Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2600

Search results for: customer-oriented driving dynamics

2600 Cognition of Driving Context for Driving Assistance

Authors: Manolo Dulva Hina, Clement Thierry, Assia Soukane, Amar Ramdane-Cherif

Abstract:

In this paper, we presented our innovative way of determining the driving context for a driving assistance system. We invoke the fusion of all parameters that describe the context of the environment, the vehicle and the driver to obtain the driving context. We created a training set that stores driving situation patterns and from which the system consults to determine the driving situation. A machine-learning algorithm predicts the driving situation. The driving situation is an input to the fission process that yields the action that must be implemented when the driver needs to be informed or assisted from the given the driving situation. The action may be directed towards the driver, the vehicle or both. This is an ongoing work whose goal is to offer an alternative driving assistance system for safe driving, green driving and comfortable driving. Here, ontologies are used for knowledge representation.

Keywords: cognitive driving, intelligent transportation system, multimodal system, ontology, machine learning

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2599 Developing a Driving Simulator with a Navigation System to Measure Driver Distraction, Workload, Driving Safety and Performance

Authors: Tamer E. Yared

Abstract:

The use of driving simulators has made laboratory testing easier. It has been proven to be valid for testing driving ability by many researchers. One benefit of using driving simulators is keeping the human subjects away from traffic hazards, which drivers usually face in a real driving environment while performing a driving experiment. In this study, a driving simulator was developed with a navigation system using a game development software (Unity 3D) and C-sharp codes to measure and evaluate driving performance, safety, and workload for different driving tasks. The driving simulator hardware included a gaming steering wheel and pedals as well as a monitor to view the driving tasks. Moreover, driver distraction was evaluated by utilizing an eye-tracking system working in conjunction with the driving simulator. Twenty subjects were recruited to evaluate driver distraction, workload, driving safety, and performance, as well as provide their feedback about the driving simulator. The subjects’ feedback was obtained by filling a survey after conducting several driving tasks. The main question of that survey was asking the subjects to compare driving on the driving simulator with real driving. Furthermore, other aspects of the driving simulator were evaluated by the subjects in the survey. The survey revealed that the recruited subjects gave an average score of 7.5 out of 10 to the driving simulator when compared to real driving, where the scores ranged between 6 and 8.5. This study is a preliminary effort that opens the door for more improvements to the driving simulator in terms of hardware and software development, which will contribute significantly to driving ability testing.

Keywords: driver distraction, driving performance, driving safety, driving simulator, driving workload, navigation system

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2598 Simulation Research of City Bus Fuel Consumption during the CUEDC Australian Driving Cycle

Authors: P. Kacejko, M. Wendeker

Abstract:

The fuel consumption of city buses depends on a number of factors that characterize the technical properties of the bus and driver, as well as traffic conditions. This parameter related to greenhouse gas emissions is regulated by law in many countries. This applies to both fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. Simulation studies are a way to reduce the costs of optimization studies. The paper describes simulation research of fuel consumption city bus driving. Parameters of the developed model are based on experimental results obtained on chassis dynamometer test stand and road tests. The object of the study was a city bus equipped with a compression-ignition engine. The verified model was applied to simulate the behavior of a bus during the CUEDC Australian Driving Cycle. The results of the calculations showed a direct influence of driving dynamics on fuel consumption.

Keywords: Australian Driving Cycle, city bus, diesel engine, fuel consumption

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2597 Motorist Driving Strategy-Related Factors Affecting Vehicle Fuel Efficiency

Authors: Aydin Azizi, Abdurrahman Tanira

Abstract:

With the onset of climate change and limited fuel resources, improving fuel efficiency has become an important part of the motor industry. To maximize fuel efficiency, development of technologies must come hand-in-hand with awareness of efficient driving strategies. This study aims to explore the various driving habits that can impact fuel efficiency by reviewing available literature. Such habits include sudden and unnecessary acceleration or deceleration, improper hardware maintenance, driving above or below optimum speed and idling. By studying such habits and ultimately applying it to driving techniques, in combination with improved mechanics of the car, will optimize the use of fuel.

