Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

Search results for: Alebiosu Olugbenga Shadrak

18 Palynological Investigation and Quality Determination of Honeys from Some Apiaries in Northern Nigeria

Authors: Alebiosu Olugbenga Shadrak, Victor Victoria

Abstract:

Honey bees exhibit preferences in their foraging behaviour on pollen and nectar for food and honey production, respectively. Melissopalynology is the study of pollen in honey and other honey products. Several work have been conducted on the palynological studies of honeys from the southern parts of Nigeria but with relatively scant records from the Northern region of the country. This present study aimed at revealing the favourably visited plants by honey bees, Apis melifera var. adansonii, at some apiaries in Northern Nigeria, as well as determining the quality of honeys produced. Honeys were harvested and collected from four apiaries of the region, namely: Sarkin Dawa missionary bee farm, Taraba State; Eleeshuwa Bee Farm, Keffi, Nassarawa State, Bulus Beekeeper Apiaries, Kagarko, Kaduna State and Mai Gwava Bee Farm, Kano State. These honeys were acetolysed for palynological microscopic analysis and subjected to standard treatment methods for the determination of their proximate composition and sugar profiling. Fresh anthers of two dominantly represented plants in the honeys were then collected for the quantification of their pollen protein contents, using the micro-kjeldhal procedure. A total of 30 pollen types were identified in the four honeys, and some of them were common to the honeys. A classification method for expressing pollen frequency class was employed: Senna cf. siamea, Terminalia cf. catappa, Mangifera indica, Parinari curatelifolia, Vitellaria paradoxa, Elaeis guineensis, Parkia biglobosa, Phyllantus muellerianus and Berlina Grandiflora, as “Frequent” (16-45%); while the others are either Rare (3-15%) or Sporadic (less than 3 %). Pollen protein levels of the two abundantly represented plants, Senna siamea (15.90mg/ml) and Terminalia catappa (17.33mg/ml) were found to be considerably lower. The biochemical analyses revealed varying amounts of proximate composition, non-reducing sugar and total sugar levels in the honeys. The results of this study indicate that pollen and nectar of the “Frequent” plants were preferentially foraged by honeybees in the apiaries. The estimated pollen protein contents of Senna same and Terminalia catappa were considerably lower and not likely to have influenced their favourable visitation by honeybees. However, a relatively higher representation of Senna cf. siamea in the pollen spectrum might have resulted from its characteristic brightly coloured and well scented flowers, aiding greater entomophily. Terminalia catappa, Mangifera indica, Elaeis guineensis, Vitellaria paradoxa, and Parkia biglobosa are typical food crops; hence they probably attracted the honeybees owing to the rich nutritional values of their fruits and seeds. Another possible reason for a greater entomophily of the favourably visited plants are certain nutritional constituents of their pollen and nectar, which were not investigated in this study. The nutritional composition of the honeys was observed to fall within the safe limits of international norms, as prescribed by Codex Alimentarius Commission, thus they are good honeys for human consumption. It is therefore imperative to adopt strategic conservation steps in ensuring that these favourably visited plants are protected from indiscriminate anthropogenic activities and also encourage apiarists in the country to establish their bee farms more proximally to the plants for optimal honey yield.

Keywords: honeybees, melissopalynology, preferentially foraged, nutritional, bee farms, proximally

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17 Aerofloral Studies and Allergenicity Potentials of Dominant Atmospheric Pollen Types at Some Locations in Northwestern Nigeria

Authors: Olugbenga S. Alebiosu, Olusola H. Adekanmbi, Oluwatoyin T. Ogundipe

Abstract:

Pollen and spores have been identified as major airborne bio-particles inducing respiratory disorders such as asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis among hypersensitive individuals. An aeropalynological study was conducted within a one year sampling period with a view to investigating the monthly depositional rate of atmospheric pollen and spores; influence of the immediate vegetation on airborne pollen distribution; allergenic potentials of dominant atmospheric pollen types at selected study locations in Bauchi and Taraba states, Northwestern Nigeria. A tauber-like pollen trap was employed in aerosampling with the sampler positioned at a height of 5 feet above the ground, followed by a monthly collection of the recipient solution for the sampling period. The collected samples were subjected to acetolysis treatment, examined microscopically with the identification of pollen grains and spores using reference materials and published photomicrographs. Plants within the surrounding vegetation were enumerated. Crude protein contents extracted from pollen types found to be commonly dominant at both study locations; Senna siamea, Terminalia cattapa, Panicum maximum and Zea mays were used to sensitize Musmusculus. Histopathological studies of bronchi and lung sections from certain dead M.musculus in the test groups was conducted. Blood samples were collected from the pre-orbital vein of M.musculus and processed for serological and haematological (differential and total white blood cell counts) studies. ELISA was used in determining the levels of serological parameters: IgE and cytokines (TNF-, IL-5, and IL-13). Statistical significance was observed in the correlation between the levels of serological and haematological parameters elicited by each test group, differences between the levels of serological and haematological parameters elicited by each test group and those of the control, as well as at varying sensitization periods. The results from this study revealed dominant airborne pollen types across the study locations; Syzygiumguineense, Tridaxprocumbens, Elaeisguineensis, Mimosa sp., Borreria sp., Terminalia sp., Senna sp. and Poaceae. Nephrolepis sp., Pteris sp. and a trilete fern also produced spores. This study also revealed that some of the airborne pollen types were produced by local plants at the study locations. Bronchi sections of M.musculus after first and second sensitizations, as well as lung section after first sensitization with Senna siamea, showed areas of necrosis. Statistical significance was recorded in the correlation between the levels of some serological and haematological parameters produced by each test group and those of the control, as well as at certain sensitization periods. The study revealed some candidate pollen allergens at the study locations allergy sufferers and also established a complexity of interaction between immune cells, IgE and cytokines at varied periods of mice sensitization and forming a paradigm of human immune response to different pollen allergens. However, it is expedient that further studies should be conducted on these candidate pollen allergens for their allergenicity potential in humans within their immediate environment.

Keywords: airborne, hypersensitive, mus musculus, pollen allergens, respiratory, tauber-like

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16 Surface Modified Electrospun Expanded Polystyrene Fibre with Superhydrophobic/Superoleophillic Properties as Potential Oil Membrane

Authors: S. Oluwagbemiga Alayande, E. Olugbenga Dare, Titus A. M. Msagati, A. Kehinde Akinlabi , P. O. Aiyedun

Abstract:

This paper presents a cheap route procedure for the preparation of a potential oil membrane with superhydrophobic /superoleophillic properties for selective removal of crude oil from water. In these study, expanded polystyrene (EPS) was electrospun to produce beaded fibers in which zeolite was introduced to the polymer matrix in order to impart rough surface to non-beaded fiber. Films of the EPS and EPS/Zeolite solutions were also made for comparative study. The electrospun fibers EPS, EPS/Zeolite and resultant films were characterized using SEM, BET, FTIR and optical contact angle. The fibers exhibited superhydrophic and superoleophillic wetting properties with water and crude oil. The selective removal of crude oil presents new opportunity for the re-use of EPS as adsorbent in petroleum/petrochemical industry.

Keywords: expanded polystyrene, superhydrophobic, superoleophillic, oil-membrane

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15 The Potential for Recycling Household Wastes Generated from the Residential Areas of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife

Authors: Asaolu Olugbenga Stephen, Afolabi Olusegun Temitope

Abstract:

Lack of proper solid waste management is one of the main causes of environmental pollution and degradation in many cities, especially in developing countries. The aim of this study was to estimate the quantity of waste generated per capita per day, determine the composition and identify the potentials for recycling of waste generated. Characterization of wastes from selected households in the residential areas was done for over a 7 day period. The weight of each sorted category of waste was recorded in a structured database that calculated the proportion of each waste component. The results indicated that 85.4% of the sampled waste characterized was found to be recyclable; with an estimated average waste generated of 1.82kg/capita/day. The various solid waste fractions were organic (64.6%), plastics (15.6%), metals (9.2%), glass materials (1.6%) and unclassified (8.9%). It was concluded from this study that a large proportion of the waste generated from OAU campus residential area was recyclable and that there is a need to enact policy on waste recycling within the university campus.

