Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Search results for: Andropogon nardus

8 Extraction and Uses of Essential Oil

Authors: Ram Prasad Baral

Abstract:

A large number of herb materials contain Essential Oils with extensive bioactivities. Acknowledging the importance of plants and its medicinal value, extraction of Essential Oil had been done using Steam Distillation method. In this project, Steam Distillation was used to extract oil from different plant materials like Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert, Artemisia Vulgaris L, Rhododendron anthopogon D. Don, Cymbopogon nardus L, Andropogon nardus, Cinnamomum tamala, Juniperus spp, Cymbopohonflexuosus flexuous, Mantha Arvensia, Nardostachys Jatamansi, Wintergreen Essential Oil, and Valeriana Officinalis. Research has confirmed centuries of practical use of essential oils, and we now know that the 'fragrant pharmacy' contains compounds with an extremely broad range of biochemical effects. Essential oils are so termed as they are believed to represent the very essence of odor and flavor. The recovery of Essential Oil from the raw botanical starting material is very important since the quality of the oil is greatly influenced during this step. There is a variety of methods for obtaining volatile oils from plants. Steam distillation method was found to be one of the promising techniques for the extraction of essential oil from plants as reputable distiller will preserve the original qualities of the plant. The distillation was conducted in Clevenger apparatus in which boiling, condensing, and decantation was done. Analysis of essential oil was done using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer apparatus, which gives evaluates essential oil qualitatively and quantitatively. The volume of essential oil obtained was changing with respect to temperature and time of heating.

Keywords: Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert, Artemisia Vulgaris L, Rhododendron anthopogon D. Don, Cymbopogon nardus L, Andropogon nardus, Cinnamomum tamala, Juniperus spp, Cymbopohonflexuosus flexuous, Mantha

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7 Anatomical and Histological Characters of Cymbopogon nardus Roots and Its Mutagenic Properties

Authors: Pravaree Phuneerub, Chanida Palanuvej, Nijsiri Ruangrungsi

Abstract:

Cymbopogon nardus Rendel (Family Gramineae) is commonly known as citronella grass. The dried root of C. nardus is used for antipyretic, anti-inflammation, anti-analgesic and anticancer in traditional Thai medicine. Transverse sectional and pulverized C. nardus root were illustrated. The volatile oil was extracted from oil gland by hydrodistillation and analysed by GC/MS. Cymbopogon nardus root was exhaustively extracted by continuously maceration in ethanol and water respectively. The mutagenic and antimutagenic properties of the ethanol extract and fractionated water extract of C. nardus root were evaluated by Ames assay using the S. typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 as the models. The result indicated that the anatomical character of root transverse section displayed epidermis, parenchyma, oil gland, phloem, xylem vessel, endodermis and pith. Histological characters of root powder showed parenchyma containing oleoresin, parenchyma in longitudinal view, reticulate vessel, annular vessel, starch granules and fragment of fiber. The root volatile oil was rich in sesquiterpenes dominated by elemol (22.87%) and alpha-eudesmol (16.09%). For mutagenic activity, the both extracts of C. nardus were no mutagenic toward S. typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100. Furthermore, the ethanol extract and fractionated water extract of C. nardus root demonstrated strong antimutagenic effect against of nitrite treated 1-aminopyrene to S. typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100. This present investigation suggested that the dried root extract of C. nardus can be further developed as promising antimutagenic agent.

Keywords: Cymbopogon nardus, volatile oil analysis, mutagenic, antimutagenic effect, Ames Salmonella assay

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6 Soil Carbon Stock in Sub-Optimal Land for the Development of Cymbopogon Nardus L. At Simawang Village, West Sumatera, Indonesia

Authors: Juniarti, Yusniwati, Anwar. A, Armansyah, Febriamansyah, R.

Abstract:

Simawang area is one of the critical areas (sub-optimal) that experienced drought from climate changes. Potential dry land belonging to sub-optimal in Simawang, West Sumatera, Indonesia not been fully utilized for agricultural cultivation. Simawang village, West Sumatera, Indonesia is formerly known as the rice barn, due to the climate change area is experiencing a drought, so the rice fields that were once productive now a grazing paddock because of lack of water. This study aims to calculate the soil carbon stock in Simawang village, West Sumatera Indonesia. The study was conducted in Simawang village, Tanah Datar regency, West Sumatera from October 2014 until December 2017. The study was conducted on sub-optimal land to be planted with Cymbopogon nardus L. (Sereh wangi in Indonesian language). Composite soil sampling conducted at a depth of 0-20 cm, 20 – 40 cm. Based on the depth of soil carbon stocks gained higher ground 6473 t ha-1 at a depth of 0-20 cm at a depth of 20-40 cm. Efforts to increase soil carbon is expected to be cultivated through Cymbopogon nardus L. planting has been done.

