Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 323

Search results for: momentum

323 The Study on the Relationship between Momentum Profits and Psychological Factors: Evidence from Taiwan

Authors: Chih-Hsiang Chang


This study provides insight into the effects of investor sentiment, excess optimism, overconfidence, the disposition effect, and herding formation on momentum profits. This study contributes to the field by providing a further examination of the relationship between psychological factors and momentum profits. The empirical results show that there is no evidence of significant momentum profits in Taiwan’s stock market. Additionally, investor sentiment in Taiwan’s stock market significantly influences its momentum profits.

Keywords: momentum profits, psychological factors, herding formation, investor sentiment

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
322 An Accelerated Stochastic Gradient Method with Momentum

Authors: Liang Liu, Xiaopeng Luo


In this paper, we propose an accelerated stochastic gradient method with momentum. The momentum term is the weighted average of generated gradients, and the weights decay inverse proportionally with the iteration times. Stochastic gradient descent with momentum (SGDM) uses weights that decay exponentially with the iteration times to generate the momentum term. Using exponential decay weights, variants of SGDM with inexplicable and complicated formats have been proposed to achieve better performance. However, the momentum update rules of our method are as simple as that of SGDM. We provide theoretical convergence analyses, which show both the exponential decay weights and our inverse proportional decay weights can limit the variance of the parameter moving directly to a region. Experimental results show that our method works well with many practical problems and outperforms SGDM.

Keywords: exponential decay rate weight, gradient descent, inverse proportional decay rate weight, momentum

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
321 Impact of Different Fuel Inlet Diameters onto the NOx Emissions in a Hydrogen Combustor

Authors: Annapurna Basavaraju, Arianna Mastrodonato, Franz Heitmeir


The Advisory Council for Aeronautics Research in Europe (ACARE) is creating awareness for the overall reduction of NOx emissions by 80% in its vision 2020. Hence this promotes the researchers to work on novel technologies, one such technology is the use of alternative fuels. Among these fuels hydrogen is of interest due to its one and only significant pollutant NOx. The influence of NOx formation due to hydrogen combustion depends on various parameters such as air pressure, inlet air temperature, air to fuel jet momentum ratio etc. Appropriately, this research is motivated to investigate the impact of the air to fuel jet momentum ratio onto the NOx formation in a hydrogen combustion chamber for aircraft engines. The air to jet fuel momentum is defined as the ratio of impulse/momentum of air with respect to the momentum of fuel. The experiments were performed in an existing combustion chamber that has been previously tested for methane. Premix of the reactants has not been considered due to the high reactivity of the hydrogen and high risk of a flashback. In order to create a less rich zone of reaction at the burner and to decrease the emissions, a forced internal recirculation flow has been achieved by integrating a plate similar to honeycomb structure, suitable to the geometry of the liner. The liner has been provided with an external cooling system to avoid the increase of local temperatures and in turn the reaction rate of the NOx formation. The injected air has been preheated to aim at so called flameless combustion. The air to fuel jet momentum ratio has been inspected by changing the area of fuel inlets and keeping the number of fuel inlets constant in order to alter the fuel jet momentum, thus maintaining the homogeneity of the flow. Within this analysis, promising results for a flameless combustion have been achieved. For a constant number of fuel inlets, it was seen that the reduction of the fuel inlet diameter resulted in decrease of air to fuel jet momentum ratio in turn lowering the NOx emissions.

Keywords: combustion chamber, hydrogen, jet momentum, NOx emission

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
320 Surface Pressure Distribution of a Flapped-Airfoil for Different Momentum Injection at the Leading Edge

Authors: Mohammad Mashud, S. M. Nahid Hasan


The aim of the research work is to modify the NACA 4215 airfoil with flap and rotary cylinder at the leading edge of the airfoil and experimentally study the static pressure distribution over the airfoil completed with flap and leading-edge vortex generator. In this research, NACA 4215 wing model has been constructed by generating the profile geometry using the standard equations and design software such as AutoCAD and SolidWorks. To perform the experiment, three wooden models are prepared and tested in subsonic wind tunnel. The experiments were carried out in various angles of attack. Flap angle and momentum injection rate are changed to observe the characteristics of pressure distribution. In this research, a new concept of flow separation control mechanism has been introduced to improve the aerodynamic characteristics of airfoil. Control of flow separation over airfoil which experiences a vortex generator (rotating cylinder) at the leading edge of airfoil is experimentally simulated under the effects of momentum injection. The experimental results show that the flow separation control is possible by the proposed mechanism, and benefits can be achieved by momentum injection technique. The wing performance is significantly improved due to control of flow separation by momentum injection method.

