Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 327

Search results for: oil revenue

327 An Appraisal of Revenue Collection in Local Government: A Case Study of Boripe Local Government Iragbiji Osun State

Authors: Olanike O. Akinwale, Isiaka S. Adedoyin

Abstract:

Revenue is a fund realized by the government to meet both current and capital expenditures. The study found out the various ways through which local governments in Nigeria generate revenue or obtain funds and determined whether the people of Boripe local government are paying tax as at when due and also evaluated how the revenue generated is being used by the local government. During the course of this study, research questionnaires were drafted and distributed to respondents in the local government secretariat who supplied the information needed to carry out the research work. Data were collected by using simple random sampling technique where members of the population have been given equal chance of being picked as a member of the sample. Data were analysed using chart table; the chart analyzed the figure of the past two years revenue and expenditure of the local government. It was deduced from the result that revenue generated but this was not up to what one expected for this local government to finance the projected expenditure when the size was considered, its location as well as its natural endowment of this local government. This was due to lack of cooperation of the people and staffs within the local government in the local government jurisdiction as well as fraudulent activities the revenue collectors engaged in. Revenue generation is a fuel for development in any organization whether public or private. The ability of revenue drive of Boripe was not strong enough since the targeted revenue from taxation was not enough to meet the projected expenditure for a particular year as in 2016, the difference was carried forward to the next year.

Keywords: appraisal, expenditure, local government, questionnaire, revenue

Procedia PDF Downloads 262
326 New Formula for Revenue Recognition Likely to Change the Prescription for Pharma Industry

Authors: Shruti Hajirnis

Abstract:

In May 2014, FASB issued Accounting Standards Update (ASU) 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606), and the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) issued International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) 15, Revenue from Contracts with Customers that will supersede virtually all revenue recognition requirements in IFRS and US GAAP. FASB and the IASB have basically achieved convergence with these standards, with only some minor differences such as collectability threshold, interim disclosure requirements, early application and effective date, impairment loss reversal and nonpublic entity requirements. This paper discusses the impact of five-step model prescribed in new revenue standard on the entities operating in Pharma industry. It also outlines the considerations for these entities while implementing the new standard.

Keywords: revenue recognition, pharma industry, standard, requirements

Procedia PDF Downloads 366
325 The Impact of Non-Oil Revenue on Nigeria’s Economic Growth and Development

Authors: Abubakar O. Sulaiman

Abstract:

Agriculture was the main stay of Nigeria’s economy before the oil boom of the 1970s caused a gradual but steady shift from agriculture to crude oil as the major source of revenue and foreign exchange. The economy later experienced many symptoms of the 'Dutch disease', with exchange rate appreciation and erosion of competitiveness of the non-oil tradable goods. In order to reverse the worsening economic situations -high unemployment, galloping inflation, deteriorating balance of payment, declining economic growth, and fiscal deficits among others- the government, embarked on austerity measures in 1982 and Structure Adjustment Programme (SAP) in 1986. One of the cornerstones of SAP is the diversification of the economy from oil to non-oil. In the form of stocktaking, this paper investigates the impact of non-oil revenue on economic growth in Nigeria using quarterly time-series data from 1980 to 2019. The findings revealed that a long-run relationship exists between the variables (non-oil variables) and economic growth in Nigeria. Among the variables, (agriculture revenue, manufacturing revenue, revenue from services, and company income tax) contributed substantially to economic growth. The paper recommends that the government should continue to intensify efforts and policies in the diversification of the economy as it will bring about sustainable non-oil revenue and economic growth.

Keywords: non-oil revenue, economic growth, export, long run relationship

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
324 A Model for Revenue Leakage Prevention Kabul Municipality Lesson Learned from Jakarta and Mitaka City

Authors: Saifurahman Fayiz

Abstract:

E-government has become a widespread focus of government efforts in various countries around the world. Many governments around the world have been adopted and introduced e-government systems. This research examines the implementation of the Information& communication technology (ICTS) Model in the Kabul Municipality. The objective of this research is to propose an ICT model in the Kabul Municipality to prevent revenue leakage. The research methodology consists qualitative research method based on a comparative case study. The research findings propose that implementing ICT prevent revenue leakage, increases transparency and paves the way for better services. The key conclusion of this research is that the practice of advanced technology in revenue collection paves the way for transparency and provides services in a decent way. The usage of experiences from other Municipalities, especially Jakarta province and Mitaka Municipality Helps KM to improve revenue and provide better services to the citizens

Keywords: E-government, ICT, municipality, revenue

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
323 The Mediating Effect of Taxpayers’ Compliance on Internal Business Process-Tax Revenue Relationship: A Case Study at the Directorate General of Taxation in Indonesia

Authors: Efrizal, Ferdiansyah, Noorlailie Soewarno, Bambang Tjahjadi

Abstract:

Tax revenue plays an important role in the State Budget of the Government of Indonesia (GOI). The GOI keeps raising tax revenue portion of the Budget from year to year. The low tax ratio of 11 percent in Indonesia shows a big opportunity to collect taxes in the future. The Directorate General of Taxation (DGT) is the institution mandated by the Law to collect tax revenue. This is a case study using quantitative and qualitative approaches. This study introduces contingent factors of taxpayers’ compliance as the mediating variable and internal business process as the independent variable. This study aims to empirically test the contingency theory, especially the mediating effect of taxpayers’ compliance on internal business process-tax revenue relationship. Internal business processes of the DGT include servicing, counseling, expanding, supervising, inspecting, and enforcing. The secondary data of 31 regional offices representing 293 tax offices in Indonesia was collected and analyzed using Partial Least Square. The result showed the following: (1) internal business process affected tax revenue; (2) taxpayers’ compliance did not mediate internal business processes - tax revenue relationship, and (3) taxpayers’ compliance affected tax revenue. In-depth interviews revealed that the DGT needs to make more innovations in business processes in the future.

Keywords: innovations, internal business process, taxpayers’ compliance, tax revenue

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
322 Commitment Based Revenue Sharing Contract

Authors: Muhammad Shafiq, Huynh Trung Luong

Abstract:

In this paper, we proposed a commitment based revenue sharing contract for a supply chain comprising one manufacturer and one retailer facing highly uncertain demand of a short life span fashionable product. In our model, the retailer reserves a commitment level with the manufacturer prior to the selling season. In response, the manufacturer allocates and produces a specific quantity which is the maximum available quantity for the retailer. The retailer is motivated to commit more by offering higher revenue sharing percentage for reserved capacity than non-reserved capacity. Due to asymmetric information, it is found that the manufacturer can optimize quantity allocation decision while the commitment level decision of the retailer may not be optimal.

Keywords: supply chain coordination, revenue sharing contract, commitment based revenue sharing, quantity allocation

Procedia PDF Downloads 413
321 Efficiency in Islamic Banks: Some Empirical Evidences in Indonesian Finance Market

Authors: Ahmed Sameer El Khatib

Abstract:

The aim of the present paper is to examine the revenue efficiency of the Indonesian Islamic banking sector. The study also seeks to investigate the potential internal (bank specific) and external (macroeconomic) determinants that influence the revenue efficiency of Indonesian domestic Islamic banks. We employ the whole gamut of domestic and foreign Islamic banks operating in the Indonesian Islamic banking sector during the period of 2009 to 2018. The level of revenue efficiency is computed by using the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method. Furthermore, we employ a panel regression analysis framework based on the Ordinary Least Square (OLS) method to examine the potential determinants of revenue efficiency. The results indicate that the level of revenue efficiency of Indonesian domestic Islamic banks is lower compared to their foreign Islamic bank counterparts. We find that bank market power, liquidity, and management quality significantly influence the improvement in revenue efficiency of the Indonesian domestic Islamic banks during the period under study. By calculating these efficiency concepts, we can observe the efficiency levels of the domestic and foreign Islamic banks. In addition, by comparing both cost and profit efficiency, we can identify the influence of the revenue efficiency on the banks’ profitability.

Keywords: Islamic Finance, Islamic Banks, Revenue Efficiency, Data Envelopment Analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
320 Machine Learning Based Approach for Measuring Promotion Effectiveness in Multiple Parallel Promotions’ Scenarios

Authors: Revoti Prasad Bora, Nikita Katyal

Abstract:

Promotion is a key element in the retail business. Thus, analysis of promotions to quantify their effectiveness in terms of Revenue and/or Margin is an essential activity in the retail industry. However, measuring the sales/revenue uplift is based on estimations, as the actual sales/revenue without the promotion is not present. Further, the presence of Halo and Cannibalization in a multiple parallel promotions’ scenario complicates the problem. Calculating Baseline by considering inter-brand/competitor items or using Halo and Cannibalization's impact on Revenue calculations by considering Baseline as an interpretation of items’ unit sales in neighboring nonpromotional weeks individually may not capture the overall Revenue uplift in the case of multiple parallel promotions. Hence, this paper proposes a Machine Learning based method for calculating the Revenue uplift by considering the Halo and Cannibalization impact on the Baseline and the Revenue. In the first section of the proposed methodology, Baseline of an item is calculated by incorporating the impact of the promotions on its related items. In the later section, the Revenue of an item is calculated by considering both Halo and Cannibalization impacts. Hence, this methodology enables correct calculation of the overall Revenue uplift due a given promotion.