Keywords: fuel efficiency, driving techniques, optimum speed, optimizing fuel consumption

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2596 Expert-Driving-Criteria Based on Fuzzy Logic Approach for Intelligent Driving Diagnosis

Authors: Andrés C. Cuervo Pinilla, Christian G. Quintero M., Chinthaka Premachandra

Abstract:

This paper considers people’s driving skills diagnosis under real driving conditions. In that sense, this research presents an approach that uses GPS signals which have a direct correlation with driving maneuvers. Besides, it is presented a novel expert-driving-criteria approximation using fuzzy logic which seeks to analyze GPS signals in order to issue an intelligent driving diagnosis. Based on above, this works presents in the first section the intelligent driving diagnosis system approach in terms of its own characteristics properties, explaining in detail significant considerations about how an expert-driving-criteria approximation must be developed. In the next section, the implementation of our developed system based on the proposed fuzzy logic approach is explained. Here, a proposed set of rules which corresponds to a quantitative abstraction of some traffics laws and driving secure techniques seeking to approach an expert-driving- criteria approximation is presented. Experimental testing has been performed in real driving conditions. The testing results show that the intelligent driving diagnosis system qualifies driver’s performance quantitatively with a high degree of reliability.

Keywords: driver support systems, intelligent transportation systems, fuzzy logic, real time data processing

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2595 Fast-Forward Problem in Asymmetric Double-Well Potential

Authors: Iwan Setiawan, Bobby Eka Gunara, Katshuhiro Nakamura

Abstract:

The theory to accelerate system on quantum dynamics has been constructed to get the desired wave function on shorter time. This theory is developed on adiabatic quantum dynamics which any regulation is done on wave function that satisfies Schrödinger equation. We show accelerated manipulation of WFs with the use of a parameter-dependent in asymmetric double-well potential and also when it’s influenced by electromagnetic fields.

Keywords: driving potential, Adiabatic Quantum Dynamics, regulation, electromagnetic field

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2594 Head-Mounted Displays for HCI Validations While Driving

Authors: D. Reich, R. Stark

Abstract:

To provide reliable and valid findings when evaluating innovative in-car devices in the automotive context highly realistic driving environments are recommended. Nowadays, in-car devices are mostly evaluated due to driving simulator studies followed by real car driving experiments. Driving simulators are characterized by high internal validity, but weak regarding ecological validity. Real car driving experiments are ecologically valid, but difficult to standardize, more time-robbing and costly. One economizing suggestion is to implement more immersive driving environments when applying driving simulator studies. This paper presents research comparing non-immersive standard PC conditions with mobile and highly immersive Oculus Rift conditions while performing the Lane Change Task (LCT). Subjective data with twenty participants show advantages regarding presence and immersion experience when performing the LCT with the Oculus Rift, but affect adversely cognitive workload and simulator sickness, compared to non-immersive PC condition.

Keywords: immersion, oculus rift, presence, situation awareness

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2593 Distracted Driving among Young Drivers in Qatar

Authors: Khaled Shaaban

Abstract:

Distracted driving, which includes anything that distracts a driver from the main task of driving, is one of the main causes of traffic accidents in modern societies. The objective of this research was to understand the type of activities that young drivers perform while driving in Qatar and to identify which activities cause the most distraction to the driver based on their experience. The data was collected through administered questionnaires in the city of Doha, Qatar. According to the participants, the majority reported that they use their cell phone all the time or occasionally while driving. Other significantly cited activities while driving included listening to music or radio, talking with passengers, and eating, drinking or smoking. When asked about the activities that distract the driver, using cell phone was listed as the most distracting activity followed by mental activities and adjusting GPS and audio device vehicle.

Keywords: driver distraction, young drivers, cell phone use, Qatar

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2592 Gender Differences in the Prediction of Smartphone Use While Driving: Personal and Social Factors

Authors: Erez Kita, Gil Luria

Abstract:

This study examines gender as a boundary condition for the relationship between the psychological variable of mindfulness and the social variable of income with regards to the use of smartphones by young drivers. The use of smartphones while driving increases the likelihood of a car accident, endangering young drivers and other road users. The study sample included 186 young drivers who were legally permitted to drive without supervision. The subjects were first asked to complete questionnaires on mindfulness and income. Next, their smartphone use while driving was monitored over a one-month period. This study is unique as it used an objective smartphone monitoring application (rather than self-reporting) to count the number of times the young participants actually touched their smartphones while driving. The findings show that gender moderates the effects of social and personal factors (i.e., income and mindfulness) on the use of smartphones while driving. The pattern of moderation was similar for both social and personal factors. For men, mindfulness and income are negatively associated with the use of smartphones while driving. These factors are not related to the use of smartphones by women drivers. Mindfulness and income can be used to identify male populations that are at risk of using smartphones while driving. Interventions that improve mindfulness can be used to reduce the use of smartphones by male drivers.

