Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 74

Search results for: Cretaceous rift

74 Basin Geometry and Salt Structures in the Knana/Ragoubet Mahjbia Ranges, North of Tunisia

Authors: Mohamed Montassar Ben Slama, Mohamed Fadel Ladeb, Mohamed Ghanmi, Mohamed Ben Youssef, Fouad Zargouni

Abstract:

The salt province Basin in Northern Tunisia is a complex of late Triassic to Early Cretaceous rift and sag basins which was inverted during the Tertiary folding. The deposition of evaporitic sediments during the Late Triassic times played a major role in the subsequent tectonic evolution of the basin. Within southern tethyan passive marge, the ductile salt mass shown early mobilization, vertical transport and withdrawal of the evaporites. These movements influenced the sedimentation during the late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. The evaporites also influenced deformation during the inversion of the basin and the development of the Tertiary and Quaternary folding. In the studied area, the biostratigraphic and tectonic map analysis of the region of Jebel el Asoued / Ragoubet el Mahjbia can resolve between the hypotheses of the diapiric intrusion of the Triassic salt and the lateral spreading of the Triassic salt as salt ‘glacier’. Also the variation in thickness and facies of the Aptian sediments demonstrates the existence of continental rise architecture at the Aptian time. The observation in a mappable outcrop of the extension segment of the graben fault of Bou Arada on the one hand confirms the existence of a Cretaceous extensive architecture and the tectonic inversion during the Tertiary time has not filled the main game distension. The extent of our observations of Triassic/Aptian and Triassic/Early Campanian contacts, we propose a composite salt ‘glacier’ model as the structures recorded in the Gulf of Mexico in the subsurface and in the Ouenza east Algeria and in Tunisia within Fedj el Adoum, Touiref-Nebeur and Jebel Ech Cheid in the outcrops.

Keywords: Cretaceous rift, salt ‘glassier’, tertiary folding, Tunisia

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73 Paleogene Syn-Rift Play Identification in Palembang Sub-Basin, South Sumatera, Indonesia

Authors: Perdana Rakhmana Putra, Hansen Wijaya, Sri Budiyani, Muhamad Natsir, Alexis badai Samudra

Abstract:

The Palembang Sub-Basin (PSB) located in southern part of South Sumatera basin (SSB) consist of half-graben complex trending N-S to NW-SE. These geometries are believe as an impact of strike-slip regime developed in Eocene-Oligocene. Generally, most of the wells in this area produced hydrocarbon from late stage of syn-rift sequences called Lower Talang Akar (LTAF) and post-rift sequences called Batu Raja Formation (BRF) and drilled to proved hydrocarbon on structural trap; three-way dip anticline, four-way dip anticline, dissected anticline, and stratigraphy trap; carbonate build-up and stratigraphic pinch out. Only a few wells reached the deeper syn-rift sequences called Lahat Formation (LAF) and Lemat Formation (LEF). The new interpretation of subsurface data was done by the tectonostratigraphy concept and focusing on syn-rift sequence. Base on seismic characteristic on basin centre, it divided into four sequences: pre-rift sequence, rift initiation, maximum rift and late rift. These sequences believed as a new exploration target on PSB mature basin. This paper will demonstrate the paleo depositional setting during Paleogene and exploration play concept of syn-rift sequence in PSB. The main play for this area consists of stratigraphic and structure play, where the stratigraphic play is Eocene-Oligocene sediment consist of LAF sandstone, LEF-Benakat formation, and LAF with pinch-out geometry. The pinch-out, lenses geometry and on-lap features can be seen on the seismic reflector and formed at the time of the syn-rift sequence. The structural play is dominated by a 3 Way Dip play related to reverse fault trap.

Keywords: syn-rift, tectono-stratigraphy, exploration play, basin center play, south sumatera basin

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
72 Qualitative Risk Assessment of Rift Valley Fever Vaccine Production

Authors: Mohammed E. Mansour, Tamador M. A. Elhassan, Nahid A. Ibrahim, Awatif A. Ahmed, Manal A. Abdalla

Abstract:

Rift valley fever (RVF) is mosquito-borne disease. RVF is transboundary zoonotic disease. It has socioeconomic and public health importance. This paper describes qualitative risk of the RVF vaccine production. RVF is endemic in the Sudan. It has been reported in Sudan due to abundance of Ades Eqytie. Thus, there is huge effort to control it. Vaccination practices had significant role to control and manage RVF. The risk assessment explains the likelihood of a risk as likely. Thus, insecticides and repellents synergize the effort of the vaccination.

Keywords: qualitative analysis, risk assessment, rift valley fever vaccine, quality control

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71 Clastic Sequence Stratigraphy of Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous Formations of Jaisalmer Basin, Rajasthan

Authors: Himanshu Kumar Gupta

Abstract:

The Jaisalmer Basin is one of the parts of the Rajasthan basin in northwestern India. The presence of five major unconformities/hiatuses of varying span i.e. at the top of Archean basement, Cambrian, Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Eocene have created the foundation for constructing a sequence stratigraphic framework. Based on basin formative tectonic events and their impact on sedimentation processes three first-order sequences have been identified in Rajasthan Basin. These are Proterozoic-Early Cambrian rift sequence, Permian to Middle-Late Eocene shelf sequence and Pleistocene - Recent sequence related to Himalayan Orogeny. The Permian to Middle Eocene I order sequence is further subdivided into three-second order sequences i.e. Permian to Late Jurassic II order sequence, Early to Late Cretaceous II order sequence and Paleocene to Middle-Late Eocene II order sequence. In this study, Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous sequence was identified and log-based interpretation of smaller order T-R cycles have been carried out. A log profile from eastern margin to western margin (up to Shahgarh depression) has been taken. The depositional environment penetrated by the wells interpreted from log signatures gave three major facies association. The blocky and coarsening upward (funnel shape), the blocky and fining upward (bell shape) and the erratic (zig-zag) facies representing distributary mouth bar, distributary channel and marine mud facies respectively. Late Jurassic Formation (Baisakhi-Bhadasar) and Early Cretaceous Formation (Pariwar) shows a lesser number of T-R cycles in shallower and higher number of T-R cycles in deeper bathymetry. Shallowest well has 3 T-R cycles in Baisakhi-Bhadasar and 2 T-R cycles in Pariwar, whereas deeper well has 4 T-R cycles in Baisakhi-Bhadasar and 8 T-R cycles in Pariwar Formation. The Maximum Flooding surfaces observed from the stratigraphy analysis indicate major shale break (high shale content). The study area is dominated by the alternation of shale and sand lithologies, which occurs in an approximate ratio of 70:30. A seismo-geological cross section has been prepared to understand the stratigraphic thickness variation and structural disposition of the strata. The formations are quite thick to the west, the thickness of which reduces as we traverse towards the east. The folded and the faulted strata indicated the compressional tectonics followed by the extensional tectonics. Our interpretation is supported with seismic up to second order sequence indicates - Late Jurassic sequence is a Highstand Systems Tract (Baisakhi - Bhadasar formations), and the Early Cretaceous sequence is Regressive to Lowstand System Tract (Pariwar Formation).

