Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Search results for: Doriane Micaela Andeme Bikoro

7 A Case Study on the Census of Technological Capacities in Health Care in Rural Sanitary Institutions in South Cameroon

Authors: Doriane Micaela Andeme Bikoro, Samuel Fosso Wamba, Jean Robert Kala Kamdjoug


Currently one of the leading fields in the market of technological innovation is digital health. In developed countries, this booming innovation is experiencing an exponential speed. We understand that in developed countries, e-health could also revolutionize the practice of medicine and therefore fill the many failures observed in medical care. Everything leads to believe that future technology is oriented towards the medical sector. The aim of this work is to explore at the same time the technological resources and the potential of health care based on new technologies; it is a case study in a rural area of Southern Cameroon. Among other things, we will make a census of the shortcomings and problems encountered, and we will propose various appropriate solutions. The work methodology used here is essentially qualitative. We used two qualitative data collection techniques, direct observation, and interviews. In fact, we spent two weeks in the field observing and conducting some semi-directive interviews with some of those responsible for these health structures. This study was conducted in three health facilities in the south of the country; including two health centers and a rural hospital. Many technological failures have been identified in the day-to-day management of these health facilities and especially in the administration of health care to patients. We note major problems such as the digital divide, the lack of qualified personnel, the state of isolation of this area. This is why various proposals are made to improve the health sector in Cameroon both technologically and medically.

Keywords: Cameroon, capacities, census, digital health, qualitative method, rural area

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6 IT System in the Food Supply Chain Safety, Application in SMEs Sector

Authors: Mohsen Shirani, Micaela Demichela


Food supply chain is one of the most complex supply chain networks due to its perishable nature and customer oriented products, and food safety is the major concern for this industry. IT system could help to minimize the production and consumption of unsafe food by controlling and monitoring the entire system. However, there have been many issues in adoption of IT system in this industry specifically within SMEs sector. With this regard, this study presents a novel approach to use IT and tractability systems in the food supply chain, using application of RFID and central database.

Keywords: food supply chain, IT system, safety, SME

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5 Integration of FMEA and Human Factor in the Food Chain Risk Assessment

Authors: Mohsen Shirani, Micaela Demichela


During the last decades, a number of food crises such as Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), Mad-Cow disease, Dioxin in chicken food, Food-and-Mouth Disease (FMD), have certainly inflicted the reliability of the food industry. Consequently, the trend in applying different scientific methods of risk assessment in food safety has obtained more attentions in the academic and practice. However, lack of practical approach considering entire food supply chain is tangible in the academic literature. In this regard, this paper aims to apply risk assessment tool (FMEA) with integration of Human Factor along the entire supply chain of food production and test the method in a case study of Diary production, and analyze its results.

Keywords: FMEA, food supply chain, risk assessment, human factor

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4 Scientometrics Analysis of Food Supply Chain Risk Assessment Literature: Based On Web of Science Record 1996-2014

Authors: Mohsen Shirani, Shadi Asadzandi, Micaela Demichela


This paper presents the results of a study to assess crucial aspects and the strength of the scientific basis of a typically interdisciplinary, applied field: food supply chain risk assessment research. Our approach is based on an advanced scientometrics analysis with novel elements to assess the influence and dissemination of research results and to measure interdisciplinary. This paper aims to describe the quantity and quality of the publication trends in food supply chain risk assessment. The population under study was composed of 266 articles from database web of science. The results were analyzed based on date of publication, type of document, language of the documents, source of publications, subject areas, authors and their affiliations, and the countries involved in developing the articles.