Keywords: Halo, Cannibalization, promotion, Baseline, temporary price reduction, retail, elasticity, cross price elasticity, machine learning, random forest, linear regression

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
319 A Study of Cost and Revenue Earned from Tourist Walking Street Activities in Songkhla City Municipality, Thailand

Authors: Weerawan Marangkun

Abstract:

This study is a survey intended to investigate cost, revenue and factors affecting changes in revenue and to provide guidelines for improving factors affecting changes in revenue from tourist walking street activities in Songkhla City Municipality. Instruments used in this study were structured interviews, using Yaman table (1973) where the random sampling error was+ 10%. The sample consisting of 83 entrepreneurs were drawn from a total population of 272. The purposive sampling method was used. Data were collected during the 6-month period from December 2011 until May 2012. The findings indicate that the cost paid by an entrepreneur in connection with his/her services for tourists is mainly for travel, which stands at about 290 Baht per day. Each entrepreneur earns about 3,850 Baht per day, which means about 400,000 Baht per year. The combined total revenue from walking street tourist activities is about 108.8 million Baht per year. Such activities add economic value to tourist facilities due to expenditures by tourists and provide the entrepreneurs with considerable income. Factors affecting changes in revenue from tourist walking street activities are: the increase in the number of entrepreneurs; the holding of trade fairs, events or interesting shows in the vicinity; and weather conditions (e.g. abundant rainfall, which can contribute to a decrease in the number of tourists). Suggested measures to improve factors affecting changes in the income are: addition or creation of new activities; regulation of operations of the stalls and parking area; and generation of greater publicity through the social network.

Keywords: cost, revenue, tourist, walking street

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
318 The Effect of Human Capital and Oil Revenue on Income Distribution in Real Sample

Authors: Marjan Majdi, MohammadAli Moradi, Elham Samarikhalaj

Abstract:

Income distribution is one of the most topics in macro economic theories. There are many categories in economy such as income distribution that have the most influenced by economic policies. Human capital has an impact on economic growth and it has significant effect on income distributions. The results of this study confirm that the effects of oil revenue and human capital on income distribution are negative and significant but the value of the estimated coefficient is too small in a real sample in period time (1969-2006).

Keywords: gini coefficient, human capital, income distribution, oil revenue

Procedia PDF Downloads 510
317 A Comparative Study of Primary Revenue Sources in the U.S. Professional Sports, Intercollegiate Sports, and Sporting Goods Industry

Authors: Chenghao Ma

Abstract:

This paper mainly examines and compares the primary revenue sources in the professional sports, intercollegiate sports, and sporting goods industries in the U.S. In the professional team sport, revenues may come from different resources, including broadcasting rights, ticket sales, corporate partnerships, naming rights, licensed merchandise, luxury suites, club seating, ancillary activities, and transfer fees. Many universities use university budgets and student fees to cover the cost of collegiate athletics. Other sources of revenue include ticket sales, broadcast rights, concessions, corporate partnerships, cash contributions from alumni, and others. Revenues in the sporting goods industry are very different compared with professional sports teams and collegiate athletics. Sporting goods companies mainly sell a line of products and equipment to generate revenue. Revenues are critical for sports organizations, including professional sports teams, intercollegiate athletics, and sporting goods companies. There are similarities and differences among these areas. Sports managers are looking for new ways to generate revenues, and there are many changes of sources because of the development of the internet and technology. Compared with intercollegiate athletics, professional sport and sporting goods companies will create more revenue opportunities globally.

Keywords: revenue sources, professional sports, intercollegiate athletics, sporting goods industry

Procedia PDF Downloads 132
316 Non-Fungible Token and Block Chain Platform Revenue Model

Authors: Cho Seung Wan, Shin Dong Ho

Abstract:

In this research paper throughout Block chain and NFT's revenue model. Block chain used newest system for improve that security system. Past, lots of company used server base system. So, they can solve problem faster. But today's blockchain system is usually used for other company. Blockchain is lots of block is chaining each other to one chain. So, all the server has same data and power. Blockchain can solve hard security problem. While server base is one center have all the data and power. That two system is completely different. Anyway, the blockchain's cryptocurrency is very particular then other system to be use blockchain. Cryptocurrency came out to alternate for today's currency system. Typical kind of cryptocurrency is Bitcoin and Ethereum. That two types of cryptocurrencies are using a lot of things. Investigate NFT and resulting revenue model.

Keywords: blockchain, non-fungible token, revenue model, cryptocurrency

Procedia PDF Downloads 27
315 Problems of ICT Adoption in Nigerian Small and Medium Scale Enterprises

Authors: Ajayi Adeola

Abstract:

The study examined the sources of revenue in Osun State. It determined the impact of revenue consultants on the internally generated revenue of Osun State Government, all with a view to surveying the expenditure pattern of the state. In the course of carrying out the study, data were collected primarily through interview method. Four principal officers in the financial sector were interviewed. However, secondary sources of data were collected from Osun State of Nigeria audited reports and financial statements for the year ended 31st December, 1997 to 2006. The data generated were analyzed using percentages and pie-chart for illustrations. The findings of the study revealed that the sources of revenue for Osun State Government included internally generated revenue (IGR), statutory allocation, value added tax (VAT) and capital projects. It also discovered that Statutory Allocation was the dominant sources of government revenue during the period of study. It accounted for 63.69% while IGR was 19.7%, value added tax (VAT) 8.07% and capital Receipts 8.48%. The study also discovered that the recurrent expenditure overshot the capital expenditure during the period of study on ratio 7:3 respectively while the state recorded surplus budget in seven times and deficit budgets in 2003 and 2004. The study concluded that the Osun State government was over dependent on external sources to finance recurrent and capital expenditure during the period of study.