Keywords: airfoil, momentum injection, flap, pressure distribution

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
319 Effect of Drag Coefficient Models concerning Global Air-Sea Momentum Flux in Broad Wind Range including Extreme Wind Speeds

Authors: Takeshi Takemoto, Naoya Suzuki, Naohisa Takagaki, Satoru Komori, Masako Terui, George Truscott


Drag coefficient is an important parameter in order to correctly estimate the air-sea momentum flux. However, The parameterization of the drag coefficient hasn’t been established due to the variation in the field data. Instead, a number of drag coefficient model formulae have been proposed, even though almost all these models haven’t discussed the extreme wind speed range. With regards to such models, it is unclear how the drag coefficient changes in the extreme wind speed range as the wind speed increased. In this study, we investigated the effect of the drag coefficient models concerning the air-sea momentum flux in the extreme wind range on a global scale, comparing two different drag coefficient models. Interestingly, one model didn’t discuss the extreme wind speed range while the other model considered it. We found that the difference of the models in the annual global air-sea momentum flux was small because the occurrence frequency of strong wind was approximately 1% with a wind speed of 20m/s or more. However, we also discovered that the difference of the models was shown in the middle latitude where the annual mean air-sea momentum flux was large and the occurrence frequency of strong wind was high. In addition, the estimated data showed that the difference of the models in the drag coefficient was large in the extreme wind speed range and that the largest difference became 23% with a wind speed of 35m/s or more. These results clearly show that the difference of the two models concerning the drag coefficient has a significant impact on the estimation of a regional air-sea momentum flux in an extreme wind speed range such as that seen in a tropical cyclone environment. Furthermore, we estimated each air-sea momentum flux using several kinds of drag coefficient models. We will also provide data from an observation tower and result from CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) concerning the influence of wind flow at and around the place.

Keywords: air-sea interaction, drag coefficient, air-sea momentum flux, CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics)

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
318 Time-Evolving Wave Packet in Phase Space

Authors: Mitsuyoshi Tomiya, Kentaro Kawamura, Shoichi Sakamoto


In chaotic billiard systems, scar-like localization has been found on time-evolving wave packet. We may call it the “dynamical scar” to separate it to the original scar in stationary states. It also comes out along the vicinity of classical unstable periodic orbits, when the wave packets are launched along the orbits, against the hypothesis that the waves become homogenous all around the billiard. Then time-evolving wave packets are investigated numerically in phase space. The Wigner function is adopted to detect the wave packets in phase space. The 2-dimensional Poincaré sections of the 4-dimensional phase space are introduced to clarify the dynamical behavior of the wave packets. The Poincaré sections of the coordinate (x or y) and the momentum (Px or Py) can visualize the dynamical behavior of the wave packets, including the behavior in the momentum degree also. For example, in “dynamical scar” states, a bit larger momentum component comes first, and then the a bit smaller and smaller components follow next. The sections made in the momentum space (Px or Py) elucidates specific trajectories that have larger contribution to the “dynamical scar” states. It is the fixed point observation of the momentum degrees at a specific fixed point(x0, y0) in the phase space. The accumulation are also calculated to search the “dynamical scar” in the Poincare sections. It is found the scars as bright spots in momentum degrees of the phase space.

Keywords: chaotic billiard, Poincaré section, scar, wave packet

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317 Filtering Momentum Life Cycles, Price Acceleration Signals and Trend Reversals for Stocks, Credit Derivatives and Bonds

Authors: Periklis Brakatsoulas


Recent empirical research shows a growing interest in investment decision-making under market anomalies that contradict the rational paradigm. Momentum is undoubtedly one of the most robust anomalies in the empirical asset pricing research and remains surprisingly lucrative ever since first documented. Although predominantly phenomena identified across equities, momentum premia are now evident across various asset classes. Yet few many attempts are made so far to provide traders a diversified portfolio of strategies across different assets and markets. Moreover, literature focuses on patterns from past returns rather than mechanisms to signal future price directions prior to momentum runs. The aim of this paper is to develop a diversified portfolio approach to price distortion signals using daily position data on stocks, credit derivatives, and bonds. An algorithm allocates assets periodically, and new investment tactics take over upon price momentum signals and across different ranking groups. We focus on momentum life cycles, trend reversals, and price acceleration signals. The main effort here concentrates on the density, time span and maturity of momentum phenomena to identify consistent patterns over time and measure the predictive power of buy-sell signals generated by these anomalies. To tackle this, we propose a two-stage modelling process. First, we generate forecasts on core macroeconomic drivers. Secondly, satellite models generate market risk forecasts using the core driver projections generated at the first stage as input. Moreover, using a combination of the ARFIMA and FIGARCH models, we examine the dependence of consecutive observations across time and portfolio assets since long memory behavior in volatilities of one market appears to trigger persistent volatility patterns across other markets. We believe that this is the first work that employs evidence of volatility transmissions among derivatives, equities, and bonds to identify momentum life cycle patterns.

Keywords: forecasting, long memory, momentum, returns

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316 Effects of Convective Momentum Transport on the Cyclones Intensity: A Case Study

Authors: José Davi Oliveira De Moura, Chou Sin Chan


In this study, the effect of convective momentum transport (CMT) on the life of cyclone systems and their organization is analyzed. A case of strong precipitation, in the southeast of Brazil, was simulated using Eta model with two kinds of convective parameterization: Kain-Fritsch without CMT and Kain-fritsch with CMT. Reanalysis data from CFSR were used to compare Eta model simulations. The Wind, mean sea level pressure, rain and temperature are included in analysis. The rain was evaluated by Equitable Threat Score (ETS) and Bias Index; the simulations were compared among themselves to detect the influence of CMT displacement on the systems. The result shows that CMT process decreases the intensity of meso cyclones (higher pressure values on nuclei) and change the positions and production of rain. The decrease of intensity in meso cyclones should be caused by the dissolution of momentum from lower levels from up levels. The rain production and rain distribution were altered because the displacement of the larger systems scales was changed. In addition, the inclusion of CMT process is very important to improve the simulation of life time of meteorological systems.

