Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 129

Search results for: Artemisia Vulgaris L

129 A Potential Bio-Pesticidal Molecule Derived from Indian Traditional Plant

Authors: Bunindro Nameirakpam, Sonia Sougrapakam, Shannon B. Olsson, Rajashekar Yallappa

Abstract:

Natural sources for new pesticidal compounds hold promise in view of their eco-friendly nature, selectivity and mammalian safety. Despite a large number of plants that show insecticidal activity and diversity of natural chemistry with inherent eco-friendly nature, newer classes of insecticides have eluded discovery. Artemisia vulgaris, known as Mugwort, is a universal herb used for folk medicine and religious purposes throughout the ancient world. In India, the essential oils of Artemisia vulgaris are used for its insecticidal, anti parasiticidal and antimicrobial properties. Traditionally, the dried leaves of Artemisia vulgaris are used to repel insects as well as rats in and around the granaries in the North-East India. Artemisia vulgaris collected during November from different ecological sites were studied for the bio-pesticidal utility against the stored grain pests. The insecticidal activities were found in the crude extracts of n-hexane and methanol from the samples collected in Sikkim and Manipur respectively. Using silica gel column chromatography protocol, we have isolated one novel bioactive molecule from the aerial parts of Artemisia vulgaris L based on various physical-chemical and spectroscopic techniques (IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass). The novel bioactive molecule is highly toxic and very low concentration (4.35 µg/l) is needed to control the stored product insects. In additional experiment results clearly showed the involvement of sodium pumps inhibition in the insecticidal action of purified compound in the Sitophilus oryzae. The knockdown activity of the purified compound is concomitant with the in vivo inhibition of Na+/ K+- ATPase. Further, our study showed insignificant differences in the seed germination of control and the treated grains. The lack of adverse effect of the novel bioactive molecule on the seed germination is highly desirable for seed/grain protectant and showing the potential to be developed as possible natural fumigants for the control of stored grain pests. The novel bioactive molecule is selective insecticide with a high margin of safety to mammals and showed promise as novel biopesticide candidate for grain protection. It is believed that Bio-pesticides can serve as the most important pest management tools as far as global safety is concerned.

Keywords: Indian traditional plant, Artemisia vulgaris, bio-pesticides, Na+/ K+- ATPase, seed germination

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128 Essential Oil Compounds and Antioxidant Activity for α-Thujene Rich Two Species of Artemisia

Authors: Reza Dehghani Bidgoli

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Although Artemisia species are one of the most important medicinal plants, there are a few reports on chemistry or activity of their essential oils because of low amounts of the oils in this genus. In this study, chemical composition of essential oils leaves and stems of Artemisia sieberi and Artemisia aucheri growing wild in Kashan rangelands, central Iran, have been analyzed using GC–MS technique. Analysis revealed 50 identified compounds, representing 96.55% of the oil and 23 identified compounds representing 97.83% of the oil on Artemisia sieberi and Artemisia aucheri respectively. The yield of essential oil extraction is very higher than those of previous reports. In both plants α-thujene is the main component in both of them, with an extra value, 74.42%, in aucheri species. Several compounds (some with significant compositions), were found in these varieties of Artemisia which are not recorded in previous literature. Antioxidant activities of the essential oils were evaluated for the first time in this research work using β-carotene/linoleic acid assay and found to be surprisingly attributed directly to α-pinene contents in them.

Keywords: essential oil, artemisia aucheri, artemisia sieberi, α-thujene, antioxidant activity

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127 Artemisia Species from Iran as Valuable Resources for Medicinal Uses

Authors: Mohammad Reza Naghavi, Farzad Alaeimoghadam, Hossein Ghafoori

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Artemisia species, which are medically beneficial, are widespread in temperate regions of both Northern and Southern hemispheres among which Iran is located. About 35 species of Artemisia are indigenous in Iran among them some are widespread in all or most provinces, yet some are restricted to some specific regions. In this review paper, initially, GC-Mass results of some experiments done in different provinces of Iran are mentioned among them some compounds are common among species, some others are mostly restricted to other species; after that, medical advantages based on some researches on species of this genus are reviewed; different qualities such as anti-leishmania, anti-bacteria, antiviral as well as anti-proliferative could be mentioned.

Keywords: artemisia, GC-Mass analysis, medical advantage, antiviral

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126 Extraction and Uses of Essential Oil

Authors: Ram Prasad Baral

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A large number of herb materials contain Essential Oils with extensive bioactivities. Acknowledging the importance of plants and its medicinal value, extraction of Essential Oil had been done using Steam Distillation method. In this project, Steam Distillation was used to extract oil from different plant materials like Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert, Artemisia Vulgaris L, Rhododendron anthopogon D. Don, Cymbopogon nardus L, Andropogon nardus, Cinnamomum tamala, Juniperus spp, Cymbopohonflexuosus flexuous, Mantha Arvensia, Nardostachys Jatamansi, Wintergreen Essential Oil, and Valeriana Officinalis. Research has confirmed centuries of practical use of essential oils, and we now know that the 'fragrant pharmacy' contains compounds with an extremely broad range of biochemical effects. Essential oils are so termed as they are believed to represent the very essence of odor and flavor. The recovery of Essential Oil from the raw botanical starting material is very important since the quality of the oil is greatly influenced during this step. There is a variety of methods for obtaining volatile oils from plants. Steam distillation method was found to be one of the promising techniques for the extraction of essential oil from plants as reputable distiller will preserve the original qualities of the plant. The distillation was conducted in Clevenger apparatus in which boiling, condensing, and decantation was done. Analysis of essential oil was done using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer apparatus, which gives evaluates essential oil qualitatively and quantitatively. The volume of essential oil obtained was changing with respect to temperature and time of heating.

