Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 76

Search results for: Andreas Kain

76 Effects of Convective Momentum Transport on the Cyclones Intensity: A Case Study

Authors: José Davi Oliveira De Moura, Chou Sin Chan

Abstract:

In this study, the effect of convective momentum transport (CMT) on the life of cyclone systems and their organization is analyzed. A case of strong precipitation, in the southeast of Brazil, was simulated using Eta model with two kinds of convective parameterization: Kain-Fritsch without CMT and Kain-fritsch with CMT. Reanalysis data from CFSR were used to compare Eta model simulations. The Wind, mean sea level pressure, rain and temperature are included in analysis. The rain was evaluated by Equitable Threat Score (ETS) and Bias Index; the simulations were compared among themselves to detect the influence of CMT displacement on the systems. The result shows that CMT process decreases the intensity of meso cyclones (higher pressure values on nuclei) and change the positions and production of rain. The decrease of intensity in meso cyclones should be caused by the dissolution of momentum from lower levels from up levels. The rain production and rain distribution were altered because the displacement of the larger systems scales was changed. In addition, the inclusion of CMT process is very important to improve the simulation of life time of meteorological systems.

Keywords: convection, Kain-Fritsch, momentum, parameterization

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
75 Spatial Variation of WRF Model Rainfall Prediction over Uganda

Authors: Isaac Mugume, Charles Basalirwa, Daniel Waiswa, Triphonia Ngailo

Abstract:

Rainfall is a major climatic parameter affecting many sectors such as health, agriculture and water resources. Its quantitative prediction remains a challenge to weather forecasters although numerical weather prediction models are increasingly being used for rainfall prediction. The performance of six convective parameterization schemes, namely the Kain-Fritsch scheme, the Betts-Miller-Janjic scheme, the Grell-Deveny scheme, the Grell-3D scheme, the Grell-Fretas scheme, the New Tiedke scheme of the weather research and forecast (WRF) model regarding quantitative rainfall prediction over Uganda is investigated using the root mean square error for the March-May (MAM) 2013 season. The MAM 2013 seasonal rainfall amount ranged from 200 mm to 900 mm over Uganda with northern region receiving comparatively lower rainfall amount (200–500 mm); western Uganda (270–550 mm); eastern Uganda (400–900 mm) and the lake Victoria basin (400–650 mm). A spatial variation in simulated rainfall amount by different convective parameterization schemes was noted with the Kain-Fritsch scheme over estimating the rainfall amount over northern Uganda (300–750 mm) but also presented comparable rainfall amounts over the eastern Uganda (400–900 mm). The Betts-Miller-Janjic, the Grell-Deveny, and the Grell-3D underestimated the rainfall amount over most parts of the country especially the eastern region (300–600 mm). The Grell-Fretas captured rainfall amount over the northern region (250–450 mm) but also underestimated rainfall over the lake Victoria Basin (150–300 mm) while the New Tiedke generally underestimated rainfall amount over many areas of Uganda. For deterministic rainfall prediction, the Grell-Fretas is recommended for rainfall prediction over northern Uganda while the Kain-Fritsch scheme is recommended over eastern region.

Keywords: convective parameterization schemes, March-May 2013 rainfall season, spatial variation of parameterization schemes over Uganda, WRF model

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
74 A Metric to Evaluate Conventional and Electrified Vehicles in Terms of Customer-Oriented Driving Dynamics

Authors: Stephan Schiffer, Andreas Kain, Philipp Wilde, Maximilian Helbing, Bernard Bäker

Abstract:

Automobile manufacturers progressively focus on a downsizing strategy to meet the EU's CO2 requirements concerning type-approval consumption cycles. The reduction in naturally aspirated engine power is compensated by increased levels of turbocharging. By downsizing conventional engines, CO2 emissions are reduced. However, it also implicates major challenges regarding longitudinal dynamic characteristics. An example of this circumstance is the delayed turbocharger-induced torque reaction which leads to a partially poor response behavior of the vehicle during acceleration operations. That is why it is important to focus conventional drive train design on real customer driving again. The currently considered dynamic maneuvers like the acceleration time 0-100 km/h discussed by journals and car manufacturers describe longitudinal dynamics experienced by a driver inadequately. For that reason we present the realization and evaluation of a comprehensive proband study. Subjects are provided with different vehicle concepts (electrified vehicles, vehicles with naturally aspired engines and vehicles with different concepts of turbochargers etc.) in order to find out which dynamic criteria are decisive for a subjectively strong acceleration and response behavior of a vehicle. Subsequently, realistic acceleration criteria are derived. By weighing the criteria an evaluation metric is developed to objectify customer-oriented transient dynamics. Fully-electrified vehicles are the benchmark in terms of customer-oriented longitudinal dynamics. The electric machine provides the desired torque almost without delay. This advantage compared to combustion engines is especially noticeable at low engine speeds. In conclusion, we will show the degree to which extent customer-relevant longitudinal dynamics of conventional vehicles can be approximated to electrified vehicle concepts. Therefore, various technical measures (turbocharger concepts, 48V electrical chargers etc.) and drive train designs (e.g. varying the final drive) are presented and evaluated in order to strengthen the vehicle’s customer-relevant transient dynamics. As a rating size the newly developed evaluation metric will be used.