Keywords: information communication technology, ICT adoption, ICT solution, small and medium scale enterprises

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
314 The Impact of Quality Cost on Revenue Sharing in Supply Chain Management

Authors: Fayza M. Obied-Allah

Abstract:

Customer’ needs, quality, and value creation while reducing costs through supply chain management provides challenges and opportunities for companies and researchers. In the light of these challenges, modern ideas must contribute to counter these challenges and exploit opportunities. Perhaps this paper will be one of these contributions. This paper discusses the impact of the quality cost on revenue sharing as a most important incentive to configure business networks. No doubt that the costs directly affect the size of income generated by a business network, so this paper investigates the impact of quality costs on business networks revenue, and their impact on the decision to participate the revenue among the companies in the supply chain. This paper develops the quality cost approach to align with the modern era, the developed model includes five categories besides the well-known four categories (namely prevention costs, appraisal costs, internal failure costs, and external failure costs), a new category has been developed in this research as a new vision of the relationship between quality costs and innovations of industry. This new category is Recycle Cost. This paper is organized into six sections, Section I shows quality costs overview in the supply chain. Section II discusses revenue sharing between the parties in supply chain. Section III investigates the impact of quality costs in revenue sharing decision between partners in supply chain. The fourth section includes survey study and presents statistical results. Section V discusses the results and shows future opportunities for research. Finally, Section VI summarizes the theoretical and practical results of this paper.

Keywords: quality cost, recycle cost, revenue sharing, supply chain management

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
313 Public Debt Shocks and Public Goods Provisioning in Nigeria: Implication for National Development

Authors: Amenawo I. Offiong, Hodo B. Riman

Abstract:

Public debt profile of Nigeria has continuously been on the increase over the years. The drop in international crude oil prices has further worsened revenue position of the country, thus, necessitating further acquisition of public debt to bridge the gap in revenue deficit. Yet, when we look back at the increasing public sector spending, there are concerns that the government spending do not amount to increase in public goods provided for the country. Using data from 1980 to 2014 the study therefore seeks to investigate the factors responsible for the poor provision of public goods in the face of increasing public debt profile. Using the unrestricted VAR model Governance and Tax revenue were introduced into the model as structural variables. The result suggested that governance and tax revenue were structural determinants of the effectiveness of public goods provisioning in Nigeria. The study therefore identified weak governance as the major reason for the non-provision of public goods in Nigeria. While tax revenue exerted positive influence on the provisions of public goods, weak/poor governance was observed to crowd the benefits from increase tax revenue. The study therefore recommends reappraisal of the governance system in Nigeria. Elected officers in governance should be more transparent and accountable to the electorates they represent. Furthermore, the study advocates for an annual auditing of all government MDAs accounts by external auditors to ensure (a) accountability of public debts utilization, (b) transparent in implementation of program support funds, (c) integrity of agencies responsible for program management, and (d) measuring program effectiveness with amount of funds expended.

Keywords: impulse response function, public debt shocks, governance, public goods, tax revenue, vector auto-regression

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
312 Budget and the Performance of Public Enterprises: A Study of Selected Public Enterprises in Nasarawa State Nigeria (2009-2013)

Authors: Dalhatu, Musa Yusha’u, Shuaibu Sidi Safiyanu, Haliru Musa Hussaini

Abstract:

This study examined budget and performance of public enterprises in Nasarawa State, Nigeria in a period of 2009-2013. The study utilized secondary sources of data obtained from four selected parastatals’ budget allocation and revenue generation for the period under review. The simple correlation coefficient was used to analyze the extent of the relationship between budget allocation and revenue generation of the parastatals. Findings revealed varying results. There was positive (0.21) and weak correlation between expenditure and revenue of Nasarawa Investment and Property Development Company (NIPDC). However, the study further revealed that there was strong and weak negative relationship in the revenue and expenditure of the following parastatals over the period under review. Viz: Nasarawa State Water Board, -0.27 (weak), Nasarawa State Broadcasting Service, -0.52 (Strong) and Nasarawa State College of Agriculture, -0.36 (weak). The study therefore, recommends that government should increase its investments in NIPDC to enhance efficiency and profitability. It also recommends that government should strengthen its fiscal responsibility, accountability and transparency in public parastatals.