Keywords: Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert, Artemisia Vulgaris L, Rhododendron anthopogon D. Don, Cymbopogon nardus L, Andropogon nardus, Cinnamomum tamala, Juniperus spp, Cymbopohonflexuosus flexuous, Mantha

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125 Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Artemisia herba-alba Asso Essential Oil Growing in M’sila (Algeria)

Authors: Asma Meliani, S. Lakehal, F. Z. Benrebiha, C. Chaouia

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There is an increasing interest in phytochemicals as new source of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agents. Plants essential oils have come more into the focus of phytomedicine. Many researchers have reported various biological and/or pharmacological properties of Artemisia herba alba Asso essential oil. The present study describes antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of Artemisia herba alba Asso essential oil. Artemisia herba alba Asso essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation (using Clevenger type apparatus) growing in Algeria (M’sila) was analyzed by GC-MS. The essential oil yield of the study was 0.7%. The major components were found to be camphor, chrysanthenone et 1,8-cineole. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was tested against four bacteria (Gram-negative and Gram-positive) and three fungi using the diffusion method and by determining the inhibition zone. The oil was found to have significant antibacterial activity. In addition, antioxidant activity was determined by 1, 1-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, ferric reducing (FRAP) assay and β-carotene bleaching test, and high activity was found for Artemisia herba-alba oil.

Keywords: Artemisia herba-alba, essential oil, antibacterial activity, antioxidant activity

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124 Antibacterial and Antioxidant Properties of Artemisia herba-alba Asso Essential Oil Growing in M’sila, Algeria

Authors: Asma Meliani, S. Lakehal, F. Z. Benrebiha, C. Chaouia

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There is an increasing interest in phytochemicals as new source of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agents. Plants essential oils have come more into the focus of phytomedicine. Many researchers have reported various biological and/or pharmacological properties of Artemisia herba alba Asso essential oil. The present study describes antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of Artemisia herba alba Asso essential oil. Artemisia herba alba Asso essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation (using Clevenger type apparatus) growing in Algeria (M’sila) was analyzed by GC-MS. The essential oil yield of the study was 0.7 %. The major components were found to be camphor, chrysanthenone et 1,8-cineole. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was tested against four bacteria (Gram-negative and Gram-positive) and one fungi using the diffusion method and by determining the inhibition zone. The oil was found to have significant antibacterial activity. In addition, antioxidant activity was determined by 1,1-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, ferric reducing (FRAP) assay and β-carotene bleaching test, and high activity was found for Artemisia herba-alba oil.

Keywords: Artemisia herba-alba, essential oil, antibacterial activity, antioxidant activity

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123 Dynamics of Antioxidant and Anti-Radical Activity of the Extracts of Certain Plants of Kazakhstan

Authors: A. Kazbekova, A. Kudaibergenov, G. Atazhanova, S. Adekenov

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In recent years, it achieved some progress such a direction as to study the possibility of correlation between different types of biological activity. In particular, in our work, we consider questions such as: the impact of the qualitative composition of total substances in the example of plant extracts on antioxidant and antiradical activity, the presents of correlation between these types of activity, etc. It is known that there is a relationship between the values of optical density of working solutions of extracts and corresponding bioactivity in vitro, in particular, the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects. In this study, we have identified that among some studied species of wormwood (Artemisia viridis Wild, Artemisia jacutica Drob, Artemisia annua L, Artemisia siversiana Wild, Artemisia adamsii Bess, Artemisia tianschanica, Artemisia obtusiloba Ledeb., Artemisia heptopotamica), as well as extracts of Inula caspica, Аjania tenuifolia, Abies sibirica, Galatella songorica, Mentha asiatica and Thymus mugodzharicus it was identified that the highest content of polyphenol compounds is in Thymus mugodzharicus. At the same time, we determined the antioxidant and antiradical activity, which was the highest for the Thymus mugodzharicus. Butylhydroxyanisole and ascorbic acid were used as comparison substances. Also, it was established that antioxidant and anti-radical activities depend on the concentration of the of all investigated samples. Based on obtained data, we believe that the extract of Thymus mugodzharicus can be recommended for further study on the antioxidant and antiradical activity in vivo, as well as the opportunity of this sample to demonstrate hepatoprotective effect. The study was sponsored by SANTO academic program.

Keywords: in vitro, in vivo, antioxidant, hepatoprotective effect

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122 Effect of Falcaria vulgaris in Wound Healing and Immune Response of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

Authors: N. Choobkar, M. Rezaeimanesh, A. M. Emami Rad, M. Ghaeni, H. Norouzi, S. Pahlavani, M. S. Tamasoki, E. Nezafatian

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Antibiotics are used to increase the immune and wound healing in many animals . But due to the residual effects of a drug , researchers sought to replace them with natural materials such as Plant extracts. Falcaria vulgaris is the most attractive sources of the new drugs. Falcaria vulgaris (locally named Ghazzyaghi/Poghazeh) is a member of Umbelliferae family which grows near farmlands and is consumed as a vegetable in some regions of Iran. In the West of the country, in the wound healing and irregularities in the digestive system is also used. There were no scientific reports available in literature in support of the traditional claims of F. vulgaris in fish. The present study is therefore an attempt to assess the efficacy of this indigenous herb for its healing effect in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Falcaria vulgaris at concentrations of 0, 2 and 10 % with Lophag foods used on wound healing of common carp and immune response, and weight grow and survival during periods of 21 days with feeding 2 times per day on the basis of body weight. The results showed that, compared with the control group, using of concentration 10 % F. vulgaris have significant effect on wound healing and stimulates the immune system by increasing white blood cells (WBC) and weight grow and survival of carp. The herb can used in wound healing, increased resistance to disease and weight grow in fish and the beneficial effects of this combination goes back to man.