Keywords: 48V, customer-oriented driving dynamics, electric charger, electrified vehicles, vehicle concepts

Procedia PDF Downloads 294
73 Multiple Pen and Touch Interaction on Interactive LCDs

Authors: Andreas Kunz, Ali Alavi

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a simple active stylus for interactive IR-based tabletop systems. Such tables offer a set of tags for realizing tangible user interfaces, which can only be applied to objects having a relatively big contacting area with the interactive surface. The stylus has a unique address and thus can be clearly distinguished from other styli, objects or finger touches that might simultaneously occur on the interactive surface.

Keywords: interactive screens, pen, tangibles, user interfaces

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
72 Effects of Small Impoundments on Leaf Litter Decomposition and Methane Derived Carbon in the Benthic Foodweb in Streams

Authors: John Gichimu Mbaka, Jan Helmrich Martin von Baumbach, Celia Somlai, Denis Köpfer, Andreas Maeck, Andreas Lorke, Ralf Schäfer

Abstract:

Leaf litter decomposition is an important process providing energy to biotic communities. Additionally, methane gas (CH4) has been identified as an important alternative source of carbon and energy in some freshwater food webs.Flow regulation and dams can strongly alter freshwater ecosystems, but little is known about the effect of small impoundments on leaf litter decomposition and methane derived carbon in streams. In this study, we tested the effect of small water storage impoundments on leaf litter decomposition rates and methane derived carbon. Leaf litter decomposition rates were assessed by comparing treatment sites located close to nine impoundments (Rheinland Pfalz state, Germany) and reference sites located far away from the impoundments.CH4 concentrations were measured in eleven impoundments and correlated with the δ13C values of two subfamilies of chironomid larvae (i.e. Chironomini and Tanypodinae). Leaf litter break down rates were significantly lower in study sites located immediately above the impoundments, especially associated with a reduction in the abundance of shredders. Chironomini larvae had the lower mean δ13C values (‒29.2 to ‒25.5 ‰), than Tanypodinae larvae (‒26.9 to ‒25.3 ‰).No significant relationships were established between CH4 concentrations and δ13C values of chironomids (p> 0.05).Mean δ13C values of chironomid larvae (mean: ‒26.8‰, range: ‒ 29.2‰ to ‒ 25.3‰) were similar to those of sedimentary organic matter (SOM) (mean: ‒28.4‰, range: ‒ 29.3‰ to ‒ 27.1‰) and tree leaf litter (mean: ‒29.8 ‰, range: ‒ 30.5‰ to ‒ 29.1‰). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that small impoundments may have a negative effect on leaf litter decomposition in forest streams and that CH4 has limited influence on the benthic food web in stream impoundments.

Keywords: river functioning, chironomids, Alder tree, stable isotopes, methane oxidation, shredder

Procedia PDF Downloads 627
71 Insights into the Annotated Genome Sequence of Defluviitoga tunisiensis L3 Isolated from a Thermophilic Rural Biogas Producing Plant

Authors: Irena Maus, Katharina Gabriella Cibis, Andreas Bremges, Yvonne Stolze, Geizecler Tomazetto, Daniel Wibberg, Helmut König, Alfred Pühler, Andreas Schlüter

Abstract:

Within the agricultural sector, the production of biogas from organic substrates represents an economically attractive technology to generate bioenergy. Complex consortia of microorganisms are responsible for biomass decomposition and biogas production. Recently, species belonging to the phylum Thermotogae were detected in thermophilic biogas-production plants utilizing renewable primary products for biomethanation. To analyze adaptive genome features of representative Thermotogae strains, Defluviitoga tunisiensis L3 was isolated from a rural thermophilic biogas plant (54°C) and completely sequenced on an Illumina MiSeq system. Sequencing and assembly of the D. tunisiensis L3 genome yielded a circular chromosome with a size of 2,053,097 bp and a mean GC content of 31.38%. Functional annotation of the complete genome sequence revealed that the thermophilic strain L3 encodes several genes predicted to facilitate growth of this microorganism on arabinose, galactose, maltose, mannose, fructose, raffinose, ribose, cellobiose, lactose, xylose, xylan, lactate and mannitol. Acetate, hydrogen (H2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) are supposed to be end products of the fermentation process. The latter gene products are metabolites for methanogenic archaea, the key players in the final step of the anaerobic digestion process. To determine the degree of relatedness of dominant biogas community members within selected digester systems to D. tunisiensis L3, metagenome sequences from corresponding communities were mapped on the L3 genome. These fragment recruitments revealed that metagenome reads originating from a thermophilic biogas plant covered 95% of D. tunisiensis L3 genome sequence. In conclusion, availability of the D. tunisiensis L3 genome sequence and insights into its metabolic capabilities provide the basis for biotechnological exploitation of genome features involved in thermophilic fermentation processes utilizing renewable primary products.