Keywords: food supply chain, risk assessment, scientometrics, web of science

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3 Control of Helminthosporiosis in Oryza sativa Varieties Treated with 24-Epibrassinolide

Authors: Kuate Tueguem William Norbert, Ngoh Dooh Jules Patrice, Kone Sangou Abdou Nourou, Mboussi Serge Bertrand, Chewachang Godwill Mih, Essome Sale Charles, Djuissi Tohoto Doriane, Ambang Zachee


The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of foliar application of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) on the development of rice helminthosporiosis caused by Bipolaris oryzae and its influence on the improvement of growth parameters and induction of the synthesis of defense substances in the rice plants. The experimental asset up involved a multifactorial split-plot with two varieties (NERICA 3 and local variety KAMKOU) and five treatments (T0: control, T1: EBR, T2: BANKO PLUS (fungicide), T3: NPK (chemical fertilizer), T4: mixture: NPK + BANKO PLUS + EBR) with three repetitions. Agro-morphological and epidemiological parameters, as well as substances for plant resistance, were evaluated over two growing seasons. The application of the EBR induced significant growth of the rice plants for the 2015 and 2016 growing seasons on the two varieties tested compared to the T0 treatment. At 74 days after sowing (DAS), NERICA 3 showed plant heights of 58.9 ± 5.4; 83.1 ± 10.4; 86.01 ± 9.4; 69.4 ± 11.1 and 87.12 ± 7.4 cm at T0; T1; T2; T3, and T4, respectively. Plant height for the variety KAMKOU varied from 87,12 ± 8,1; 88.1 ± 8.1 and 92.02 ± 6.3 cm in T1, T2, and T3 to 74.1 ± 8.6 and 74.21 ± 11.4 cm in T0 and T3. In accordance with the low rate of expansion of helminthosporiosis in experimental plots, EBR (T1) significantly reduced the development of the disease with severities of 0.0; 1.29, and 2.04%, respectively at 78; 92, and 111 DAS on the variety NERICA 3 compared with1; 3.15 and 3.79% in the control T0. The reduction of disease development/severity as a result of the application of EBR is due to the induction of acquired resistance of rice varieties through increased phenol (13.73 eqAG/mg/PMF) and total protein (117.89 eqBSA/mg/PMF) in the T1 treatment against 5.37 eqAG/mg/PMF and 104.97 eqBSA/mg/PMF in T0 for the NERICA 3 variety. Similarly, on the KAMKOU variety, 148.53 eqBSA/mg/PMF were protein and 6.10 eqAG/mg/PMF of phenol in T1. In summary, the results show the significant effect of EBR on plant growth, yield, synthesis of secondary metabolites and defense proteins, and disease resistance. The EBR significantly reduced losses of rice grains by causing an average gain of about 1.55 t/ha compared to the control and 1.00 t/ha compared to the NPK-based treatment for the two varieties studied. Further, the enzymatic activities of PPOs, POXs, and PR2s were higher in leaves from treated EBR-based plants. These results show that 24-epibrassinolide can be used in the control of helminthosporiosis of rice to reduce disease and increase yields.

Keywords: Oryza sativa, 24-epibrassinolide, helminthosporiosis, secondary metabolites, PR proteins, acquired resistance

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2 Inter-Generational Benefits of Improving Access to Justice for Women: Evidence from Peru

Authors: Iva Trako, Maris Micaela Sviatschi, Guadalupe Kavanaugh


Domestic violence is a major concern in developing countries, with important social, economic and health consequences. However, institutions do not usually address the problems facing women or ethnic and religious minorities. For example, the police do very little to stop domestic violence in rural areas of developing countries. This paper exploits the introduction of women’s justice centers (WJCs) in Peru to provide causal estimates on the effects of improving access to justice for women and children. These centers offer a new integrated public service model for women by including medical, psychological and legal support in cases of violence against women. Our empirical approach uses a difference in difference estimation exploiting variation over time and space in the opening of WJC together with province-by-year fixed effects. Exploiting administrative data from health providers and district attorney offices, we find that after the opening of these centers, there are important improvements on women's welfare: a large reduction in femicides and female hospitalizations for assault. Moreover, using geo-coded household surveys we find evidence that the existence of these services reduces domestic violence, improves women's health, increases women's threat points and, therefore, lead to household decisions that are more aligned with their interests. Using administrative data on the universe of schools, we find large gains on human capital for their children: affected children are more likely to enroll, attend school and have better grades in national exams, instead of working for the family. In sum, the evidence in this paper shows that providing access to justice for women can be a powerful tool to reduce domestic violence and increase education of children, suggesting a positive inter-generational benefit.