Keywords: Jaisalmer Basin, sequence stratigraphy, system tract, T-R cycle

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70 Evaluation of the Surveillance System for Rift Valley Fever in Ruminants in Mauritania, 2019

Authors: Mohamed El Kory Yacoub, Ahmed Bezeid El Mamy Beyatt, Djibril Barry, Yanogo Pauline, Nicolas Meda

Abstract:

Introduction: Rift Valley Fever is a zoonotic arbovirosis that severely affects ruminants, as well as humans. It causes abortions in pregnant females and deaths in young animals. The disease occurs during heavy rains followed by large numbers of mosquito vectors. The objective of this work is to evaluate the surveillance system for Rift Valley Fever. Methods: We conducted an evaluation of the Rift Valley Fiver surveillance system. Data were collected from the analysis of the national database of the Mauritanian Network of Animal Disease Epidemiological Surveillance at the Ministry of Rural Development, of RVF cases notified from the whole national territory, of questionnaires and interviews with all persons involved in RVF surveillance at the central level. The quality of the system was assessed by analyzing the quantitative attributes defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Results: In 2019, 443 cases of RVF were notified by the surveillance system, of which 36 were positive. Among the notified cases of Rift Valley Fever, the 0- to the 3-year-old age group of small ruminants was the most represented with 49.21% of cases, followed by 33.33%, which was recorded in large ruminants in the 0 to 7-year-old age group, 11.11% of cases were older than seven years. The completeness of the data varied between 14.2% (age) and 100% (species). Most positive cases were recorded between October and November 2019 in seven different regions. Attribute analysis showed that 87% of the respondents were able to use the case definition well, and 78.8% said they were familiar with the reporting and feedback loop of the Rift Valley Fever data. 90.3% of the respondents found it easy, while 95% of them responded that it was easy for them to transmit their data to the next level. Conclusions: The epidemiological surveillance system for Rift Valley Fever in Mauritania is simple and representative. However, data quality, stability, and responsiveness are average, as the diagnosis of the disease requires laboratory confirmation and the average delay for this confirmation is long (13 days). Consequently, the lack of completeness of the recorded data and of description of cases in terms of time-place-animal, associated with the delay between the stages of the surveillance system can make prevention, early detection of epidemics, and the initiation of measures for an adequate response difficult.

Keywords: evaluation, epidemiological surveillance system, rift valley fever, mauritania, ruminants

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69 Head-Mounted Displays for HCI Validations While Driving

Authors: D. Reich, R. Stark

Abstract:

To provide reliable and valid findings when evaluating innovative in-car devices in the automotive context highly realistic driving environments are recommended. Nowadays, in-car devices are mostly evaluated due to driving simulator studies followed by real car driving experiments. Driving simulators are characterized by high internal validity, but weak regarding ecological validity. Real car driving experiments are ecologically valid, but difficult to standardize, more time-robbing and costly. One economizing suggestion is to implement more immersive driving environments when applying driving simulator studies. This paper presents research comparing non-immersive standard PC conditions with mobile and highly immersive Oculus Rift conditions while performing the Lane Change Task (LCT). Subjective data with twenty participants show advantages regarding presence and immersion experience when performing the LCT with the Oculus Rift, but affect adversely cognitive workload and simulator sickness, compared to non-immersive PC condition.

Keywords: immersion, oculus rift, presence, situation awareness

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68 Lower Cretaceous Clay in Anti-Lebanon Mountains, Syria and their Importance in Ceramic Manufacturing

Authors: Abdul Salam Turkmani

Abstract:

The Lower Cretaceous rocks are exposed only in the mountains regions of Syria, such as the Anti- Lebanon mountain on the western side of Damascus. The lower cretaceous sequences are made up of different rocks. The upper and middle parts of the section are composed mainly of carbonate sediments and, less frequently, gypsum and anhydrite. The lower beds are mainly composed of sandstone, conglomerate and clay. Clay samples were collected from the study area, which is located about 45 km west of the city of Damascus, near the border village of Kfer Yabous and to the left of the Damascus -Beirut International Road, within the lower Cretaceous upper Aptian deposits. The properties of clay were carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and Thermal Analysis (DTA-TG-DSC) techniques. The studied samples of clay were mainly composed of kaolinite, quartz, illite. Chemical analysis shows the content of SiO₂ varied between 46.06 to 73 % Al₂O₃ 14.55-26.56%, about the staining oxides (Fe₂O₃ + TiO₂), the total content is about 4.3 to 12.5%. The physical properties were determined by studying the behavior of the body before and after firing, showed low bending strength values (22.5 kg/cm²) after drying, and (about 247 kg/cm²) after firing at 1180°C, water absorption value was about 10%. The cubic thermal expansion coefficient at 1140°C is 213.77 x 10-7 /°C. All of the presented results confirm the suitability of this clay for the ceramic industry.

Keywords: anti-Lebanon, Damascus, ceramic, clay, thermal analysis, thermal expansion coefficient

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67 The Sembar Cretaceous Shale Gas Bearing Formation at Hajipur

Authors: Zakiullah Kalwar, Shabeer Ahmed Abbasi

Abstract:

This research encompasses the study of Cretaceous Sembar Formation Shale Gas potential at Hajipur area. This study has been done with the approach of geophysical data integration. The structure is NE – SW trending anticline with two map able compartments at Cretaceous Sembar level. The study area is located within proven petroleum system. Cretaceous Sembar/Goru formation is in a Wet gas window and Tertiary source is possibly in the oil window. Potential seals are present in Upper Ranikot shale beds and Intra-Lower Ranikot shales. The effectiveness and presence of source and reservoir rocks are favorable in the area of interest. Cretaceous Sembar Shale and Goru Shale beds with good organic content (TOC upto 4%, Type II/III) are currently in gas generation window in the area. Source rock intervals are also reported in Eocene Kirthar Group (TOC upto 8%, Type –II). Good reservoir quality Paleocene Lower Ranikot and Cretaceous Sembar shale beds exist in the area. The collision between Indian and Eurasian Plates during Tertiary initiated folding and thrusting. The first phase of thrusting involved ophiolite emplacement along the western margins of the Indian Plate (west of the area under review). The main phase of thrusting in the Sulaiman region was from Late Miocene to the present. The study area contains Permian to Recent clastics and carbonates. The succession generally is younger in the southeast than in northwest. Intraformational sedimentation breaks are pronounced in Permian and Jurassic. Sulaiman Range is bounded by the Western Sulaiman Transform Fault Zone (of which the Kingri Fault is the major fault) to the west and by the Domanda Fault to the east. The Domanda Fault also constitutes the western boundary of the Sulaiman Foredeep, lies in sulaiman foredeep where subsurface having prominent independent closure. Several reservoir horizons of Jurassic to Eocene are established hydrocarbon producers in the Hajipur area.