Keywords: genome sequence, thermophilic biogas plant, Thermotogae, Defluviitoga tunisiensis

Procedia PDF Downloads 361
70 Building a Hierarchical, Granular Knowledge Cube

Authors: Alexander Denzler, Marcel Wehrle, Andreas Meier

Abstract:

A knowledge base stores facts and rules about the world that applications can use for the purpose of reasoning. By applying the concept of granular computing to a knowledge base, several advantages emerge. These can be harnessed by applications to improve their capabilities and performance. In this paper, the concept behind such a construct, called a granular knowledge cube, is defined, and its intended use as an instrument that manages to cope with different data types and detect knowledge domains is elaborated. Furthermore, the underlying architecture, consisting of the three layers of the storing, representing, and structuring of knowledge, is described. Finally, benefits as well as challenges of deploying it are listed alongside application types that could profit from having such an enhanced knowledge base.

Keywords: granular computing, granular knowledge, hierarchical structuring, knowledge bases

Procedia PDF Downloads 361
69 Simulation of Obstacle Avoidance for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles in a Dynamic Environment Using Q-Learning

Authors: Andreas D. Jansson

Abstract:

The availability of inexpensive, yet competent hardware allows for increased level of automation and self-optimization in the context of Industry 4.0. However, such agents require high quality information about their surroundings along with a robust strategy for collision avoidance, as they may cause expensive damage to equipment or other agents otherwise. Manually defining a strategy to cover all possibilities is both time-consuming and counter-productive given the capabilities of modern hardware. This paper explores the idea of a model-free self-optimizing obstacle avoidance strategy for multiple autonomous agents in a simulated dynamic environment using the Q-learning algorithm.

Keywords: autonomous vehicles, industry 4.0, multi-agent system, obstacle avoidance, Q-learning, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
68 The Impact of a Living Wage on the UK Hotel Sector

Authors: Andreas Walmsley, Shobana Partington, Rebecca Armstrong, Harold Goodwin

Abstract:

In the UK, more than 1 in 5 workers earn less than a living wage. The hospitality sector is particularly affected where it has been claimed two thirds of workers earn less than the living wage. The UK Government is set to introduce (April 2016) a national living wage (NLW) which is therefore likely to have a significant impact on the hospitality sector. To date limited data exists that focus on how hotels are tackling the issue, what stakeholder perceptions are towards the change in legislation, and how the NLW may affect working patterns in the sector. This study draws on interviews with a range of key stakeholders such as hotel HR and general managers as well as industry representatives to explore these issues within the broader context of responsible tourism. Data collection is still ongoing and is scheduled to be completed by the end of June 2016.

Keywords: hospitality, living wage, responsible tourism, tourism employment

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
67 Entrepreneurial Passion: A Literature Review and Framework

Authors: Erica Engel, Andreas Bausch

Abstract:

The construct of passion, which for decades has spurred people to rise above themselves and achieve top performance, has become an increasingly important realm in entrepreneurial literature. In particular, the development process, which represents a great interplay of personality traits and cognitive processes, and the influence of passion in entrepreneurial processes, is receiving more and more scholarly intention. A wide range of different research foci exploring the creation and influence of passion within entrepreneurial processes has yielded a variety of scientific findings. By providing an integrative framework, this study aims to review the different research results systematically, to contribute not only to the understanding of entrepreneurial passion but also to the theoretical body of knowledge in entrepreneurial research. In addition, the authors identify personal-related and work-related boundary conditions, which influence both the occurrence of entrepreneurial passion and its impact.

Keywords: entrepreneur, entrepreneurial passion, framework of entrepreneurial passion, passion, passion in an entrepreneurial context

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
66 Size-Reduction Strategies for Iris Codes

Authors: Jutta Hämmerle-Uhl, Georg Penn, Gerhard Pötzelsberger, Andreas Uhl

Abstract:

Iris codes contain bits with different entropy. This work investigates different strategies to reduce the size of iris code templates with the aim of reducing storage requirements and computational demand in the matching process. Besides simple sub-sampling schemes, also a binary multi-resolution representation as used in the JBIG hierarchical coding mode is assessed. We find that iris code template size can be reduced significantly while maintaining recognition accuracy. Besides, we propose a two stage identification approach, using small-sized iris code templates in a pre-selection satge, and full resolution templates for final identification, which shows promising recognition behaviour.