Keywords: mindfulness, using smartphones while driving, income, gender, young drivers

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2591 A Metric to Evaluate Conventional and Electrified Vehicles in Terms of Customer-Oriented Driving Dynamics

Authors: Stephan Schiffer, Andreas Kain, Philipp Wilde, Maximilian Helbing, Bernard Bäker

Abstract:

Automobile manufacturers progressively focus on a downsizing strategy to meet the EU's CO2 requirements concerning type-approval consumption cycles. The reduction in naturally aspirated engine power is compensated by increased levels of turbocharging. By downsizing conventional engines, CO2 emissions are reduced. However, it also implicates major challenges regarding longitudinal dynamic characteristics. An example of this circumstance is the delayed turbocharger-induced torque reaction which leads to a partially poor response behavior of the vehicle during acceleration operations. That is why it is important to focus conventional drive train design on real customer driving again. The currently considered dynamic maneuvers like the acceleration time 0-100 km/h discussed by journals and car manufacturers describe longitudinal dynamics experienced by a driver inadequately. For that reason we present the realization and evaluation of a comprehensive proband study. Subjects are provided with different vehicle concepts (electrified vehicles, vehicles with naturally aspired engines and vehicles with different concepts of turbochargers etc.) in order to find out which dynamic criteria are decisive for a subjectively strong acceleration and response behavior of a vehicle. Subsequently, realistic acceleration criteria are derived. By weighing the criteria an evaluation metric is developed to objectify customer-oriented transient dynamics. Fully-electrified vehicles are the benchmark in terms of customer-oriented longitudinal dynamics. The electric machine provides the desired torque almost without delay. This advantage compared to combustion engines is especially noticeable at low engine speeds. In conclusion, we will show the degree to which extent customer-relevant longitudinal dynamics of conventional vehicles can be approximated to electrified vehicle concepts. Therefore, various technical measures (turbocharger concepts, 48V electrical chargers etc.) and drive train designs (e.g. varying the final drive) are presented and evaluated in order to strengthen the vehicle’s customer-relevant transient dynamics. As a rating size the newly developed evaluation metric will be used.

Keywords: 48V, customer-oriented driving dynamics, electric charger, electrified vehicles, vehicle concepts

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2590 Exergy Losses Relation with Driving Forces in Heat Transfer Process

Authors: S. Ali Ashrafizadeh, M. Amidpour, N. Hedayat

Abstract:

Driving forces along with transfer coefficient affect on heat transfer rate, on the other hand, with regard to the relation of these forces with irriversibilities they are effective on exergy losses. Therefore, the driving forces can be used as a relation between heat transfer rate, transfer coefficients and exergy losses. In this paper, first, the relation of the exergetic efficiency and resistant forces is obtained, next the relation between exergy efficiency, relative driving force, heat transfer rate and heat resistances is considered. In all cases, results are argued graphically. Finally, a case study inspected by obtained results.

Keywords: heat transfer, exergy losses, exergetic efficiency, driving forces

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2589 Eco-Drive Predictive Analytics

Authors: Sharif Muddsair, Eisels Martin, Giesbrecht Eugenie

Abstract:

With development of society increase the demand for the movement of people also increases gradually. The various modes of the transport in different extent which expat impacts, which depends on mainly technical-operating conditions. The up-to-date telematics systems provide the transport industry a revolutionary. Appropriate use of these systems can help to substantially improve the efficiency. Vehicle monitoring and fleet tracking are among services used for improving efficiency and effectiveness of utility vehicle. There are many telematics systems which may contribute to eco-driving. Generally, they can be grouped according to their role in driving cycle. • Before driving - eco-route selection, • While driving – Advanced driver assistance, • After driving – remote analysis. Our point of interest is regulated in third point [after driving – remote analysis]. TS [Telematics-system] make it possible to record driving patterns in real time and analysis the data later on, So that driver- classification-specific hints [fast driver, slow driver, aggressive driver…)] are given to imitate eco-friendly driving style. Together with growing number of vehicle and development of information technology, telematics become an ‘active’ research subject in IT and the car industry. Telematics has gone a long way from providing navigation solution/assisting the driver to become an integral part of the vehicle. Today’s telematics ensure safety, comfort and become convenience of the driver.