Keywords: recycling, household wastes, residential, solid waste management

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14 Barriers to Sports Participation as a Means of Achieving Sustainable Development in Michael Otedola College of Primary Education

Authors: Osifeko Olalekan Remigious, Osifeko Christiana Osikorede, Folarin Bolanle Eunice, Olugbenga Adebola Shodiya

Abstract:

In this period of economic problem, nations are looking for avenues to improve their economy, preserve their environment and socio-political environment, educational institutions are not left out as there is the need for them to increase their economy and preserve their socio political environment. Sports is one of the ways through which sustainable development can be achieved. The purpose of this study was to examine the barriers to sports participation. A total of 1025 students were purposively selected from all the five schools in the College. A questionnaire which has a reliability coefficient of 0.71 was used for data collection. Data collected were subjected to the descriptive survey research design. Findings showed that facilities, funds and lectures schedule were significant barriers to sports participation. It was recommended that sports facilities should be provided by the Lagos State government.

Keywords: MOCPED sports, sustainable development, sports participation, state government

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13 Going Viral: Constructively Aligning the Use of Digital Video to Effectively Support Faculty Development

Authors: Samuel Olugbenga King

Abstract:

This review article, which is a synthesis of the relevant research literature, focuses on the capabilities of digital video to support, facilitate and enhance faculty development. Based on the literature review, faculty development (i.e., academic or educational development) requires the continued adoption of cohesive, theoretical frameworks to guide research and practice; incorporation of relevant tools from analogous fields, such as teacher professional development; systematic program evaluations; and detailed descriptions of practice to further practice and creative development. A cohesive, five-heuristic framework is subsequently outlined to inform the design and evaluation of the use of digital video, so as to address the barriers to advancing faculty development, as identified through the literature review. Alternative impact evaluation approaches are also described, while the limitations of using digital video for faculty development are highlighted. This paper is therefore conceived as one way to meaningfully leverage the educational affordances of digital video to address some lingering gaps in faculty development.

Keywords: digital video, faculty/educational development, evaluation, scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL)

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12 Antimicrobial Potential of Calendula officinalis Extracts on Flavobacterium columnare of Clarias gariepinus Fingerlings

Authors: Nelson Rotimi Osungbemiro, Sanni Rafiu Olugbenga, Abayomi Olufemi Olajuyigbe

Abstract:

Ninety Fingerlings of Clarias gariepinus were exposed to the pathogenic Flavobacterium columnare a Gram Negative bacteria responsible for high mortality in fish pond raised young fish (fries and fingerlings) of Clarias sp. in Southwestern Nigeria. After feeding with 40% crude protein pelletized fish feed for 5 days, the fishes were divided into two groups, one group was treated with extracts from Calendula officinalis flowers, while the second group was not treated (control). The results indicated that, at day 5, colony formation had been manifesting and at day 7, skin lesion occurred and at the 8th day, first mortality of fish occurred, and this continued steadily on the 9th-12th day when all the fishes were dead. Whereas, in the group that was treated with Calendula sp., no single mortality was recorded. This research shows that plant extract from Calendula flowers is an effective antimicrobial agent against the virulent pathogenic Flavobacterium columnare disease.

Keywords: antimicrobial, Flavobacterium columnare, Clarias gariepinus, fish

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11 Reflections on Ten Years of Preparing Graduate Students for the Professoriate at an American Research University

Authors: Samuel Olugbenga King

Abstract:

Using a reflective analysis tool to provide both local and global perspectives, this study focuses on the longitudinal evaluation of the Graduate Student Development (GSD) initiative, the Preparing Future Faculty (PFF) program. The reflection process involves examining the past and present to identify challenges, and culminates in the creation of an action plan to address barriers to further growth and teaching development of graduate students, thus positively impacting student experience. The outcomes of the reflective critique of the PFF program indicate that lack of mentoring as well as inadequate feedback and funding are barriers that need to be addressed to positively impact the graduate student experience. Consequently, interventions, such as peer and student evaluations, and alumni surveys are highlighted as pragmatic modes of addressing the inadequate feedback and mentoring barriers. However, funding remains an ongoing challenge. This article is a contribution to the literature on the use of critical reflection approaches to investigate and evaluate specific programming that focuses on enhancing the graduate student experience and development.