Keywords: iris recognition, compact iris code, fast matching, best bits, pre-selection identification, two-stage identification

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
65 The Associations between Ankle and Brachial Systolic Blood Pressures with Obesity Parameters

Authors: Matei Tudor Berceanu, Hema Viswambharan, Kirti Kain, Chew Weng Cheng

Abstract:

Background - Obesity parameters, particularly visceral obesity as measured by the waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), correlate with insulin resistance. The metabolic microvascular changes associated with insulin resistance causes increased peripheral arteriolar resistance primarily to the lower limb vessels. We hypothesize that ankle systolic blood pressures (SBPs) are more significantly associated with visceral obesity than brachial SBPs. Methods - 1098 adults enriched in south Asians or Europeans with diabetes (T2DM) were recruited from a primary care practice in West Yorkshire. Their medical histories, including T2DM and cardiovascular disease (CVD) status, were gathered from an electronic database. The brachial, dorsalis pedis, and posterior tibial SBPs were measured using a Doppler machine. Their body mass index (BMI) and WHtR were calculated after measuring their weight, height, and waist circumference. Linear regressions were performed between the 6 SBPs and both obesity parameters, after adjusting for covariates. Results - Generally, the left posterior tibial SBP (P=4.559*10⁻¹⁵) and right posterior tibial SBP (P=1.114* 10⁻¹³ ) are the pressures most significantly associated with the BMI, as well as in south Asians (P < 0.001) and Europeans (P < 0.001) specifically. In South Asians, although the left (P=0.032) and right brachial SBP (P=0.045) were associated to the WHtR, the left posterior tibial SBP (P=0.023) showed the strongest association. Conclusion - Regardless of ethnicity, ankle SBPs are more significantly associated with generalized obesity than brachial SBPs, suggesting their screening potential for screening for early detection of T2DM and CVD. A combination of ankle SBPs with WHtR is proposed in south Asians.

Keywords: ankle blood pressures, body mass index, insulin resistance, waist-to-height-ratio

Procedia PDF Downloads 28
64 Transformable Lightweight Structures for Short-term Stay

Authors: Anna Daskalaki, Andreas Ashikalis

Abstract:

This is a conceptual project that suggests an alternative type of summer camp in the forest of Rouvas in the island of Crete. Taking into account some feasts that are organised by the locals or mountaineering clubs near the church of St. John, we created a network of lightweight timber structures that serve the needs of the visitor. These structures are transformable and satisfy the need for rest, food, and sleep – this means a seat, a table and a tent are embodied in each structure. These structures blend in with the environment as they are being installed according to the following parameters: (a) the local relief, (b) the clusters of trees, and (c) the existing paths. Each timber structure could be considered as a module that could be totally independent or part of a bigger construction. The design showcases the advantages of a timber structure as it can be quite adaptive to the needs of the project, but also it is a sustainable and environmentally friendly material that can be recycled. Finally, it is important to note that the basic goal of this project is the minimum alteration of the natural environment.

Keywords: lightweight structures, timber, transformable, tent

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
63 The Criteria of the Aesthetic Quality of Art: Contemporary Photography

Authors: Artem Surkov

Abstract:

This work is devoted to a problem of aesthetic quality determinism in the context of contemporary art. The object of study is photography regarding as a kind of art which demands specific system of quality marking. Objective: To define aesthetic criteria in photography art. For current searching different kind of texts by such powerful authors like Clement Greenberg and Rosalind Krauss, Theodor Adorno and Herbert Marcuse, Charlott Cotton and Boris Groys, Viktor Miziano and Ekaterina Degot' were analyzed. Before all, there are two different kinds of photography: the classic art photography (by Ansel Adams) and the photography as kind of art (by Andreas Gursky). In this text we are talking about the photography as kind of art. The main principle of current searching is synthesis of two different approaches: modernism and postmodernism. This method helps us to define uniform criteria of aesthetic quality in photography as kind of art. The criteria mentioned in conclusion paragraph are: aesthetic rationality, aesthetic economy, awareness (using photographic technics or references), and intention to go beyond form, practice and method.

Keywords: aesthetic, art, criteria of quality, photography, visually

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
62 Electrolysis Ship for Green Hydrogen Production and Possible Applications

Authors: Julian David Hunt, Andreas Nascimento

Abstract:

Green hydrogen is the most environmental, renewable alternative to produce hydrogen. However, an important challenge to make hydrogen a competitive energy carrier is a constant supply of renewable energy, such as solar, wind and hydropower. Given that the electricity generation potential of these sources vary seasonally and interannually, this paper proposes installing an electrolysis hydrogen production plant in a ship and move the ship to the locations where electricity is cheap, or where the seasonal potential for renewable generation is high. An example of electrolysis ship application is to produce green hydrogen with hydropower from the North region of Brazil and then sail to the Northeast region of Brazil and generate hydrogen using excess electricity from offshore wind power. The electrolysis ship concept is interesting because it has the flexibility to produce green hydrogen using the cheapest renewable electricity available in the market.

Keywords: green hydrogen, electrolysis ship, renewable energies, seasonal variations

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
61 Managing the Cloud Procurement Process: Findings from a Case Study

Authors: Andreas Jede, Frank Teuteberg

Abstract:

Cloud computing (CC) has already gained overall appreciation in research and practice. Whereas the willingness to integrate cloud services in various IT environments is still unbroken, the previous CC procurement processes run mostly in an unorganized and non-standardized way. In practice, a sufficiently specific, yet applicable business process for the important acquisition phase is often lacking. And research does not appropriately remedy this deficiency yet. Therefore, this paper introduces a field-tested approach for CC procurement. Based on an extensive literature review and augmented by expert interviews, we designed a model that is validated and further refined through an in-depth real-life case study. For the detailed process description, we apply the event-driven process chain notation (EPC). The gained valuable insights into the case study may help CC research to shift to a more socio-technical area. For practice, next to giving useful organizational instructions we will provide extended checklists and lessons learned.

