Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 208

Search results for: Chemotherapy

208 The Effectiveness of Scalp Cooling Therapy on Reducing Chemotherapy Induced Alopecia: A Critical Literature Review

Authors: M. Krishna


The study was intended to identify if scalp cooling therapy is effective on preventing chemotherapy-induced hair loss among cancer patients. Critical literature of non-randomized controlled trials was used to investigate whether scalp cooling therapy is effective on preventing chemotherapy-induced alopecia. The review identified that scalp cooling therapy is effective on preventing chemotherapy-induced alopecia. Most of the patients receiving chemotherapy experience alopecia. It is also perceived as the worst effect of chemotherapy. This may be severe and lead the patients to withdraw the chemo treatment. The image disturbance caused by alopecia will make the patient depressed and will lead to declined immunity. With the knowledge on effectiveness of scalp cooling therapy on preventing chemotherapy-induced alopecia, patient undergoing chemotherapy will not be hesitant to undergo the treatment. Patients are recommended to go through scalp cooling therapy every chemo cycle and the proper therapy duration is 30 minutes before, during chemo. The suggested duration of the scalp cooling therapy is 45-90 minutes for an effective and positive outcome. This finding is excluding other factors of alopecia such as menopause, therapeutic drugs, poor hair density, liver function problems, and drug regimes.

Keywords: alopecia, cancer, chemotherapy, scalp cooling therapy

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207 Establishment and Evaluation of Information System for Chemotherapy Care

Authors: Yi-Ting Liu, Pei-Ying Wen


In order to improve the overall safety of chemotherapy, safety-protecting net was established for the whole process from prescribing by physicians, transcribing by nurses, dispensing by pharmacists to administering by nurses. The information system was used to check and monitor whole process of administration and related sheets were computerized to simplify the paper work.

Keywords: chemotherapy, bar code medication administration, medication safety

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
206 Reproductive Health of Women After Taking Chemotherapy for Gestational Trophoblastic Disease

Authors: Ezeh Chukwunonso Peter Excel, Akruti Vg


Aim/Background: To show that even after undergoing 1-5 courses of chemotherapy for Gestational Trophoblastic Disease (GTD) reproductive health of women is intact and they conceive successfully after it. Method: Retrospective cohort analysis using data from the Lugansk regional maternity hospital database of years 1993-2013, which shows n=18 females had GTD and underwent 1-5 courses of chemotherapy. Results and Discussion: Frequency of GTD was rare. All 18 patients (pts) belong to age group of 17-39 years, covering wide range of reproductive age. Out of 18 pts, 15 had hydatidiform mole (HM) while other 3 had choriocarcinoma (CC). In anamnesis, among CC pts, 1 had early pre-eclampsia at 24 weeks and 1 had 4th week of late postpartum (PP) bleeding, while all HM pts had genital inflammatory diseases, 1 pt of HM during follow-up had High hCG and 3 times curettage in 5 months. 18 women became pregnant for 25 times after chemotherapy. Chemotherapy was given under indication of either high level of HCG, luteal cyst >6cm or path-morphological results of curettage. CC 3 pts had (2 spontaneous abortions (SA), 2 term cesarean section (CS), 1 preterm CS). HM 15 pts had (3 artificial abortion, 2 SA, 7CS (5 term and 2 preterm), 8 vaginal deliveries (7 term and 1 preterm)). Conclusion: During our research we got 22.2% preterm deliveries and 55.6% CS which is higher than the normal cases, but still all the 18 women were able to have kids successfully after chemotherapy. So we can conclude that chemotherapy for GTD was successful in keeping the reproductive health of women intact.

Keywords: reproductive health, chemotherapy, gestational trophoblastic disease, women

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205 Controlled Chemotherapy Strategy Applied to HIV Model

Authors: Shohel Ahmed, Md. Abdul Alim, Sumaiya Rahman


Optimal control can be helpful to test and compare different vaccination strategies of a certain disease. The mathematical model of HIV we consider here is a set of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) describing the interactions of CD4+T cells of the immune system with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). As an early treatment setting, we investigate an optimal chemotherapy strategy where control represents the percentage of effect the chemotherapy has on the system. The aim is to obtain a new optimal chemotherapeutic strategy where an isoperimetric constraint on the chemotherapy supply plays a crucial role. We outline the steps in formulating an optimal control problem, derive optimality conditions and demonstrate numerical results of an optimal control for the model. Numerical results illustrate how such a constraint alters the optimal vaccination schedule and its effect on cell-virus interactions.

Keywords: chemotherapy of HIV, optimal control involving ODEs, optimality conditions, Pontryagin’s maximum principle

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
204 Malnutrition of the Cancer Patients under Chemotherapy and Influence of Learned Food Aversions

Authors: Hafsa Chergui


Malnutrition is a very common problem for hospitalized patients in general but it happens most to those who have a chronic disease such as cancer. Learned food aversions are defined as aversions which form toward foods after their ingestion has been temporally paired with illness (nausea or emesis). Learned food aversion may exert a negative impact on nutritional status and quality of life. The present review evaluates the literature derived both from laboratory animals and humans. Also, a questionnaire has been filled by patients under chemotherapy to assess the level of food aversions. This study evaluated the current research for avoiding the formation of aversions to dietary items in 200 cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. A scapegoat food or beverage can be used just before treatment to reduce the incidence of treatment-related aversions to foods in the individual s usual diet. The goal of this work is to inform the nurses and dieticians because they play a vital role in the daily assessment of the patients' nutritional status. Being aware of all the causes of malnutrition may help to suggest solutions to improve the health condition of the patient and avoid severe malnutrition.

Keywords: chemotherapy, oncology, food aversion, taste aversion

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
203 Patient Scheduling Improvement in a Cancer Treatment Clinic Using Optimization Techniques

Authors: Maryam Haghi, Ivan Contreras, Nadia Bhuiyan


Chemotherapy is one of the most popular and effective cancer treatments offered to patients in outpatient oncology centers. In such clinics, patients first consult with an oncologist and the oncologist may prescribe a chemotherapy treatment plan for the patient based on the blood test results and the examination of the health status. Then, when the plan is determined, a set of chemotherapy and consultation appointments should be scheduled for the patient. In this work, a comprehensive mathematical formulation for planning and scheduling different types of chemotherapy patients over a planning horizon considering blood test, consultation, pharmacy and treatment stages has been proposed. To be more realistic and to provide an applicable model, this study is focused on a case study related to a major outpatient cancer treatment clinic in Montreal, Canada. Comparing the results of the proposed model with the current practice of the clinic under study shows significant improvements regarding different performance measures. These major improvements in the patients’ schedules reveal that using optimization techniques in planning and scheduling of patients in such highly demanded cancer treatment clinics is an essential step to provide a good coordination between different involved stages which ultimately increases the efficiency of the entire system and promotes the staff and patients' satisfaction.