Keywords: enough size, good potential, shale gas, structure closure

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66 A Study on Earthquake Activities and Tectonic Setting in the Northeastern Part of Egypt

Authors: Sayed Abdallah Mohamed Dahy

Abstract:

Northeastern part of Egypt is considered one of the few regions of the world whereas evidence of historical activities has been documented during the last 48 centuries or more. Instrumental, historical and pre-historical seismicity data indicate that large destructive earthquakes have occurred quite frequently in the investigated area. The main aims in the present study were to redraw attention to the fact that the northeastern part of Egypt is seismically active and this result is associated with earthquake risk in the region. The interaction of the African, Arabian and Eurasian plates and Sinai subplate, is the main factor behind the earthquake activities of northeastern part of Egypt. All earthquakes occur at shallow depth and are concentrated at four seismic zones, these zones including the Gulfs of Suez and Aqaba, around the entrance of the Gulf of Suez and the fourth one is located at the south-west of great Cairo (Dahshour area). The seismicity map of the previous zones shows that the activity is coincide with the major tectonic trends of the Suez rift, Aqaba rift with their connection with the great rift system of the Red Sea and Gulf of Suez-Cairo-Alexandria trend.

Keywords: earthquake ectivities, Egypt, northeastern, tectonic setting

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65 Hydrocarbon Source Rocks of the Maragh Low

Authors: Elhadi Nasr, Ibrahim Ramadan

Abstract:

Biostratigraphical analyses of well sections from the Maragh Low in the Eastern Sirt Basin has allowed high resolution correlations to be undertaken. Full integration of this data with available palaeoenvironmental, lithological, gravity, seismic, aeromagnetic, igneous, radiometric and wireline log information and a geochemical analysis of source rock quality and distribution has led to a more detailed understanding of the geological and the structural history of this area. Pre Sirt Unconformity two superimposed rifting cycles have been identified. The oldest is represented by the Amal Group of sediments and is of Late Carboniferous, Kasimovian / Gzelian to Middle Triassic, Anisian age. Unconformably overlying is a younger rift cycle which is represented the Sarir Group of sediments and is of Early Cretaceous, late Neocomian to Aptian in age. Overlying the Sirt Unconformity is the marine Late Cretaceous section. An assessment of pyrolysis results and a palynofacies analysis has allowed hydrocarbon source facies and quality to be determined. There are a number of hydrocarbon source rock horizons in the Maragh Low, these are sometimes vertically stacked and they are of fair to excellent quality. The oldest identified source rock is the Triassic Shale, this unit is unconformably overlain by sandstones belonging to the Sarir Group and conformably overlies a Triassic Siltstone unit. Palynological dating of the Triassic Shale unit indicates a Middle Triassic, Anisian age. The Triassic Shale is interpreted to have been deposited in a lacustrine palaeoenvironment. This particularly is evidenced by the dark, fine grained, organic rich nature of the sediment and is supported by palynofacies analysis and by the recovery of fish fossils. Geochemical analysis of the Triassic Shale indicates total organic carbon varying between 1.37 and 3.53. S2 pyrolysate yields vary between 2.15 mg/g and 6.61 mg/g and hydrogen indices vary between 156.91 and 278.91. The source quality of the Triassic Shale varies from being of fair to very good / rich. Linked to thermal maturity it is now a very good source for light oil and gas. It was once a very good to rich oil source. The Early Barremian Shale was also deposited in a lacustrine palaeoenvironment. Recovered palynomorphs indicate an Early Cretaceous, late Neocomian to early Barremian age. The Early Barremian Shale is conformably underlain and overlain by sandstone units belonging to the Sarir Group of sediments which are also of Early Cretaceous age. Geochemical analysis of the Early Barremian Shale indicates that it is a good oil source and was originally very good. Total organic carbon varies between 3.59% and 7%. S2 varies between 6.30 mg/g and 10.39 mg/g and the hydrogen indices vary between 148.4 and 175.5. A Late Barremian Shale unit of this age has also been identified in the central Maragh Low. Geochemical analyses indicate that total organic carbon varies between 1.05 and 2.38%, S2 pyrolysate between 1.6 and 5.34 mg/g and the hydrogen index between 152.4 and 224.4. It is a good oil source rock which is now mature. In addition to the non marine hydrocarbon source rocks pre Sirt Unconformity, three formations in the overlying Late Cretaceous section also provide hydrocarbon quality source rocks. Interbedded shales within the Rachmat Formation of Late Cretaceous, early Campanian age have total organic carbon ranging between, 0.7 and 1.47%, S2 pyrolysate varying between 1.37 and 4.00 mg/g and hydrogen indices varying between 195.7 and 272.1. The indication is that this unit would provide a fair gas source to a good oil source. Geochemical analyses of the overlying Tagrifet Limestone indicate that total organic carbon varies between 0.26% and 1.01%. S2 pyrolysate varies between 1.21 and 2.16 mg/g and hydrogen indices vary between 195.7 and 465.4. For the overlying Sirt Shale Formation of Late Cretaceous, late Campanian age, total organic carbon varies between 1.04% and 1.51%, S2 pyrolysate varies between 4.65 mg/g and 6.99 mg/g and the hydrogen indices vary between 151 and 462.9. The study has proven that both the Sirt Shale Formation and the Tagrifet Limestone are good to very good and rich sources for oil in the Maragh Low. High resolution biostratigraphical interpretations have been integrated and calibrated with thermal maturity determinations (Vitrinite Reflectance (%Ro), Spore Colour Index (SCI) and Tmax (ºC) and the determined present day geothermal gradient of 25ºC / Km for the Maragh Low. Interpretation of generated basin modelling profiles allows a detailed prediction of timing of maturation development of these source horizons and leads to a determination of amounts of missing section at major unconformities. From the results the top of the oil window (0.72% Ro) is picked as high as 10,700’ and the base of the oil window (1.35% Ro) assuming a linear trend and by projection is picked as low as 18,000’ in the Maragh Low. For the Triassic Shale the early phase of oil generation was in the Late Palaeocene / Early to Middle Eocene and the main phase of oil generation was in the Middle to Late Eocene. The Early Barremian Shale reached the main phase of oil generation in the Early Oligocene with late generation being reached in the Middle Miocene. For the Rakb Group section (Rachmat Formation, Tagrifet Limestone and Sirt Shale Formation) the early phase of oil generation started in the Late Eocene with the main phase of generation being between the Early Oligocene and the Early Miocene. From studying maturity profiles and from regional considerations it can be predicted that up to 500’ of sediment may have been deposited and eroded by the Sirt Unconformity in the central Maragh Low while up to 2000’ of sediment may have been deposited and then eroded to the south of the trough.