Keywords: budget, public enterprises, revenue, enterprise

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
311 A Conceptual Analysis of Right of Taxpayers to Claim Refund in Nigeria

Authors: Hafsat Iyabo Sa'adu

Abstract:

A salient feature of the Nigerian Tax Law is the right of the taxpayer to demand for a refund where excess tax is paid. Section 23 of the Federal Inland Revenue Service (Establishment) Act, 2007 vests Federal Inland Revenue Services with the power to make tax refund as well as set guidelines and requirements for refund process from time to time. In addition, Section 61 of the Federal Inland Revenue Service (Establishment) Act, 2007, empowers the Federal Inland Revenue Services to issue information circular to acquaint stakeholders with the policy on the refund process. A Circular was issued to that effect to correct the position that until after the annual audit of the Service before such excess can be paid to the claimant/taxpayer. But it is amazing that such circular issuance does not feature under the states’ laws. Hence, there is an inconsistencies in the tax paying system in Nigeria. This study, therefore, sets an objective, to examine the trending concept of tax refund in Nigeria. In order to achieve this set objective, a doctrinal study went under way, wherein both federal and states laws were consulted including journals and textbooks. At the end of the research, it was revealed that the law should be specific as to the time frame within which to make the refund. It further revealed that it is essential to put up a legal framework for the tax system to recognize excess payment as debt due from the state. This would provide a foundational framework for the relationship between taxpayers and Federal Inland Revenue Service as well as promote effective tax administration in all the states of the federation. Several Recommendations were made especially relating to legislative passage of ‘’Refund Circular Bill at the states levels’ pursuant to the Federal Inland Revenue Service (Establishment) Act, 2007.

Keywords: claim, Nigeria, refund, right

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
310 Determinants of Budget Performance in an Oil-Based Economy

Authors: Adeola Adenikinju, Olusanya E. Olubusoye, Lateef O. Akinpelu, Dilinna L. Nwobi

Abstract:

Since the enactment of the Fiscal Responsibility Act (2007), the Federal Government of Nigeria (FGN) has made public its fiscal budget and the subsequent implementation report. A critical review of these documents shows significant variations in the five macroeconomic variables which are inputs in each Presidential budget; oil Production target (mbpd), oil price ($), Foreign exchange rate(N/$), and Gross Domestic Product growth rate (%) and inflation rate (%). This results in underperformance of the Federal budget expected output in terms of non-oil and oil revenue aggregates. This paper evaluates first the existing variance between budgeted and actuals, then the relationship and causality between the determinants of Federal fiscal budget assumptions, and finally the determinants of FGN’s Gross Oil Revenue. The paper employed the use of descriptive statistics, the Autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model, and a Profit oil probabilistic model to achieve these objectives. This model permits for both the static and dynamic effect(s) of the independent variable(s) on the dependent variable, unlike a static model that accounts for static or fixed effect(s) only. It offers a technique for checking the existence of a long-run relationship between variables, unlike other tests of cointegration, such as the Engle-Granger and Johansen tests, which consider only non-stationary series that are integrated of the same order. Finally, even with small sample size, the ARDL model is known to generate a valid result, for it is the dependent variable and is the explanatory variable. The results showed that there is a long-run relationship between oil revenue as a proxy for budget performance and its determinants; oil price, produced oil quantity, and foreign exchange rate. There is a short-run relationship between oil revenue and its determinants; oil price, produced oil quantity, and foreign exchange rate. There is a long-run relationship between non-oil revenue and its determinants; inflation rate, GDP growth rate, and foreign exchange rate. The grangers’ causality test results show that there is a mono-directional causality between oil revenue and its determinants. The Federal budget assumptions only explain 68% of oil revenue and 62% of non-oil revenue. There is a mono-directional causality between non-oil revenue and its determinants. The Profit oil Model describes production sharing contracts, joint ventures, and modified carrying arrangements as the greatest contributors to FGN’s gross oil revenue. This provides empirical justification for the selected macroeconomic variables used in the Federal budget design and performance evaluation. The research recommends other variables, debt and money supply, be included in the Federal budget design to explain the Federal budget revenue performance further.

Keywords: ARDL, budget performance, oil price, oil quantity, oil revenue

Procedia PDF Downloads 13
309 Benchmarking Machine Learning Approaches for Forecasting Hotel Revenue

Authors: Rachel Y. Zhang, Christopher K. Anderson

Abstract:

A critical aspect of revenue management is a firm’s ability to predict demand as a function of price. Historically hotels have used simple time series models (regression and/or pick-up based models) owing to the complexities of trying to build casual models of demands. Machine learning approaches are slowly attracting attention owing to their flexibility in modeling relationships. This study provides an overview of approaches to forecasting hospitality demand – focusing on the opportunities created by machine learning approaches, including K-Nearest-Neighbors, Support vector machine, Regression Tree, and Artificial Neural Network algorithms. The out-of-sample performances of above approaches to forecasting hotel demand are illustrated by using a proprietary sample of the market level (24 properties) transactional data for Las Vegas NV. Causal predictive models can be built and evaluated owing to the availability of market level (versus firm level) data. This research also compares and contrast model accuracy of firm-level models (i.e. predictive models for hotel A only using hotel A’s data) to models using market level data (prices, review scores, location, chain scale, etc… for all hotels within the market). The prospected models will be valuable for hotel revenue prediction given the basic characters of a hotel property or can be applied in performance evaluation for an existed hotel. The findings will unveil the features that play key roles in a hotel’s revenue performance, which would have considerable potential usefulness in both revenue prediction and evaluation.