Keywords: chemotherapy patients scheduling, integer programming, integrated scheduling, staff balancing

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202 Comparison of 18F-FDG and 11C-Methionine PET-CT for Assessment of Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Locally Advanced Breast Carcinoma

Authors: Sonia Mahajan Dinesh, Anant Dinesh, Madhavi Tripathi, Vinod Kumar Ramteke, Rajnish Sharma, Anupam Mondal


Background: Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy plays an important role in treatment of breast cancer by decreasing the tumour load and it offers an opportunity to evaluate response of primary tumour to chemotherapy. Standard anatomical imaging modalities are unable to accurately reflect the response to chemotherapy until several cycles of drug treatment have been completed. Metabolic imaging using tracers like 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) as a marker of glucose metabolism or amino acid tracers like L-methyl-11C methionine (MET) have potential role for the measurement of treatment response. In this study, our objective was to compare these two PET tracers for assessment of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, in locally advanced breast carcinoma. Methods: In our prospective study, 20 female patients with histology proven locally advanced breast carcinoma underwent PET-CT imaging using FDG and MET before and after three cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (CAF regimen). Thereafter, all patients were taken for MRM and the resected specimen was sent for histo-pathological analysis. Tumour response to the neoadjuvant chemotherapy was evaluated by PET-CT imaging using PERCIST criteria and correlated with histological results. Responses calculated were compared for statistical significance using paired t- test. Results: Mean SUVmax for primary lesion in FDG PET and MET PET was 15.88±11.12 and 5.01±2.14 respectively (p<0.001) and for axillary lymph nodes was 7.61±7.31 and 2.75±2.27 respectively (p=0.001). Statistically significant response in primary tumour and axilla was noted on both FDG and MET PET after three cycles of NAC. Complete response in primary tumour was seen in only 1 patient in FDG and 7 patients in MET PET (p=0.001) whereas there was no histological complete resolution of tumor in any patient. Response to therapy in axillary nodes noted on both PET scans were similar (p=0.45) and correlated well with histological findings. Conclusions: For the primary breast tumour, FDG PET has a higher sensitivity and accuracy than MET PET and for axilla both have comparable sensitivity and specificity. FDG PET shows higher target to background ratios so response is better predicted for primary breast tumour and axilla. Also, FDG-PET is widely available and has the advantage of a whole body evaluation in one study.

Keywords: 11C-methionine, 18F-FDG, breast carcinoma, neoadjuvant chemotherapy

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201 The Effectiveness of Warm-Water Footbath on Fatigue in Cancer Patient Undergoing Chemotherapy

Authors: Yu-Wen Lin, Li-Ni Liu


Introduction: Fatigue is the most common symptoms experienced by cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Patients receiving anticancer therapies develop a higher proportion of fatigue compared with patients who do not receive anticancer therapies. Fatigue has significant impacts on quality of life, daily activities, mood status, and social behaviors. A warm-water footbath (WWF) at 41℃ promotes circulation and removes metabolites resulting in improving sleep and relieving fatigue. The aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness of WWF for relieving fatigue with cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: This is a single-center, prospective, quasi-experimental design study in the oncology ward in Taiwan. Participants in this study were assigned to WWF group as experimental group and standard care group as a control group by purposive sampling. In the WWF group, the participants were asked to soak their feet in 42-43℃ water 15 minutes for consecutive 6 days at one day before chemotherapy. Each participant was evaluated for fatigue level by the Taiwanese version of the Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI-T). BFI-T was completed for consecutive 8 days of the study. The primary outcome was compared the BFI-T score of WWF group to the standard care group. Results: There were 60 participants enrolled in this study. Thirty participants were assigned to WWF group and 30 participants were assigned to standard care group. Both groups have comparable characteristic. The BFI-T scores of both groups were increased associated with the days of chemotherapy. The highest BFI-T scores of both groups were on the day 4 of chemotherapy. The BFI-T scores of both groups were decreased since day 5 and significantly decreased in WWF group on day 5 compared to standard care group (4.17 vs. 5.7, P < .05). At the end of the study the fatigue at its worse were significantly decreased in WWF group (2.33 vs. 4.37, P < .001). There was no adverse event reported in this study. Conclusion: WWF is an easy, safe, non-invasive, and relatively inexpensive nursing intervention for improving fatigue of cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. In summary, this study shows the WWF is a simple complementary care method, and it is effective for improving and relieving fatigue in a short time. Through improving fatigue is a way to enhance the quality of life which is important for cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Larger prospective randomized controlled trial and long-term effectiveness and outcomes of WWF should be performed to confirm this study.

Keywords: chemotherapy, warm-water footbath, fatigue, Taiwanese version of the brief fatigue inventory

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200 Reliability of Social Support Measurement Modification of the BC-SSAS among Women with Breast Cancer Who Undergone Chemotherapy in Selected Hospital, Central Java, Indonesia

Authors: R. R. Dewi Rahmawaty Aktyani Putri, Earmporn Thongkrajai, Dedy Purwito


There were many instruments have been developed to assess social support which has the different dimension in breast cancer patients. The Issue of measurement is a challenge to determining the component of dimensional concept, defining the unit of measurement, and establishing the validity and reliability of the measurement. However, the instruments where need to know how much support which obtained and perceived among women with breast cancer who undergone chemotherapy which it can help nurses to prevent of non-adherence in chemotherapy. This study aimed to measure the reliability of BC-SSAS instrument among 30 Indonesian women with breast cancer aged 18 years and above who undergone chemotherapy for six cycles in the oncological unit of Outpatient Department (OPD), Margono Soekardjo Hospital, Central Java, Indonesia. Data were collected during October to December 2015 by using modified the Breast Cancer Social Support Assessment (BC-SSAS). The Cronbach’s alpha analysis was carried out to measure internal consistency for reliability test of BC-SSAS instrument. This study used five experts for content validity index. The results showed that for content validity, I-CVI was 0.98 and S-CVI was 0.98; Cronbach’s alpha value was 0.971 and the Cronbach’s alpha coefficients for the subscales were high, with 0.903 for emotional support, 0.865 for informational support, 0.901 for tangible support, 0.897 for appraisal support and 0.884 for positive interaction support. The results confirmed that the BC-SSAS instrument has high reliability. BC-SSAS instruments were reliable and can be used in health care services to measure the social support received and perceived among women with breast cancer who undergone chemotherapy so that preventive interventions can be developed and the quality of health services can be improved.