Keywords: convection, Kain-Fritsch, momentum, parameterization

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315 Momentum in the Stock Exchange of Thailand

Authors: Mussa Hussaini, Supasith Chonglerttham


Stocks are usually classified according to their characteristics which are unique enough such that the performance of each category can be differentiated from another. The reasons behind such classifications in the financial market are sometimes financial innovation or it can also be because of finding a premium in a group of stocks with similar features. One of the major classifications in stocks market is called momentum strategy. Based on this strategy stocks are classified according to their past performances into past winners and past losers. Momentum in a stock market refers to the idea that stocks will keep moving in the same direction. In other word, stocks with rising prices (past winners stocks) will continue to rise and those stocks with falling prices (past losers stocks) will continue to fall. The performance of this classification has been well documented in numerous studies in different countries. These studies suggest that past winners tend to outperform past losers in the future. However, academic research in this direction has been limited in countries such as Thailand and to the best of our knowledge, there has been no such study in Thailand after the financial crisis of 1997. The significance of this study stems from the fact that Thailand is an open market and has been encouraging foreign investments as one of the means to enhance employment, promote economic development, and technology transfer and the main equity market in Thailand, the Stock Exchange of Thailand is a crucial channel for Foreign Investment inflow into the country. The equity market size in Thailand increased from $1.72 billion in 1984 to $133.66 billion in 1993, an increase of over 77 times within a decade. The main contribution of this paper is evidence for size category in the context of the equity market in Thailand. Almost all previous studies have focused solely on large stocks or indices. This paper extends the scope beyond large stocks and indices by including small and tiny stocks as well. Further, since there is a distinct absence of detailed academic research on momentum strategy in the Stock Exchange of Thailand after the crisis, this paper also contributes to the extension of existing literature of the study. This research is also of significance for those researchers who would like to compare the performance of this strategy in different countries and markets. In the Stock Exchange of Thailand, we examined the performance of momentum strategy from 2010 to 2014. Returns on portfolios are calculated on monthly basis. Our results on momentum strategy confirm that there is positive momentum profit in large size stocks whereas there is negative momentum profit in small size stocks during the period of 2010 to 2014. Furthermore, the equal weighted average of momentum profit of both small and large size category do not provide any indication of overall momentum profit.

Keywords: momentum strategy, past loser, past winner, stock exchange of Thailand

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314 Momentum Profits and Investor Behavior

Authors: Aditya Sharma


Profits earned from relative strength strategy of zero-cost portfolio i.e. taking long position in winner stocks and short position in loser stocks from recent past are termed as momentum profits. In recent times, there has been lot of controversy and concern about sources of momentum profits, since the existence of these profits acts as an evidence of earning non-normal returns from publicly available information directly contradicting Efficient Market Hypothesis. Literature review reveals conflicting theories and differing evidences on sources of momentum profits. This paper aims at re-examining the sources of momentum profits in Indian capital markets. The study focuses on assessing the effect of fundamental as well as behavioral sources in order to understand the role of investor behavior in stock returns and suggest (if any) improvements to existing behavioral asset pricing models. This Paper adopts calendar time methodology to calculate momentum profits for 6 different strategies with and without skipping a month between ranking and holding period. For each J/K strategy, under this methodology, at the beginning of each month t stocks are ranked on past j month’s average returns and sorted in descending order. Stocks in upper decile are termed winners and bottom decile as losers. After ranking long and short positions are taken in winner and loser stocks respectively and both portfolios are held for next k months, in such manner that at any given point of time we have K overlapping long and short portfolios each, ranked from t-1 month to t-K month. At the end of period, returns of both long and short portfolios are calculated by taking equally weighted average across all months. Long minus short returns (LMS) are momentum profits for each strategy. Post testing for momentum profits, to study the role market risk plays in momentum profits, CAPM and Fama French three factor model adjusted LMS returns are calculated. In the final phase of studying sources, decomposing methodology has been used for breaking up the profits into unconditional means, serial correlations, and cross-serial correlations. This methodology is unbiased, can be used with the decile-based methodology and helps to test the effect of behavioral and fundamental sources altogether. From all the analysis, it was found that momentum profits do exist in Indian capital markets with market risk playing little role in defining them. Also, it was observed that though momentum profits have multiple sources (risk, serial correlations, and cross-serial correlations), cross-serial correlations plays a major role in defining these profits. The study revealed that momentum profits do have multiple sources however, cross-serial correlations i.e. the effect of returns of other stocks play a major role. This means that in addition to studying the investors` reactions to the information of the same firm it is also important to study how they react to the information of other firms. The analysis confirms that investor behavior does play an important role in stock returns and incorporating both the aspects of investors’ reactions in behavioral asset pricing models help make then better.