Keywords: internet of things, iot, connected vehicle, cv, ts, telematics services, ml, machine learning

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2588 An Application of Meta-Modeling Methods for Surrogating Lateral Dynamics Simulation in Layout-Optimization for Electric Drivetrains

Authors: Christian Angerer, Markus Lienkamp

Abstract:

Electric vehicles offer a high variety of possible drivetrain topologies with up to 4 motors. Multi-motor-designs can have several advantages regarding traction, vehicle dynamics, safety and even efficiency. With a rising number of motors, the whole drivetrain becomes more complex. All permutations of gearings, drivetrain-layouts, motor-types and –sizes lead up in a very large solution space. Single elements of this solution space can be analyzed by simulation methods. In addition to longitudinal vehicle behavior, which most optimization-approaches are restricted to, also lateral dynamics are important for vehicle dynamics, stability and efficiency. In order to compete large solution spaces and to find an optimal result, genetic algorithm based optimization is state-of-the-art. As lateral dynamics simulation is way more CPU-intensive, optimization takes much more time than in case of longitudinal-only simulation. Therefore, this paper shows an approach how to create meta-models from a 14-degree of freedom vehicle model in order to enable a numerically efficient drivetrain-layout optimization process under consideration of lateral dynamics. Different meta-modelling approaches such as neural networks or DoE are implemented and comparatively discussed.

Keywords: driving dynamics, drivetrain layout, genetic optimization, meta-modeling, lateral dynamicx

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2587 The Effects of Using Telephone and Social Media Applications While Driving in Kuwait

Authors: Bashaiar Alsanaa

Abstract:

Social media have totally converged with social life all around the globe. Using social media applications and mobile phones have become somewhat of an addiction to most people. Driving while using mobile applications falls under such addiction when usage is not of urgency. This study aims to investigate the impact of using such applications while driving in the small rich state of Kuwait, where most people juggle more than one phone for different purposes. Positive and negative effects will be explored in detail as well as causes for these effects and possible reasons. A full range of recommendations will be presented so as to give other countries a specific case study upon which to build solutions and remedies to this emerging and dangerous social phenomenon.

Keywords: social media, driving, mobile applications, communication

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2586 Optimal Driving Strategies for a Hybrid Street Type Motorcycle: Modelling and Control

Authors: Jhon Vargas, Gilberto Osorio-Gomez, Tatiana Manrique

Abstract:

This work presents an optimal driving strategy proposal for a 125 c.c. street-type hybrid electric motorcycle with a parallel configuration. The results presented in this article are complementary regarding the control proposal of a hybrid motorcycle. In order to carry out such developments, a representative dynamic model of the motorcycle is used, in which also are described different optimization functionalities for predetermined driving modes. The purpose is to implement an off-line optimal driving strategy which distributes energy to both engines by minimizing an objective torque requirement function. An optimal dynamic contribution is found from the optimization routine, and the optimal percentage contribution for vehicle cruise speed is implemented in the proposed online PID controller.

Keywords: dynamic model, driving strategies, parallel hybrid motorcycle, PID controller, optimization

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2585 Social Media Effects on Driving: An Exploratory Study Applied to Drivers in Kuwait

Authors: Bashaiar Alsanaa

Abstract:

Social media have totally converged with social life all around the globe. Using social media applications and mobile phones have become somewhat of an addiction to most people. Driving while using mobile applications falls under such addiction when usage is not of urgency. This study aims to investigate the impact of using such applications while driving in the small, rich state of Kuwait, where most people juggle more than one phone for different purposes. Positive and negative effects will be explored in detail as well as causes for these effects and possible reasons. A full range of recommendations will be presented so as to give other countries a specific case study upon which to build solutions and remedies to this emerging and dangerous social phenomenon.

Keywords: communications, driving, mobile, social media

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2584 Research on Morning Commuting Behavior under Autonomous Vehicle Environment Based on Activity Method

Authors: Qing Dai, Zhengkui Lin, Jiajia Zhang, Yi Qu

Abstract:

Based on activity method, this paper focuses on morning commuting behavior when commuters travel with autonomous vehicles (AVs). Firstly, a net utility function of commuters is constructed by the activity utility of commuters at home, in car and at workplace, and the disutility of travel time cost and that of schedule delay cost. Then, this net utility function is applied to build an equilibrium model. Finally, under the assumption of constant marginal activity utility, the properties of equilibrium are analyzed. The results show that, in autonomous driving, the starting and ending time of morning peak and the number of commuters who arrive early and late at workplace are the same as those in manual driving. In automatic driving, however, the departure rate of arriving early at workplace is higher than that of manual driving, while the departure rate of arriving late is just the opposite. In addition, compared with manual driving, the departure time of arriving at workplace on time is earlier and the number of people queuing at the bottleneck is larger in automatic driving. However, the net utility of commuters and the total net utility of system in automatic driving are greater than those in manual driving.

Keywords: autonomous cars, bottleneck model, activity utility, user equilibrium

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2583 Optimal Trajectories for Highly Automated Driving

Authors: Christian Rathgeber, Franz Winkler, Xiaoyu Kang, Steffen Müller

Abstract:

In this contribution two approaches for calculating optimal trajectories for highly automated vehicles are presented and compared. The first one is based on a non-linear vehicle model, used for evaluation. The second one is based on a simplified model and can be implemented on a current ECU. In usual driving situations both approaches show very similar results.

