ficus (Ficus religosa) stem, Amla (Phyllanthus emblica) fruit, Tulsi (Ocimum tenuiflorum) leaves and Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) oil. Antimicrobial activity of these samples was tested initially against known bacteria followed by study against microbes isolated from surface of vegetables and fruits. During the studies carried out throughout the work, lemongrass oil and Amla extract were found superior. Lemongrass oil and Amla extract respectively inhibited growth of 65% and 42% microbes isolated from fruit and vegetable surfaces. Rest two studied plant extracts showed only 11% of inhibition against the studied isolates. The results of isolate inhibition show the antibacterial effect of lemongrass oil better than the rest of the studied plant extracts.

Keywords: herbal extracts, vegetables, fruits, antimicrobial activity

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5 Production of Vermiwash from Medicinal Plants and Its Potential Use as Fungicide against the Alternaria Alternata (fr.) Keissl. Affecting Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in Guyana

Authors: Abdullah Ansari, Sinika Rambaran, Sirpaul Jaikishun

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Vermiwash could be used to enhance plant productivity and resistance to some harmful plant pathogens, as well as provide benefit through the disposal of waste matter. Alternaria rot caused by the fungus Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissl., is a common soil-borne pathogen that results in postharvest fruit rot of cucumbers, peppers and other cash crops. The production and distribution of Cucumis sativus L. (cucumber) could be severely affected by Alternaria rot. Fungicides are the traditional treatment however; they are not only expensive but can also cause environmental and health problems. Vermiwash was prepared from various medicinal plants (Ocimum tenuiflorum L. {Tulsi}, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. {neem}, Cymbopogon citratus (DC. ex Nees) Stapf. {lemon grass} and Oryza sativa L. {paddy straw} and applied, in vitro, to A. alternata to investigate their effectiveness as organic alternatives to traditional fungicides. All of the samples of vermiwash inhibited the growth of A. alternata. The inhibitive effects on the fungus appeared most effective when A. indica and O. tenuiflorum were used in the production of the vermiwash. Using the serial dilution method, vermiwash from O. tenuiflorum showed the highest percent of inhibition (93.2%), followed by C. citratus (74.7%), A. indica (68.7%), O. sativa, combination, and combination without worms. Using the sterile disc diffusion method, all of the samples produced zones of inhibition against A. alternata. Vermiwash from A. indica produced a zone of inhibition, averaging 15.3mm, followed by O. tenuiflorum (14.0mm), combination without worms, combination, C. citratus and O. sativa. Nystatin produced a zone of inhibition of 10mm. The results indicate that vermiwash is not simply an organic alternative to more traditional chemical fungicides, but it may in fact be a better and more effective product in treating certain fungal plant infections, particularly A. alternata.

Keywords: vermiwash, earthworms, soil, bacteria, alternaria alternata, antifungal, antibacterial

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4 Isolation and Identification of Fungi from Different Types of Medicinal Plants Cultivated in Ecuador

Authors: Ana Paola Echavarria, Mariuxi Medina, Haydelba D'Armas, Carmita Jaramillo, Diana San Martin

Abstract:

The use of medicinal plants is one of the oldest and most extended medical therapies that goes back to prehistoric times, and nowadays, they are also used in the preparation of phytopharmaceuticals with options to cure diseases. The test for the determination of fungi was carried out in the Pharmacy Pilot Plant (treatment of the leaves of the plant species) and the Microbiology Laboratory (determination of fungi of the plant species, using growth medium called Sabouraud agar plus the vegetal sample), of the Academic Unit of Chemical Sciences and Health, of the Universidad Tecnica de Machala. Subsequently, colony counting was performed, both macroscopic, which is determined in the growth medium of the seeding, and microscopic, to identify the germinative forms using blue lactophenol. The procedure was repeated in duplicate to replicate the results data. The determination of the total fungal content of the following plant species was evaluated: Cymbopogon citratus (lemon verbena), Melissa officinalis (lemon balm), Taraxacum officinale (dandelion), Artemisia absinthium (absinthe), Piper carpunya (guaviduca), Moringa oleifera (moringa), Coriandrum sativum (coriander), Momordica charantia (achochilla), Borago officinalis (borage), Aloysia citriodora (cedron), Ambrosia artemisifolia (altamisa) and Ageratum conyzoides (mastrante). The results obtained showed that all the samples of the twelve plant species studied developed filamentous fungi, with great variability of them, within the permissible limits and contemplated by the Ecuadorian Institute of Normalization (INEN), being suitable as raw material for its use in the preparation of nutraceuticals and medicinal products or phytodrugs; with the exception of A. conyzoides (mastranto) which is the only species that exceeds the regulation in the average of dilutions.

Keywords: colonies, fungi, medicinal plants, microbiological quality, Sabouraud agar

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3 Comparative Study of Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and Physicochemical Properties of Four Culinary Herbs Grown in Sri Lanka

Authors: Thilini Kananke

Abstract:

Culinary herbs have long been considered as significant dietary sources of many potential health-promoting compounds. The present research focused on analysis of antimicrobial, antioxidant and physicochemical properties in selected four culinary herbs namely Murraya koenigii (Curry leaves), Pandanus amaryllifolius (Pandan leaves), Cymbopogon citrates (Lemon grass leaves), and Mentha Piperita (Minchi leaves) obtained from several market sites in Ratnapura District, Sri Lanka. The antimicrobial activity of ethanolic, chloroform and distilled water extracts of culinary herbs were evaluated against the strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Shigella spp. Total phenolic content and the radical scavenging activity (using DPPH assay) of culinary herbs were determined. Four heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Pb and Fe) were analyzed in the selected culinary herbs using the atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Proximate compositions of the selected herbs were analyzed using AOAC official methods. Antimicrobial activity of all selected culinary herbs showed relativity high inhibition zones against S. aureus. Pandan leaves showed the least antimicrobial activity against selected bacterial strains compared with other culinary herbs. Both the highest radical scavenging activity (lower IC50 value) and the total phenolic content (25.57 ±3.54µg GAE/100g) were reported in Mentha piperita extract. The highest concentrations of Cu, Fe and Cd were reported in Curry leaves (29.15 mg/kg), Lemon grass leaves (257.98 mg/kg) and Pandan leaves (6.05 mg/kg) respectively. The heavy metal contents detected in all culinary herbs were below the permitted limits set by WHO/FAO, except Cd. The highest moisture (85.00±0.00%) and fiber (10.66± 2.00%) contents were found in Pandan leaves, while the highest protein (8.94±0.29%), fat (12.3± 2.52%) and ash (3.50± 0.17%) contents were reported in curry leaves. The information obtained from this study highlights the importance of further investigation of other antioxidant, antimicrobial and health promoting compounds of culinary herbs available in Sri Lanka for a detailed comparison.

Keywords: antimicrobial, antioxidant, culinary herbs, proximate analysis

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2 Depolymerised Natural Polysaccharides Enhance the Production of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants and Their Active Constituents

Authors: M. Masroor Akhtar Khan, Moin Uddin, Lalit Varshney

Abstract:

Recently, there has been a rapidly expanding interest in finding applications of natural polymers in view of value addition to agriculture. It is now being realized that radiation processing of natural polysaccharides can be beneficially utilized either to improve the existing methodologies used for processing the natural polymers or to impart value addition to agriculture by converting them into more useful form. Gamma-ray irradiation is employed to degrade and lower the molecular weight of some of the natural polysaccharides like alginates, chitosan and carrageenan into small sized oligomers. When these oligomers are applied to plants as foliar sprays, they elicit various kinds of biological and physiological activities, including promotion of plant growth, seed germination, shoot elongation, root growth, flower production, suppression of heavy metal stress, etc. Furthermore, application of these oligomers can shorten the harvesting period of various crops and help in reducing the use of insecticides and chemical fertilizers. In recent years, the oligomers of sodium alginate obtained by irradiating the latter with gamma-rays at 520 kGy dose are being employed. It was noticed that the oligomers derived from the natural polysaccharides could induce growth, photosynthetic efficiency, enzyme activities and most importantly the production of secondary metabolite in the plants like Artemisia annua, Beta vulgaris, Catharanthus roseus, Chrysopogon zizanioides, Cymbopogon flexuosus, Eucalyptus citriodora, Foeniculum vulgare, Geranium sp., Mentha arvensis, Mentha citrata, Mentha piperita, Mentha virdis, Papaver somniferum and Trigonella foenum-graecum. As a result of the application of these oligomers, the yield and/or contents of the active constituents of the aforesaid plants were significantly enhanced. The productivity, as well as quality of medicinal and aromatic plants, may be ameliorated by this novel technique in an economical way as a very little quantity of these irradiated (depolymerised) polysaccharides is needed. Further, this is a very safe technique, as we did not expose the plants directly to radiation. The radiation was used to depolymerize the polysaccharides into oligomers.

Keywords: essential oil, medicinal and aromatic plants, plant production, radiation processed polysaccharides, active constituents

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1 Screening for Larvicidal Activity of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of Fourteen Selected Plants and Formulation of a Larvicide against Aedes aegypti (Linn.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) Larvae

Authors: Michael Russelle S. Alvarez, Noel S. Quiming, Francisco M. Heralde

Abstract:

This study aims to: a) obtain ethanolic (95% EtOH) and aqueous extracts of Selaginella elmeri, Christella dentata, Elatostema sinnatum, Curculigo capitulata, Euphorbia hirta, Murraya koenigii, Alpinia speciosa, Cymbopogon citratus, Eucalyptus globulus, Jatropha curcas, Psidium guajava, Gliricidia sepium, Ixora coccinea and Capsicum frutescens and screen them for larvicidal activities against Aedes aegypti (Linn.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) larvae; b) to fractionate the most active extract and determine the most active fraction; c) to determine the larvicidal properties of the most active extract and fraction against by computing their percentage mortality, LC50, and LC90 after 24 and 48 hours of exposure; and d) to determine the nature of the components of the active extracts and fractions using phytochemical screening. Ethanolic (95% EtOH) and aqueous extracts of the selected plants will be screened for potential larvicidal activity against Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus using standard procedures and 1% malathion and a Piper nigrum based ovicide-larvicide by the Department of Science and Technology as positive controls. The results were analyzed using One-Way ANOVA with Tukey’s and Dunnett’s test. The most active extract will be subjected to partial fractionation using normal-phase column chromatography, and the fractions subsequently screened to determine the most active fraction. The most active extract and fraction were subjected to dose-response assay and probit analysis to determine the LC50 and LC90 after 24 and 48 hours of exposure. The active extracts and fractions will be screened for phytochemical content. The ethanolic extracts of C. citratus, E. hirta, I. coccinea, G. sepium, M. koenigii, E globulus, J. curcas and C. frutescens exhibited significant larvicidal activity, with C. frutescens being the most active. After fractionation, the ethyl acetate fraction was found to be the most active. Phytochemical screening of the extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, indoles and steroids. A formulation using talcum powder–300 mg fraction per 1 g talcum powder–was made and again tested for larvicidal activity. At 2 g/L, the formulation proved effective in killing all of the test larvae after 24 hours.

Keywords: larvicidal activity screening, partial purification, dose-response assay, capsicum frutescens

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