Keywords: cloud procurement process, IT-organization, event-driven process chain, in-depth case study

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
60 Video-Observation: A Phenomenological Research Tool for International Relation?

Authors: Andreas Aagaard Nohr

Abstract:

International Relations is an academic discipline which is rarely in direct contact with its field. However, there has in recent years been a growing interest in the different agents within and beyond the state and their associated practices; yet some of the research tools with which to study them are not widely used. This paper introduces video-observation as a method for the study of IR and argues that it offers a unique way of studying the complexity of the everyday context of actors. The paper is divided into two main parts: First, the philosophical and methodological underpinnings of the kind of data that video-observation produces are discussed; primarily through a discussion of the phenomenology of Husserl, Heidegger, and Merleau-Ponty. Second, taking simulation of a WTO negotiation round as an example, the paper discusses how the data created can be analysed: in particular with regard to the structure of events, the temporal and spatial organization of activities, rhythm and periodicity, and the concrete role of artefacts and documents. The paper concludes with a discussion of the ontological, epistemological, and practical challenges and limitations that ought to be considered if video-observation is chosen as a method within the field of IR.

Keywords: video-observation, phenomenology, international relations

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
59 Ni-W-P Alloy Coating as an Alternate to Electroplated Hard Cr Coating

Authors: S. K. Ghosh, C. Srivastava, P. K. Limaye, V. Kain

Abstract:

Electroplated hard chromium is widely known in coatings and surface finishing, automobile and aerospace industries because of its excellent hardness, wear resistance and corrosion properties. However, its precursor, Cr+6 is highly carcinogenic in nature and a consensus has been adopted internationally to eradicate this coating technology with an alternative one. The search for alternate coatings to electroplated hard chrome is continuing worldwide. Various alloys and nanocomposites like Co-W alloys, Ni-Graphene, Ni-diamond nanocomposites etc. have already shown promising results in this regard. Basically, in this study, electroless Ni-P alloys with excellent corrosion resistance was taken as the base matrix and incorporation of tungsten as third alloying element was considered to improve the hardness and wear resistance of the resultant alloy coating. The present work is focused on the preparation of Ni–W–P coatings by electrodeposition with different content of phosphorous and its effect on the electrochemical, mechanical and tribological performances. The results were also compared with Ni-W alloys. Composition analysis by EDS showed deposition of Ni-32.85 wt% W-3.84 wt% P (designated as Ni-W-LP) and Ni-18.55 wt% W-8.73 wt% P (designated as Ni-W-HP) alloy coatings from electrolytes containing of 0.006 and 0.01M sodium hypophosphite respectively. Inhibition of tungsten deposition in the presence of phosphorous was noted. SEM investigation showed cauliflower like growth along with few microcracks. The as-deposited Ni-W-P alloy coating was amorphous in nature as confirmed by XRD investigation and step-wise crystallization was noticed upon annealing at higher temperatures. For all the coatings, the nanohardness was found to increase after heat-treatment and typical nanonahardness values obtained for 400°C annealed samples were 18.65±0.20 GPa, 20.03±0.25 GPa, and 19.17±0.25 for alloy coatings Ni-W, Ni-W-LP and Ni-W-HP respectively. Therefore, the nanohardness data show very promising results. Wear and coefficient of friction data were recorded by applying a different normal load in reciprocating motion using a ball on plate geometry. Post experiment, the wear mechanism was established by detail investigation of wear-scar morphology. Potentiodynamic measurements showed coating with a high content of phosphorous was most corrosion resistant in 3.5wt% NaCl solution.

Keywords: corrosion, electrodeposition, nanohardness, Ni-W-P alloy coating

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
58 Financial Investment of a Wine Cavein Greece

Authors: Stamataki Erofili Nellie, Benardos Andreas

Abstract:

Winemaking and aging in Greece has been performed so far in special facilities, designed either as above ground or shallow underground buildings. The latter are well-known in Santorini as “canaves,” dating back to the 1700s. Canaves were mainly used for wine storage and aging, although occasionally, they included a winepress to complete there the whole wine production. On the other hand, wine caves are subterranean caves of the same use as canaves in the wine manufacturing industry, but they are excavated at a much greater depth of more than 53 meters or 175 feet. Whereas canaves or a typical wine cellar is around 10 feet deep, with is equivalent to almost 3 meters. This paper discusses the advantages and the disadvantages of creating a wine cave for the vinification of a winery in Greece and the financial investment or risk that has to be taken. The data presented and analysed are given from wineries in Greece and especially from those located in Santorini island. The estimation of the cost for the excavation of the model selected as a wine cave will be compared with the financial budget of the existing premises and facilities above ground in Greek wineries. In order to show whether it is viable for a greek winery to invest in a wine cave.