Keywords: investor behavior, momentum effect, sources of momentum, stock returns

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313 Quantum Localization of Vibrational Mirror in Cavity Optomechanics

Authors: Madiha Tariq, Hena Rabbani


Recently, cavity-optomechanics becomes an extensive research field that has manipulated the mechanical effects of light for coupling of the optical field with other physical objects specifically with regards to dynamical localization. We investigate the dynamical localization (both in momentum and position space) for a vibrational mirror in a Fabry-Pérot cavity driven by a single mode optical field and a transverse probe field. The weak probe field phenomenon results in classical chaos in phase space and spatio temporal dynamics in position |ψ(x)²| and momentum space |ψ(p)²| versus time show quantum localization in both momentum and position space. Also, we discuss the parametric dependencies of dynamical localization for a designated set of parameters to be experimentally feasible. Our work opens an avenue to manipulate the other optical phenomena and applicability of proposed work can be prolonged to turn-able laser sources in the future.

Keywords: dynamical localization, cavity optomechanics, Hamiltonian chaos, probe field

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312 Three Dimensional Flexible Dynamics of Continuous Cislunar Payloads Transfer System

Authors: Y. Yang, Dian Ming Xing, Qiu Hua Du


Based on the Motorized Momentum Exchange Tether (MMET), with the principle of momentum exchange, the three dimension flexible dynamics of continuous cislunar payloads transferring system (CCPTS) is built by Lagrange method and its numerical solution is solved by Mathematica software. In the derivation precession of potential energy, this paper uses the Tylor expansion method to simplify the Lagrange equation. Furthermore, the tension coming from the centripetal load is considered in the elastic potential energy. The comparison simulation results between the 3D rigid model and 3D flexible model of CCPTS shows that the tether flexibility has important influence on CCPTS’s orbital parameters (such as radius of CCPTS’s COM and the true anomaly) and the tether’s rotational movement, the relative deviation of radius and the true anomaly between the two dynamic models is about 0.00678% and 0.00259%, the relative deviation of the angle of tether-span and local gravity gradient is about 3.55%. Additionally, the external torque has an apparent influence on the tether’s axial vibration.

Keywords: cislunar transfer, dynamics, momentum exchange, tether

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311 Macroeconomic Determinants of Cyclical Variations in Value, Size, and Momentum Premium in the UK

Authors: G. Sarwar, C. Mateus, N. Todorovic


The paper examines the asymmetries in size, value and momentum premium over the economic cycles in the UK and their macroeconomic determinants. Using Markov switching approach we find clear evidence of cyclical variations of the three premiums, most noticeably variations in size premium. We associate Markov switching regime 1 with economic upturn and regime 2 with economic downturn as per OECD’s Composite Leading Indicator. The macroeconomic indicators prompting such cyclicality the most are interest rates, term structure and credit spread. The role of GDP growth, money supply and inflation is less pronounced in our sample.

Keywords: macroeconomic determinants, Markorv Switching, size, value

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310 Spin Coherent States Without Squeezing

Authors: A. Dehghani, S. Shirin


We propose in this article a new configuration of quantum states, |α, β> := |α>×|β>. Which are composed of vector products of two different copies of spin coherent states, |α> and |β>. Some mathematical as well as physical properties of such states are discussed. For instance, it has been shown that the cross products of two coherent vectors remain coherent again. They admit a resolution of the identity through positive definite measures on the complex plane. They represent packets similar to the true coherent states, in other words we would not expect to take spin squeezing in any of the field quadratures Lˆx, Lˆy and Lˆz. Depending on the particular choice of parameters in the above scenarios, they can be converted into the so-called Dicke states which minimize the uncertainty relations of each pair of the angular momentum components.

Keywords: vector (Cross-)products, minimum uncertainty, angular momentum, measurement, Dicke states

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309 Solving Momentum and Energy Equation by Using Differential Transform Techniques

Authors: Mustafa Ekici


Natural convection is a basic process which is important in a wide variety of practical applications. In essence, a heated fluid expands and rises from buoyancy due to decreased density. Numerous papers have been written on natural or mixed convection in vertical ducts heated on the side. These equations have been proved to be valuable tools for the modelling of many phenomena such as fluid dynamics. Finding solutions to such equations or system of equations are in general not an easy task. We propose a method, which is called differential transform method, of solving a non-linear equations and compare the results with some of the other techniques. Illustrative examples shows that the results are in good agreement.

Keywords: differential transform method, momentum, energy equation, boundry value problem

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308 Optimization of a Convolutional Neural Network for the Automated Diagnosis of Melanoma

Authors: Kemka C. Ihemelandu, Chukwuemeka U. Ihemelandu


The incidence of melanoma has been increasing rapidly over the past two decades, making melanoma a current public health crisis. Unfortunately, even as screening efforts continue to expand in an effort to ameliorate the death rate from melanoma, there is a need to improve diagnostic accuracy to decrease misdiagnosis. Artificial intelligence (AI) a new frontier in patient care has the ability to improve the accuracy of melanoma diagnosis. Convolutional neural network (CNN) a form of deep neural network, most commonly applied to analyze visual imagery, has been shown to outperform the human brain in pattern recognition. However, there are noted limitations with the accuracy of the CNN models. Our aim in this study was the optimization of convolutional neural network algorithms for the automated diagnosis of melanoma. We hypothesized that Optimal selection of the momentum and batch hyperparameter increases model accuracy. Our most successful model developed during this study, showed that optimal selection of momentum of 0.25, batch size of 2, led to a superior performance and a faster model training time, with an accuracy of ~ 83% after nine hours of training. We did notice a lack of diversity in the dataset used, with a noted class imbalance favoring lighter vs. darker skin tone. Training set image transformations did not result in a superior model performance in our study.