Keywords: BC-SSAS, women with breast cancer, chemotherapy, Indonesia

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199 Outcome of Unilateral Retinoblastoma: A Ten Years Experience of Children's Cancer, Hospital Egypt

Authors: Ahmed Elhussein, Hossam El-Zomor, Adel Alieldin, Mahmoud A. Afifi, Abdullah Elhusseiny, Hala Taha, Amal Refaat, Soha Ahmed, Mohamed S. Zagloul


Background: A majority of children with retinoblastoma (60%) have a disease in one eye only (unilateral disease). This is a retrospective study to evaluate two different treatment modalities in those patients for saving their lives and vision. Methods: Four hundred and four patients were diagnosed with unilateral intraocular retinoblastoma at Children’s Cancer, Hospital Egypt (CCHE) through the period of July/2007 until December/2017. Management strategies included primary enucleation versus ocular salvage treatment. Results: Patients presented with mean age 24.5 months with range (1.2-154.3 months). According to the international retinoblastoma classification, Group D (n=172, 42%) was the most common, followed by group E (n=142, 35%), group C (n=63, 16%), and group B (n=27, 7%). All patients were alive at the end of the study except four patients who died, with 5-years overall survival 98.3% [CI, (96.5-100%)]. Patients presented with advanced disease and poor visual prognosis (n=241, 59.6%) underwent primary enucleation with 6 cycles adjuvant chemotherapy if they had high-risk features in the enucleated eye; only four patients out of 241 ended-up either with extraocular metastasis (n=3) or death (n=1). While systemic chemotherapy and focal therapy were the primary treatment for those who presented with favorable disease status and good visual prognosis (n=163, 40.4%); seventy-seven patients of them (47%) ended up with a pre-defined event (enucleation, EBRT, off protocol chemotherapy or 2ry malignancy). Ocular survival for patients received primary chemotherapy + focal therapy was [50.9% (CI, 43.5-59.6%)] at 3 years and [46.9% (CI,39.3-56%)] at 5 years. Comparison between upfront enucleation and primary chemotherapy for occurrence of extraocular metastasis revealed that there was no statistical difference between them except in group D (p value). While for occurrence of death, no statistical difference in all classification groups. Conclusion: In retinoblastoma, primary chemotherapy is a reasonable option and has a good probability for ocular salvage without increasing the risk of metastasis in comparison to upfront enucleation except in group D.

Keywords: CCHE, chemotherapy, enucleation, retinoblastoma

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198 Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels in Korean Breast Cancer Patients

Authors: Sung Yong Kim, Byung Joo Song


Background: Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels has been considered to be inversely related to breast cancer development, recurrence risk, and mortality. Mean vitamin D levels in Korean population is lower than western countries due to higher incidence of lactose intolerance and lower exposure to sunlight. The purpose of this study was to assess incidence of 25(OH)D deficiency at diagnosis and after adjuvant chemotherapy and to investigate the correlation serum 25(OH)D levels with clinicopathologic features. Methods: From December 2011 to October 2012, 280 breast cancer patients seen at a single tertiary cancer center were enrolled. Serum 25(OH)D was measured at the time of surgery and after completion of adjuvant chemotherapy. Statistical analyses used chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, t-test, and ANOVA. Results: Mean serum 25(OH)D was 18.5 ng/ml. The 25(OH)D levels were deficient (<20 ng/ml) in 190 patients (67.9%), insufficient (20-29 ng/ml) in 51 patients(18.2%), and sufficient (30-150 ng/ml) in 39 patients(13.9%). A notable decrease in 25(OH)D concentration was observed(p<0.001) after chemotherapy but was not related to chemotherapy regimens. It was found significant lower 25(OH)D levels at winter season(from October to March, p=0.030). Subjects with invasive carcinoma (IDC or ILC) had significantly lower circulating levels of 25(OH)D than those with ductal carcinoma in situ(DCIS) (p=0.010). Patients with larger tumor size tends to have lower serum 25(OH)D but there were no statistical significance. Conclusions: Most of the breast cancer patients showed deficient or insufficient serum 25(OH)D concentration. Incidence of vitamin D deficiency was higher in invasive carcinoma than DCIS. Serum 25(OH)D levels were decreased after chemotherapy. Consideration should be given to the supplement of vitamin D to those patients.

Keywords: breast neoplasms, vitamin D, Korean population, breast cancer

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197 Functionalized SPIO Conjugated with Doxorubicin for Tumor Diagnosis and Chemotherapy Enhanced by Applying Magnetic Fields

Authors: Po-Chin Liang, Yung-Chu Chen, Chi-Feng Chiang, Yun-Ping Lin, Wen-Yuan Hsieh, Win-Li Lin


The aim of this study was to develop super paramagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nano-particles comprised of a magnetic Fe3O4 core and a shell of aqueous stable self-doped polyethylene glycol (PEG) with a high loading of doxorubicin (SPIO-PEG-D) for tumor theranostics. The in-vivo MRI study showed that there was a stronger T2-weighted signal enhancement for the group under a magnetic field, and hence it indicated that this group had a better accumulation of SPIO-PEG than the group without a magnetic field. In the anticancer evaluation of SPIO-PEG-D, the group with a magnetic field displayed a significantly smaller tumor size than the group without. The overall results show that SPIO-PEG-D nanoparticles have the potential for the application of MRI/monitoring chemotherapy and the therapy can be locally enhanced by applying an external magnetic field.