Keywords: Geochemical analysis of the source rocks from wells in Eastern Sirt Basin.

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64 Seismic Active Zones and Mechanism of Earthquakes in Northern Egypt

Authors: Awad Hassoup, Sayed Abdallah, Mohamed Dahy

Abstract:

Northern Egypt is known to be seismically active from the past several thousand years, based on the historical records and documents of eyewitnesses on one- hand and instrumental records on the other hand. Instrumental, historical and pre- historical seismicity data indicate that large destructive earthquakes have occurred quite frequently in the investigated area. The interaction of the African, Arabian, Eurasian plates and Sinai sub-plate is the main factor behind the seismicity of northern part of Egypt. All earthquakes occur at shallow depth and are concentrated at four seismic zones, these zones including the Gulfs of Suez and Aqaba, around the entrance of the Gulf of Suez and the fourth one is located at the south- west of great Cairo (Dahshour area). The seismicity map of the previous zones shows that the activity is coincide with the major tectonic trends of the Suez rift, Aqaba rift with their connection with the great rift system of the Red Sea and Gulf of Suez- Cairo- Alexandria trend. On the other hand, the focal mechanisms of some earthquakes occurred inside the studied area and having small to moderate size show a variety of patterns. The most predominant type is normal faulting.

Keywords: Northern Egypt, seismic active zone, seismicity, focal mechanism

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63 Effect of Forests and Forest Cover Change on Rainfall in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia

Authors: Alemayehu Muluneh, Saskia Keesstra, Leo Stroosnijder, Woldeamlak Bewket, Ashenafi Burka

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There are some scientific evidences and a belief by many that forests attract rain and deforestation contributes to a decline of rainfall. However, there is still a lack of concrete scientific evidence on the role of forests in rainfall amount. In this paper, we investigate the forest-rainfall relationships in the environmentally hot spot area of the Central Rift Valley (CRV) of Ethiopia. Specifically, we evaluate long term (1970-2009) rainfall variability and its relationship with historical forest cover and the relationship between existing forest cover and topographical variables and rainfall distribution. The study used 16 long term and 15 short term rainfall stations. The Mann-Kendall test, bi variate and multiple regression models were used. The results show forest and wood land cover continuously declined over the 40 years period (1970-2009), but annual rainfall in the rift valley floor increased by 6.42 mm/year. But, on the escarpment and highlands, annual rainfall decreased by 2.48 mm/year. The increase in annual rainfall in the rift valley floor is partly attributable to the increase in evaporation as a result of increasing temperatures from the 4 existing lakes in the rift valley floor. Though, annual rainfall is decreasing on the escarpment and highlands, there was no significant correlation between this rainfall decrease and forest and wood land decline and also rainfall variability in the region was not explained by forest cover. Hence, the decrease in annual rainfall on the escarpment and highlands is likely related to the global warming of the atmosphere and the surface waters of the Indian Ocean. Spatial variability of number of rainy days from systematically observed two-year’s rainfall data (2012-2013) was significantly (R2=-0.63) explained by forest cover (distance from forest). But, forest cover was not a significant variable (R2=-0.40) in explaining annual rainfall amount. Generally, past deforestation and existing forest cover showed very little effect on long term and short term rainfall distribution, but a significant effect on number of rainy days in the CRV of Ethiopia.

Keywords: elevation, forest cover, rainfall, slope

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62 Environmental Metabolic Rift and Tourism Development: A Look at the Impact of the Malawi Tourism Industry Development Pattern

Authors: Lameck Zetu Khonje, Mulala Danny Simatele

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The tourism industry in Malawi has grown tremendously during the past twenty-five years. This growth is attributed to the change in the political system which opened doors to international tourist and investment opportunities in the country which previously was under a strict repressive one-party political system. This research paper focuses on the developments that took place in the accommodation sector during the same period and the impact that it has partly caused on an environmental metabolic rift in the country which is now vulnerable to climate change-related catastrophes. Respondents from the government departments and the hotel sector were recruited for in-depth interviews. These interviews were conducted between July and November 2015 and follow up interviews were conducted between September and December 2017. Both results indicated there were minimal efforts pursued from the public sector to cartel capitalistic development tendencies in the accommodation sector. The results from the hotel revealed there were considerable efforts pursued driven by operating cost-cutting motive. Applying systems thinking the paper recommends that the policing machinery needs improvement to ensure that the industry also focuses on environmental wellbeing instead of profit maximization. This paper contributes to the body of knowledge on tourism development and climate change.

Keywords: accommodation sector, climate change, metabolic rift, Malawi, tourism industry

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61 Hydrodynamics of Selected Ethiopian Rift Lakes

Authors: Kassaye Bewketu Zellelew

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The Main Ethiopian Rift Valley lakes suffer from water level fluctuations due to several natural and anthropocentric factors. Lakes located at terminal positions are highly affected by the fluctuations. These fluctuations are disturbing the stability of ecosystems, putting very serious impacts on the lives of many animals and plants around the lakes. Hence, studying the hydrodynamics of the lakes was found to be very essential. The main purpose of this study is to find the most significant factors that contribute to the water level fluctuations and also to quantify the fluctuations so as to identify lakes that need special attention. The research method included correlations, least squares regressions, multi-temporal satellite image analysis and land use change assessment. The results of the study revealed that much of the fluctuations, specially, in Central Ethiopian Rift are caused by human activities. Lakes Abiyata, Chamo, Ziway and Langano are declining while Abaya and Hawassa are rising. Among the studied lakes, Abiyata is drastically reduced in size (about 28% of its area in 1986) due to both human activities (most dominant ones) and natural factors. The other seriously affected lake is Chamo with about 11% reduction in its area between 1986 and 2010. Lake Abaya was found to be relatively stable during this period (showed only a 0.8% increase in its area). Concerned bodies should pay special attention to and take appropriate measures on lakes Abiyata, Chamo and Hawassa.

Keywords: correlations, hydrodynamics, lake level fluctuation, landsat satellite images

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60 Mapping and Database on Mass Movements along the Eastern Edge of the East African Rift in Burundi

Authors: L. Nahimana

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The eastern edge of the East African Rift in Burundi shows many mass movement phenomena corresponding to landslides, mudflow, debris flow, spectacular erosion (mega-gully), flash floods and alluvial deposits. These phenomena usually occur during the rainy season. Their extent and consecutive damages vary widely. To manage these phenomena, it is necessary to adopt a methodological approach of their mapping with a structured database. The elements for this database are: three-dimensional extent of the phenomenon, natural causes and conditions (geological lithology, slope, weathering depth and products, rainfall patterns, natural environment) and the anthropogenic factors corresponding to the various human activities. The extent of the area provides information about the possibilities and opportunities for mitigation technique. The lithological nature allows understanding the influence of the nature of the rock and its structure on the intensity of the weathering of rocks, as well as the geotechnical properties of the weathering products. The slope influences the land stability. The intensity of annual, monthly and daily rainfall helps to understand the conditions of water saturation of the terrains. Certain natural circumstances such as the presence of streams and rivers promote foot slope erosion and thus the occurrence and activity of mass movements. The construction of some infrastructures such as new roads and agglomerations deeply modify the flow of surface and underground water followed by mass movements. Using geospatial data selected on the East African Rift in Burundi, it is presented case of mass movements illustrating the nature, importance, various factors and the extent of the damages. An analysis of these elements for each hazard can guide the options for mitigation of the phenomenon and its consequences.