Keywords: melanoma, convolutional neural network, momentum, batch hyperparameter

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307 Unified Gas-Kinetic Scheme for Gas-Particle Flow in Shock-Induced Fluidization of Particles Bed

Authors: Zhao Wang, Hong Yan


In this paper, a unified-gas kinetic scheme (UGKS) for the gas-particle flow is constructed. UGKS is a direct modeling method for both continuum and rarefied flow computations. The dynamics of particle and gas are described as rarefied and continuum flow, respectively. Therefore, we use the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) equation for the particle distribution function. For the gas phase, the gas kinetic scheme for Navier-Stokes equation is solved. The momentum transfer between gas and particle is achieved by the acceleration term added to the BGK equation. The new scheme is tested by a 2cm-in-thickness dense bed comprised of glass particles with 1.5mm in diameter, and reasonable agreement is achieved.

Keywords: gas-particle flow, unified gas-kinetic scheme, momentum transfer, shock-induced fluidization

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306 Experimental Investigation on the Effect of Cross Flow on Discharge Coefficient of an Orifice

Authors: Mathew Saxon A, Aneeh Rajan, Sajeev P


Many fluid flow applications employ different types of orifices to control the flow rate or to reduce the pressure. Discharge coefficients generally vary from 0.6 to 0.95 depending on the type of the orifice. The tabulated value of discharge coefficients of various types of orifices available can be used in most common applications. The upstream and downstream flow condition of an orifice is hardly considered while choosing the discharge coefficient of an orifice. But literature shows that the discharge coefficient can be affected by the presence of cross flow. Cross flow is defined as the condition wherein; a fluid is injected nearly perpendicular to a flowing fluid. Most researchers have worked on water being injected into a cross-flow of water. The present work deals with water to gas systems in which water is injected in a normal direction into a flowing stream of gas. The test article used in the current work is called thermal regulator, which is used in a liquid rocket engine to reduce the temperature of hot gas tapped from the gas generator by injecting water into the hot gas so that a cooler gas can be supplied to the turbine. In a thermal regulator, water is injected through an orifice in a normal direction into the hot gas stream. But the injection orifice had been calibrated under backpressure by maintaining a stagnant gas medium at the downstream. The motivation of the present study aroused due to the observation of a lower Cd of the orifice in flight compared to the calibrated Cd. A systematic experimental investigation is carried out in this paper to study the effect of cross-flow on the discharge coefficient of an orifice in water to a gas system. The study reveals that there is an appreciable reduction in the discharge coefficient with cross flow compared to that without cross flow. It is found that the discharge coefficient greatly depends on the ratio of momentum of water injected to the momentum of the gas cross flow. The effective discharge coefficient of different orifices was normalized using the discharge coefficient without cross-flow and it is observed that normalized curves of effective discharge coefficient of different orifices with momentum ratio collapsing into a single curve. Further, an equation is formulated using the test data to predict the effective discharge coefficient with cross flow using the calibrated Cd value without cross flow.

Keywords: cross flow, discharge coefficient, orifice, momentum ratio

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305 Fluid-Structure Interaction Study of Fluid Flow past Marine Turbine Blade Designed by Using Blade Element Theory and Momentum Theory

Authors: Abu Afree Andalib, M. Mezbah Uddin, M. Rafiur Rahman, M. Abir Hossain, Rajia Sultana Kamol


This paper deals with the analysis of flow past the marine turbine blade which is designed by using the blade element theory and momentum theory for the purpose of using in the field of renewable energy. The designed blade is analyzed for various parameters using FSI module of Ansys. Computational Fluid Dynamics is used for the study of fluid flow past the blade and other fluidic phenomena such as lift, drag, pressure differentials, energy dissipation in water. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) module of Ansys was used to analyze the structural parameter such as stress and stress density, localization point, deflection, force propagation. Fine mesh is considered in every case for more accuracy in the result according to computational machine power. The relevance of design, search and optimization with respect to complex fluid flow and structural modeling is considered and analyzed. The relevancy of design and optimization with respect to complex fluid for minimum drag force using Ansys Adjoint Solver module is analyzed as well. The graphical comparison of the above-mentioned parameter using CFD and FEA and subsequently FSI technique is illustrated and found the significant conformity between both the results.

Keywords: blade element theory, computational fluid dynamics, finite element analysis, fluid-structure interaction, momentum theory

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304 Dual Duality for Unifying Spacetime and Internal Symmetry

