Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Search results for: Juniperus spp

9 Phytochemical Profile of Ripe Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb. Galbuli from Bulgaria

Authors: S. Stankov, H. Fidan, N. Petkova, M. Stoyanova, Tz. Radoukova, A. Stoyanova

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition of ripe Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb. galbuli (female cones) collected from "Izgoraloto Gyune" Reserve in Krichim, Bulgaria. The moisture (36.88%), abs. weight 693.96 g/1000 pcs., and the ash content (10.57%) of ripe galbuli were determined. Lipid fraction (9.12%), cellulose (13.54%), protein (13.64%), and total carbohydrates (31.20%) were evaluated in the ripe galbuli. It was found that the ripe galbuli contained glucose (4.00%) and fructose (4.25%), but disaccharide sucrose was not identified. The main macro elements presented in the sample were K (8390.00 mg/kg), Ca (4596.00 g/kg), Mg (837.72 mg/kg), followed by Na (7.69 mg/kg); while the detected microelements consisted of Zn (8.51 mg/kg), Cu (4.66 mg/kg), Mn (3.65 mg/kg), Fe (3.26 mg/kg), Cr (3.00 mg/kg), Cd (< 0.1 mg/kg), and Pb (0.01 mg/kg).

Keywords: chemical composition, Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb, minerals, ripe galbuli

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8 Juniperus thurefera Multiplication Tests by Cauttigs in Aures, Algeria

Authors: N. Khater, S. A. Menina, H. Benbouza

Abstract:

Juniperus thurefera is an endemic cupressacée constitutes a forest cover in the mountains of Aures (Algeria). It is a heritage and important ecological richness but continues to decline, highly endangered species in danger of extinction, these populations show significant originality due to climatic conditions of the environment, because of its strength and extraordinary vitality, made a powerful but fragile and unique ecosystem in which natural regeneration by seed is almost absent in Algeria. Because of the quality of seeds that are either dormant or affected at the tree and the ground level by a large number of pests and parasites, which will lead to the total disappearance of this species and consequently leading to the biodiversity. View the ecological and socio- economic interest presented by this case, it deserves to be preserved and produced in large quantities in this respect. The present work aims to try to regenerate the Juniperus thurefera via vegetative propagation. We studied the potential of cuttings to form adventitious roots and buds. Cuttings were taken from young subjects from 5 to 20 years treated with indole butyric acid (AIB) and planted out-inside perlite under atomizer whose temperature and light are controlled. Results indicated that the percentage of developing buds on cuttings is better than the rooting ones.

Keywords: Juniperus thurefera, indole butyric acid, cutting, buds, rooting

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7 The Insecticidal Activity of Three Essential Oils on the Chickpea Weevil Callosobruchus Maculatus F (Coleoptera; Curculionidae)

Authors: Azzaz Siham

Abstract:

Essential oils are, by definition, secondary metabolites produced by plants as a means of defense against phytophagous pests. This work aims to study the insecticidal effect of the essential oil of three plants: Phoenician juniper Juniperus phoenicea; the Niaouli Melaleuca quinquenervia and the wild carrot Daucus carota L, on the chickpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus F, which is known as a formidable pest of legumes. Essential oils are obtained by hydrodistillation. The study carried out in the laboratory concerning the insecticidal activity of these essential oils by contact and inhalation effect on C.maculatus gave important results, especially for the essential oil of Juniperus phoenicea for the contact test; and for the inhalation test, the essential oil of Melaleuca quinquenervia shows remarkable insecticidal activity compared to the other two oils. The results of these tests showed a very interesting action. The essential oils used very significantly describe the lifespan of adults.