Keywords: common carp, falcaria vulgaris, immune response, wound healing

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121 Effect of Dust Rejected by Iron and Steel Complex on Roots of Bean Phaseolus vulgaris

Authors: Labiba Zerari Bourafa, Djebar Mohamed Reda, Berrebah Houria, Khadri Sihem, Chiheb Linda

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The study of the effect of metal dust (pollutants) was performed on higher plant white beans Phaseolus vulgaris; the experience took place in cellular toxicology laboratory (in vitro culture). The seeds of the bean Phaseolus vulgaris are cultured in a metal contaminated dust medium (a single treatment by different increasing doses), at a rate of 10 seeds per box, for 10 days. The measurement of morpho-metric parameters is performed during the first 96 hours that follow the germination; while the dosage of the proline, the protein content and histological sections are formed on the tenth day (240 h). All morpho-metric and biochemical parameters measured were highly disturbed by metal dust; histological sections confirm this disurbance.

Keywords: conductive fabrics, metal dust, osmoticums, roots, Phaseolus vulgaris

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120 Effect of Hemicellulase on Extraction of Essential Oil from Algerian Artemisia campestris

Authors: Khalida Boutemak, Nasssima Benali, Nadji Moulai-Mostefa

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Effect of enzyme on the yield and chemical composition of Artemisia campestris essential oil is reported in the present study. It was demonstrated that enzyme facilitated the extraction of essential oil with increase in oil yield and did not affect any noticeable change in flavour profile of the volatile oil. Essential oil was tested for antibacterial activity using Escherichia coli; which was extremely sensitive against control with the largest inhibition (29mm), whereas Staphylococcus aureus was the most sensitive against essential oil obtained from enzymatic pre-treatment with the largest inhibition zone (25mm). The antioxidant activity of the essential oil with hemicellulase pre-treatment (EO2) and control sample (EO1) was determined through reducing power. It was significantly lower than the standard drug (vitamin C) in this order: vitamin C˃EO2˃EO1.

Keywords: Artemisia campestris, enzyme pre-treatment, hemicellulase, antibacterial activity, antioxidant activity

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119 Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Essential Oil from the Leaves of Thymus vulgaris L.

Authors: Tsige Reda

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Essential oil of Thymus vulgaris was extracted by means of hydro-distillation. This study was done to investigate the chemical composition, antibacterial and antioxidant activities. The chemical composition of the essential oils was determined using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Using disc diffusion assay the antibacterial activity was assessed on one Gram-positive bacteria and one Gram-negative bacteria. The percentage oil yield of the essential oil was found to be 0.97 ± 0.08% (w/w) with yellow color. The physicochemical constants of the oil were also noted. The phytochemical screening of the plant extract revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, phenol, flavonoids, terpenoids, steroids and alkaloids. A total of 18 chemical constituents were identified by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy analysis representing 100% of the total essential oil of Thymus vulgaris, with thymol (31.977%), o-cymene (29.992%), and carvacrol (14.541%). Previous studies have revealed that the thymol, o-cymen and carvacrol components of Thymus vulgaris are responsible for their biological activities. Thymus vulgaris have been used traditionally to treat a wide variety of infections. Based on the extensive use and lack of scientific evidence, a study was embarked upon to determine its bioactivity. The essential oil of Thymus vulgaris leaves exhibited higher activity towards the Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aurous) than the Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli) and also has good antioxidant activity, and can be used medicinal and therapeutic applications. This activity may be due to the high amount of thymol, o-cymen and carvacrol.

Keywords: hydro-distillation, Thymus vulgaris, essential oil composition, phytochemical screening, physicochemical constants, antioxidant activity, antibacterial activity

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118 In Vitro Antifungal Activity of Essential Oil Artemisia Absinthium

Authors: Bouchenak Fatima, Lmegharbi Abdelbaki, Houssem Degaichia, Benrebiha Fatima

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The essential oil composition of the leaf of Artemisia absinthium from region of Cherchell (The south of Algeria) was investigated by GC, GC-MS. 27 constituents were identified correspond to 84, 63% of the total oil. The major components are Thujone (60, 82%), Chamazulènel (16, 62%), ρ-cymène (4, 29%) and 2-carène (4.25%). The antimicrobial activity of oil was tested in vitro by two methods (agar diffusion and microdilution) on three plant pathogenic fungi. This oil has been tested for antimicrobial activity against three pathogenic fungi (Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium culmorum and Helminthosporium Sp.).The study of activity was evaluated by two methods: Method of diffusion in gelose and the minimum inhibitory concentration MIC. This oil exhibited an interesting antimicrobial activity. A preliminary study showed that this oil presented high toxicity against this fungus. These results, although preliminary show a good antifungal activity, to limit and inhibit stop the development of those pathogen agent.