Keywords: underground space use, subterranean winery, wine cave, underground winery, greece

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
57 An Optimized Method for 3D Magnetic Navigation of Nanoparticles inside Human Arteries

Authors: Evangelos G. Karvelas, Christos Liosis, Andreas Theodorakakos, Theodoros E. Karakasidis

Abstract:

In the present work, a numerical method for the estimation of the appropriate gradient magnetic fields for optimum driving of the particles into the desired area inside the human body is presented. The proposed method combines Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), Discrete Element Method (DEM) and Covariance Matrix Adaptation (CMA) evolution strategy for the magnetic navigation of nanoparticles. It is based on an iteration procedure that intents to eliminate the deviation of the nanoparticles from a desired path. Hence, the gradient magnetic field is constantly adjusted in a suitable way so that the particles’ follow as close as possible to a desired trajectory. Using the proposed method, it is obvious that the diameter of particles is crucial parameter for an efficient navigation. In addition, increase of particles' diameter decreases their deviation from the desired path. Moreover, the navigation method can navigate nanoparticles into the desired areas with efficiency approximately 99%.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, CFD, covariance matrix adaptation evolution strategy, discrete element method, DEM, magnetic navigation, spherical particles

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
56 Optimal Maintenance Clustering for Rail Track Components Subject to Possession Capacity Constraints

Authors: Cuong D. Dao, Rob J.I. Basten, Andreas Hartmann

Abstract:

This paper studies the optimal maintenance planning of preventive maintenance and renewal activities for components in a single railway track when the available time for maintenance is limited. The rail-track system consists of several types of components, such as rail, ballast, and switches with different preventive maintenance and renewal intervals. To perform maintenance or renewal on the track, a train free period for maintenance, called a possession, is required. Since a major possession directly affects the regular train schedule, maintenance and renewal activities are clustered as much as possible. In a highly dense and utilized railway network, the possession time on the track is critical since the demand for train operations is very high and a long possession has a severe impact on the regular train schedule. We present an optimization model and investigate the maintenance schedules with and without the possession capacity constraint. In addition, we also integrate the social-economic cost related to the effects of the maintenance time to the variable possession cost into the optimization model. A numerical example is provided to illustrate the model.

Keywords: rail-track components, maintenance, optimal clustering, possession capacity

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
55 Comparison of Different Electrical Machines with Permanent Magnets in the Stator for Use as an Industrial Drive

Authors: Marcel Lehr, Andreas Binder

Abstract:

This paper compares three different permanent magnet synchronous machines (Doubly-Salient-Permanent-Magnet-Machine (DSPM), Flux-Reversal-Permanent-Magnet-Machine (FRPM), Flux-Switching-Permanent-Magnet-Machine (FSPM)) with the permanent magnets in the stator of the machine for use as an industrial drive for 400 V Y, 45 kW and 1000 ... 3000 min-1. The machines are compared based on the magnetic co-energy and Finite-Element-Method-Simulations regarding the torque density. The results show that the FSPM provides the highest torque density of the three machines. Therefore, an FSPM prototype was built, tested on a test bench and finally compared with an already built conventional permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSM) of the same size (stator outer diameter dso = 314 mm, axial length lFe = 180 mm) and rating with surface-mounted rotor magnets. These measurements show that the conventional PMSM and the FSPM machine are roughly equivalent in their electrical behavior.

Keywords: doubly-salient-permanent-magnet-machine, flux-reversal-permanent-magnet-machine, flux-switching-permanent-magnet-machine, industrial drive

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
54 Robotic Assistance in Nursing Care: Survey on Challenges and Scenarios

Authors: Pascal Gliesche, Kathrin Seibert, Christian Kowalski, Dominik Domhoff, Max Pfingsthorn, Karin Wolf-Ostermann, Andreas Hein

Abstract:

Robotic assistance in nursing care is an increasingly important area of research and development. Facing a shortage of labor and an increasing number of people in need of care, the German Nursing Care Innovation Center (Pflegeinnovationszentrum, PIZ) aims to address these challenges from the side of technology. Little is known about nurses experiences with existing robotic assistance systems. Especially nurses perspectives on starting points for the development of robotic solutions, that target recurring burdensome tasks in everyday nursing care, are of interest. This paper presents findings focusing on robotics resulting from an explanatory mixed-methods study on nurses experiences with and their expectations for innovative technologies in nursing care in stationary and ambulant care facilities and hospitals in Germany. Based on the findings, eight scenarios for robotic assistance are identified based on the real needs of practitioners. An initial system addressing a single use-case is described to show perspectives for the use of robots in nursing care.