Keywords: trajectory planning, direct method, indirect method, highly automated driving

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2582 Real-Time Recognition of the Terrain Configuration to Improve Driving Stability for Unmanned Robots

Authors: Bongsoo Jeon, Jayoung Kim, Jihong Lee

Abstract:

Methods for measuring or estimating of ground shape by a laser range finder and a vision sensor (exteroceptive sensors) have critical weakness in terms that these methods need prior database built to distinguish acquired data as unique surface condition for driving. Also, ground information by exteroceptive sensors does not reflect the deflection of ground surface caused by the movement of UGVs. Therefore, this paper proposes a method of recognizing exact and precise ground shape using Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) as a proprioceptive sensor. In this paper, firstly this method recognizes attitude of a robot in real-time using IMU and compensates attitude data of a robot with angle errors through analysis of vehicle dynamics. This method is verified by outdoor driving experiments of a real mobile robot.

Keywords: inertial measurement unit, laser range finder, real-time recognition of the ground shape, proprioceptive sensor

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2581 Improvement of Brige Weigh-In-Motion Technique Considering the Driving Conditions of Vehicles

Authors: Changgil Lee, Jooyoung Park, Seunghee Park

Abstract:

In this study, bridge weigh-in-motion (BWIM) system was simulated under various driving conditions of vehicles to improve the performance of the BWIM system. Two driving conditions were considered. One was the number of the axle of the vehicles. Since the vehicles have different number of axle according to the types of the vehicle, the vehicles were modeled considering the number of the axle. The other was the speed of the vehicles because the speed of the vehicles is not consistent on the bridge. To achieve the goal, the dynamic characteristics of a bridge such as modal parameters were considered in numerical simulation by analyzing precision models. Also, the driving vehicles were modeled as mass-spring-damping systems reflecting the axle information.

Keywords: bridge weigh-in-motion (BWIM) system, driving conditions, precision analysis model, the number of axle, the speed of vehicle

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2580 The Potential of 48V HEV in Real Driving

Authors: Mark Schudeleit, Christian Sieg, Ferit Küçükay

Abstract:

This paper describes how to dimension the electric components of a 48V hybrid system considering real customer use. Furthermore, it provides information about savings in energy and CO2 emissions by a customer-tailored 48V hybrid. Based on measured customer profiles, the electric units such as the electric motor and the energy storage are dimensioned. Furthermore, the CO2 reduction potential in real customer use is determined compared to conventional vehicles. Finally, investigations are carried out to specify the topology design and preliminary considerations in order to hybridize a conventional vehicle with a 48V hybrid system. The emission model results from an empiric approach also taking into account the effects of engine dynamics on emissions. We analyzed transient engine emissions during representative customer driving profiles and created emission meta models. The investigation showed a significant difference in emissions when simulating realistic customer driving profiles using the created verified meta models compared to static approaches which are commonly used for vehicle simulation.

Keywords: customer use, dimensioning, hybrid electric vehicles, vehicle simulation, 48V hybrid system

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2579 Effects of Low Sleep Efficiency and Sleep Deprivation on Driver Physical Fatigue

Authors: Chen-Yu Tsai, Wen-Te Liu, Chen-Chen Lo, Kang Lo, Yin-Tzu Lin

Abstract:

Background: Driving drowsiness related to insufficient or disordered sleep accounts for a major percentage of vehicular accidents. Sleep deprivation is the primary reason related to low sleep efficiency. Nevertheless, the mechanism of sleep deprivation induces driving fatigue to remain unclear. Objective: The objective of this study is to associate the relationship between insufficient sleep efficiency and driving fatigue. Methodologies: The physical condition while driving was obtained from the questionnaires to classify the state of driving fatigue. Sleep efficiency was quantified as the polysomnography (PSG), and the sleep stages were sentenced by the reregistered Technologist during examination in a hospital in New Taipei City (Taiwan). The independent T-test was used to investigate the correlation between sleep efficiency, sleep stages ratio, and driving drowsiness. Results: There were 880 subjects recruited in this study, who had been done polysomnography for evaluating severity for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) as well as completed the driver condition questionnaire. Four-hundred-eighty-four subjects (55%) were classified as fatigue group, and 396 subjects (45%) were served as the control group. The ratio of stage three sleep (N3) (0.032 ± 0.056) in fatigue group were significantly lower than the control group (p < 0.01). The significantly higher value of snoring index (242.14 ± 205.51 /hours) was observed in the fatigue group (p < 0.01). Conclusion: We observe the considerable correlation between deep sleep reduce and driving drowsiness. To avoid drowsy driving, the sleep deprivation, and the snoring events during the sleeping time should be monitored and alleviated.