Keywords: graduate student experience, longitudinal reflection, quality enhancement, teaching

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10 Physicochemical and Bacteriological Quality Characterization of Some Selected Wells in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

Authors: Olu Ale, Olugbenga Aribisala, Sanmi Awopetu

Abstract:

Groundwater (Wells) is obtained from several well-defined and different water-bearing geological layers or strata. The physical, chemical and bacteriological quality of the water contributed from each of these water-bearing formations and resultant effects of indiscriminate wastes disposal will be dependent on the dissolution of material within the formation. Therefore, water withdrawn from any ground water source will be a composite of these individual aquifers. The water quality was determined by actual sampling and analysis of the completed wells. This study attempted to examine the physicochemical and bacteriological water quality of twenty five selected wells comprising twenty boreholes (deep wells) and five hand dug wells (shallow wells). The twenty five wells cut across the entire Ado Ekiti Metropolitan area. The water samples collected using standard method was promptly taken to water laboratory at the Federal Polytechnic Ado-Ekiti for analysis, physical, chemical and bacteriological tests were carried out. Quality characteristics tested were found to meet WHO’s standard and generally acceptable, making it potable for drinking in most situations, thus encouraging the use of groundwater. Possible improvement strategies to groundwater exploitation were highlighted while remedies to poor quality water were suggested.

Keywords: bacteriological, physicochemical, quality, wells, Ado Ekiti

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9 Determinants of Integrated Reporting in Nigeria

Authors: Uwalomwa Uwuigbe, Olubukola Ranti Uwuigbe, Jinadu Olugbenga, Otekunrin Adegbola

Abstract:

Corporate reporting has evolved over the years resulting from criticisms of the precedent by shareholders, stakeholders and other relevant financial institutions. Integrated reporting has become a globalized corporate reporting style, with its adoption around the world occurring rapidly to bring about an improvement in the quality of corporate reporting. While some countries have swiftly clinched into reporting in an integrated manner, others have not. In addition, there are ample research that has been conducted on the benefits of adopting integrated reporting, however, the same is not true in developing economies like Nigeria. Hence, this study basically examined the factors determining the adoption of integrated reporting in Nigeria. One hundred (100) copies of questionnaire was administered to financial managers of 20 selected listed companies in the Nigeria stock exchange market. The data obtained was analysed using the Spearman Rank Order Correlation via the Statistical Package for Social Science. This study observed that there is a significant relationship between the social pressures of isomorphic changes and integrated reporting adoption in Nigeria. The study recommends the need for an enforcement mechanism to be put in place while considering the adoption of integrated reporting in Nigeria, enforcement mechanisms should put into consideration the investors demand, the level of economic development, and the degree of corporate social responsibility.

Keywords: corporate social responsibility, isomorphic, integrated reporting, Nigeria, sustainability

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8 Understanding Barriers to Sports Participation as a Means of Achieving Sustainable Development in Michael Otedola College of Primary Education

Authors: Osifeko Olalekan Remigious, Osifeko Christiana Osikorede, Folarin Bolanle Eunice, Olugbenga Adebola Shodiya

Abstract:

During these difficult economic times, nations are looking for ways to improve their finances, preserve the environment as well as the socio-political climate and educational institutions, which are needed to increase their economy and preserve their sustainable development. Sport is one of the ways through which sustainable development can be achieved. The purpose of this study was to examine and understanding barriers to participation in sport. A total of 1,025 students were purposively selected from five schools (School of Arts and Social Sciences, School of Languages, School of Education, School of Sciences and School of Vocational and Technical Education) in Michael Otedola College of Primary Education (MOCPED). A questionnaire, with a tested reliability coefficient of 0.71, was used for data collection. The collected data were subjected to the descriptive survey research design. The findings showed that sports facilities, funding and lecture schedules were significant barriers to sports participation. It was recommended that sports facilities be provided by the Lagos State government.

Keywords: sports, sustainable development, Participation, State government, barriers

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7 Effects of Air Pollution on Dew Water: A Case Study of Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

Authors: M. Sanmi Awopetu, Olugbenga Aribisala, Olabisi O. Ologuntoye, S. Olumuyi Akindele

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Human existence vis-à-vis its environment is more and more getting a threatened sequel to air pollution occasioned majorly by human coupled with natural activities. Earth is getting warmer; ozone layer is getting depleted, acid rain is being experienced, all as a result of air pollution. This study seeks to investigate the effect of air pollution on dew water. Thirty-one (31) samples of dew water were collected in four locations in Ado- Ekiti, Ekiti State Nigeria. Analytical studies of the dew water samples were carried out to determine the pH, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) and Electrical Conductivity (EC) in order to determine whether the dew water is polluted or not. There is no documented world standard for dew water quality. However, the standard for normal rain water which is pH between 5.0-5.6 and acid rain pH between 4.0-4.4 was adopted for this study. The pH of dew water samples collected and analyzed ranged between 5.5 and 7.9 in Olokun Ado-Ekiti while other samples fell in between this range. In Government Reserved Area (GRA), Ajilosun and EKSU school area, the pH ranged between 6.4 and 7.9 while EC fell in between 0.0 and 0.9 mS/cm which shows that the observed zones are polluted. Everyone has a role to play in order to reduce the pollutants being released into the atmosphere. There is a need to develop an international standard for dew water quality.