Keywords: mass movement, landslide, mudflow, debris flow, spectacular erosion, mega-gully, flash flood, alluvial deposit, East African rift, Burundi

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59 Groundwater Potential in the Central Part of Al Jabal Al Akhdar Area, Ne Libya

Authors: Maged El Osta, Milad Masoud

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Al Jabal Al Akhdar in the north-eastern part of Libya represents a region with promising ecological underpinning for grazing and other agricultural developments. The groundwater potential of both Upper Cretaceous and Eocene aquifers was studied based the available literature and a complete database for about 112 water wells drilled in the period 2003-2009. In this research, the hydrogeological methods will be integrated with the Geographic Information System (GIS) that played a main role in highlighting the spatial characteristics of the groundwater system. The results indicate that the depth to water for the Upper Cretaceous aquifer ranges from 150 to 458 m, and the piezometric surface decreases from over 500 m (m.s.l) in the northern parts to -20 m (m.s.l) in southeastern part. Salinity ranges between 303 and 1329 mg/l indicating that groundwater belongs to the slightly fresh water class. In the Eocene aquifer, the depth to groundwater ranges from 120 to 290.5 m and the potentiometric level decreases gradually southwards from 220 to -51 m (m.s.l) and characterized by steep slope in the southeastern part of the study area, where the aquifer characterized by relatively high productivity (specific capacity ranges between 10.08 and 332.3 m2/day). The groundwater salinity within this aquifer ranges between 198 and 2800 mg/l (fresh to brackish water class). The annual average rainfall (from 280 to 500 mm) plays a significant role in the recharge of the two aquifers. The priority of groundwater quality and potentiality increases towards the central and northern portions of the concerned area.

Keywords: Eocene and Upper Cretaceous aquifers, rainfall, potentiality, Geographic Information System (GIS)

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58 Functional Feeding Groups and Trophic Levels of Benthic Macroinvertebrates Assemblages in Albertine Rift Rivers and Streams in South Western Uganda

Authors: Peace Liz Sasha Musonge

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Behavioral aspects of species nutrition such as feeding methods and food type are archetypal biological traits signifying how species have adapted to their environment. This concept of functional feeding groups (FFG) analysis is currently used to ascertain the trophic levels of the aquatic food web in a specific microhabitat. However, in Eastern Africa, information about the FFG classification of benthic macroinvertebrates in highland rivers and streams is almost absent, and existing studies have fragmented datasets. For this reason, we carried out a robust study to determine the feed type, trophic level and FFGs, of 56 macroinvertebrate taxa (identified to family level) from Albertine rift valley streams. Our findings showed that all five major functional feeding groups were represented; Gatherer Collectors (GC); Predators (PR); shredders (SH); Scrapers (SC); and Filterer collectors. The most dominant functional feeding group was the Gatherer Collectors (GC) that accounted for 53.5% of the total population. The most abundant (GC) families were Baetidae (7813 individuals), Chironomidae NTP (5628) and Caenidae (1848). Majority of the macroinvertebrate population feed on Fine particulate organic matter (FPOM) from the stream bottom. In terms of taxa richness the Predators (PR) had the highest value of 24 taxa and the Filterer Collectors group had the least number of taxa (3). The families that had the highest number of predators (PR) were Corixidae (1024 individuals), Coenagrionidae (445) and Libellulidae (283). However, Predators accounted for only 7.4% of the population. The findings highlighted the functional feeding groups and habitat type of macroinvertebrate communities along an altitudinal gradient.

Keywords: trophic levels, functional feeding groups, macroinvertebrates, Albertine rift

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57 Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous Oysters (Bivalvia, Ostreoidea) from Siberia: Taxonomy and Variations of Carbon and Oxygen Isotopes

Authors: Igor N. Kosenko

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The present contribution is an analysis of more than 300 specimens of Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous oysters collected by V.A. Zakharov during the 1960s and currently stored in the Trofimuk Institute of Geology and Geophysics SB RAS (Novosibirsk, Russia). They were sampled in the northwestern bounder of Western Siberia (Yatriya, Maurynia, Tol’ya and Lopsiya rivers) and the north of Eastern Siberia (Boyarka, Bolshaya Romanikha and Dyabaka-Tari rivers). During the last five years, they were examined with taxonomical and palaeoecological purposes. Based on carbonate material of oyster’s shells were performed isotopic analyses and associated palaeotemperatures. Taxonomical study consists on classical morphofunctional and biometrical analyses. It is completed by another large amount of Cretaceous oysters from Crimea as well as modern Pacific oyster - Crassostrea gigas. Those were studied to understand the range of modification variability between different species. Oysters previously identified as Liostrea are attributed now to four genera: Praeexogyra and Helvetostrea (Flemingostreidae), Pernostrea (Gryphaeidae) and one new genus (Gryphaeidae), including one species “Liostrea” roemeri (Quenstedt). This last is characterized by peculiar ethology, being attached to floating ammonites and morphology, outlined by a beak-shaped umbo on the right (!) valve. Endemic Siberian species from the Pernostrea genus have been included into the subgenus Boreiodeltoideum subgen. nov. Pernostrea and Deltoideum genera have been included into the tribe Pernostreini n. trib. from the Gryphaeinae subfamily. Model of phylogenetic relationships between species of this tribe has been proposed. Siberian oyster complexes were compared with complexes from Western Europe, Poland and East European Platform. In western Boreal and Subboreal Realm (England, northern France and Poland) two stages of oyster’s development were recognized: Jurassic-type and Cretaceous-type. In Siberia, Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous oysters formed a unique complex. It may be due to the isolation of the Siberian Basin toward the West during the Early Cretaceous. Seven oyster’s shells of Pernostrea (Pernostrea) uralensis (Zakharov) from the Jurassic/Cretaceous Boundary Interval (Upper Volgian – Lower Ryazanian) of Maurynia river were used to perform δ13C and δ18O isotopic analyses. The preservation of the carbonate material was controlled by: cathodoluminescence analyses; content of Fe, Mn, Sr; absence of correlation between δ13C and δ18O and content of Fe and Mn. The obtained δ13C and δ18O data were compared with isotopic data based on belemnites from the same stratigraphical interval of the same section and were used to trace palaeotemperatures. A general trend towards negative δ18O values is recorded in the Maurynia section, from the lower part of the Upper Volgian to the middle part of the Ryazanian Chetaites sibiricus ammonite zone. This trend was previously recorded in the Nordvik section. The higher palaeotemperatures (2°C in average) determined from oyster’s shells indicate that belemnites likely migrated laterally and lived part of their lives in cooler waters. This work financially supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Researches (grant no. 16-35-00003).