Authors: David C. Ni


The current efforts for Grand Unification Theory (GUT) can be classified into General Relativity, Quantum Mechanics, String Theory and the related formalisms. In the geometric approaches for extending General Relativity, the efforts are establishing global and local invariance embedded into metric formalisms, thereby additional dimensions are constructed for unifying canonical formulations, such as Hamiltonian and Lagrangian formulations. The approaches of extending Quantum Mechanics adopt symmetry principle to formulate algebra-group theories, which evolved from Maxwell formulation to Yang-Mills non-abelian gauge formulation, and thereafter manifested the Standard model. This thread of efforts has been constructing super-symmetry for mapping fermion and boson as well as gluon and graviton. The efforts of String theory currently have been evolving to so-called gauge/gravity correspondence, particularly the equivalence between type IIB string theory compactified on AdS5 × S5 and N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. Other efforts are also adopting cross-breeding approaches of above three formalisms as well as competing formalisms, nevertheless, the related symmetries, dualities, and correspondences are outlined as principles and techniques even these terminologies are defined diversely and often generally coined as duality. In this paper, we firstly classify these dualities from the perspective of physics. Then examine the hierarchical structure of classes from mathematical perspective referring to Coleman-Mandula theorem, Hidden Local Symmetry, Groupoid-Categorization and others. Based on Fundamental Theorems of Algebra, we argue that rather imposing effective constraints on different algebras and the related extensions, which are mainly constructed by self-breeding or self-mapping methodologies for sustaining invariance, we propose a new addition, momentum-angular momentum duality at the level of electromagnetic duality, for rationalizing the duality algebras, and then characterize this duality numerically with attempt for addressing some unsolved problems in physics and astrophysics.

Keywords: general relativity, quantum mechanics, string theory, duality, symmetry, correspondence, algebra, momentum-angular-momentum

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303 Guided Energy Theory of a Particle: Answered Questions Arise from Quantum Foundation

Authors: Desmond Agbolade Ademola


This work aimed to introduce a theory, called Guided Energy Theory of a particle that answered questions that arise from quantum foundation, quantum mechanics theory, and interpretation such as: what is nature of wavefunction? Is mathematical formalism of wavefunction correct? Does wavefunction collapse during measurement? Do quantum physical entanglement and many world interpretations really exist? In addition, is there uncertainty in the physical reality of our nature as being concluded in the Quantum theory? We have been able to show by the fundamental analysis presented in this work that the way quantum mechanics theory, and interpretation describes nature is not correlated with physical reality. Because, we discovered amongst others that, (1) Guided energy theory of a particle fundamentally provides complete physical observable series of quantized measurement of a particle momentum, force, energy e.t.c. in a given distance and time.In contrast, quantum mechanics wavefunction describes that nature has inherited probabilistic and indeterministic physical quantities, resulting in unobservable physical quantities that lead to many worldinterpretation.(2) Guided energy theory of a particle fundamentally predicts that it is mathematically possible to determine precise quantized measurementof position and momentum of a particle simultaneously. Because, there is no uncertainty in nature; nature however naturally guides itself against uncertainty. Contrary to the conclusion in quantum mechanics theory that, it is mathematically impossible to determine the position and the momentum of a particle simultaneously. Furthermore, we have been able to show by this theory that, it is mathematically possible to determine quantized measurement of force acting on a particle simultaneously, which is not possible on the premise of quantum mechanics theory. (3) It is evidently shown by our theory that, guided energy does not collapse, only describes the lopsided nature of a particle behavior in motion. This pretty offers us insight on gradual process of engagement - convergence and disengagement – divergence of guided energy holders which further highlight the picture how wave – like behavior return to particle-like behavior and how particle – like behavior return to wave – like behavior respectively. This further proves that the particles’ behavior in motion is oscillatory in nature. The mathematical formalism of Guided energy theory shows that nature is certainty whereas the mathematical formalism of Quantum mechanics theory shows that nature is absolutely probabilistics. In addition, the nature of wavefunction is the guided energy of the wave. In conclusion, the fundamental mathematical formalism of Quantum mechanics theory is wrong.

Keywords: momentum, physical entanglement, wavefunction, uncertainty

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302 Analysis of the Gait Characteristics of Soldier between the Normal and Loaded Gait

Authors: Ji-il Park, Min Kyu Yu, Jong-woo Lee, Sam-hyeon Yoo


The purpose of this research is to analyze the gait strategy between the normal and loaded gait. To this end, five male participants satisfied two conditions: the normal and loaded gait (backpack load 25.2 kg). As expected, results showed that additional loads elicited not a proportional increase in vertical and shear ground reaction force (GRF) parameters but also increase of the impulse, momentum and mechanical work. However, in case of the loaded gait, the time duration of the double support phase was increased unexpectedly. It is because the double support phase which is more stable than the single support phase can reduce instability of the loaded gait. Also, the directions of the pre-collision and after-collision were moved upward and downward compared to the normal gait. As a result, regardless of the additional backpack load, the impulse-momentum diagram during the step-to-step transition was maintained such as the normal gait. It means that human walk efficiently to keep stability and minimize total net works in case of the loaded gait.