Keywords: essential oils, juniperus phoenicea, melaleuca quinquenervia, daucus carota, Callosobruchus maculatus

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6 Preliminary Study of the Potential of Propagation by Cuttings of Juniperus thurefera in Aures (Algeria)

Authors: N. Khater, I. Djbablia, A. Telaoumaten, S. A. Menina, H. Benbouza

Abstract:

Thureferous Juniper is an endemic cupressacée constitutes a forest cover in the mountains of Aures (Algeria ). It is an heritage and important ecological richness, but continues to decline, highly endangered species in danger of extinction, these populations show significant originality due to climatic conditions of the environment, because of its strength and extraordinary vitality, made a powerful but fragile and unique ecosystem in which natural regeneration by seed is almost absent in Algeria. Because of the quality of seeds that are either dormant or affected at the tree and the ground level by a large number of pests and parasites, which will lead to the total disappearance of this species and consequently leading to the biodiversity. View the ecological and social- economic interest presented by this case, it deserves to be preserved and produced in large quantities in this respect. The present work aims to try to regenerate the Juniperus thurefera via vegetative propagation. We studied the potential of cuttings to form adventitious roots and buds. Cuttings were taken from young subjects from 5 to 20 years treated with indole butyric acid (AIB) and planted out inside perlite under atomizer whose temperature and light are controlled. The results show that the rate of rooting is important and encourages the regeneration of this species through vegetative propagation.

Keywords: juniperus thurefera, indole butyric acid, cutting, buds, rooting

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5 Extraction and Uses of Essential Oil

Authors: Ram Prasad Baral

Abstract:

A large number of herb materials contain Essential Oils with extensive bioactivities. Acknowledging the importance of plants and its medicinal value, extraction of Essential Oil had been done using Steam Distillation method. In this project, Steam Distillation was used to extract oil from different plant materials like Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert, Artemisia Vulgaris L, Rhododendron anthopogon D. Don, Cymbopogon nardus L, Andropogon nardus, Cinnamomum tamala, Juniperus spp, Cymbopohonflexuosus flexuous, Mantha Arvensia, Nardostachys Jatamansi, Wintergreen Essential Oil, and Valeriana Officinalis. Research has confirmed centuries of practical use of essential oils, and we now know that the 'fragrant pharmacy' contains compounds with an extremely broad range of biochemical effects. Essential oils are so termed as they are believed to represent the very essence of odor and flavor. The recovery of Essential Oil from the raw botanical starting material is very important since the quality of the oil is greatly influenced during this step. There is a variety of methods for obtaining volatile oils from plants. Steam distillation method was found to be one of the promising techniques for the extraction of essential oil from plants as reputable distiller will preserve the original qualities of the plant. The distillation was conducted in Clevenger apparatus in which boiling, condensing, and decantation was done. Analysis of essential oil was done using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer apparatus, which gives evaluates essential oil qualitatively and quantitatively. The volume of essential oil obtained was changing with respect to temperature and time of heating.

Keywords: Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert, Artemisia Vulgaris L, Rhododendron anthopogon D. Don, Cymbopogon nardus L, Andropogon nardus, Cinnamomum tamala, Juniperus spp, Cymbopohonflexuosus flexuous, Mantha

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4 Phytogeography and Regional Conservation Status of Gymnosperms in Pakistan

Authors: Raees Khan, Mir A. Khan, Sheikh Z. Ul Abidin, Abdul S. Mumtaz

Abstract:

In the present study, phytogeography and conservation status of gymnosperms of Pakistan were investigated. 44 gymnosperms species of 18 genera and 9 families were collected from 66 districts of the country. Among the 44 species, 20 species were native (wild) and 24 species were exotic (cultivated). Ephedra sarocarpa of Ephedraceae was not collected in this study from its distribution area and most probably it may be Nationally Extinct now from this area. Previously in Gymnosperms Flora of Pakistan 34 species was reported. 12 new gymnosperms species were recorded for the first time. Pinus wallichiana (40 districts), Cedrus deodara (39 districts) Pinus roxburghii (36 districts), Picea smithiana (36 districts) and Abies pindrow (34 districts) have the maximum ecological amplitude. Juniperus communis (17districts) and Juniperus excelsa (14 districts) were the widely distributed among the junipers. Ephedra foliata (23 districts), Ephedra gerardiana (20 districts) and Ephedra intermedia (19 districts) has the widest distribution range. Taxus fuana was also wider distribution range and recorded in 19 districts but its population was not very stable. These species was recorded to support local flora and fuana, especially endemics. PCORD version 5 clustered all gymnosperms species into 4 communities and all localities into 5 groups through cluster analyses. The Two Way Cluster Analyses of 66 districts (localities) resulted 4 various plant communities. The Gymnosperms in Pakistan are distributed in 3 floristic regions i.e. Western plains of the country, Northern and Western mountainous regions and Western Himalayas. The assessment of the National conservation status of these species, 10 species were found to be threatened, 6 species were endangered, 4 species were critically endangered and 1 species have become extinct (Ephedra sarcocarpa). The population of some species i.e. Taxus fuana, Ephedra gerardiana, Ephedra monosperma, Picea smithiana and Abies spectabilis is decreasing at an alarming rate.