Keywords: dew, air pollution, total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, Ado-Ekiti

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6 Perceived Impact of Climate Change on the Livelihood of Arable Crop Farmers in Ipokia Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria

Authors: Emmanuel Olugbenga Fakoya

Abstract:

The study examined the perceived impact of climate change on the livelihood of arable crop farmers in Ipokia Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria. Multistage sampling technique was used to select 80 arable crop farmers in the study area. Data collected were analyzed using percentages, frequencies and Chi square analysis. The result showed that 63.8 percent of the respondents were male while 55.0 percent were married. Less than half (30.0 percent) of the respondents were between the age bracket of 41-50 years and 50.0 percent had 6-10 household size. Furthermore, majority (40.0 percent) of the arable crop farmers farmed on an inherited land and 51.3 percent had 2-3 hectares of land. Majority (38.8 percent) of the farmers intercrop maize with cassava and maize with yam. Various strategies adapted to reduce the effect of climate change on their crop and livelihood include: crop rotation (53.8 percent), planting of leguminous crop (35.0 percent), application of organic fertilizers (45.0 percent), mulching (56.3 percent) and by planting drought resistance crops (46.5 percent). Reported among the effects of climate change on crop and farmers’ livelihood were: discoloration of crop leave (63.8 percent), increase infestation of pests and diseases (58.8 percent) and reduction of crop yield (60.0 percent). Chi- square analysis showed significant relationship between impact of climate change on arable crop production and thus famers’ livelihood. It was concluded from the study that climate change is an impinging factor that seriously affect arable crop production and hence farmers’ livelihood despite coping strategies to minimize its effect. It was however recommended that Agricultural policies and practices that could minimize or eliminate its effect should be seriously enacted to boost production and increase farmers’ livelihood.

Keywords: agricultural extension, extension agent, private sector, perception

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5 Petrogenesis of the Neoproterozoic Rocks of Megele Area, Asosa, Western Ethiopia

Authors: Temesgen Oljira, Olugbenga Akindeji Okunlola, Akinade Shadrach Olatunji, Dereje Ayalew, Bekele Ayele Bedada

Abstract:

The Western Ethiopian Shield (WES) is underlain by volcano-sedimentary terranes, gneissic terranes, and ophiolitic rocks intruded by different granitoid bodies. For the past few years, Neoproterozoic rocks of the Megele area in the western part of the WES have been explored. Understanding the geology of the area and assessing the mineralized area's economic potential requires petrological, geochemical, and geological characterization of the Neoproterozoic granitoids and associated metavolcanic rocks. Thus, the geological, geochemical, and petrogenetic features of Neoproterozoic granitoids and associated metavolcanic rocks were elucidated using a combination of field mapping, petrological, and geochemical study. The Megele area is part of a low-grade volcano-sedimentary zone that has been intruded by mafic (dolerite dyke) and granitoid intrusions (granodiorite, diorite, granite gneiss). The granodiorite, associated diorite, and granite gneiss are calc-alkaline, peraluminous to slightly metaluminous, S-type granitoids formed in volcanic arc subduction (VAG) to syn-collisional (syn-COLD) tectonic setting by fractionation of LREE-enriched, HREE-depleted basaltic magma with considerable crustal input. While the metabasalt is sub-alkaline (tholeiitic), metaluminous bodies are generated at the mid-oceanic ridge tectonic setting by partially melting HREE-depleted and LREE-enriched basaltic magma. The reworking of sediment-loaded crustal blocks at depth in a subduction zone resulted in the production of S-type granitoids. This basaltic magma was supplied from an LREE-enriched, HREE-depleted mantle.