Keywords: driving drowsiness, sleep deprivation, stage three sleep, snoring index

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2578 Risky Driving Behavior among Bus Driver in Jakarta

Authors: Ratri A. Benedictus, Felicia M. Yolanda

Abstract:

Public transport is a crucial issue for capital city in developing country, such as Jakarta. Inadequate number and low quality of public transport services resulting personal vehicles as the main option. As a result, traffic jams are getting worse in Jakarta. The low quality of public transport, particularly buses, compounded by the risk behavior of the driver. Traffic accidents involving public bus in Jakarta were often the case, even result in fatality. The purpose of this study is to get a description of risk behavior among the public bus drivers in Jakarta. 132 bus drivers become respondent of this study. Risky Driving Behavior scale of Dorn were used. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. 51.5% of respondents felt often showing risky behavior while on driving. The highest type of risky driving behavior is still using the unsafe bus (62%). Followed by trespass the bus line (30%), over speed (21%), violate the road signs (15%) and driving with unhealthy physical condition (4%). Results of this study suggested that high understanding of the bus drivers on their risk behaviors have not lead to the emergence of safe driving behavior. Therefore, together with technical engineering and instrumentation work intervention over this issue, psychological aspects also need to be considered, such as: risk perception, safety attitude,safety culture, locus of control and Fatalism.

Keywords: bus driver, psychological factors, public transportation, risky driving behavior

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2577 Numerical Study of Effects of Air Dam on the Flow Field and Pressure Distribution of a Passenger Car

Authors: Min Ye Koo, Ji Ho Ahn, Byung Il You, Gyo Woo Lee

Abstract:

Everything that is attached to the outside of the vehicle to improve the driving performance of the vehicle by changing the flow characteristics of the surrounding air or to pursue the external personality is called a tuning part. Typical tuning components include front or rear air dam, also known as spoilers, splitter, and side air dam. Particularly, the front air dam prevents the airflow flowing into the lower portion of the vehicle and increases the amount of air flow to the side and front of the vehicle body, thereby reducing lift force generation that lifts the vehicle body, and thus, improving the steering and driving performance of the vehicle. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of anterior air dam in the flow around a sedan passenger car using computational fluid dynamics. The effects of flow velocity, trajectory of fluid particles on static pressure distribution and pressure distribution on body surface were investigated by varying flow velocity and size of air dam. As a result, it has been confirmed that the front air dam improves the flow characteristics, thereby reducing the generation of lift force of the vehicle, so it helps in steering and driving characteristics.

Keywords: numerical study, air dam, flow field, pressure distribution

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2576 Modelling the Effect of Alcohol Consumption on the Accelerating and Braking Behaviour of Drivers

Authors: Ankit Kumar Yadav, Nagendra R. Velaga

Abstract:

Driving under the influence of alcohol impairs the driving performance and increases the crash risks worldwide. The present study investigated the effect of different Blood Alcohol Concentrations (BAC) on the accelerating and braking behaviour of drivers with the help of driving simulator experiments. Eighty-two licensed Indian drivers drove on the rural road environment designed in the driving simulator at BAC levels of 0.00%, 0.03%, 0.05%, and 0.08% respectively. Driving performance was analysed with the help of vehicle control performance indicators such as mean acceleration and mean brake pedal force of the participants. Preliminary analysis reported an increase in mean acceleration and mean brake pedal force with increasing BAC levels. Generalized linear mixed models were developed to quantify the effect of different alcohol levels and explanatory variables such as driver’s age, gender and other driver characteristic variables on the driving performance indicators. Alcohol use was reported as a significant factor affecting the accelerating and braking performance of the drivers. The acceleration model results indicated that mean acceleration of the drivers increased by 0.013 m/s², 0.026 m/s² and 0.027 m/s² for the BAC levels of 0.03%, 0.05% and 0.08% respectively. Results of the brake pedal force model reported that mean brake pedal force of the drivers increased by 1.09 N, 1.32 N and 1.44 N for the BAC levels of 0.03%, 0.05% and 0.08% respectively. Age was a significant factor in both the models where one year increase in drivers’ age resulted in 0.2% reduction in mean acceleration and 19% reduction in mean brake pedal force of the drivers. It shows that driving experience could compensate for the negative effects of alcohol to some extent while driving. Female drivers were found to accelerate slower and brake harder as compared to the male drivers which confirmed that female drivers are more conscious about their safety while driving. It was observed that drivers who were regular exercisers had better control on their accelerator pedal as compared to the non-regular exercisers during drunken driving. The findings of the present study revealed that drivers tend to be more aggressive and impulsive under the influence of alcohol which deteriorates their driving performance. Drunk driving state can be differentiated from sober driving state by observing the accelerating and braking behaviour of the drivers. The conclusions may provide reference in making countermeasures against drinking and driving and contribute to traffic safety.