Keywords: isotopes, oysters, Siberia, taxonomy

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56 Landsat 8-TIRS NEΔT at Kīlauea Volcano and the Active East Rift Zone, Hawaii

Authors: Flora Paganelli

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The radiometric performance of remotely sensed images is important for volcanic monitoring. The Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) on-board Landsat 8 was designed with specific requirements in regard to the noise-equivalent change in temperature (NEΔT) at ≤ 0.4 K at 300 K for the two thermal infrared bands B10 and B11. This study investigated the on-orbit NEΔT of the TIRS two bands from a scene-based method using clear-sky images over the volcanic activity of Kīlauea Volcano and the active East Rift Zone (Hawaii), in order to optimize the use of TIRS data. Results showed that the NEΔTs of the two bands exceeded the design specification by an order of magnitude at 300 K. Both separate bands and split window algorithm were examined to estimate the effect of NEΔT on the land surface temperature (LST) retrieval, and NEΔT contribution to the final LST error. These results were also useful in the current efforts to assess the requirements for volcanology research campaign using the Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) whose airborne prototype MODIS/ASTER instruments is plan to be flown by NASA as a single campaign to the Hawaiian Islands in support of volcanology and coastal area monitoring in 2016.

Keywords: landsat 8, radiometric performance, thermal infrared sensor (TIRS), volcanology

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55 Species Diversity and Relative Abundance of Migratory Waterbirds in Abijata Lake, Central Rift Valley, Ethiopia

Authors: Teklebrhan Kidane

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The aim of this study is to investigate the species diversity and relative abundance of migratory waterbirds in Abijata Lake, an Important Bird Area and potential Ramsar site located in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia. The study was carried out, using line transect method along the shoreline and open area of the Lake. The data was analyzed with different diversity indices; t-Test and descriptive statistics. Thirty-two migratory waterbird species grouped into twelve families consisting of globally threatened birds were identified and recorded. Family Scolopacidae (12 species) had the highest number of species. The lowest number of species was observed under the families Ciconidae, Accipitridae, Laridae and Falconidae with one species each. The recorded bird species comprised 19 Palearctic, 5 Intra-African, 2 local migrants as well as 6 resident Palearctic migratory waterbird species. The dry season had higher species diversity (H'=1.01) compared to the wet season (H'=0.76). The highest and lowest diversity of migratory waterbirds were recorded during January (H'= 1.28) and June (H'= 0.52), respectively. However, the highest evenness (E) of bird species was recorded during wet season (E=0.21) and lower during the dry season (E=0.09). The computed seasonal effect reveals that there is significant effect of seasons on species diversity (t=2.80, P < 0.05), but the effect of seasons on individuals of migratory bird species was not significant (t=1.42, P > 0.05). Even though Lake Abijata is the sanctuary of several migratory waterbirds, anthropogenic activities are rigorously threatening their survival. Therefore, it needs an urgent conservation concern.

Keywords: migration, important bird area, species diversity, wetland birds

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
54 Establishing Sequence Stratigraphic Framework and Hydrocarbon Potential of the Late Cretaceous Strata: A Case Study from Central Indus Basin, Pakistan

Authors: Bilal Wadood, Suleman Khan, Sajjad Ahmed

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The Late Cretaceous strata (Mughal Kot Formation) exposed in Central Indus Basin, Pakistan is evaluated for establishing sequence stratigraphic framework and potential of hydrocarbon accumulation. The petrographic studies and SEM analysis were carried out to infer the hydrocarbon potential of the rock unit. The petrographic details disclosed 4 microfacies including Pelagic Mudstone, OrbitoidalWackestone, Quartz Arenite, and Quartz Wacke. The lowermost part of the rock unit consists of OrbitoidalWackestone which shows deposition in the middle shelf environment. The Quartz Arenite and Quartz Wacke suggest deposition on the deep slope settings while the Pelagic Mudstone microfacies point toward deposition in the distal deep marine settings. Based on the facies stacking patterns and cyclicity in the chronostratigraphic context, the strata is divided into two 3rd order cycles. One complete sequence i.e Transgressive system tract (TST), Highstand system tract (HST) and Lowstand system tract (LST) are again replaced by another Transgressive system tract and Highstant system tract with no markers of sequence boundary. The LST sands are sandwiched between TST and HST shales but no potential porosity/permeability values have been determined. Microfacies and SEM studies revealed very fewer chances for hydrocarbon accumulation and overall reservoir potential is characterized as low.

Keywords: cycle, deposition, microfacies, reservoir

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53 Tectono-Thermal Evolution of Ningwu-Jingle Basin in North China Craton: Constraints from Apatite (U–Th-Sm)/He and Fission Track Thermochronology

Authors: Zhibin Lei, Minghui Yang

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Ningwu-Jingle basin is a structural syncline which has undergone a complex tectono-thermal history since Cretaceous. It stretches along the strike of the northern Lvliang Mountains which are the most important mountains in the middle and west of North China Craton. The Mesozoic units make up of the core of Ningwu-Jingle Basin, with pre-Mesozoic units making up of its flanks. The available low-temperature thermochronology implies that Ningwu-Jingle Basin has experienced two stages of uplifting: 94±7Ma to 111±8Ma (Albian to Cenomanian) and 62±4 to 75±5Ma (Danian to Maastrichtian). In order to constrain its tectono-thermal history in the Cenozoic, both apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He and fission track dating analysis are applied on 3 Middle Jurassic and 3 Upper Triassic sandstone samples. The central fission track ages range from 74.4±8.8Ma to 66.0±8.0Ma (Campanian to Maastrichtian) which matches well with previous data. The central He ages range from 20.1±1.2Ma to 49.1±3.0Ma (Ypresian to Burdigalian). Inverse thermal modeling is established based on both apatite fission track data and (U-Th-Sm)/He data. The thermal history obtained reveals that all 6 sandstone samples cross the high-temperature limit of fission track partial annealing zone by the uppermost Cretaceous and that of He partial retention zone by the uppermost Eocene to the early Oligocene. The result indicates that the middle and west of North China Craton is not stable in the Cenozoic.