Keywords: super paramagnetic iron oxide nano particles, doxorubicin, chemotherapy, MRI, magnetic fields

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196 A Self-Directed Home Yoga Program for Women with Breast Cancer during Chemotherapy

Authors: Hiroko Komatsu, Kaori Yagasaki


Background: Cancer-related cognitive impairment is a common problem seen in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Physical activity may show beneficial effects on the cognitive function in such patients. Therefore, we have developed a self-directed home yoga program for cancer patients with cognitive symptoms during chemotherapy. This program involves a DVD presenting a combination of yoga courses based on patient preferences to be practiced at home. This study was performed to examine the feasibility of this program. In addition, we also examined changes in cognitive function and quality of life (QOL) in these patients participating in the program. Methods: This prospective feasibility study was conducted in a 500-bed general hospital in Tokyo, Japan. The study population consisted of breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy as the initial therapy. This feasibility study used a convenience sample with estimation of recruitment rate in a single facility with the availability of trained nurses and physicians to ensure safe yoga intervention. The aim of the intervention program was to improve cognitive function by means of both physical and mental activation via yoga, consisting of physical practice, breathing exercises, and meditation. Information on the yoga program was provided as a booklet, with an instructor-guided group yoga class during the orientation, and a self-directed home yoga program on DVD with yoga logs. Results: The recruitment rate was 44.7%, and the study population consisted of 18 women with a mean age of 43.9 years. This study showed high rates of retention, adherence, and acceptability of the yoga program. Improvements were only observed in the cognitive aspects of fatigue, and there were serious adverse events during the program. Conclusion: The self-directed home yoga program discussed here was both feasible and safe for breast cancer patients showing cognitive symptoms during chemotherapy. The patients also rated the program as useful, interesting, and satisfactory. Participation in the program was associated with improvements in cognitive fatigue but not cognitive function.

Keywords: yoga, cognition, breast cancer, chemotherapy, quality of life

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
195 Efficacy and Safety of Inhaled Nebulized Chemotherapy in Treatment of Patients with Newly Diagnosed Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Comparison to Standard Antimycobacterial Therapy

Authors: M. Kuzhko, M. Gumeniuk, D. Butov, T. Tlustova, O. Denysov, T. Sprynsian


Abstract: The objective of this work was to study the efficacy and safety of inhaled nebulized chemotherapy in the treatment of patients with newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis in comparison with standard antimycobacterial therapy. Materials and methods: The study involved 68 patients aged between 20 and 70 years with newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis. Patients were allocated to two groups. The first (main, n=21) group of patients received standard chemotherapy and further 0.15 g of isoniazid and rifampicin 0.15 g inhaled through a nebulizer, also they received salmeterol 50 mcg + fluticasone propionate 250 mcg at 2 breaths twice a day for 2 months. The second (control, n=47) group of patients received standard chemotherapy, consisting of orally administered isoniazid (0.3 g), rifampicin (0.6 g), pyrazinamide (2 g), ethambutol (1.2 g) with a dose reduction after the intensive phase of the therapy. The anti-TB drugs were procured through the Ukraine’s centralized national supply system. Results: Intoxication symptoms in the first group reduced following 1.39±0.18 months, whereas in the second group, intoxication symptoms reduced following 2.7±0.1 months, p<.001. Moreover, respiratory symptoms regression in the first group was observed following 1.6±0.2 months, whereas in the second group – following 2.5±0.2 months, p<0.05. Bacillary excretion period evaluated within 1 month was reduced, as it was shown by 66.6±10.5% in the main group compared to 27.6±6.5%, p<0.05, in the control group. In addition, period of cavities healing was reduced to 2.9±0.2 months in the main group compared to 3.7±0.1 months, p<0.05, in the control group. Residual radiological lung damage findings (large residual changes) were observed in 22 (23.8±9.5 %) patients of the main group versus 24 (51.0±7.2 %) patients in the control group, p<0.05. After completion of treatment scar stenosis of the bronchi II-III art. diagnosed in 3 (14.2±7.8%) patients in main group and 17 (68.0±6.8%) - control group, p<0.05. The duration of hospital treatment was 2.4±0.4 months in main group and 4.1±0.4 months in control group, p<0.05. Conclusion: Administration of of inhaled nebulized chemotherapy in patients with newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis resulted in a comparatively quick reduction of disease manifestation.

Keywords: inhaled nebulized chemotherapy, pulmonary tuberculosis, tuberculosis, treatment of tuberculosis

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194 Oxidative Antioxidative Status and DNA Damage Profile Induced by Chemotherapy in Algerian Children with Lymphoma

Authors: Assia Galleze, Abdurrahim Kocyigit, Nacira Cherif, Nidel Benhalilou, Nabila Attal, Chafia Touil Boukkoffa, Rachida Raache


Introduction and aims: Chemotherapeutic agents used to inhibit cell division and reduce tumor growth, increase reactive oxygen species levels, which contributes to their genotoxicity [1]. The comet assay is an inexpensive and rapid method to detect the damage at cellular levels and has been used in various cancer populations undergoing chemotherapy [2,3]. The present study aim to assess the oxidative stress and the genotoxicity induced by chemotherapy by the determination of plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) level, protein carbonyl (PC) content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and lymphocyte DNA damage in Algerian children with lymphoma. Materials and Methods: For our study, we selected thirty children with lymphoma treated in university hospital of Beni Messous, Algeria, and fifty unrelated subjects as controls, after obtaining the informed consent in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki (1964). Plasma levels of MDA, PC and SOD activity were spectrophotometrically measured, while DNA damage was assessed by alkaline comet assay in peripheral blood leukocytes. Results and Discussion: Plasma MDA, PC levels and lymphocyte DNA damage, were found to be significantly higher in lymphoma patients than in controls (p < 0.001). Whereas, SOD activity in lymphoma patients was significantly lower than in healthy controls (p < 0.001). There were significant positive correlations between DNA damage, MDA and PC in patients (r = 0.96, p < 0.001, r = 0.97, p < 0.001, respectively), and negative correlation with SOD (r = 0.87, p < 0.01). Conclusion and Perspective: Our results indicated that, leukocytes DNA damage and oxidative stress were significantly higher in lymphoma patients, suggesting that the direct effect of chemotherapy and the alteration of the redox balance may influence oxidative/antioxidative status.

Keywords: chemotherapy, comet assay, DNA damage, lymphoma

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193 Challenges in the Management of Her2 Neu Positive Breast Cancer Patients: Real World Data from India

Authors: Praveen Adusumilli, Meher Lakshmi Konatam, Sadashivudu Gundeti, Stalin Bala