Keywords: normal gait, loaded gait, impulse, collision, gait analysis, mechanical work, backpack load

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
301 Implications of Optimisation Algorithm on the Forecast Performance of Artificial Neural Network for Streamflow Modelling

Authors: Martins Y. Otache, John J. Musa, Abayomi I. Kuti, Mustapha Mohammed


The performance of an artificial neural network (ANN) is contingent on a host of factors, for instance, the network optimisation scheme. In view of this, the study examined the general implications of the ANN training optimisation algorithm on its forecast performance. To this end, the Bayesian regularisation (Br), Levenberg-Marquardt (LM), and the adaptive learning gradient descent: GDM (with momentum) algorithms were employed under different ANN structural configurations: (1) single-hidden layer, and (2) double-hidden layer feedforward back propagation network. Results obtained revealed generally that the gradient descent with momentum (GDM) optimisation algorithm, with its adaptive learning capability, used a relatively shorter time in both training and validation phases as compared to the Levenberg- Marquardt (LM) and Bayesian Regularisation (Br) algorithms though learning may not be consummated; i.e., in all instances considering also the prediction of extreme flow conditions for 1-day and 5-day ahead, respectively especially using the ANN model. In specific statistical terms on the average, model performance efficiency using the coefficient of efficiency (CE) statistic were Br: 98%, 94%; LM: 98 %, 95 %, and GDM: 96 %, 96% respectively for training and validation phases. However, on the basis of relative error distribution statistics (MAE, MAPE, and MSRE), GDM performed better than the others overall. Based on the findings, it is imperative to state that the adoption of ANN for real-time forecasting should employ training algorithms that do not have computational overhead like the case of LM that requires the computation of the Hessian matrix, protracted time, and sensitivity to initial conditions; to this end, Br and other forms of the gradient descent with momentum should be adopted considering overall time expenditure and quality of the forecast as well as mitigation of network overfitting. On the whole, it is recommended that evaluation should consider implications of (i) data quality and quantity and (ii) transfer functions on the overall network forecast performance.

Keywords: streamflow, neural network, optimisation, algorithm

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300 AI Peer Review Challenge: Standard Model of Physics vs 4D GEM EOS

Authors: David A. Harness


Natural evolution of ATP cognitive systems is to meet AI peer review standards. ATP process of axiom selection from Mizar to prove a conjecture would be further refined, as in all human and machine learning, by solving the real world problem of the proposed AI peer review challenge: Determine which conjecture forms the higher confidence level constructive proof between Standard Model of Physics SU(n) lattice gauge group operation vs. present non-standard 4D GEM EOS SU(n) lattice gauge group spatially extended operation in which the photon and electron are the first two trace angular momentum invariants of a gravitoelectromagnetic (GEM) energy momentum density tensor wavetrain integration spin-stress pressure-volume equation of state (EOS), initiated via 32 lines of Mathematica code. Resulting gravitoelectromagnetic spectrum ranges from compressive through rarefactive of the central cosmological constant vacuum energy density in units of pascals. Said self-adjoint group operation exclusively operates on the stress energy momentum tensor of the Einstein field equations, introducing quantization directly on the 4D spacetime level, essentially reformulating the Yang-Mills virtual superpositioned particle compounded lattice gauge groups quantization of the vacuum—into a single hyper-complex multi-valued GEM U(1) × SU(1,3) lattice gauge group Planck spacetime mesh quantization of the vacuum. Thus the Mizar corpus already contains all of the axioms required for relevant DeepMath premise selection and unambiguous formal natural language parsing in context deep learning.

Keywords: automated theorem proving, constructive quantum field theory, information theory, neural networks

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299 Abnormal Features of Two Quasiparticle Rotational Bands in Rare Earths

Authors: Kawalpreet Kalra, Alpana Goel


The behaviour of the rotational bands should be smooth but due to large amount of inertia and decreased pairing it is not so. Many experiments have been done in the last few decades, and a large amount of data is available for comprehensive study in this region. Peculiar features like signature dependence, signature inversion, and signature reversal are observed in many two quasiparticle rotational bands of doubly odd and doubly even nuclei. At high rotational frequencies, signature and parity are the only two good quantum numbers available to label a state. Signature quantum number is denoted by α. Even-angular momentum states of a rotational band have α =0, and the odd-angular momentum states have α =1. It has been observed that the odd-spin members lie lower in energy up to a certain spin Ic; the normal signature dependence is restored afterwards. This anomalous feature is termed as signature inversion. The systematic of signature inversion in high-j orbitals for doubly odd rare earth nuclei have been done. Many unusual features like signature dependence, signature inversion and signature reversal are observed in rotational bands of even-even/odd-odd nuclei. Attempts have been made to understand these phenomena using several models. These features have been analyzed within the framework of the Two Quasiparticle Plus Rotor Model (TQPRM).

Keywords: rotational bands, signature dependence, signature quantum number, two quasiparticle

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298 Performance Prediction of a SANDIA 17-m Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Using Improved Double Multiple Streamtube

Authors: Abolfazl Hosseinkhani, Sepehr Sanaye


Different approaches have been used to predict the performance of the vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT), such as experimental, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and analytical methods. Analytical methods, such as momentum models that use streamtubes, have low computational cost and sufficient accuracy. The double multiple streamtube (DMST) is one of the most commonly used of momentum models, which divide the rotor plane of VAWT into upwind and downwind. In fact, results from the DMST method have shown some discrepancy compared with experiment results; that is because the Darrieus turbine is a complex and aerodynamically unsteady configuration. In this study, analytical-experimental-based corrections, including dynamic stall, streamtube expansion, and finite blade length correction are used to improve the DMST method. Results indicated that using these corrections for a SANDIA 17-m VAWT will lead to improving the results of DMST.