Keywords: alcohol, acceleration, braking behaviour, driving simulator

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2575 Evaluation of a Driver Training Intervention for People on the Autism Spectrum: A Multi-Site Randomized Control Trial

Authors: P. Vindin, R. Cordier, N. J. Wilson, H. Lee

Abstract:

Engagement in community-based activities such as education, employment, and social relationships can improve the quality of life for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Community mobility is vital to attaining independence for individuals with ASD. Learning to drive and gaining a driver’s license is a critical link to community mobility; however, for individuals with ASD acquiring safe driving skills can be a challenging process. Issues related to anxiety, executive function, and social communication may affect driving behaviours. Driving training and education aimed at addressing barriers faced by learner drivers with ASD can help them improve their driving performance. A multi-site randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of an autism-specific driving training intervention for improving the on-road driving performance of learner drivers with ASD. The intervention was delivered via a training manual and interactive website consisting of five modules covering varying driving environments starting with a focus on off-road preparations and progressing through basic to complex driving skill mastery. Seventy-two learner drivers with ASD aged 16 to 35 were randomized using a blinded group allocation procedure into either the intervention or control group. The intervention group received 10 driving lessons with the instructors trained in the use of an autism-specific driving training protocol, whereas the control group received 10 driving lessons as usual. Learner drivers completed a pre- and post-observation drive using a standardized driving route to measure driving performance using the Driving Performance Checklist (DPC). They also completed anxiety, executive function, and social responsiveness measures. The findings showed that there were significant improvements in driving performance for both the intervention (d = 1.02) and the control group (d = 1.15). However, the differences were not significant between groups (p = 0.614) or study sites (p = 0.842). None of the potential moderator variables (anxiety, cognition, social responsiveness, and driving instructor experience) influenced driving performance. This study is an important step toward improving community mobility for individuals with ASD showing that an autism-specific driving training intervention can improve the driving performance of leaner drivers with ASD. It also highlighted the complexity of conducting a multi-site design even when sites were matched according to geography and traffic conditions. Driving instructors also need more and clearer information on how to communicate with learner drivers with restricted verbal expression.

Keywords: autism spectrum disorder, community mobility, driving training, transportation

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2574 The Association between Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome and Driver Fatigue in North Taiwan Urban Areas

Authors: Cheng-Yu Tsai, Wen-Te Liu, Chen-Chen Lo, Yin-Tzu Lin, Kang Lo

Abstract:

Background: Driving fatigue related to inadequate or disordered sleep accounts for a major percentage of traffic accidents. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a common respiratory disorder during sleep. However, the effects of OSAS severity on driving drowsiness remain unclear. Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between OSAS severity and driving fatigue. Methodologies: The physical condition while driving was obtained from the questionnaires to classify the state of driving fatigue. OSAS severity was quantified as the polysomnography, and the mean hourly number of greater than 3% dips in oxygen saturation during examination in a hospital in New Taipei City (Taiwan). The severity of OSAS was diagnosed by the apnea and hypopnea index (AHI) with the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) guideline. The logistic regression model was used to examine the associations after adjusted age, gender, neck circumstance, waist circumstance, and body mass index (BMI). Results: There were 880 subjects recruited in this study, who had been done polysomnography for evaluating severity for OSAS as well as completed the driver condition questionnaire. 752 subjects were diagnosed with OSA, and 484 subjects had fatigue driving behavior in the past week. Patients diagnosed with OSAS had a 9.42-fold higher odds ratio (p < 0.01, 95% CI = 5.41 – 16.42) of driving drowsiness for cohorts with a normal degree. Conclusion: We observe the considerable correlation between OSAS and driving fatigue. For the purpose of promoting traffic safety, OSAS should be monitored and treated.

Keywords: obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, driving fatigue, polysomnography, apnea and hypopnea index

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2573 Optimization Based Obstacle Avoidance

Authors: R. Dariani, S. Schmidt, R. Kasper

Abstract:

Based on a non-linear single track model which describes the dynamics of vehicle, an optimal path planning strategy is developed. Real time optimization is used to generate reference control values to allow leading the vehicle alongside a calculated lane which is optimal for different objectives such as energy consumption, run time, safety or comfort characteristics. Strict mathematic formulation of the autonomous driving allows taking decision on undefined situation such as lane change or obstacle avoidance. Based on position of the vehicle, lane situation and obstacle position, the optimization problem is reformulated in real-time to avoid the obstacle and any car crash.