The invention of trastuzumab has changed the treatment of breast cancer and lives of many patients all over the world. Despite many patients getting benefitted from the drug, it is out of reach for most of the patients. There is very limited real world data regarding the epidemiology and clinical outcome of Her2neu positive breast cancer patients. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of breast cancer patients presenting to a tertiary care cancer centre in Southern India from 2007 to2013. All early and locally advanced breast cancer patients, who were Her2neu 3+ on IHC are included in the study and evaluated in terms of epidemiology, 3-year disease free survival (DFS)and 5-year overall survival(OS). Chemotherapy regimens used were-FAC 6 cycles or AC 4 cycles followed by 12 cycles of weekly paclitaxel . Trastuzumab was given after 6 cycles of FAC or weekly with paclitaxel followed by 3weekly maintenance until 1 year. Results: Over the period of this study there were 885 newly diagnosed cases of carcinoma breast, of which 242 (27%) were Her2neu positive, 360(40%) were hormone receptor positive, and 212(24%) were triple negative. A total of 71(8%) were Her2neu equivocal of which only 10 patients got FISH test done. Of the 212 newly diagnosed patients, only 74 (29%) opted to have standard of care therapy with trastuzumab at our centre, out of which 52(24%), 8(3%), received under insurance, paying basis respectively. 14(9%) patients received the care as part of clinical trial program (ALTTO trial). 7 (9.72%) patients developed decrease of ejection fraction by greater than 10%, requiring stoppage of trastuzumab out of which 5 were restarted in 2 months. Patients receiving trastuzumab along with chemotherapy had longer 3year DFS 92% vs. 60% (p value<0.0001) when compared to chemotherapy alone. 5 year OS was 87% vs 44% (p-value <0.0001) compared to chemotherapy alone. Conclusion: Trastuzumab with chemotherapy improves the DFS and OS in Her2neu positive patients. The biggest constraint is the cost of the treatment and absence of universal health security net to treat all patients with this diagnosis.

Keywords: breast cancer, Her 2 neu positive, real world data, Trastuzumab

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192 Nursing Experience for a Lung Cancer Patient Undergoing First Time Concurrent Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy

Authors: Hui Ling Chen


This article describes the experience of caring for a 68-year-old lung cancer patient undergoing the initial stage of concurrent chemotherapy and radiation therapy during the period of October 21 to November 16. In this study, the author collected data through observation, interviews, medical examination, and the use of Roy’s adaptation model as a guide for data collection and assessment. This study confirmed that chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting, and radiation therapy impaired skin integrity. At the same time, the patient experienced an anxious reaction to the initial cancer diagnosis and the insertion of subcutaneous infusion ports at the start of medical treatment. Similarly, the patient’s wife shares his anxiety, not to mention the feeling of inadequacy from the lack of training in cancer care. In response, the nursing intervention strategy has included keeping the patient and his family informed of his treatment progress, transfer of cancer care knowledge, and providing them with spiritual support. For example, the nursing staff has helped them draw up a mutually agreeable dietary plan that best suits the wife’s cooking skills, provided them with knowledge in pre- and post-radiation skin care, as well as means to cope with nausea and vomiting reactions. The nursing staff has also worked on building rapport with the patient and his spouse, providing them with encouragement, caring attention and companionship. After the patient was discharged from the hospital, the nursing staff followed up with caring phone calls to help the patient and his family make life-style adjustments to normalcy. The author hopes that his distinctive nursing experience can be useful as a reference for the clinical care of lung cancer patients undergoing the initial stage of concurrent chemotherapy and radiation therapy treatment.

Keywords: lung cancer, initiate diagnosis, concurrent chemotherapy and radiation therapy, nursing care

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191 An Overview of Paclitaxel as an Anti-Cancer Agent in Avoiding Malignant Metastatic Cancer Therapy

Authors: Nasrin Hosseinzad, Ramin Ghasemi Shayan


Chemotherapy is the most common procedure in the treatment of advanced cancers but is justsoberlyoperativeand toxic. Nevertheless, the efficiency of chemotherapy is restrictedowing to multiple drug resistance(MDR). Lately, plentiful preclinical experiments have revealedthatPaclitaxel-Curcumin could be an ultimateapproach to converse MDR and synergistically increase their efficiency. The connotationsamongst B-cell-lymphoma2(BCL-2) and multi-drug-resistance-associated-P-glycoprotein(MDR1) consequence of patients forecast the efficiency of paclitaxel-built chemoradiotherapy. There are evidences of the efficacy of paclitaxel in the treatment of surface-transmission of bladder-cell-carcinoma by manipulating bio-adhesive microspheres accomplishedthroughout measured release of drug at urine epithelium. In Genetically-Modified method, muco-adhesive oily constructionoftricaprylin, Tween 80, and paclitaxel group showed slighter toxicity than control in therapeutic dose. Postoperative chemotherapy-Paclitaxel might be more advantageous for survival than adjuvant chemo-radio-therapy, and coulddiminish postoperative complications in cervical cancer patients underwent a radical hysterectomy.HA-Se-PTX(Hyaluronic acid, Selenium, Paclitaxel) nanoparticles could observablyconstrain the proliferation, transmission, and invasion of metastatic cells and apoptosis. Furthermore, they exhibitedvast in vivo anti-tumor effect. Additionally, HA-Se-PTX displayedminor toxicity on mice-chef-organs. Briefly, HA-Se-PTX mightprogress into a respectednano-scale agentinrespiratory cancers. To sum up, Paclitaxel is considered a profitable anti-cancer drug in the treatment and anti-progress symptoms in malignant cancers.

Keywords: cancer, paclitaxel, chemotherapy, tumor

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190 Efficiency of Treatment in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Destructive Pulmonary Tuberculosis Using Intravenous Chemotherapy

Authors: M. Kuzhko, M. Gumeniuk, D. Butov, T. Tlustova, O. Denysov, T. Sprynsian


Background: The aim of the research was to determine the effectiveness of chemotherapy using intravenous antituberculosis drugs compared with their oral administration during the intensive phase of treatment. Methods: 152 tuberculosis patients were randomized into 2 groups: Main (n=65) who received isoniazid, ethambutol and sodium rifamycin intravenous + pyrazinamide per os and control (n=87) who received all the drugs (isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol, pyrazinamide) orally. Results: After 2 weeks of treatment symptoms of intoxication disappeared in 59 (90.7±3.59 %) of patients of the main group and 60 (68.9±4.9 %) patients in the control group, p<0.05. The mean duration of symptoms of intoxication in patients main group was 9.6±0.7 days, in control group – 13.7±0.9 days. After completing intensive phase sputum conversion was found in all the patients main group and 71 (81.6±4.1 %) patients control group p < 0.05. The average time of sputum conversion in main group was 1.6±0.1 months and 1.9±0.1 months in control group, p > 0.05. In patients with destructive pulmonary tuberculosis time to sputum conversion was 1.7±0.1 months in main group and 2.2±0.2 months in control group, p < 0.05. The average time of cavities healing in main group was 2.9±0.2 months and 3.9±0.2 months in the control group, p < 0.05. Conclusions: In patients with newly diagnosed destructive pulmonary tuberculosis use of isoniazid, ethambutol and sodium rifamycin intravenous in the intensive phase of chemotherapy resulted in a significant reduction in terms of the disappearance of symptoms of intoxication and sputum conversion.