Keywords: vertical axis wind turbine, analytical, double multiple streamtube, streamtube expansion model, dynamic stall model, finite blade length correction

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297 Flow Prediction of Boundary Shear Stress with Enlarging Flood Plains

Authors: Spandan Sahu, Amiya Kumar Pati, Kishanjit Kumar Khatua


River is our main source of water which is a form of open channel flow and the flow in open channel provides with many complex phenomenon of sciences that needs to be tackled such as the critical flow conditions, boundary shear stress and depth averaged velocity. During floods, part of a river is carried by the simple main channel and rest is carried by flood plains. For such compound asymmetric channels, the flow structure becomes complicated due to momentum exchange between main channel and adjoining flood plains. Distribution of boundary shear in subsections provides us with the concept of momentum transfer between the interface of main channel and the flood plains. Experimentally, to get better data with accurate results are very complex because of the complexity of the problem. Hence, CES software has been used to tackle the complex processes to determine the shear stresses at different sections of an open channel having asymmetric flood plains on both sides of the main channel and the results is compared with the symmetric flood plains for various geometrical shapes and flow conditions. Error analysis is also performed to know the degree of accuracy of the model implemented.

Keywords: depth average velocity, non prismatic compound channel, relative flow depth, velocity distribution

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296 Effective Charge Coupling in Low Dimensional Doped Quantum Antiferromagnets

Authors: Suraka Bhattacharjee, Ranjan Chaudhury


The interaction between the charge degrees of freedom for itinerant antiferromagnets is investigated in terms of generalized charge stiffness constant corresponding to nearest neighbour t-J model and t1-t2-t3-J model. The low dimensional hole doped antiferromagnets are the well known systems that can be described by the t-J-like models. Accordingly, we have used these models to investigate the fermionic pairing possibilities and the coupling between the itinerant charge degrees of freedom. A detailed comparison between spin and charge couplings highlights that the charge and spin couplings show very similar behaviour in the over-doped region, whereas, they show completely different trends in the lower doping regimes. Moreover, a qualitative equivalence between generalized charge stiffness and effective Coulomb interaction is also established based on the comparisons with other theoretical and experimental results. Thus it is obvious that the enhanced possibility of fermionic pairing is inherent in the reduction of Coulomb repulsion with increase in doping concentration. However, the increased possibility can not give rise to pairing without the presence of any other pair producing mechanism outside the t-J model. Therefore, one can conclude that the t-J-like models themselves solely are not capable of producing conventional momentum-based superconducting pairing on their own.

Keywords: generalized charge stiffness constant, charge coupling, effective Coulomb interaction, t-J-like models, momentum-space pairing

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295 Decay Analysis of 118Xe* Nucleus Formed in 28Si Induced Reaction

Authors: Manoj K. Sharma, Neha Grover


Dynamical cluster decay model (DCM) is applied to study the decay mechanism of 118Xe* nucleus in reference to recent data on 28Si + 90Zr → 118Xe* reaction, as an extension of our previous work on the dynamics of 112Xe* nucleus. It is relevant to mention here that DCM is based on collective clusterization approach, where emission probability of different decay paths such as evaporation residue (ER), intermediate mass fragments (IMF) and fission etc. is worked out on parallel scale. Calculations have been done over a wide range of center of mass energies with Ec.m. = 65 - 92 MeV. The evaporation residue (ER) cross-sections of 118Xe* compound nucleus are fitted in reference to available data, using spherical and quadrupole (β2) deformed choice of decaying fragments within the optimum orientations approach. It may be noted that our calculated cross-sections find decent agreement with experimental data and hence provide an opportunity to analyze the exclusive role of deformations in view of fragmentation behavior of 118Xe* nucleus. The possible contribution of IMF fragments is worked out and an extensive effort is being made to analyze the role of excitation energy, angular momentum, diffuseness parameter and level density parameter to have better understanding of the decay patterns governed in the dynamics of 28Si + 90Zr → 118Xe* reaction.

Keywords: cross-sections, deformations, fragmentation, angular momentum

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294 Porous Bluff-Body Disc on Improving the Gas-Mixing Efficiency

Authors: Shun-Chang Yen, You-Lun Peng, Kuo-Ching San


A numerical study on a bluff-body structure with multiple holes was conducted using ANSYS Fluent computational fluid dynamics analysis. The effects of the hole number and jet inclination angles were considered under a fixed gas flow rate and nonreactive gas. The bluff body with multiple holes can transform the axial momentum into a radial and tangential momentum as well as increase the swirl number (S). The concentration distribution in the mixing of a central carbon dioxide (CO2) jet and an annular air jet was utilized to analyze the mixing efficiency. Three bluff bodies with differing hole numbers (H = 3, 6, and 12) and three jet inclination angles (θ = 45°, 60°, and 90°) were designed for analysis. The Reynolds normal stress increases with the inclination angle. The Reynolds shear stress, average turbulence intensity, and average swirl number decrease with the inclination angle. For an unsymmetrical hole configuration (i.e., H = 3), the streamline patterns exhibited an unsymmetrical flow field. The highest mixing efficiency (i.e., the lowest integral gas fraction of CO2) occurred at H = 3. Furthermore, the highest swirl number coincided with the strongest effect on the mass fraction of CO2. Therefore, an unsymmetrical hole arrangement induced a high swirl flow behind the porous disc.

Keywords: bluff body with multiple holes, computational fluid dynamics, swirl-jet flow, mixing efficiency

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