Keywords: hotel revenue, k-nearest-neighbors, machine learning, neural network, prediction model, regression tree, support vector machine

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
308 The Implementation of an E-Government System in Developing Countries: A Case of Taita Taveta County, Kenya

Authors: Tabitha Mberi, Tirus Wanyoike, Joseph Sevilla

Abstract:

The use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Government is gradually becoming a major requirement to transform delivery of services to its stakeholders by improving quality of service and efficiency. In Kenya, the devolvement of government from local authorities to county governments has resulted in many counties adopting online revenue collection systems which can be easily accessed by its stakeholders. Strathmore Research and Consortium Centre (SRCC) implemented a revenue collection system in Taita Taveta, a County in coastal Kenya. It consisted of two systems that are integrated; an online system dubbed “CountyPro” for processing county services such as Business Permit applications, General Billing, Property Rates Payments and any other revenue streams from the county. The second part was a Point of Sale(PoS) system used by the county revenue collectors to charge for market fees and vehicle parking fees. This study assesses the success and challenges in adoption of the integrated system. Qualitative and quantitative data collection methods were used to collect data on the adoption of the system with the researcher using focus groups, interviews, and questionnaires to collect data from various users of the system An analysis was carried out and revealed that 87% of the county revenue officers who are situated in county offices describe the system as efficient and has made their work easier in terms of processing of transactions for customers.

Keywords: e-government, counties, information technology, online system, point of sale

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
307 Research on Supply Chain Coordination Based on Lateral Transshipment in the Background of New Retail

Authors: Yue Meng, Lingyun Wei

Abstract:

In this paper, the coordination problem of a supply chain system composed of multiple retailers and manufacturers is studied under the background of the new retail supply chain. Taking a system composed of two retailers and one manufacturer as an example, this paper introduces an online store owned by the manufacturer to reflect the characteristics of the combination of online and offline new retail. Then, this paper gives the conditions that need to be satisfied to realize the coordination between retailers and manufacturers, such as the revenue sharing coefficient. The supply chain coordination model is compared with the newsboy model through a specific example. Finally, the conclusion is drawn that the profits of the coordinated supply chain and its members are better than the corresponding profits under the newsboy model; that is, the coordination of the supply chain is realized by using the revenue sharing contract and the transshipment fund mechanism.

Keywords: transshipment, coordination, multi-retailer, revenue-sharing contract

Procedia PDF Downloads 14
306 The Budget Profile of the Municipality of AtaleIa-MG in the Context of the Micro-Region of Teofilo Otoni in Brazil

Authors: Jeferson Gomes Dos Santos, Mirelle Cristina De Abreu Quintela

Abstract:

Considering that after the 1988 Constitution, in Brazil, municipalities have acquired new roles in the face of a financial reality that jeopardizes more substantial actions, the Public Budget is essential for the establishment of guidelines for action, within each budgetary reality. Within this, the present work sought to understand the budget profile of the mining municipality of Ataleia, with a view to identifying its budget composition, in relation to the main sources of revenue and expenditure. To achieve the purposes of the study, information was collected on the municipality's finances, from the years 2000 to 2016, visualizing the progress of its revenues in terms of funding and origin, and expenses in terms of nature and purpose. It was evidenced that the municipality, having its budget revenue in the period, still shows great dependence on intergovernmental transfers, as the own collection was relatively low. The budget expenditure of the period was mainly influenced by social expenditures, but it must be said that the municipality complied with the limits of spending, minimum and maximum, established by law.

Keywords: expenses, municipal budget, planning, revenue

Procedia PDF Downloads 116
305 Official Secrecy and Confidentiality in Tax Administration and Its Impact on Right to Access Information: Nigerian Perspectives

Authors: Kareem Adedokun

Abstract:

Official secrecy is one of the colonial vestiges which upholds non – disclosure of essential information for public consumption. Information, though an indispensable tool in tax administration, is not to be divulged by any person in an official duty of the revenue agency. As a matter o fact, the Federal Inland Revenue Service (Establishment) Act, 2007 emphasizes secrecy and confidentiality in dealing with tax payer’s document, information, returns and assessment in a manner reminiscent of protecting tax payer’s privacy in all situations. It is so serious that any violation attracts criminal sanction. However, Nigeria, being a democratic and egalitarian state recently enacted Freedom of Information Act which heralded in openness in governance and takes away the confidentialities associated with official secrets Laws. Official secrecy no doubts contradicts the philosophy of freedom of information but maintaining a proper balance between protected rights of tax payers and public interest which revenue agency upholds is an uphill task. Adopting the Doctrinal method, therefore, the author of this paper probes into the real nature of the relationship between taxpayers and Revenue Agencies. It also interfaces official secrecy with the doctrine of Freedom of Information and consequently queries the retention of non – disclosure clause under Federal Inland Revenue Service (Establishment) Act (FIRSEA) 2007. The paper finds among others that non – disclosure provision in tax statutes particularly as provided for in FIRSEA is not absolute; so also is the constitutional rights and freedom of information and unless the non – disclosure clause finds justification under any recognized exemption provided under the Freedom of Information Act, its retention is antithesis to democratic ethos and beliefs as it may hinder public interest and public order.