Keywords: intravenous chemotherapy, tuberculosis, treatment efficiency, tuberculosis drugs

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189 Early Metastatic Cancer: A Review of Its Management and Outcomes

Authors: Diwei Lin, Amanda Jia Hui Tan


In 2012, testicular cancer was estimated to account for 940 disability adjusted life years in Australia; of these, 450 were years lost due to premature death and 500 were years of healthy life lost due to disease, disability or injury. Testicular choriocarcinoma is one of the rarest variants of testicular germ cell tumours, accounting for less than 1% of testicular germ cell tumours and only about 0.19% of all testicular tumours. Management involves radical orchiectomy followed by chemotherapy. Even then, the prognosis is extremely poor. This case report describes a 20-year-old male with pure testicular choriocarcinoma with pulmonary metastases.

Keywords: testicular cancer, choriocarcinoma, cryptorchidism, chemotherapy, metastatic testicular cancer

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188 Effect of Radiotherapy/Chemotherapy Protocol on the Gut Microbiome in Pediatric Cancer Patients

Authors: Nourhan G. Sahly, Ahmed Moustafa, Mohamed S. Zaghloul, Tamer Z. Salem


The gut microbiome plays important roles in the human body that includes but not limited to digestion, immunity, homeostasis and response to some drugs such as chemotherapy and immunotherapy. Its role has also been linked to radiotherapy and associated gastrointestinal injuries, where the microbial dysbiosis could be the driving force for dose determination or the complete suspension of the treatment protocol. Linking the gut microbiota alterations to different cancer treatment protocols is not easy especially in humans. However, enormous effort was exerted to understand this complex relationship. In the current study, we described the gut microbiota dysbiosis in pediatric sarcoma patients, in the pelvic region, with regards to radiotherapy and antibiotics. Fecal samples were collected as a source of microbial DNA for which the gene encoding for V3-V5 regions of 16S rRNA was sequenced. Two of the three patients understudy had experienced an increase in alpha diversity post exposure to 50.4 Gy. Although phylum Firmicutes overall relative abundance has generally decreased, six of its taxa increased in all patients. Our results may indicate the possibility of radiosensitivity or enrichment of the antibiotic resistance of the elevated taxa. Further studies are needed to describe the extent of radiosensitivity with regards to antibiotic resistance.

Keywords: combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy, gut microbiome, pediatric cancer, radiosensitivity

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187 Diagnosing and Treating Breast Cancer during Pregnancy: Neonatal Outcomes after Chemotherapy

Authors: Elyce Cardonick, Shistri Dhar, Linsdey Seidman


Background: When breast cancer is diagnosed during pregnancy, the prognosis is comparable to non-pregnant women matched for prognostic indicators when pregnant women receive treatment without delay. Chemotherapy, including taxanes, can be given during pregnancy with normal neonatal development in exposed fetuses. Methods: Cases of primary breast cancer were extracted from the Cancer and Pregnancy Registry and longitudinal study at Cooper Medical School, which collects cases of pregnant women diagnosed and treated for cancer into a single database. Obstetrical, oncology and pediatric records were reviewed, including annual neonatal developmental, behavioral and medical assessments. Results: 270 pregnant women were diagnosed with primary breast cancer at a mean gestational age of 14.7+9weeks. Mean maternal age at diagnosis 34.5+4.5 years. Receptor status is comparable to non-pregnant women of reproductive age. Forty-nine women were advised to terminate. Two hundred two women underwent surgery;244 women received chemotherapy in pregnancy after the first trimester; the majority of Doxorubucin/Cytoxan; 81 of the cases included a taxane. At a mean of 90 months, follow up obtained on 255 newborns.192/255 newborns are meeting developmental milestones. Respiratory illnesses, including asthma, and bronchiolitis, were reported in 64 newborns, the most common medical condition reported. Thirty-one children are undergoing treatment for GERD, 11 for urinary tract infections, and 7 are undergoing treatment for anemia. Twenty-six children with expressive or articulation language delays, 21/26 are mild. Eleven children with gross/ 7 with fine motor delays. Eight children are treated for ADHD, 4 for anxiety and 4 have social skill impairment. The majority of children with developmental, language or motor delays were born preterm. Conclusion: After chemotherapy exposure in utero for breast cancer, the majority of newborns are meeting developmental milestones and are medically healthy. The goal for treating pregnant women with breast cancer is to aim for delivery close to the term.

Keywords: breast cancer, pregnancy, chemotherapy, newborn

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186 Sexual Quality of Life in Women with Gynecological Cancer

Authors: Hatice Kahyaoglu Sut, Serap Unsar, Seda Kurt


The aim of this study is to investigate sexual quality of life in women with gynecological cancer. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 37 women with gynecological cancer and 39 control women (in menopausal term) at the Gynecooncology and Menopause Clinics of Trakya University Medical Faculty between January and July 2015. Women who had sexual active and willing to participate in the study filled an information form inquiring socio-demographic characteristics and Sexual Quality of Life Questionnaire-Female (SQLQ-F). Data were analyzed by Mann-Whitney-U test and Kruskal-Wallis test. The average age of the women was 52.7 ± 7.6 (51.2 ± 8.7 in women with gynecological cancer, 54.3 ± 6.0 in controls). The SQOL-F scores in women with gynecologic cancer (60.8 ± 22.4) was lower than controls (63.5 ± 20.7), however, there was no statistically significant difference (p = 0.759). Women with gynecological cancer who had vaginal dryness and pain during sexual intercourse (45.7 ± 21.3) were lower SQOL-F total score than control group (66.0 ± 21.7) (p = 0.014). The SQOL-F scores in women who took chemotherapy treatment (55.7 ± 17.8) were lower than in women who had not chemotherapy treatment (86.8 ± 16.6) (p = 0.005). In conclusion, taking chemotherapy treatment and occurring vaginal dryness and pain complaints during sexual intercourse in women with gynecological cancer reduces sexual quality of life. Therefore, sexual quality of life in women with gynecological cancer should be evaluated, and they should be supported in order to improve their sexual quality of life.