Keywords: apatite fission track thermochronology, apatite (u–th)/he thermochronology, Ningwu-Jingle basin, North China craton, tectono-thermal history

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52 Reservoir Potential, Net Pay Zone and 3D Modeling of Cretaceous Clastic Reservoir in Eastern Sulieman Belt Pakistan

Authors: Hadayat Ullah, Pervez Khalid, Saad Ahmed Mashwani, Zaheer Abbasi, Mubashir Mehmood, Muhammad Jahangir, Ehsan ul Haq

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The aim of the study is to explore subsurface structures through data that is acquired from the seismic survey to delineate the characteristics of the reservoir through petrophysical analysis. Ghazij Shale of Eocene age is regional seal rock in this field. In this research work, 3D property models of subsurface were prepared by applying Petrel software to identify various lithologies and reservoir fluids distribution throughout the field. The 3D static modeling shows a better distribution of the discrete and continuous properties in the field. This model helped to understand the reservoir properties and enhance production by selecting the best location for future drilling. A complete workflow is proposed for formation evaluation, electrofacies modeling, and structural interpretation of the subsurface geology. Based on the wireline logs, it is interpreted that the thickness of the Pab Sandstone varies from 250 m to 350 m in the entire study area. The sandstone is massive with high porosity and intercalated layers of shales. Faulted anticlinal structures are present in the study area, which are favorable for the accumulation of hydrocarbon. 3D structural models and various seismic attribute models were prepared to analyze the reservoir character of this clastic reservoir. Based on wireline logs and seismic data, clean sand, shaly sand, and shale are marked as dominant facies in the study area. However, clean sand facies are more favorable to act as a potential net pay zone.

Keywords: cretaceous, pab sandstone, petrophysics, electrofacies, hydrocarbon

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51 Neotectonic Characteristics of the Western Part of Konya, Central Anatolia, Turkey

Authors: Rahmi Aksoy

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The western part of Konya consists of an area of block faulted basin and ranges. Present day topography is characterized by alternating elongate mountains and depressions trending east-west. A number of depressions occur in the region. One of the large depressions is the E-W trending Kızılören-Küçükmuhsine (KK basin) basin bounded on both sides by normal faults and located on the west of the Konya city. The basin is about 5-12 km wide and 40 km long. Ranges north and south of the basin are composed of undifferentiated low grade metamorphic rocks of Silurian-Cretaceous age and smaller bodies of ophiolites of probable Cretaceous age. The basin fill consists of the upper Miocene-lower Pliocene fluvial, lacustrine, alluvial sediments and volcanic rocks. The younger and undeformed Plio-Quaternary basin fill unconformably overlies the older basin fill and is composed predominantly of conglomerate, mudstone, silt, clay and recent basin floor deposits. The paleostress data on the striated fault planes in the basin indicates NW-SE extension and associated with an NE-SW compression. The eastern end of the KK basin is cut and terraced by the active Konya fault zone. The Konya fault zone is NE trending, east dipping normal fault forming the western boundary of the Konya depression. The Konya depression consists mainly of Plio-Quaternary alluvial complex and recent basin floor sediments. The structural data gathered from the Konya fault zone support normal faulting with a small amount of dextral strike-slip tensional tectonic regime that shaped under the WNW-ESE extensional stress regime.

Keywords: central Anatolia, fault kinematics, Kızılören-Küçükmuhsine basin, Konya fault zone, neotectonics

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50 Tectonostratigraphic, Paleogeography and Amalgamation of Sumatra Terranes, Indonesia

Authors: Syahrir Andi Mangga, Ipranta

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The geological, paleomagnetic, geochemical and geophysical Investigation in The Sumatra Region has yielded some new data, has stimulated a reassessment of stratigraphy, structure, tectonic evolution and which can show a Sumatra geodynamic model. Sumatra island has in the margin of southwest part of the Eurasia plate in the Sundaland cratonic block and occurred as the amalgamation of allochtonous microplates, continental fragments, Island arc and accrctionary by foreland complex which assembled prior to Tertiary. The allochtonous rocks (terranes), can be divided into 4 (four) Terranes with Paleozoic to Mesosoic in age, had different origin, lithology and are separated by a Suture as main fault with trending NW-SE. The terranes are: the Tigapuluh-Bohorok (East Sumatra block / Sibumasu block), Permo-Carboniferous in age and is characterized by the rock types formed in glacio-marine and was intruded by Late Triassic to Early Jurrasic granitics, occupied in the Eastern part of Sumatra, the paleomagnetic data shown 41° South. Tanjung Karang - Gunung Kasih Terrane, is composed of higher metamorphic rocks and supposed to be pre-Carboniferous in age, covered by Mesozoic sedimentary rocks and were intruded by granitic-dioritic rocks, occupied in the Southern part of Sumatra, the paleomagnetic data shown 19° North. The Kuantan-Duabelas Mountain (West Sumatra block) is occupied by metamorphic, sedimentary and volcanic rocks of Paleozoic - Mesozoic (Carboniferous - Triassic) in age, contains a Cathaysion fauna and flora and are intruded by the Mesozoic granitoid rocks. The terrane occurred in the western part of Sumatra. Meanwhile, the Gumai-Garba (Waloya Terrane) which is occupied by the tectonite/melange, metasediment, carbonate and volcanic rocks of Mesozoic (Jurassic - Cretaceous) in age, are intruted by the Late Cretaceous granitoid rocks, the paleomagnetic data shown 30° - 31° South.

Keywords: tectonostratigraphy, amalgamation, allochtonous, terranes, sumatra

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49 Facies Analysis and Depositional Environment of Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian) Lidam Formation, South East Sirt Basin, Libya

Authors: Miloud M. Abugares

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This study concentrates on the facies analysis, cyclicity and depositional environment of the Upper Cretaceous (Cenomanian) carbonate ramp deposits of the Lidam Formation. Core description, petrographic analysis data from five wells in Hamid and 3V areas in the SE Sirt Basin, Libya were studied in detail. The Lidam Formation is one of the main oil producing carbonate reservoirs in Southeast Sirt Basin and this study represents one of the key detailed studies of this Formation. In this study, ten main facies have been identified. These facies are; Chicken-Wire Anhydrite Facies, Fine Replacive Dolomite Facies, Bioclastic Sandstone Facies, Laminated Shale Facies, Stromatolitic Laminated Mudstone Facies, Ostracod Bioturbated Wackestone Facies, Bioturbated Mollusc Packstone Facies, Foraminifera Bioclastic Packstone/Grainstone Facies Peloidal Ooidal Packstone/Grainstone Facies and Squamariacean/Coralline Algae Bindstone Facies. These deposits are inferred to have formed in supratidal sabkha, intertidal, semi-open restricted shallow lagoon and higher energy shallow shoal environments. The overall depositional setting is interpreted as have been deposited in inner carbonate ramp deposits. The best reservoir quality is encountered in Peloidal- Ooidal Packstone/Grainstone facies, these facies represents storm - dominated shoal to back shoal deposits and constitute the inner part of carbonate ramp deposits. The succession shows a conspicuous hierarchical cyclicity. Porous shoal and backshoal deposits form during maximum transgression system and early regression hemi-cycle of the Lidam Fm. However; oil producing from shoal and backshoal deposits which only occur in the upper intervals 15 - 20 feet, which forms the large scale transgressive cycle of the Upper Lidam Formation.