Keywords: access to justice, domestic violence, education, household bargaining

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1 Interference of Polymers Addition in Wastewaters Microbial Survey: Case Study of Viral Retention in Sludges

Authors: Doriane Delafosse, Dominique Fontvieille


Background: Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) generally display significant efficacy in virus retention yet, are sometimes highly variable, partly in relation to large fluctuating loads at the head of the plant and partly because of episodic dysfunctions in some treatment processes. The problem is especially sensitive when human enteric viruses, such as human Noroviruses Genogroup I or Adenoviruses, are in concern: their release downstream WWTP, in environments often interconnected to recreational areas, may be very harmful to human communities even at low concentrations. It points out the importance of WWTP permanent monitoring from which their internal treatment processes could be adjusted. One way to adjust primary treatments is to add coagulants and flocculants to sewage ahead settling tanks to improve decantation. In this work, sludge produced by three coagulants (two organics, one mineral), four flocculants (three cationic, one anionic), and their combinations were studied for their efficacy in human enteric virus retention. Sewage samples were coming from a WWTP in the vicinity of the laboratory. All experiments were performed three times and in triplicates in laboratory pilots, using Murine Norovirus (MNV-1), a surrogate of human Norovirus, as an internal control (spiking). Viruses were quantified by (RT-)qPCR after nucleic acid extraction from both treated water and sediment. Results: Low values of sludge virus retention (from 4 to 8% of the initial sewage concentration) were observed with each cationic organic flocculant added to wastewater and no coagulant. The largest part of the virus load was detected in the treated water (48 to 90%). However, it was not counterbalancing the amount of the introduced virus (MNV-1). The results pertained to two types of cationic flocculants, branched and linear, and in the last case, to two percentages of cations. Results were quite similar to the association of a linear cationic organic coagulant and an anionic flocculant, though suggesting that differences between water and sludges would sometimes be related to virus size or virus origins (autochthonous/allochthonous). FeCl₃, as a mineral coagulant associated with an anionic flocculant, significantly increased both auto- and allochthonous virus retention in the sediments (15 to 34%). Accordingly, virus load in treated water was lower (14 to 48%) but with a total that still does not reach the amount of the introduced virus (MNV-1). It also appeared that the virus retrieval in a bare 0.1M NaCl suspension varied rather strongly according to the FeCl₃ concentration, suggesting an inhibiting effect on the molecular analysis used to detect the virus. Finally, no viruses were detected in both phases (sediment and water) with the combination branched cationic coagulant-linear anionic flocculant, which was later demonstrated as an effect, here also, of polymers on the virus detection-molecular analysis. Conclusions: The combination of FeCl₃-anionic flocculant gave its highest performance to the decantation-based virus removal process. However, large unbalanced values in spiking experiments were observed, suggesting that polymers cast additional obstacles to both elution buffer and lysis buffer on their way to reach the virus. The situation was probably even worse with autochthonous viruses already embedded into sewage's particulate matter. Polymers and FeCl₃ also appeared to interfere in some steps of molecular analyses. More attention should be paid to such impediments wherever chemical additives are considered to be used to enhance WWTP processes. Acknowledgments: This research was supported by the ABIOLAB laboratory (Montbonnot Saint-Martin, France) and by the ASPOSAN association. Field experiments were possible thanks to the Grand Chambéry WWTP authorities (Chambéry, France).

Keywords: flocculants-coagulants, polymers, enteric viruses, wastewater sedimentation treatment plant

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