Keywords: gynecological cancer, quality of life, sexuality, women

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185 Comparative Study of Outcome of Patients with Wilms Tumor Treated with Upfront Chemotherapy and Upfront Surgery in Alexandria University Hospitals

Authors: Golson Mohamed, Yasmine Gamasy, Khaled EL-Khatib, Anas Al-Natour, Shady Fadel, Haytham Rashwan, Haytham Badawy, Nadia Farghaly


Introduction: Wilm's tumor is the most common malignant renal tumor in children. Much progress has been made in the management of patients with this malignancy over the last 3 decades. Today treatments are based on several trials and studies conducted by the International Society of Pediatric Oncology (SIOP) in Europe and National Wilm's Tumor Study Group (NWTS) in the USA. It is necessary for us to understand why do we follow either of the protocols, NWTS which follows the upfront surgery principle or the SIOP which follows the upfront chemotherapy principle in all stages of the disease. Objective: The aim of is to assess outcome in patients treated with preoperative chemotherapy and patients treated with upfront surgery to compare their effect on overall survival. Study design: to decide which protocol to follow, study was carried out on records for patients aged 1 day to 18 years old suffering from Wilm's tumor who were admitted to Alexandria University Hospital, pediatric oncology, pediatric urology and pediatric surgery departments, with a retrospective survey records from 2010 to 2015, Design and editing of the transfer sheet with a (PRISMA flow study) Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. Data were fed to the computer and analyzed using IBM SPSS software package version 20.0. (11) Qualitative data were described using number and percent. Quantitative data were described using Range (minimum and maximum), mean, standard deviation and median. Comparison between different groups regarding categorical variables was tested using Chi-square test. When more than 20% of the cells have expected count less than 5, correction for chi-square was conducted using Fisher’s Exact test or Monte Carlo correction. The distributions of quantitative variables were tested for normality using Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Shapiro-Wilk test, and D'Agstino test, if it reveals normal data distribution, parametric tests were applied. If the data were abnormally distributed, non-parametric tests were used. For normally distributed data, a comparison between two independent populations was done using independent t-test. For abnormally distributed data, comparison between two independent populations was done using Mann-Whitney test. Significance of the obtained results was judged at the 5% level. Results: A significantly statistical difference was observed for survival between the two studied groups favoring the upfront chemotherapy(86.4%)as compared to the upfront surgery group (59.3%) where P=0.009. As regard complication, 20 cases (74.1%) out of 27 were complicated in the group of patients treated with upfront surgery. Meanwhile, 30 cases (68.2%) out of 44 had complications in patients treated with upfront chemotherapy. Also, the incidence of intraoperative complication (rupture) was less in upfront chemotherapy group as compared to upfront surgery group. Conclusion: Upfront chemotherapy has superiority over upfront surgery.As the patient who started with upfront chemotherapy shown, higher survival rate, less percent in complication, less percent needed for radiotherapy, and less rate in recurrence.

Keywords: Wilm's tumor, renal tumor, chemotherapy, surgery

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184 Plasmablastic Lymphoma a New Entity in Patients with HIV Infections

Authors: Rojith K. Balakrishnan


Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is an uncommon, recently described B-cell derived lymphoma that is most commonly seen in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. Here we report a case of PBL in a 35 year old man with HIV who presented with multiple subcutaneous swellings all over the body and oral mucosal lesions.The biopsy report was suggestive of Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma. Immunohistochemistry was done which showed, lymphoma cells, positive for MUM1, CD 138, and VS 38. The proliferation index (MIB) was 95%. Final report was consistent with the diagnosis of Plasmablastic Lymphoma. The lesion completely regressed after treatment with systemic chemotherapy. Up to date, only a few cases of plasmablastic lymphoma have been reported from India. Increased frequency of this lymphoma in HIV patients and rarity of the tumour, along with rapid response of the same to chemotherapy, make this case a unique one. Hence the knowledge about this new entity is important for clinicians who deal with HIV patients.

Keywords: human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), oral cavity lesion, plasmablastic lymphoma, subcutaneous swelling

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183 Differences in Cognitive Functioning over the Course of Chemotherapy in Patients Suffering from Multiple Myeloma and the Possibility to Predict Their Cognitive State on the Basis of Biological Factors

Authors: Magdalena Bury-Kaminska, Aneta Szudy-Szczyrek, Aleksandra Nowaczynska, Olga Jankowska-Lecka, Marek Hus, Klaudia Kot


Introduction: The aim of the research was to determine the changes in cognitive functioning in patients with plasma cell myeloma by comparing patients’ state before the treatment and during chemotherapy as well as to determine the biological factors that can be used to predict patients’ cognitive state. Methods: The patients underwent the research procedure twice: before chemotherapy and after 4-6 treatment cycles. A psychological test and measurement of the following biological variables were carried out: TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor), IL-6 (interleukin 6), IL-10 (interleukin 10), BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor). The following research methods were implemented: the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Battery of Tests for Assessing Cognitive Functions PU1, experimental and clinical trials based on the Choynowski’s Memory Scale, Stroop Color-Word Interference Test (SCWT), depression measurement questionnaire. Results: The analysis of the research showed better cognitive functions of patients during chemotherapy in comparison to the phase before it. Moreover, neurotrophin BDNF allows to predict the level of selected cognitive functions (semantic fluency and execution control) already at the diagnosis stage. After 4-6 cycles, it is also possible to draw conclusions concerning the extent of working memory based on the level of BDNF. Cytokine TNF-α allows us to predict the level of letter fluency during anti-cancer treatment. Conclusions: It is possible to presume that BDNF has a protective influence on patients’ cognitive functions and working memory and that cytokine TNF-α co-occurs with a diminished execution control and better material grouping in terms of phonological fluency. Acknowledgment: This work was funded by the National Science Center in Poland [grant no. 2017/27/N/HS6/02057.

Keywords: chemobrain, cognitive impairment, non−central nervous system cancers, hematologic diseases

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182 Neo-Adjuvant B-CAT Chemotherapy in Triple Negative Breast Cancer

Authors: Muneeb Nasir, Misbah Masood, Farrukh Rashid, Abubabakar Shahid


Introduction: Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy is a potent option for triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) as these tumours lack a clearly defined therapeutic target. Several recent studies lend support that pathological complete remission (pCR) is associated with improved disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) and could be used as surrogate marker for DFS and OS in breast cancer patients. Methods: We have used a four-drug protocol in T3 and T4 TNBC patients either N+ or N- in the neo-adjuvant setting. The 15 patients enrolled in this study had a median age of 45 years. 12 patients went on to complete four planned cycles of B-CAT protocol. The chemotherapy regimen included inj. Bevacizumab 5mg/kg D1, inj. Adriamycin 50mg/m2 D1 and Docetaxel 65mg/m2 on D1. Inj. Cisplatin 60mg/m2 on D2. All patients received GCF support from D4 to D9 of each cycle. Results: Radiological assessment using ultrasound and PET-CT revealed a high percentage of responses. Radiological CR was documented in half of the patients (6/12) after four cycles. Remaining patients went on to receive 2 more cycles before undergoing radical surgery. pCR was documented in 7/12 patients and 3 more had a good partial response. The regimen was toxic and grade ¾ neutropenia was seen in 58% of patients. Four episodes of febrile neutropenia were reported and managed. Non-hematatological toxicities were common with mucositis, diarrhea, asthenia and neuropathy topping the list. Conclusion: B-CAT is a very active combination with very high pCR rates in TNBC. Toxicities though frequent, were manageable on outpatient basis. This protocol warrants further investigation.