Keywords: artemisia absinthian, extraction process, chemical study, antifungal activity

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117 Formulation and Characterization of NaCS-PDMDAAC Capsules with Immobilized Chlorella vulgaris for Phycoremediation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent

Authors: Quin Emparan, Razif Harun, Dayang R. A. Biak, Rozita Omar, Michael K. Danquah

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Cultivation of immobilized microalgae cells is on the rise for biotechnological applications. In this study, cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris was carried out in the form of suspended free-cell and immobilized cells system. NaCS-PDMDAAC capsules were used to immobilize C. vulgaris. Initially, the synthesized NaCS with C. vulgaris culture were prepared at various concentration of 5- 20% (w/v) using a 6% hardening solution (PDMDAAC) to investigate the capsules' gel stability and suitability for microalgae cells growth. Then, the capsules produced from 15% NaCS with C. vulgaris culture were furthered investigated using 5%, 10%, and 15% (w/v) of PDMDAAC solution. The capsules' gel stability was evaluated through dissolution time and loss of uniform spherical shape of capsules, while suitability for microalgae cells growth was evaluated through the optical density of microalgae. In this study, the 15% NaCS-10% PDMDAAC capsules were found to be the most suitable to sustain the capsules' gel stability and microalgae cells growth in MLA. For that reason, the C. vulgaris immobilized in the 15% NaCS-10% PDMDAAC capsules were further characterized using physicochemical analysis in terms of morphological, carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and nitrogen (N), Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX), zeta potential and Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) analyses. The results revealed that the presence of sulfonates in the synthesized NaCS and NaCS-PDMDAAC capsules without and with C. vulgaris proves that cellulose alcohol group was successfully bonded by sulfo group. Besides that, immobilized microalgae cells have a smaller cell size of 6.29 ± 1.09 µm and zeta potential of -11.93 ± 0.91 mV than suspended free-cells microalgae culture. It can be summarized that immobilization of C. vulgaris in the 15% NaCS-10% PDMDAAC capsules are relevant as a bioremediator for wastewater treatment purposes due to its suitable size of pore and capsules as well as structural and compositional properties.

Keywords: biological capsules, immobilized cultivation, microalgae, physico-chemical analysis

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116 Contribution to the Study of Some Phytochemicals and Biological Aspects of Artemisia absinthium L

Authors: Sihem Benmimoune, Abdelbaki Lemgharbi, Ahmed Ait Yahia, Abdelkrim Kameli

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Our study is based on chemical and phytochemical characterization of Artemisia absinthium L and in vitro tests to demonstrate the biological activities of essential oil and natural extract. A qualitative and quantitative comparison of the essential oil extracted by two extraction procedures was performed by analysis of CG/SM and the yield calculation. The method of hydrodistillation has a chemical composition and provides oil content than the best training water vapor. These oils are composed mainly of thujone followed chamazulene and ρ-cymene. The antimicrobial activity of wormwood oil was tested in vitro by two methods (agar diffusion and microdilution) on four plant pathogenic fungi (Aspergillus sp, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium culmorum and Helminthosporium sp). The study of the antifungal effect showed that this oil has an inhibitory effect counterpart the microorganisms tested in particular the strain Botrytis cinerea. Otherwise, this activity depends on the nature of the oil and the germ itself. The antioxidant activity in vitro was studied with the DPPH method. The activity test shows that the oil and extract of Artemisia absinthium have a very low antioxidant capacity compared to the antioxidants used as a reference. The extract has a potentially high antiradical power not from its oil. The quantitative determinations of phenolic compounds by the Folin-Ciocalteu revealed that absinthe is low in total polyphenols and tannins.

Keywords: artemisia absinthium, biological activities, essential oil, extraction processes

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115 Gluability of Bambusa balcooa and Bambusa vulgaris for Development of Laminated Panels

Authors: Daisy Biswas, Samar Kanti Bose, M. Mozaffar Hossain

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The development of value added composite products from bamboo with the application of gluing technology can play a vital role in economic development and also in forest resource conservation of any country. In this study, the gluability of Bambusa balcooa and Bambusa vulgaris, two locally grown bamboo species of Bangladesh was assessed. As the culm wall thickness of bamboos decreases from bottom to top, a culm portion of up to 5.4 m and 3.6 m were used from the base of B. balcooa and B. vulgaris, respectively, to get rectangular strips of uniform thickness. The color of the B. vulgaris strips was yellowish brown and that of B. balcooa was reddish brown. The strips were treated in borax-boric, bleaching and carbonization for extending the service life of the laminates. The preservative treatments changed the color of the strips. Borax–boric acid treated strips were reddish brown. When bleached with hydrogen peroxide, the color of the strips turned into whitish yellow. Carbonization produced dark brownish strips having coffee flavor. Chemical constituents for untreated and treated strips were determined. B. vulgaris was more acidic than B. balcooa. Then the treated strips were used to develop three-layered bamboo laminated panel. Urea formaldehyde (UF) and polyvinyl acetate (PVA) were used as binder. The shear strength and abrasive resistance of the panel were evaluated. It was found that the shear strength of the UF-panel was higher than the PVA-panel for all treatments. Between the species, gluability of B. vulgaris was better and in some cases better than hardwood species. The abrasive resistance of B. balcooa is slightly higher than B. vulgaris; however, the latter was preferred as it showed well gluability. The panels could be used as structural panel, floor tiles, flat pack furniture component, and wall panel etc. However, further research on durability and creep behavior of the product in service condition is warranted.