Keywords: confidentiality, information, official secrecy, tax administration

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
304 Economic Efficiency of Cassava Production in Nimba County, Liberia: An Output-Oriented Approach

Authors: Kollie B. Dogba, Willis Oluoch-Kosura, Chepchumba Chumo

Abstract:

In Liberia, many of the agricultural households cultivate cassava for either sustenance purposes, or to generate farm income. Many of the concentrated cassava farmers reside in Nimba, a north-eastern County that borders two other economies: the Republics of Cote D’Ivoire and Guinea. With a high demand for cassava output and products in emerging Asian markets coupled with an objective of the Liberia agriculture policies to increase the competitiveness of valued agriculture crops; there is a need to examine the level of resource-use efficiency for many agriculture crops. However, there is a scarcity of information on the efficiency of many agriculture crops, including cassava. Hence the study applying an output-oriented method seeks to assess the economic efficiency of cassava farmers in Nimba County, Liberia. A multi-stage sampling technique was employed to generate a sample for the study. From 216 cassava farmers, data related to on-farm attributes, socio-economic and institutional factors were collected. The stochastic frontier models, using the Translog functional forms, of production and revenue, were used to determine the level of revenue efficiency and its determinants. The result showed that most of the cassava farmers are male (60%). Many of the farmers are either married, engaged or living together with a spouse (83%), with a mean household size of nine persons. Farmland is prevalently obtained by inheritance (95%), average farm size is 1.34 hectares, and most cassava farmers did not access agriculture credits (76%) and extension services (91%). The mean cassava output per hectare is 1,506.02 kg, which estimates average revenue of L$23,551.16 (Liberian dollars). Empirical results showed that the revenue efficiency of cassava farmers varies from 0.1% to 73.5%; with the mean revenue efficiency of 12.9%. This indicates that on average, there is a vast potential of 87.1% to increase the economic efficiency of cassava farmers in Nimba by improving technical and allocative efficiencies. For the significant determinants of revenue efficiency, age and group membership had negative effects on revenue efficiency of cassava production; while farming experience, access to extension, formal education, and average wage rate have positive effects. The study recommends the setting-up and incentivizing of farmer field schools for cassava farmers to primarily share their farming experiences with others and to learn robust cultivation techniques of sustainable agriculture. Also, farm managers and farmers should consider a fix wage rate in labor contracts for all stages of cassava farming.

Keywords: economic efficiency, frontier production and revenue functions, Nimba County, Liberia, output-oriented approach, revenue efficiency, sustainable agriculture

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
303 The German Air Passenger Tax: An Empirical Analysis of Tourism Outflows

Authors: Paul Gurr, Maik Moser

Abstract:

In Europe, some countries recently abolished air passenger taxes (APT), while others issued or consider issuing an APT. From a fiscal perspective, APT can benefit the environment, while generating a vast amount of tax revenue with relatively low administration costs. However, they may have significant negative effects on the economy. Focusing on the German air passenger tax issued 2011, this work estimates the elasticity of tourism outflows using data on passenger departures from German airports between 2010 and 2016 aggregated by destination country. The results are obtained by estimating a model of the demand for outbound tourism. In line with theory, the regression results indicate a negative relationship between taxes and departures from Germany. Furthermore, on average, an increase of the air passenger tax rate results in a relatively higher decrease of passenger departures. The elasticity of tourism outflows can be used to estimate tax revenue changes and hence evaluate possible policy actions. Neglecting environmental reasons, the results suggest that tax revenue might be maximized by reducing the air passenger tax rate. Besides Germany, this work is also important for countries which have or consider implementing APT.