Keywords: B-CAT:bevacizumab, cisplatin, adriamycin, taxotere, CR: complete response, pCR: pathological complete response, TNBC: triple negative breast cancer

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181 Pattern of Adverse Drug Reactions with Platinum Compounds in Cancer Chemotherapy at a Tertiary Care Hospital in South India

Authors: Meena Kumari, Ajitha Sharma, Mohan Babu Amberkar, Hasitha Manohar, Joseph Thomas, K. L. Bairy


Aim: To evaluate the pattern of occurrence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) with platinum compounds in cancer chemotherapy at a tertiary care hospital. Methods: It was a retrospective, descriptive case record study done on patients admitted to the medical oncology ward of Kasturba Hospital, Manipal from July to November 2012. Inclusion criteria comprised of patients of both sexes and all ages diagnosed with cancer and were on platinum compounds, who developed at least one adverse drug reaction during or after the treatment period. CDSCO proforma was used for reporting ADRs. Causality was assessed using Naranjo Algorithm. Results: A total of 65 patients was included in the study. Females comprised of 67.69% and rest males. Around 49.23% of the ADRs were seen in the age group of 41-60 years, followed by 20 % in 21-40 years, 18.46% in patients over 60 years and 12.31% in 1-20 years age group. The anticancer agents which caused adverse drug reactions in our study were carboplatin (41.54%), cisplatin (36.92%) and oxaliplatin (21.54%). Most common adverse drug reactions observed were oral candidiasis (21.53%), vomiting (16.92%), anaemia (12.3%), diarrhoea (12.3%) and febrile neutropenia (0.08%). The results of the causality assessment of most of the cases were probable. Conclusion: The adverse effect of chemotherapeutic agents is a matter of concern in the pharmacological management of cancer as it affects the quality of life of patients. This information would be useful in identifying and minimizing preventable adverse drug reactions while generally enhancing the knowledge of the prescribers to deal with these adverse drug reactions more efficiently.

Keywords: adverse drug reactions, platinum compounds, cancer, chemotherapy

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180 To Assess Variables Related to Self-Efficacy for Increasing Physical Activity in Advanced-Stage Cancer Patients

Authors: S. Nikpour, S. Vahidi, H. Haghani


Introduction: Exercise has mental and physical health benefits for patients with advanced stage cancer who actively receive chemotherapy, yet little is known about patients’ levels of interest in becoming more active or their confidence in increasing their activity level. Methods and materials: A convenience sample of 200 patients with advanced-stage cancer who were receiving chemotherapy completed self-report measures assessing physical activity level, mood, and quality-of-life variables. Qualitative data on patient-perceived benefits of, and barriers to, physical activity also were collected, coded by independent raters, and organized by predominant themes. Results: Current physical activity level, physical activity outcome expectations, and positive mood were significantly associated with self-efficacy. Fatigue was the most frequently listed barrier to physical activity; improved physical strength and health were the most commonly listed benefits. Participants identified benefits related to both general health and cancer-symptom management that were related to exercise. 59.5% of participants reported that they were seriously planning to increase or maintain their physical activity level, and over 40% reported having interest in receiving an intervention to become more active. Conclusion: These results suggested that many advanced-stage cancer patients who receive chemotherapy are interested in maintaining or increasing their physical activity level and in receiving professional support for exercise. In addition, these individuals identified general health and cancer-specific benefits of, and barriers to, physical activity. Future research will investigate how these findings may be incorporated into physical activity interventions for advanced-stage oncology patients receiving medical treatment.

Keywords: physical activity, cancer, self-efficacy

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179 Value of FOXP3 Expression in Prediction of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Effect in Triple Negative Breast Cancer

Authors: Badawia Ibrahim, Iman Hussein, Samar El Sheikh, Fatma Abou Elkasem, Hazem Abo Ismael


Background: Response of breast carcinoma to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) varies regarding many factors including hormonal receptor status. Breast cancer is a heterogenous disease with different outcomes, hence a need arises for new markers predicting the outcome of NAC especially for the triple negative group when estrogen, progesterone receptors and Her2/neu are negative. FOXP3 is a promising target with unclear role. Aim: To examine the value of FOXP3 expression in locally advanced triple negative breast cancer tumoral cells as well as tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and to elucidate its relation to the extent of NAC response. Material and Methods: Forty five cases of immunohistochemically confirmed to be triple negative breast carcinoma were evaluated for NAC (Doxorubicin, Cyclophosphamide AC x 4 cycles + Paclitaxel x 12 weeks, patients with ejection fraction less than 60% received Taxotere or Cyclophosphamide, Methotrexate, Fluorouracil CMF) response in both tumour and lymph nodes status according to Miller & Payne's and Sataloff's systems. FOXP3 expression in tumor as well as TILs evaluated in the pretherapy biopsies was correlated with NAC response in breast tumor and lymph nodes as well as other clinicopathological factors. Results: Breast tumour cells showed FOXP3 positive cytoplasmic expression in (42%) of cases. High FOXP3 expression percentage was detected in (47%) of cases. High infiltration by FOXP3+TILs was detected in (49%) of cases. Positive FOXP3 expression was associated with negative lymph node metastasis. High FOXP3 expression percentage and high infiltration by FOXP3+TILs were significantly associated with complete therapy response in axillary lymph nodes. High FOXP3 expression in tumour cells was associated with high infiltration by FOXP3+TILs. Conclusion: This result may provide evidence that FOXP3 marker is a good prognostic and predictive marker for triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) indicated for neoadjuvant chemotherapy and can be used for stratifications of TNBC cases indicated for NAC. As well, this study confirmed the fact that the tumour cells and the surrounding microenvironment interact with each other and the tumour microenvironment can influence the treatment outcomes of TNBC.

Keywords: breast cancer, FOXP3 expression, prediction of neoadjuvant chemotherapy effect, triple negative

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