Keywords: fractional crystallization, geochemistry, Megele, petrogenesis, s-type granite

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4 Pervasive Computing: Model to Increase Arable Crop Yield through Detection Intrusion System (IDS)

Authors: Idowu Olugbenga Adewumi, Foluke Iyabo Oluwatoyinbo

Abstract:

Presently, there are several discussions on the food security with increase in yield of arable crop throughout the world. This article, briefly present research efforts to create digital interfaces to nature, in particular to area of crop production in agriculture with increase in yield with interest on pervasive computing. The approach goes beyond the use of sensor networks for environmental monitoring but also by emphasizing the development of a system architecture that detect intruder (Intrusion Process) which reduce the yield of the farmer at the end of the planting/harvesting period. The objective of the work is to set a model for setting up the hand held or portable device for increasing the quality and quantity of arable crop. This process incorporates the use of infrared motion image sensor with security alarm system which can send a noise signal to intruder on the farm. This model of the portable image sensing device in monitoring or scaring human, rodent, birds and even pests activities will reduce post harvest loss which will increase the yield on farm. The nano intelligence technology was proposed to combat and minimize intrusion process that usually leads to low quality and quantity of produce from farm. Intranet system will be in place with wireless radio (WLAN), router, server, and client computer system or hand held device e.g PDAs or mobile phone. This approach enables the development of hybrid systems which will be effective as a security measure on farm. Since, precision agriculture has developed with the computerization of agricultural production systems and the networking of computerized control systems. In the intelligent plant production system of controlled greenhouses, information on plant responses, measured by sensors, is used to optimize the system. Further work must be carry out on modeling using pervasive computing environment to solve problems of agriculture, as the use of electronics in agriculture will attracts more youth involvement in the industry.

Keywords: pervasive computing, intrusion detection, precision agriculture, security, arable crop

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3 A Systematic Review: Prevalence and Risk Factors of Low Back Pain among Waste Collection Workers

Authors: Benedicta Asante, Brenna Bath, Olugbenga Adebayo, Catherine Trask

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Background: Waste Collection Workers’ (WCWs) activities contribute greatly to the recycling sector and are an important component of the waste management industry. As the recycling sector evolves, reports of injuries and fatal accidents in the industry demand notice particularly common and debilitating musculoskeletal disorders such as low back pain (LBP). WCWs are likely exposed to diverse work-related hazards that could contribute to LBP. However, to our knowledge there has never been a systematic review or other synthesis of LBP findings within this workforce. The aim of this systematic review was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of LBP among WCWs. Method: A comprehensive search was conducted in Ovid Medline, EMBASE, and Global Health e-publications with search term categories ‘low back pain’ and ‘waste collection workers’. Articles were screened at title, abstract, and full-text stages by two reviewers. Data were extracted on study design, sampling strategy, socio-demographic, geographical region, and exposure definition, definition of LBP, risk factors, response rate, statistical techniques, and LBP prevalence. Risk of bias (ROB) was assessed based on Hoy Damien’s ROB scale. Results: The search of three databases generated 79 studies. Thirty-two studies met the study inclusion criteria for both title and abstract; thirteen full-text articles met the study criteria at the full-text stage. Seven articles (54%) reported prevalence within 12 months of LBP between 42-82% among WCW. The major risk factors for LBP among WCW included: awkward posture; lifting; pulling; pushing; repetitive motions; work duration; and physical loads. Summary data and syntheses of findings was presented in trend-lines and tables to establish the several prevalence periods based on age and region distribution. Public health implications: LBP is a major occupational hazard among WCWs. In light of these risks and future growth in this industry, further research should focus on more detail ergonomic exposure assessment and LBP prevention efforts.

Keywords: low back pain, scavenger, waste collection workers, waste pickers

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2 Kinetic, Equilibrium and Thermodynamic Studies of the Adsorption of Crystal Violet Dye Using Groundnut Hulls