Keywords: Bambusa balcooa, Bambusa vulgaris, polyvinyl acetate, urea formaldehyde

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114 ISSR-PCR Based Genetic Diversity Analysis on Copper Tolerant versus Wild Type Strains of Unicellular alga Chlorella Vulgaris

Authors: Abdullah M. Alzahrani

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The unicellular alga Chlorella vulgaris was isolated from Al-Asfar Lake, which is located in the Al-Ahsa province of Saudi Arabia. Two different isolates were sub-cultured under laboratory conditions. The wild type was grown under a regular concentration of copper, whereas the other isolate was grown under a progressively increasing copper concentration. An Inter Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR) analysis was performed using DNA isolated from the wild type and tolerant strains. The sum of the scored bands of the wild type was 155, with 100 (64.5%) considered to be polymorphic bands, whereas the resistant strain displayed 147 bands, with 92 (62.6%) considered to be polymorphic bands. The sum of the scored bands of a mixed sample was 117 bands, of which only 4 (3.4%) were considered to be polymorphic. The average Nei's genetic diversity (h) and Shannon-Weiner diversity indices (I) were 0.3891 and 0.5394, respectively. These results clearly indicate that the adaptation to a high level of copper in Chlorella vulgaris is not merely physiological but rather driven by modifications at the genomic level.

Keywords: chlorella vulgaris, copper tolerance, genetic diversity, green algae

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113 Field Effects on Seed Germination of Phaseolus Vulgaris, Early Seedling Growth and Chemical Composition

Authors: Najafi S., Heidai R., Jamei R., Tofigh F.

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In order to study the effects of magnetic field on the root system and growth of Phaseolus vulgaris, an experiment was conducted in 2012. The possible involvement of magnetic field (MF) pretreatment in physiological factors of Phaseolus vulgaris was investigated. Seeds were subjected to 10 days with 1.8 mT of magnetic field for 1h per day. MF pretreatment decreased the plant height, fresh and dry weight, length of root and length of shoot, Chlorophyll a, Chlorophyll b and carotenoid in 10 days old seedling. In addition, activity of enzymes such as Catalase and Guaiacol peroxidase was decreased due to MF exposure. Also, the total Protein and DPPH content of the treated by magnetic field was not significantly changed in compare to control groups, while the flavonoid, Phenol and prolin content of the treated of the treated by magnetic field was significantly changed in compare to control groups. Lateral branches of roots and secondary roots increased with MF. The results suggest that pretreatment of this MF plays important roles in changes in crop productivity. In all cases there was observed a slight stimulating effect of the factors examined. The growth dynamics were weakened. The plants were shorter. Moreover, the effect of a magnetic field on the crop of Phaseolus vulgaris and its structure was small.

Keywords: carotenoid, Chlorophyll a, Chlorophyll b, DPPH, enzymes, flavonoid, germination, growth, phenol, proline, protein, magnetic field, phaseolus vulgaris

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112 Implication of Oxidative Stress and Intracellular Mediators in the Protective Effect of Artemisia campestris against Aspirin-Induced Gastric Lesions in Rat Model

Authors: Hichem Sebai, Mohamed Amine Jabri, Kais Rtibi, Haifa Tounsi, Lamjed Marzouki

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Artemisia campestris has been widely used in Tunisian traditional medicine for its health beneficial effects. However, the present study aims at evaluating the antiulcer effects of Artemisia campestris aqueous extract (ACAE) as well as the mechanism of action involved in such gastroprotection. In this respect, male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups: control, aspirin (ASPR), ASPR + various doses of ACAE (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, b.w.), ASPR+ famotidine and ASPR+ caffeic acid. Animals were pre-treated with ACAE extract during 10 days. We firstly showed that aspirin administration was accompanied by an oxidative stress status assessed by an increase of malondialdehyde (MDA) level, a decrease of sulfhydryl -(SH) groups content and depletion of antioxidant enzyme activities such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Pre-treatment with ACAE protected against aspirin-induced gastric oxidative stress. More importantly, aspirin administration increased plasma and tissue hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂), free iron and calcium levels while the ACAE pre-treatment reversed all aspirin-induced intracellular mediators disturbance. The results of the present study clearly indicated that AEAC gastroprotection might be related, at least in part, to its antioxidant properties as well as to various gastric mucosal defense mechanisms, including the protection of gastric sulfhydryls and an opposite effect on some intracellular mediators such as free iron, hydrogen peroxide, and calcium. However, our data confirm the use of Artemisia campestris extracts in the Tunisian traditional folk medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases.

Keywords: gastric ulcer, Artemisia campestris, oxidative stress, sulfhydryl groups, Fenton reaction, rat

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111 The Effect of Low Voltage Direct Current Applications on the Growth of Microalgae Chlorella Vulgaris

Authors: Osman Kök, İlhami̇ Tüzün, Yaşar Aluç

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This study was conducted to explore the effect of direct current (DC) applications on the growth of microalgae Chlorella vulgaris KKU71, isolated from highly saline freshwater. Experiments were implemented based upon the cross-combinations of both the intensity and duration of electric applications, generating a full factorial design of 10V, 20V, 30V, and 5s, 30s, 60s, respectively. Growth parameters of cultures were monitored on Optical Density (OD), Cell Count (CC), Chlorophyll-a, b (Chl-a, b), and Total Carotenoids (TCar). All DC-assisted treatments stimulated the growth and thus led to higher values of growth parameters such as OD, CC, Chl-a, and TCar. Monotonically increasing with the intensity and duration of DC applications, wet and dry biomass yields of the harvested algae reached their highest level at 30V-60s in all sets of treatments. In addition, this increase between DC applications was listed as C(control)<10V<20V<30V and C<5s<30s<60s. As a result, direct current applications increased the biomass.