Keywords: robotics and automation, engineering management, engineering in medicine and biology, medical services, public health-care

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
53 The Next Generation of Mucoadhesive Polymer

Authors: Flavia Laffleur, Andreas Bernkop-Schnürch

Abstract:

Purpose: This study was aimed to investigate preactivated thiomers for their mucoadhesive potential. Methods: Accordingly, chitosan-thioglycolic-mercaptonicotinamide conjugates (chitosan-TGA-MNA) were synthesized by the oxidative S-S coupling of chitosan-thioglycolic acid (chitosan-TGA) with 6-mercaptonicotin amide (MNA). Unmodified chitosan, chitosan-TGA (thiomers) and chitosan-TGA-MNA conjugates were compressed into test discs to investigate cohesive properties, cytotoxicity assays and mucoadhesion studies. Results: Due to the immobilization of MNA, the chitosan-TGA-MNA conjugates exhibit comparatively higher swelling properties and cohesive properties corresponding unmodified chitosan. On the rotating cylinder, discs based on chitosan-TGA-MNA conjugates displayed 3.1-fold improved mucoadhesion time compared to thiolated polymers. Tensile study results were found in good agreement with rotating cylinder results. Moreover, preactivated thiomers showed higher stability. All polymers were found non-toxic over Caco-2 cells. Conclusion: On the basis of achieved results the pre activated thiomeric therapeutic agent seems to represent a promising generation of mucoadhesive polymers which are safe to use for a prolonged residence time to target the mucosa.

Keywords: biomedical application, drug delivery, polymer, thiomer

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
52 Functionalized Ultra-Soft Rubber for Soft Robotics Application

Authors: Shib Shankar Banerjeea, Andreas Ferya, Gert Heinricha, Amit Das

Abstract:

Recently, the growing need for the development of soft robots consisting of highly deformable and compliance materials emerge from the serious limitations of conventional service robots. However, one of the main challenges of soft robotics is to develop such compliance materials, which facilitates the design of soft robotic structures and, simultaneously, controls the soft-body systems, like soft artificial muscles. Generally, silicone or acrylic-based elastomer composites are used for soft robotics. However, mechanical performance and long-term reliabilities of the functional parts (sensors, actuators, main body) of the robot made from these composite materials are inferior. This work will present the development and characterization of robust super-soft programmable elastomeric materials from crosslinked natural rubber that can serve as touch and strain sensors for soft robotic arms with very high elastic properties and strain, while the modulus is altered in the kilopascal range. Our results suggest that such soft natural programmable elastomers can be promising materials and can replace conventional silicone-based elastomer for soft robotics applications.

Keywords: elastomers, soft materials, natural rubber, sensors

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
51 Integrating Indigenous Students’ Funds of Knowledge to Introduce Multiplication with a Picture Storybook

Authors: Murni Sianturi, Andreas Au Hurit

Abstract:

The low level of Indigenous Papuan students’ literacy and numeracy in Merauke Regency-Indonesia needs to be considered. The development of a learnable storybook with pictures related to their lives might raise their curiosity to read. This study aimed to design a storybook as a complementary resource for the third graders using Indigenous Malind cultural approaches by employing research and development methods. The product developed was a thematic-integrative picture storybook using funds of knowledge from Indigenous students. All the book contents depicted Indigenous students’ lives and were in line with the national curriculum syllabus, specifically representing one sub-theme−multiplication topic. Multiplication material of grade 3 was modified in the form of a story, and at the end of the reading, students were given several multiplication exercises. Based on the results of the evaluation from the expert team, it was found that the average score was in the excellent category. The students’ and teacher’s responses to the storybook were very positive. Students were thrilled when reading this book and also effortlessly understood the concept of multiplication. Therefore, this book might be used as a companion book to the main book and serve as introductory reading material for students prior to discussing multiplication material.

Keywords: a picture storybook, funds of knowledge, Indigenous elementary students, literacy, numeracy

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
50 Effect of Alloying Elements on Particle Incorporation of Boron Carbide Reinforced Aluminum Matrix Composites

Authors: Steven Ploetz, Andreas Lohmueller, Robert F. Singer

Abstract:

The outstanding performance of aluminum matrix composites (AMCs) regarding stiffness/weight ratio makes AMCs attractive material for lightweight construction. Low-density boride compounds promise simultaneously an increase in stiffness and decrease in composite density. This is why boron carbide is chosen for composite manufacturing. The composites are fabricated with the stir casting process. To avoid gas entrapment during mixing and ensure nonporous composites, partial vacuum is adapted during particle feeding and stirring. Poor wettability of boron carbide with liquid aluminum hinders particle incorporation, but alloying elements such as magnesium and titanium could improve wettability and thus particle incorporation. Next to alloying elements, adapted stirring parameters and impeller geometries improve particle incorporation and enable homogenous particle distribution and high particle volume fractions of boron carbide. AMCs with up to 15 vol.% of boron carbide particles are produced via melt stirring, resulting in an increase in stiffness and strength.