Authors: Olumuyiwa Ayoola Kokapi, Olugbenga Solomon Bello

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Dyes are organic compounds with complex aromatic molecular structure that resulted in fast colour on a substance. Dye effluent found in wastewater generated from the dyeing industries is one of the greatest contributors to water pollution. Groundnut hull (GH) is an agricultural material that constitutes waste in the environment. Environmental contamination by hazardous organic chemicals is an urgent problem, which is partially solved through adsorption technologies. The choice of groundnut hull was promised on the understanding that some materials of agricultural origin have shown potentials to act as Adsorbate for hazardous organic chemicals. The aim of this research is to evaluate the potential of groundnut hull to adsorb Crystal violet dye through kinetic, isotherm and thermodynamic studies. The prepared groundnut hulls was characterized using Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Operational parameters such as contact time, initial dye concentration, pH, and effect of temperature were studied. Equilibrium time for the adsorption process was attained in 80 minutes. Adsorption isotherms used to test the adsorption data were Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms model. Thermodynamic parameters such as ∆G°, ∆H°, and ∆S° of the adsorption processes were determined. The results showed that the uptake of dye by groundnut hulls occurred at a faster rate, corresponding to an increase in adsorption capacity at equilibrium time of 80 min from 0.78 to 4.45 mg/g and 0.77 to 4.45mg/g with an increase in the initial dye concentration from 10 to 50 mg/L for pH 3.0 and 8.0 respectively. High regression values obtained for pseudo-second-order kinetic model, sum of square error (SSE%) values along with strong agreement between experimental and calculated values of qe proved that pseudo second-order kinetic model fitted more than pseudo first-order kinetic model. The result of Langmuir and Freundlich model showed that the adsorption data fit the Langmuir model more than the Freundlich model. Thermodynamic study demonstrated the feasibility, spontaneous and endothermic nature of the adsorption process due to negative values of free energy change (∆G) at all temperatures and positive value of enthalpy change (∆H) respectively. The positive values of ∆S showed that there was increased disorderliness and randomness at the solid/solution interface of crystal violet dye and groundnut hulls. The present investigation showed that, groundnut hulls (GH) is a good low-cost alternative adsorbent for the removal of Crystal Violet (CV) dye from aqueous solution.

Keywords: adsorption, crystal violet dye, groundnut halls, kinetics

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1 Determinants of Unmet Need for Contraception among Currently Married Women in Rural and Urban Communities of Osun State, South-West Nigeria

Authors: Abiola O. Temitayo-Oboh, Olugbenga L. Abodunrin, Wasiu O. Adebimpe, Micheal C. Asuzu

Abstract:

Introduction: Many women who are sexually active would prefer to avoid becoming pregnant but are not using any method of contraception. These women are considered to have an unmet need for contraception. In an ideal situation, all women who want to space or limit their births and are exposed to the risk of conception would use some kind of conception; in practice, however, some women fail to use contraception which put them at risk of having mistimed or unwanted births, induced abortion, or maternal death. This study, therefore, aimed to assess the determinants of unmet need for contraception among currently married women in rural and urban communities of Osun State, South-West Nigeria. Methods: This was an analytical cross-sectional comparative study, which was carried out among currently married women. Three hundred and twenty respondents each were selected for the rural and urban groups from four Local Government Areas using multi-stage sampling technique. Data were collected using a pre-tested semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire and focus group discussion (FGD) guide; data analysis was done with Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17.0 and detailed content analysis method respectively. Statistical analysis of the difference between proportions was done by the use of the Chi-square test and T-test was used to compare the means of the continuous variables. The study also utilized descriptive, bivariate and multivariate analytical techniques to examine the effect of some variables on unmet need. Level of statistical significance was set at p-value < 0.05 for all values. Results: Two hundred and ninety-six (92.5%) of the rural and 306 (95.6%) of the urban study population had heard of contraception, 365 (57.0 %) of the total respondents had good knowledge [162 (50.6 %) for rural respondents and 203 (63.4 %) for urban respondents]. This difference was statistically significant (p < 0.001). Five hundred and twenty-one (81.4%) respondents had a positive attitude towards contraception [243 (75.9%) in the rural and 278 (86.9%) in the urban area], and the difference was also statistically significant (p < 0.001). Only 47 (14.7%) and 59 (18.4%) of rural and urban women were current contraceptive users respectively. The total unmet need for contraception among rural women was 138 (43.1%) of which 82 (25.6%) was for spacing and 56 (17.5%), for limiting. While the total unmet need for contraception among urban women was 145 (45.3%) of which 96 (30.0%) was for spacing and 49 (15.3%) for limiting. Number of living children, knowledge of contraceptive methods, discussion with health workers about family planning, couples discussion about family planning and availability of family planning services were found to be predictors of women’s unmet need for contraception (p < 0.05). Conclusion: It is, therefore, recommended that there is need to intensify reproductive health education in bridging the knowledge gap, improving attitude and modifying practices regarding use of contraception in Nigeria. Hence, this will help to enhance the utilization of family planning services among Nigerian women.

Keywords: contraception, married women, Nigeria, rural, urban, unmet need

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