Keywords: Chlorella Vulgaris, direct current, growth, biomass

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110 Growth and Immune Response of Giant Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man) Postlarvae Fed Diets Containing Chlorella vulgaris

Authors: Gian Carlo F. Maliwat, Stephanie F. Velasquez, Janice A. Ragaza

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A 50-day growth trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Chlorella vulgaris (Beijerinck) as an ingredient in the diets of giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man) postlarvae (PL30). Immune response (total haemocyte count and prophenoloxidase activity) was also assessed by subjecting postlarvae to a challenge test against Aeromonas hydrophila (Chester) for 14 days. Isonitrogenous and iso-lipidic test diets were prepared using a fishmeal-based-positive control diet (D0) and four basal diets with inclusion levels of 2% (D2), 4% (D4), 6% (D6) and 8% (D8) C. vulgaris. Postlarvae of M. rosenbergii were randomly stocked (mean initial body weight of 0.19 ± 0.02 g) in 30-L tanks in three replicates per dietary treatment for evaluation of growth performance. Another set of postlarvae (mean initial body weight of 1.25 ± 0.02 g) was randomly distributed in 95-L tanks in three replicates per dietary treatment for the assessment of immune response. Results showed that specific growth rate was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in postlarvae fed D4 and D6. Variations in values for carcass protein, lipid, moisture, and ash were also evident. Postlarvae fed diets with Chlorella showed increased prophenol oxidase activity and total haemocyte counts. Moreover, the survival rate after challenge with A. hydrophila was significantly increased (P < 0.05). Inclusion of C. vulgaris in diets enhanced immune response and resistance of M. rosenbergii postlarvae against A. hydrophila infection.

Keywords: Chlorella vulgaris, haemocyte count, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, prophenoloxidase activity

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109 New Strategy for Breeding of Artemisia annua L. for a Sustainable Production of the Antimalarial Drug Artemisinin

Authors: Nadali Babaeian Jelodar, Chan Lai Keng, Arvind Bhatt, Laleh Bordbar, Leow E Shuen, Kamaruzaman Mohamed

Abstract:

Recently artemisinin (the endoperoxide sesquiterpene lactone) has received considerable attention because of its antimalarial activity. It is isolated from the aerial part of the Artemisia annua L. Artemisinin is very difficult to synthesise also its production by mean of cell, tissue or organ cultures is very low. Presently, only its extraction from A. annua L. plants remains the only source of the drug. The reported yield of artemisinin from leaves of A. annua L. is very low and unstable, with yields typically less than 1% of leaf dry weight. To increase the percentage of artemisinin, researchers have been engaged in developing new varieties. A review concerning the breeding of A. annua L. is presented. The aim of this review is to bring together most of the available scientific research papers about the breeding conducted on the genus A. annua L., which is currently scattered across various publications. Through this review the authors hope to attract the attention of breeders throughout the world to focus on the unexplored potential of A. annua L. species. Also the future scope of this plant has been emphasized with a view of the importance of breeding of A. annua L. for increasing of artemisinin content. By releasing of new cultivar of A. annua L. and cultivation of this plant offers the opportunity to optimize yield and achieve a uniform, high quality product.

Keywords: Artemisia annua L., breeding, artemisinin, cultivation, medicinal plant

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108 Effectiveness of ISSR Technique in Revealing Genetic Diversity of Phaseolus vulgaris L. Representing Various Parts of the World

Authors: Mohamed El-Shikh

Abstract:

Phaseolus vulgaris L. is the world’s second most important bean after soybeans; used for human food and animal feed. It has generally been linked to reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, obesity, cancer and diseases of digestive tract. The effectiveness of ISSR in achievement of the genetic diversity among 60 common bean accessions; represent various germplasms around the world was investigated. In general, the studied Phaseolus vulgaris accessions were divided into 2 major groups. All of the South-American accessions were separated into the second major group. These accessions may have different genetic features that are distinct from the rest of the accessions clustered in the major group. Asia and Europe accessions (1-20) seem to be more genetically similar (99%) to each other as they clustered in the same sub-group. The American and African varieties showed similarities as well and clustered in the same sub-tree group. In contrast, Asian and American accessions No. 22 and 23 showed a high level of genetic similarities, although these were isolated from different regions. The phylogenetic tree showed that all the Asian accessions (along with Australian No. 59 and 60) were similar except Indian and Yemen accessions No. 9 and 20. Only Netherlands accession No. 3 was different from the rest of European accessions. Morocco accession No. 52 was genetically different from the rest of the African accessions. Canadian accession No. 44 seems to be different from the other North American accessions including Guatemala, Mexico and USA.

Keywords: phylogenetic tree, Phaseolus vulgaris, ISSR technique, genetics

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107 Bioinsecticidal Activity and Phytochemical Study of the Crude Extract from the Plant Artemisia judaica

Authors: Fatma Acheuk, Idir Bitam, Leila Bendifallah, Malika Ramdani, Fethia Barika

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Phytochemical study of the plant Artemisia judaica showed the presence of various groups of natural products: saponins, tannins, coumarins, flavonoids, carbohydrates, and reducer compounds. However, alkaloids are present as traces. The crude ethanol extract of the test plant presented significant insecticidal activity on mosquito larvae in stage I, II and III. The LD50 highlighted the excellent insecticidal effect of the tested extract. Similarly, the LT50 are achieved early with high doses. The results obtained are encouraging and suggest the possibility of using the secondary metabolites of this plant such as bio-insecticide.