Keywords: autonomous driving, obstacle avoidance, optimal control, path planning

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2572 Computational Fluid Dynamics Design and Analysis of Aerodynamic Drag Reduction Devices for a Mazda T3500 Truck

Authors: Basil Nkosilathi Dube, Wilson R. Nyemba, Panashe Mandevu

Abstract:

In highway driving, over 50 percent of the power produced by the engine is used to overcome aerodynamic drag, which is a force that opposes a body’s motion through the air. Aerodynamic drag and thus fuel consumption increase rapidly at speeds above 90kph. It is desirable to minimize fuel consumption. Aerodynamic drag reduction in highway driving is the best approach to minimize fuel consumption and to reduce the negative impacts of greenhouse gas emissions on the natural environment. Fuel economy is the ultimate concern of automotive development. This study aims to design and analyze drag-reducing devices for a Mazda T3500 truck, namely, the cab roof and rear (trailer tail) fairings. The aerodynamic effects of adding these append devices were subsequently investigated. To accomplish this, two 3D CAD models of the Mazda truck were designed using the Design Modeler. One, with these, append devices and the other without. The models were exported to ANSYS Fluent for computational fluid dynamics analysis, no wind tunnel tests were performed. A fine mesh with more than 10 million cells was applied in the discretization of the models. The realizable k-ε turbulence model with enhanced wall treatment was used to solve the Reynold’s Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equation. In order to simulate the highway driving conditions, the tests were simulated with a speed of 100 km/h. The effects of these devices were also investigated for low-speed driving. The drag coefficients for both models were obtained from the numerical calculations. By adding the cab roof and rear (trailer tail) fairings, the simulations show a significant reduction in aerodynamic drag at a higher speed. The results show that the greatest drag reduction is obtained when both devices are used. Visuals from post-processing show that the rear fairing minimized the low-pressure region at the rear of the trailer when moving at highway speed. The rear fairing achieved this by streamlining the turbulent airflow, thereby delaying airflow separation. For lower speeds, there were no significant differences in drag coefficients for both models (original and modified). The results show that these devices can be adopted for improving the aerodynamic efficiency of the Mazda T3500 truck at highway speeds.

Keywords: aerodynamic drag, computation fluid dynamics, fluent, fuel consumption

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2571 The Correlation between Eye Movements, Attentional Shifting, and Driving Simulator Performance among Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Authors: Navah Z. Ratzon, Anat Keren, Shlomit Y. Greenberg

Abstract:

Car accidents are a problem worldwide. Adolescents’ involvement in car accidents is higher in comparison to the overall driving population. Researchers estimate the risk of accidents among adolescents with symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to be 1.2 to 4 times higher than that of their peers. Individuals with ADHD exhibit unique patterns of eye movements and attentional shifts that play an important role in driving. In addition, deficiencies in cognitive and executive functions among adolescents with ADHD is likely to put them at greater risk for car accidents. Fifteen adolescents with ADHD and 17 matched controls participated in the study. Individuals from both groups attended local public schools and did not have a driver’s license. Participants’ mean age was 16.1 (SD=.23). As part of the experiment, they all completed a driving simulation session, while their eye movements were monitored. Data were recorded by an eye tracker: The entire driving session was recorded, registering the tester’s exact gaze position directly on the screen. Eye movements and simulator data were analyzed using Matlab (Mathworks, USA). Participants’ cognitive and metacognitive abilities were evaluated as well. No correlation was found between saccade properties, regions of interest, and simulator performance in either group, although participants with ADHD allocated more visual scan time (25%, SD = .13%) to a smaller segment of dashboard area, whereas controls scanned the monitor more evenly (15%, SD = .05%). The visual scan pattern found among participants with ADHD indicates a distinct pattern of engagement-disengagement of spatial attention compared to that of non-ADHD participants as well as lower attention flexibility, which likely affects driving. Additionally the lower the results on the cognitive tests, the worse driving performance was. None of the participants had prior driving experience, yet participants with ADHD distinctly demonstrated difficulties in scanning their surroundings, which may impair driving. This stresses the need to consider intervention programs, before driving lessons begin, to help adolescents with ADHD acquire proper driving habits, avoid typical driving errors, and achieve safer driving.

Keywords: ADHD, attentional shifting, driving simulator, eye movements

Procedia PDF Downloads 192