Keywords: climate changes, sereh wangi (Cymbopogon nardus L.), soil carbon stock, sub optimal land

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5 Soil Carbon Stock in Sub-Optimal Land due to Climate Change on Development Cymbopogon nardus L. at Simawang Village, West Sumatera, Indonesia

Authors: Juniarti Yuni

Abstract:

Simawang area is one of the critical areas (sub-optimal) that experienced drought from climate changes. Potential dry land belonging to sub-optimal in Simawang, West Sumatera, Indonesia not been fully utilized for agricultural cultivation. Simawang village, West Sumatera, Indonesia is formerly known as the rice barn, due to the climate change area is experiencing a drought, so the rice fields that were once productive now a grazing paddock because of lack of water. This study aims to calculate the soil carbon stock in Simawang village, West Sumatera Indonesia. The study was conducted in Simawang village, Tanah Datar regency, West Sumatera from October 2014 until December 2017. The study was conducted on sub-optimal land to be planted with Cymbopogon nardus L. (Sereh wangi in Indonesian language). Composite soil sampling conducted at a depth of 0-20 cm, 20–40 cm. Based on the depth of soil carbon stocks gained higher ground 6473 T/Ha at a depth of 0-20 cm at a depth of 20-40 cm. Efforts to increase soil carbon is expected to be cultivated through Cymbopogon nardus L. planting has been done.

Keywords: climate changes, sereh wangi (Cymbopogon nardus L.), soil carbon stock, sub optimal land

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4 Germplasm Collections and Morphological Studies of Andropogongayanus-Andropogon tectorum Complex in Southwestern Nigeria

Authors: Ojo F. M., Nwekeocha C. C., Faluyi J. O.

Abstract:

Morphological studies were carried out on Andropogongayanus-Andropogontectorum complex collected in Southwestern Nigeria to provide full characterizationof the two species of Andropogon; elucidating their population dynamics. Morphological data from selected accessions of A. gayanus and A. tectorum from different parts of Southwestern Nigeria were collected and characterized using an adaptation of the Descriptors for Wild and Cultivated Rice (Oryza spp). Preliminary morphological descriptions were carried out at the points of collection. Garden populations were raised from the vegetative parts of some accessions, and hybrids were maintained in Botanical Garden of the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile- Ife. The data obtained were subjected to inferential tests and Duncan’s multiple range test. This study has revealed distribution pattern of the two species in the area of study, which suggests a south-ward migration of Andropogongayanus from the northern vegetational zones of Nigeria to the southern ecological zones. The migration of A. gayanus around Igbeti with occasional occurrence of A. tectorum along the roadsides without any distinct phenotypic hybrid and Budo-Ode in Oyo State has been established as the southern limit of the spread of A. gayanus, the migration of A. gayanus to the South is not an invasion but a slow process. A. gayanus was not encountered in Osun, Ondo, Ekiti, and Ogun States. Andropogongayanus and Andropogon tectorum not only emerge from the rootstocks rapidly but can also produce independent propagules by rooting at some nodes. The plants can spread by means of these propagules even if it does not produce sexual or apomictic seeds. This potential for vegetative propagation, in addition to the perennial habit, confer considerable advantage for colonization by the Andropogongayanus-AndropogontectorumComplex.

Keywords: accessions, distribution, migration, propagation

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3 Efficiency of Wood Vinegar Mixed with Some Plants Extract against the Housefly (Musca domestica L.)

Authors: U. Pangnakorn, S. Kanlaya

Abstract:

The efficiency of wood vinegar mixed with each individual of three plants extract such as: citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus), neem seed (Azadirachta indica A. Juss), and yam bean seed (Pachyrhizus erosus Urb.) were tested against the second instar larvae of housefly (Musca domestica L.). Steam distillation was used for extraction of the citronella grass while neem and yam bean were simple extracted by fermentation with ethyl alcohol. Toxicity test was evaluated in laboratory based on two methods of larvicidal bioassay: topical application method (contact poison) and feeding method (stomach poison). Larval mortality was observed daily and larval survivability was recorded until the survived larvae developed to pupae and adults. The study resulted that treatment of wood vinegar mixed with citronella grass showed the highest larval mortality by topical application method (50.0%) and by feeding method (80.0%). However, treatment of mixed wood vinegar and neem seed showed the longest pupal duration to 25 day and 32 days for topical application method and feeding method respectively. Additional, larval duration on treated M. domestica larvae was extended to 13 days for topical application method and 11 days for feeding method. Thus, the feeding method gave higher efficiency compared with the topical application method.