Keywords: Atamisia judaica, crud extract, mosquito, insecticidal activity

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106 Phytochemical Study and Bioinsecticidal Effect of the Crude Extract from the Plant Artemisia Judaica

Authors: Fatma Acheuk, Idir Bitam, Leila Bendifallah, Malika Ramdani, Fethia Barika

Abstract:

Phytochemical study of the plant Artemisia judaica showed the presence of various groups of natural products: saponins, tannins, coumarins, flavonoids, carbohydrates, and reducer compounds. However alkaloids are present as traces. The crude ethanol extract of the test plant presented significant insecticidal activity on mosquito larvae in stage I, II, and III. The LD50 highlighted the excellent insecticidal effect of the tested extract. Similarly, the LT50 are achieved early with high doses. The results obtained are encouraging and suggest the possibility of using the secondary metabolites of this plant such as bio-insecticide.

Keywords: Atamisia judaica, crud extract, mosquito, insecticidal activity

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105 Antimycobacterial Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Artemisia absinthium

Authors: T. Hojageldiyev, Y. Bolmammedov, S. Gurbanaliyev

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It is known that drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis show toxic effect to organism especially to liver besides its therapeutic effect. Because of ineffectiveness of drugs used in the treatment regimen of tuberculosis against multidrug resistance (MDR) and extensively drug-resistance (XDR) tuberculosis requires the development of new treatment methods and new, novel drugs. Considering the usage of Artemisia absinthium in traditional medicine in treatment of wounds which suggests its antibacterial activity it seems that, also it may have significant antimycobacterial activity. The objective of present study was to evaluate antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of A. absinthium against M. tuberculosis. In this study, the effect of ethanolic extract of A. absinthium was tested against tuberculosis and pharmaco-toxicological properties evaluated on laboratory animals. The 20%, 40%, 70% and 96% ethanolic extracts of A. absinthium prepared then its bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities were evaluated by validated methods. Data were analyzed by GraphPad Prism 7.0 at the level P < 0.05. Results showed that ethanolic extracts of A. absinthium show no toxicological properties with having high LD50. All concentrations of extract show high bacteriostatic activity on M. tuberculosis. 96% ethanolic extract has highest bactericidal effect among other concentrations. By conducting further studies, as a result of our study, antimycobacterial drug can be prepared from A. absinthium.

Keywords: Artemisia absinthium, antimycobacterial, ethanolic extract, Mycobacteria tuberculosis

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
104 Production of Date Juice Infused with Natural Antioxidants from Qatari Herbs

Authors: Tahra ElObeid, Noura Al-Wahiemed, Jawaher Al-shammari, Wedad Al-Asmar

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The aim of this study is to utilize Qatari raw materials in the production of a date juice high in antioxidants. The antioxidants were extracted from five Qatari herbs: Caspian manna, Tetraena mongolica, Capparis spinosa, Ziziphus Vulgaris and Lycium shawii. The date juice was prepared in the lab and was infused with the polyphenolic extracts from the 5 different Qatari herbs. The date juice was then infused with the antioxidant containing the highest antioxidant activity and was within the acceptable range in sensory evaluation scale. The phenolic content for Lycium shawii, Alhagi maurorum, Ziziphus Vulgaris, Capparis spinosa and Tetraena mongolica was 4294 ppm, 3843 ppm, 804.59 ppm, 189.14 ppm and 226 ppm respectively, whereas their antioxidant capacity of was 6.21 %, 45.27 %, 69.81 %, 2.96 % and 8.63 % respectively. The highest antioxidant capacity was found in Ziziphus Vulgaris 69.8 % and the highest phenolic content was found in Lycium shawii 4294 ppm. Alhagi maurorum, Tetraena mongolica and Lycium shawii showed good results in terms of taste and aroma however Ziziphus Vulgaris exhibited bitter flavor. Alhagi maurorum antioxidant extract was used to be added to the date juice due to its high phenolic content, high antioxidant capacity, good taste and aroma.

Keywords: Qatar, dates, herbs, antioxidants

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103 The Effect of Soil in the Allelopathic Potential of Artemisia herba-alba and Oudneya africana Crude Powder on Growth of Weeds

Authors: Salhi Nesrine, Salama M. El-Darier, Halilat M. El-Taher

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The present study aimed to investigate the effect of two type of soil (clay and sandy soils) in the potential allelopathic effects of Artemisia herba-alba, Oudneya africana crude powder on some growth parameters and phytomass of two weeds (Bromus tectorum and Melilotus indica) under laboratory conditions (pot experiment). The experimental findings have reported that the donor species crude powder concentrations were suppressing to shoot length (SL), root length (RL), fresh and dry weight of shoot and root (SFw, RFw, SDw and RDw, respectively and the leaf number (LN)) in both soil types and caused a gradual reduction particularly when they are high. However, the reduction degree was varied and species, concentration dependent. The suppressive effect of all the eight donors on the two weedy species was in the following order Bromus tectorum> Melilotus indica. Generally, the growth parameters of two recipient species were significantly decreased with the increase of each of the donor species crude powder concentration levels. Concerning the type of sol the t-test indicated that the difference was insignificant between clay and sandy soils.