Keywords: Lidam Fm. Sirt Basin, Wackestone Facies, petrographic, intertidal

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48 Geochemical Characteristics of Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Crude Oils from the Chepaizi Area, Junggar Basin, China

Authors: Luofu Liu, Fei Xiao Jr., Fei Xiao

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Through the analysis technology of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), the composition and distribution characteristics of aromatic hydrocarbons in the Chepaizi area of the Junggar Basin were analyzed in detail. Based on that, the biological input, maturity of crude oils and sedimentary environment of the corresponding source rocks were determined and the origin types of crude oils were divided. The results show that there are three types of crude oils in the study area including Type I, Type II and Type III oils. The crude oils from the 1st member of the Neogene Shawan Formation are the Type I oils; the crude oils from the 2nd member of the Neogene Shawan Formation are the Type II oils; the crude oils from the Cretaceous Qingshuihe and Jurassic Badaowan Formations are the Type III oils. For the Type I oils, they show a single model in the late retention time of the chromatogram of total aromatic hydrocarbons. The content of triaromatic steroid series is high, and the content of dibenzofuran is low. Maturity parameters related to alkyl naphthalene, methylphenanthrene and alkyl dibenzothiophene all indicate low maturity for the Type I oils. For the Type II oils, they have also a single model in the early retention time of the chromatogram of total aromatic hydrocarbons. The content of naphthalene and phenanthrene series is high, and the content of dibenzofuran is medium. The content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon representing the terrestrial organic matter is high. The aromatic maturity parameters indicate high maturity for the Type II oils. For the Type III oils, they have a bi-model in the chromatogram of total aromatic hydrocarbons. The contents of naphthalene series, phenanthrene series, and dibenzofuran series are high. The aromatic maturity parameters indicate medium maturity for the Type III oils. The correlation results of triaromatic steroid series fingerprint show that the Type I and Type III oils have similar source and are both from the Permian Wuerhe source rocks. Because of the strong biodegradation and mixing from other source, the Type I oils are very different from the Type III oils in aromatic hydrocarbon characteristics. The Type II oils have the typical characteristics of terrestrial organic matter input under oxidative environment, and are the coal oil mainly generated by the mature Jurassic coal measure source rocks. However, the overprinting effect from the low maturity Cretaceous source rocks changed the original distribution characteristics of aromatic hydrocarbons to some degree.

Keywords: oil source, geochemistry, aromatic hydrocarbons, crude oils, chepaizi area, Junggar Basin

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47 Virtual Reality Application for Neurorehabilitation

Authors: Daniel Vargas-Herrera, Ivette Caldelas, Fernando Brambila-Paz, Rodrigo Montufar-Chaveznava

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In this paper, we present a virtual reality application for neurorehabilitation. This application was developed using the Unity SDK integrating the Oculus Rift and Leap Motion devices. Essentially, it consists of three stages according to the kind of rehabilitation to carry on: ocular rehabilitation, head/neck rehabilitation, and eye-hand coordination. We build three scenes for each task; for ocular and head/neck rehabilitation, there are different objects moving in the field of view and extended field of view of the user according to some patterns relative to the therapy. In the third stage the user must try to touch with the hand some objects guided by its view. We report the primer results of the use of the application with healthy people.

Keywords: virtual reality, interactive technologies, video games, neurorehabilitation

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46 Structural-Lithological Conditions of Formation of Epithermal Gold Sulphide Satellite Deposits in the North Part of Chovdar Ore Area

Authors: Nabat Gojaeva, Mikayil Naghiyev, Sultan Jafarov, Gular Mikayilova

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Chovdar ore area is located in the contact of Dashkesan caldera and Shamkir horst-graben uplift, which comprises the central part of Lok-Karabakh Island arcs of South Caucasus metallogenic province in terms of regional tectonics. One of the main structural features of formation of the Mereh and Aghyokhush group of low sulfidation epithermal gold deposits, locating in the north peripheric part of the ore area, is involving the crossing areas of ore-hosting and ore-forming Pan-Caucasian-direction structurally-compound faults with the meridional, rhombically shaped faults. In addition, another significant feature is the temporally two- or three-stage ore formation. In the first stage -an early phase of Upper Bathonian age, sulfides are the dominant minerals, in the second stage- late ‘productive’ phase of Upper Bathonian age, mainly gold mineralization is formed. Also, in the Upper Jurassic – Lower Cretaceous ages, rarely-encountered Cu-polymetallic ore formations are documented. Finally, in the last stage, the re-dislocation of ore-formation is foreseen in the previously-formed mineralization areas. The faults in the strike and dip directions formed shearing, brecciation, sulfide mineralization aureoles, and hydrothermal alteration zones in the wall rocks along with the local depression blocks. The geological-structural analysis of the area shows that multiple and various morphogenetic volcano-tectonically fault systems have developed in the area. These fault systems have played a trap role for ore-formation in the intersected parts of faults mentioned above. Thus, in the referred parts, mostly predominance of felsic volcanism and metasomatic alteration (silicification, argillitic, etc.) of wall rocks, as well as the products of this volcanism, account for the inclusion of hydrothermal ore-forming fluids along these faults. It is possible to determine temporally and lithological-structural connection between the ore-formation along with local depression blocks and faults as borders for products of felsic volcanism of Upper Cretaceous-Lesser Jurassic ages, in the results of the replacement of hydrothermal alteration zones with relatively low-temperature metasomatic alterations while moving from the felsic parts to the margins, and due to being non-ore bearing intermediate and intermediate-felsic magmatic facies.

Keywords: Aghyokhush, fault, gold deposit, Mereh

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
45 Modelling Public Knowledge and Attitude towards Genetically Modified Maize in Kenya

Authors: Ezrah Kipkirui Tonui, George Otieno Orwa

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A survey of 138 farmers was conducted in Rift valley, Kenya, in November and December 2013 in three counties (Uasin-gishu, Elgeyo-marakwet, and Tranzoia) to determine public knowledge and attitude towards genetically modified (GM) maize. Above two third (70%) of the respondents had knowledge of GM maize, mostly those educated and male. Female was found to be having low knowledge on GM maize. Public acknowledged the technology’s potential positive impacts, with more than 90% willing to adopt and more than 98% willing to buy GM seedlings at any given price. A small percentage less than 3% were of a negative opinion about willing to buy and adopt GM seeds. We conclude that GM technology has a role to play in food security in Kenya. However, the public needs more information about the technology, which can be provided through established sources of information and training. Finally, public knowledge and attitude on GM maize should be studied on a regular basis, and the survey population broadened to 47 counties.

Keywords: public, knowledge, attitudes, GM maize, Kenya

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