Keywords: conservation status, gymnosperms, phytogeography, Pakistan

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3 Land Use, Land Cover Changes and Woody Vegetation Status of Tsimur Saint Gebriel Monastery, in Tigray Region, Northern Ethiopia

Authors: Abraha Hatsey, Nesibu Yahya, Abeje Eshete

Abstract:

Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahido Church has a long tradition of conserving the Church vegetation and is an area treated as a refugee camp for many endangered indigenous tree species in Northern Ethiopia. Though around 36,000 churches exist in Ethiopia, only a few churches have been studied so far. Thus, this study assessed the land use land cover change of 3km buffer (1986-2018) and the woody species diversity and regeneration status of Tsimur St. Gebriel monastery in Tigray region, Northern Ethiopia. For vegetation study, systematic sampling was used with 100m spacing between plots and between transects. Plot size was 20m*20m for the main plot and 2 subplots (5m*5m each) for the regeneration study. Tree height, diameter at breast height(DBH) and crown area were measured in the main plot for all trees with DBH ≥ 5cm. In the subplots, all seedlings and saplings were counted with DBH < 5cm. The data was analyzed on excel and Pass biodiversity software for diversity and evenness analysis. The major land cover classes identified include bare land, farmland, forest, shrubland and wetland. The extents of forest and shrubland were declined considerably due to bare land and agricultural land expansions within the 3km buffer, indicating an increasing pressure on the church forest. Regarding the vegetation status, A total of 19 species belonging to 13 families were recorded in the monastery. The diversity (H’) and evenness recorded were 2.4 and 0.5, respectively. The tree density (DBH ≥ 5cm) was 336/ha and a crown cover of 65%. Olea europaea was the dominant (6.4m2/ha out of 10.5m2 total basal area) and a frequent species (100%) with good regeneration in the monastery. The rest of the species are less frequent and are mostly confined to water sources with good site conditions. Juniperus procera (overharvested) and the other indigenous species were with few trees left and with no/very poor regeneration status. The species having poor density, frequency and regeneration (Junperus procera, Nuxia congesta Fersen and Jasminium abyssinica) need prior conservation and enrichment planting. The indigenous species could also serve as a potential seed source for the reproduction and restoration of nearby degraded landscapes. The buffer study also demonstrated expansion of agriculture and bare land, which could be a threat to the forest of the isolated monastery. Hence, restoring the buffer zone is the only guarantee for the healthy existence of the church forest.

Keywords: church forests, regeneration, land use change, vegetation status

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2 Non-Timber Forest Products and Livelihood Linkages: A Case of Lamabagar, Nepal

Authors: Sandhya Rijal, Saroj Adhikari, Ramesh R. Pant

Abstract:

Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) have attracted substantial interest in the recent years with the increasing recognition that these can provide essential community needs for improved and diversified rural livelihood and support the objectives of biodiversity conservation. Nevertheless, various challenges are witnessed in their sustainable harvest and management. Assuming that sustainable management with community stewardship can offer one of the solutions to existing challenges, the study assesses the linkages between NTFPs and rural livelihood in Lamabagar village of Dolakha, Nepal. The major objective was to document the status of NTFPs and their contributions in households of Lamabagar. For status documentation, vegetation sampling was done using systematic random sampling technique. 30 plots of 10 m × 10 m were laid down in six parallel transect lines at horizontal distance of 160 m in two different community forests. A structured questionnaire survey was conducted in 76 households (excluding non-response rate) using stratified random sampling technique for contribution analysis. Likewise, key informant interview and focus group discussions were also conducted for data triangulations. 36 different NTFPs were recorded from the vegetation sample in two community forests of which 50% were used for medicinal purposes. The other uses include fodder, religious value, and edible fruits and vegetables. Species like Juniperus indica, Daphne bholua Aconitum spicatum, and Lyonia ovalifolia were frequently used for trade as a source of income, which was sold in local market. The protected species like Taxus wallichiana and Neopicrorhiza scrophulariiflora were also recorded in the area for which the trade is prohibited. The protection of these species urgently needs community stewardship. More than half of the surveyed households (55%) were depending on NTFPs for their daily uses, other than economic purpose whereas 45% of them sold those products in the market directly or in the form of local handmade products as a source of livelihood. NTFPs were the major source of primary health curing agents especially for the poor and unemployed people in the study area. Hence, the NTFPs contributed to livelihood under three different categories: subsistence, supplement income and emergency support, depending upon the economic status of the households. Although the status of forest improved after handover to the user group, the availability of valuable medicinal herbs like Rhododendron anthopogon, Swertia nervosa, Neopicrorhiza scrophulariiflora, and Aconitum spicatum were declining. Inadequacy of technology, lack of easy transport access, and absence of good market facility were the major limitations for external trade of NTFPs in the study site. It was observed that people were interested towards conservation only if they could get some returns: economic in terms of rural settlements. Thus, the study concludes that NTFPs could contribute rural livelihood and support conservation objectives only if local communities are provided with the easy access of technology, market and capital.