Keywords: allelopathy, soil, Artemisia herba-alba, Oudneya africana, growth, weeds

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102 Effect of Phaseolus vulgaris Inoculation on P. vulgaris and Zea mays Growth and Yield Cultivated in Intercropping

Authors: Nour Elhouda Abed, Bedj Mimi, Wahid Slimani, Mourad Atif, Abdelhakim Ouzzane, Hocine Irekti, Abdelkader Bekki

Abstract:

The most frequent system of cereal production in Algeria is fallow-wheat. This is an extensive system that meets only the half needs some cereals and fodder demand. Resorption of fallow has become a strategic necessity to ensure food security in response to the instability of supply and the persistence of higher food prices on the world market. Despite several attempts to replace the fallow by crop cultures, choosing the best crop remains. Today, the agronomic and economic interests of legumes are demonstrated. However, their crop culture remains marginalized because of the weakness and instability of their performance. In the context of improving legumes and cereals crops as well as fallow resorption, we undertook to test, in the field, the effect of rhizobial inoculation of Phaseolus vulgaris in association with Zea Mays. We firstly studied the genetic diversity of rhizobial strains that nodulate P.vulgaris isolated from fifteen (15) different regions. ARDRA had shown 18 different genetic profiles. Symbiotic characterization highlighted a strain that highly significantly improved the fresh and dry weight of the host plant, in comparison to the negative control (un-inoculated) and the positive control (inoculated with the reference strain CIAT 899). In the field, the selected strain increased significantly the growth and yield of P.vulgaris and Zea Mays comparing to the non-inoculated control. However, the mix inoculation (selected strain+ Ciat 899) had not given the best parameters showing, thus, no synergy between the strains. These results indicate the replacing fallow by a crop legume in intercropping with cereals crops.

Keywords: fallow, intercropping, inoculation, legumes-cereals

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101 Efficacy of Sparganium stoloniferum–Derived Compound in the Treatment of Acne Vulgaris: A Pilot Study

Authors: Wanvipa Thongborisute, Punyaphat Sirithanabadeekul, Pichit Suvanprakorn, Anan Jiraviroon

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Background: Acne vulgaris is one of the most common dermatologic problems, and can have a significant psychological and physical effect on patients. Propionibacterium acnes' roles in acne vulgaris involve the activation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) pathways. By activating these pathways, inflammatory events of acne lesions, comedogenesis and sebaceous lipogenesis can occur. Currently, there are several topical agents commonly use in treating acne vulgaris that are known to have an effect on TLRs, such as retinoic acid and adapalene, but these drugs still have some irritating effects. At present, there is an alarming increase in rate of bacterial resistance due to irrational used of antibiotics both orally and topically. For this reason, acne treatments should contain bioactive molecules targeting at the site of action for the most effective therapeutic effect with the least side effects. Sparganium stoloniferumis a Chinese aquatic herb containing a compound called Sparstolonin B (SsnB), which has been reported to selectively blocks Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated inflammatory signals. Therefore, this topical TLR2 and TLR4 antagonist, in a form of Sparganium stoloniferum-derived compound containing SsnB, should give a benefit in reducing inflammation of acne vulgaris lesions and providing an alternative treatments for patients with this condition. Materials and Methods: The objectives of this randomized double blinded split faced placebo controlled trial is to study the safety and efficacy of the Sparganium stoloniferum-derived compound. 32 volunteered patients with mild to moderate degree of acne vulgaris according to global acne grading system were included in the study. After being informed and consented the subjects were given 2 topical treatments for acne vulgaris, one being topical 2.40% Sparganium stoloniferum extraction (containing Sparstolonin B) and the other, placebo. The subjects were asked to apply each treatment to either half of the face daily morning and night by randomization for 8 weeks, and come in for a weekly follow up. For each visit, the patients went through a procedure of lesion counting, including comedones, papules, nodules, pustules, and cystic lesions. Results: During 8 weeks of experimentation, the result shows a reduction in total lesions number between the placebo and the treatment side show statistical significance starting at week 4, where the 95% confidence interval begin to no longer overlap, and shows a trend of continuing to be further apart. The decrease in the amount of total lesions between week 0 and week 8 of the placebo side shows no statistical significant at P value >0.05. While the decrease in the amount of total lesions of acne vulgaris of the treatment side comparing between week 0 and week 8 shows statistical significant at P value <0.001. Conclusion: The data demonstrates that 2.40% Sparganium stoloniferum extraction (containing Sparstolonin B) is more effective in treating acne vulgaris comparing to topical placebo in treating acne vulgaris, by showing significant reduction in the total numbers of acne lesions. Therefore, this topical Sparganium stoloniferum extraction could become a potential alternative treatment for acne vulgaris.

Keywords: acne vulgaris, sparganium stoloniferum, sparstolonin B, toll-like receptor 2, toll-like receptor 4

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
100 The Effect of Gibberellic Acid on Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Metabolism in Phaseolus Vulgaris L. Plant Exposed to Drought and Salt Stresses

Authors: Fazilet Özlem Çekiç, Seyda Yılmaz

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Salinity and drought are important environmental problems in the world and have negative effects on plant metabolism. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), four-carbon non-protein amino acid, is a significant component of the free amino acid pool. GABA is widely distributed in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. Environmental stress factors increase GABA accumulation in plants. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of gibberellic acid (GA) on GABA metabolism system during drought and salt stress factors in Phaseolus vulgaris L. plants. GABA, Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity, chlorophyll, and lipid peroxidation (MDA) analyses were determined. According to our results we can suggest that GA play a role in GABA metabolism during salt and drought stresses in bean plants. Also GABA shunt is an important metabolic pathway and key signaling allowing to adapt to drought and salt stresses.

Keywords: gibberellic acid, GABA, Phaseolus vulgaris L., salinity, drought

Procedia PDF Downloads 317