Keywords: housefly (Musca domestica L.), neem seed (Azadirachta indica), citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus), yam bean seed (Pachyrhizus erosus), mortality

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2 Effect of Biopesticide to Control Infestation of Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) on the Culantro Eryngium foetidum L.

Authors: Udomporn Pangnakorn, Sombat Chuenchooklin

Abstract:

Effect of the biopesticide from entomopathogenic nematode (Steinernema thailandensis n. sp.), bacteria ISR (Pseudomonas fluorescens), wood vinegar and fermented organic substances from plants: (neem Azadirachta indica + citronella grass Cymbopogon nardus Rendle + bitter bush Chromolaena odorata L.) were tested on culantro (Eryngium foetidum L.). The biopesticide was carried out for reduction infestation of the major insects pest (whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius)). The experimental plots were located at farmers’ farm in Tumbol Takhian Luean, Nakhon Sawan Province, Thailand. This study was undertaken during the drought season (lately November to May). The populations of whitefly were observed and recorded every hour up to 3 hours with insect net and yellow sticky traps after the treatments were applied. The results showed that bacteria ISR was the highest effectiveness for control whitefly infestation on culantro, the whitefly numbers on insect net were 12.5, 10.0, and 7.5 after spraying in 1hr, 2hr, and 3hr, respectively. While the whitefly on yellow sticky traps showed 15.0, 10.0, and 10.0 after spraying in 1hr, 2hr, and 3hr, respectively. Furthermore, overall the experiments showed that treatment of bacteria ISR found the average whitefly numbers only 8.06 and 11.0 on insect net and sticky tap respectively, followed by treatment of nematode found the average whitefly with 9.87 and 11.43 on the insect net and sticky tap, respectively. Therefore, the application of biopesticide from entomopathogenic nematodes, bacteria ISR, organic substances from plants and wood vinegar combined with natural enemies is the alternative method of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) for against infestation of whitefly.

Keywords: whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Gennadius), culantro (Eryngium foetidum L.), entomopathogenic nematode (Steinernema thailandensis n. sp.), bacteria ISR (Pseudomonas fluorescens), wood vinegar, fermented organic substances

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1 Acute and Chronic Effect of Biopesticide on Infestation of Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) on the Culantro Cultivation

Authors: U. Pangnakorn, S. Chuenchooklin

Abstract:

Acute and chronic effects of biopesticide from entomopathogenic nematode (Steinernema thailandensis n. sp.), bacteria ISR (Pseudomonas fluorescens), wood vinegar and fermented organic substances from plants: (neem Azadirachta indica + citronella grass Cymbopogon nardus Rendle + bitter bush Chromolaena odorata L.) were tested on culantro (Eryngium foetidum L.). The biopesticide was investigated for infestation reduction of the major insect pest whitefly (Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius)). The experimental plots were located at a farm in Nakhon Sawan Province, Thailand. This study was undertaken during the drought season (late November to May). Effectiveness of the treatment was evaluated in terms of acute and chronic effect. The populations of whitefly were observed and recorded every hour up to 3 hours with insect nets and yellow sticky traps after the treatments were applied for the acute effect. The results showed that bacteria ISR had the highest effectiveness for controlling whitefly infestation on culantro; the whitefly numbers on insect nets were 12.5, 10.0 and 7.5 after 1 hr, 2 hr, and 3 hr, respectively while the whitefly on yellow sticky traps showed 15.0, 10.0 and 10.0 after 1 hr, 2 hr, and 3 hr, respectively. For chronic effect, the whitefly was continuously collected and recorded at weekly intervals; the result showed that treatment of bacteria ISR found the average whitefly numbers only 8.06 and 11.0 on insect nets and sticky traps respectively, followed by treatment of nematode where the average whitefly was 9.87 and 11.43 on the insect nets and sticky traps, respectively. In addition, the minor insect pests were also observed and collected. The biopesticide influenced the reduction number of minor insect pests (red spider mites, beet armyworm, short-horned grasshopper, pygmy locusts, etc.) with only a few found on the culantro cultivation.

Keywords: whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Gennadius), culantro (Eryngium foetidum L.), acute and chronic effect, entomopathogenic nematode (Steinernema thailandensis n. sp.), bacteria ISR (Pseudomonas fluorescens)

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