Keywords: contribution, medicinal, subsistence, sustainable harvest

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1 Increasing Prevalence of Multi-Allergen Sensitivities in Patients with Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma in Eastern India

Authors: Sujoy Khan

Abstract:

There is a rising concern with increasing allergies affecting both adults and children in rural and urban India. Recent report on adults in a densely populated North Indian city showed sensitization rates for house dust mite, parthenium, and cockroach at 60%, 40% and 18.75% that is now comparable to allergy prevalence in cities in the United States. Data from patients residing in the eastern part of India is scarce. A retrospective study (over 2 years) was done on patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma where allergen-specific IgE levels were measured to see the aero-allergen sensitization pattern in a large metropolitan city of East India. Total IgE and allergen-specific IgE levels were measured using ImmunoCAP (Phadia 100, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Sweden) using region-specific aeroallergens: Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (d1); Dermatophagoides farinae (d2); cockroach (i206); grass pollen mix (gx2) consisted of Cynodon dactylon, Lolium perenne, Phleum pratense, Poa pratensis, Sorghum halepense, Paspalum notatum; tree pollen mix (tx3) consisted of Juniperus sabinoides, Quercus alba, Ulmus americana, Populus deltoides, Prosopis juliflora; food mix 1 (fx1) consisted of Peanut, Hazel nut, Brazil nut, Almond, Coconut; mould mix (mx1) consisted of Penicillium chrysogenum, Cladosporium herbarum, Aspergillus fumigatus, Alternaria alternate; animal dander mix (ex1) consisted of cat, dog, cow and horse dander; and weed mix (wx1) consists of Ambrosia elatior, Artemisia vulgaris, Plantago lanceolata, Chenopodium album, Salsola kali, following manufacturer’s instructions. As the IgE levels were not uniformly distributed, median values were used to represent the data. 92 patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma (united airways disease) were studied over 2 years including 21 children (age < 12 years) who had total IgE and allergen-specific IgE levels measured. The median IgE level was higher in 2016 than in 2015 with 60% of patients (adults and children) being sensitized to house dust mite (dual positivity for Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and farinae). Of 11 children in 2015, whose total IgE ranged from 16.5 to >5000 kU/L, 36% of children were polysensitized (≥4 allergens), and 55% were sensitized to dust mites. Of 10 children in 2016, total IgE levels ranged from 37.5 to 2628 kU/L, and 20% were polysensitized with 60% sensitized to dust mites. Mould sensitivity was 10% in both of the years in the children studied. A consistent finding was that ragweed sensitization (molecular homology to Parthenium hysterophorus) appeared to be increasing across all age groups, and throughout the year, as reported previously by us where 25% of patients were sensitized. In the study sample overall, sensitizations to dust mite, cockroach, and parthenium were important risks in our patients with moderate to severe asthma that reinforces the importance of controlling indoor exposure to these allergens. Sensitizations to dust mite, cockroach and parthenium allergens are important predictors of asthma morbidity not only among children but also among adults in Eastern India.

Keywords: aAeroallergens, asthma, dust mite, parthenium, rhinitis

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