Keywords: aluminum matrix composites, boron carbide, stiffness, stir casting

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
49 Nonlinear Homogenized Continuum Approach for Determining Peak Horizontal Floor Acceleration of Old Masonry Buildings

Authors: Andreas Rudisch, Ralf Lampert, Andreas Kolbitsch

Abstract:

It is a well-known fact among the engineering community that earthquakes with comparatively low magnitudes can cause serious damage to nonstructural components (NSCs) of buildings, even when the supporting structure performs relatively well. Past research works focused mainly on NSCs of nuclear power plants and industrial plants. Particular attention should also be given to architectural façade elements of old masonry buildings (e.g. ornamental figures, balustrades, vases), which are very vulnerable under seismic excitation. Large numbers of these historical nonstructural components (HiNSCs) can be found in highly frequented historical city centers and in the event of failure, they pose a significant danger to persons. In order to estimate the vulnerability of acceleration sensitive HiNSCs, the peak horizontal floor acceleration (PHFA) is used. The PHFA depends on the dynamic characteristics of the building, the ground excitation, and induced nonlinearities. Consequently, the PHFA can not be generalized as a simple function of height. In the present research work, an extensive case study was conducted to investigate the influence of induced nonlinearity on the PHFA for old masonry buildings. Probabilistic nonlinear FE time-history analyses considering three different hazard levels were performed. A set of eighteen synthetically generated ground motions was used as input to the structure models. An elastoplastic macro-model (multiPlas) for nonlinear homogenized continuum FE-calculation was calibrated to multiple scales and applied, taking specific failure mechanisms of masonry into account. The macro-model was calibrated according to the results of specific laboratory and cyclic in situ shear tests. The nonlinear macro-model is based on the concept of multi-surface rate-independent plasticity. Material damage or crack formation are detected by reducing the initial strength after failure due to shear or tensile stress. As a result, shear forces can only be transmitted to a limited extent by friction when the cracking begins. The tensile strength is reduced to zero. The first goal of the calibration was the consistency of the load-displacement curves between experiment and simulation. The calibrated macro-model matches well with regard to the initial stiffness and the maximum horizontal load. Another goal was the correct reproduction of the observed crack image and the plastic strain activities. Again the macro-model proved to work well in this case and shows very good correlation. The results of the case study show that there is significant scatter in the absolute distribution of the PHFA between the applied ground excitations. An absolute distribution along the normalized building height was determined in the framework of probability theory. It can be observed that the extent of nonlinear behavior varies for the three hazard levels. Due to the detailed scope of the present research work, a robust comparison with code-recommendations and simplified PHFA distributions are possible. The chosen methodology offers a chance to determine the distribution of PHFA along the building height of old masonry structures. This permits a proper hazard assessment of HiNSCs under seismic loads.

Keywords: nonlinear macro-model, nonstructural components, time-history analysis, unreinforced masonry

Procedia PDF Downloads 77
48 Climate Adaptive Building Shells for Plus-Energy-Buildings, Designed on Bionic Principles

Authors: Andreas Hammer

Abstract:

Six peculiar architecture designs from the Frankfurt University will be discussed within this paper and their future potential of the adaptable and solar thin-film sheets implemented facades will be shown acting and reacting on climate/solar changes of their specific sites. The different aspects, as well as limitations with regard to technical and functional restrictions, will be named. The design process for a “multi-purpose building”, a “high-rise building refurbishment” and a “biker’s lodge” on the river Rheine valley, has been critically outlined and developed step by step from an international studentship towards an overall energy strategy, that firstly had to push the design to a plus-energy building and secondly had to incorporate bionic aspects into the building skins design. Both main parameters needed to be reviewed and refined during the whole design process. Various basic bionic approaches have been given [e.g. solar ivyᵀᴹ, flectofinᵀᴹ or hygroskinᵀᴹ, which were to experiment with, regarding the use of bendable photovoltaic thin film elements being parts of a hybrid, kinetic façade system.

Keywords: bionic and bioclimatic design, climate adaptive building shells [CABS], energy-strategy, harvesting façade, high-efficiency building skin, photovoltaic in building skins, plus-energy-buildings, solar gain, sustainable building concept

Procedia PDF Downloads 330
47 Characterization of Filled HNBR Elastomers for Sealing Application in Cold Climate Areas

Authors: Anton G. Akulichev, Avinash Tiwari, Ben Alcock, Andreas Echtermeyer

Abstract:

Low temperatures are known to pose a major threat for polymers; many are prone to excessive stiffness or even brittleness. There is a technology gap between the properties of existing elastomeric sealing materials and the properties needed for service in extremely cold regions. Moreover, some aspects of low temperature behaviour of rubber are not thoroughly studied and understood. The paper presents results of laboratory testing of a conventional oilfield HNBR (hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber) elastomer at low climatic temperatures above and below its glass transition point, as well as the performance of some filled HNBR formulations. Particular emphasis in the experiments is put on rubber viscoelastic characteristics studied by Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) and quasi-static mechanical testing results at low temperatures. As demonstrated by the stress relaxation and DMA experiments the transition region near Tg of the studied compound has the most striking features, like rapid stress relaxation, as compared to the glassy and rubbery plateau. In addition the quasi-static experiments show that molecular movement below Tg is not completely frozen, but rather evident and manifested in a certain stress decay as well. The effect of temperature and filler additions on typical mechanical and other properties of the materials is also discussed.

Keywords: characterization, filled elastomers, HNBR, low temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 217