Keywords: air passenger tax, Germany, Outbound tourism, panel data

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
302 The Revenue Management Implementation and Its Complexity in the Airline Industry: An Empirical Study on the Egyptian Airline Industry

Authors: Amr Sultan, Sara Elgazzar, Breksal Elmiligy

Abstract:

The airline industry nowadays is becoming a more growing industry facing a severe competition. It is an influential issue in this context to utilize revenue management (RM) concept and practice in order to develop the pricing strategy. There is an unfathomable necessity for RM to assist the airlines and their associates to disparage the cost and recuperate their revenue, which in turn will boost the airline industry performance. The complexity of RM imposes enormous challenges on the airline industry. Several studies have been proposed on the RM adaptation in airlines industry while there is a limited availability of implementing RM and its complexity in the developing countries such as Egypt. This research represents a research schema about the implementation of the RM to the Egyptian airline industry. The research aims at investigating and demonstrating the complexities face implementing RM in the airline industry, up on which the research provides a comprehensive understanding of how to overcome these complexities while adapting RM in the Egyptian airline industry. An empirical study was conducted on the Egyptian airline sector based on a sample of four airlines (Egyptair, Britishair, KLM, and Lufthansa). The empirical study was conducted using a mix of qualitative and quantitative approaches. First, in-depth interviews were carried out to analyze the Egyptian airline sector status and the main challenges faced by the airlines. Then, a structured survey on the three different parties of airline industry; airlines, airfreight forwarders, and passengers were conducted in order to investigate the main complexity factors from different parties' points of view. Finally, a focus group was conducted to develop a best practice framework to overcome the complexities faced the RM adaptation in the Egyptian airline industry. The research provides an original contribution to knowledge by creating a framework to overcome the complexities and challenges in adapting RM in the airline industry generally and the Egyptian airline industry particularly. The framework can be used as a RM tool to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of the Egyptian airline industry performance.

Keywords: revenue management, airline industry, revenue management complexity, Egyptian airline industry

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
301 Case Analysis of Bamboo Based Social Enterprises in India-Improving Profitability and Sustainability

Authors: Priyal Motwani

Abstract:

The current market for bamboo products in India is about Rs. 21000 crores and is highly unorganised and fragmented. In this study, we have closely analysed the structure and functions of a major bamboo craft based organisation in Kerela, India and elaborated about its value chain, product mix, pricing strategy and supply chain, collaborations and competitive landscape. We have identified six major bottlenecks that are prevalent in such organisations, based on the Indian context, in relation to their product mix, asset management, and supply chain- corresponding waste management and retail network. The study has identified that the target customers for the bamboo based products and alternative revenue streams (eco-tourism, microenterprises, training), by carrying out secondary and primary research (5000 sample space), that can boost the existing revenue by 150%. We have then recommended an optimum product mix-covering premium, medium and low valued processing, for medium sized bamboo based organisations, in accordance with their capacity to maximize their revenue potential. After studying such organisations and their counter parts, the study has established an optimum retail network, considering B2B, B2C physical and online retail, to maximize their sales to their target groups. On the basis of the results obtained from the analysis of the future and present trends, our study gives recommendations to improve the revenue potential of bamboo based organisation in India and promote sustainability.

Keywords: bamboo, bottlenecks, optimization, product mix, retail network, value chain

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
300 Corruption, Tax Systems and Inclusive Development

Authors: Lawrence Kwaku Amoako, Parrendah Adwoa Kpeli

Abstract:

This paper analyses the implications of the corruption and tax system on inclusive development. We employ a sample of 45 countries between 2007 and 2020. We test for two related hypotheses; first, corruption hinders the smooth mobilisation of revenue through the tax system. Second, a rise in corruption amidst a defective tax system impairs inclusive development. We expect that a rise in the level of corruption in the economy will distort the tax system, thus affecting efficient revenue mobilisation and, subsequently, inclusive development. By extension, these findings have important policy implications for governments in containing corruption and building an effective tax system as it will help promote inclusive development.

Keywords: corruption, development, tax systems, tax complexity

Procedia PDF Downloads 6
299 Three-Stage Mining Metals Supply Chain Coordination and Product Quality Improvement with Revenue Sharing Contract

Authors: Hamed Homaei, Iraj Mahdavi, Ali Tajdin

Abstract:

One of the main concerns of miners is to increase the quality level of their products because the mining metals price depends on their quality level; however, increasing the quality level of these products has different costs at different levels of the supply chain. These costs usually increase after extractor level. This paper studies the coordination issue of a decentralized three-level supply chain with one supplier (extractor), one mineral processor and one manufacturer in which the increasing product quality level cost at the processor level is higher than the supplier and at the level of the manufacturer is more than the processor. We identify the optimal product quality level for each supply chain member by designing a revenue sharing contract. Finally, numerical examples show that the designed contract not only increases the final product quality level but also provides a win-win condition for all supply chain members and increases the whole supply chain profit.

Keywords: three-stage supply chain, product quality improvement, channel coordination, revenue sharing

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
298 Mining Big Data in Telecommunications Industry: Challenges, Techniques, and Revenue Opportunity

Authors: Hoda A. Abdel Hafez

Abstract:

Mining big data represents a big challenge nowadays. Many types of research are concerned with mining massive amounts of data and big data streams. Mining big data faces a lot of challenges including scalability, speed, heterogeneity, accuracy, provenance and privacy. In telecommunication industry, mining big data is like a mining for gold; it represents a big opportunity and maximizing the revenue streams in this industry. This paper discusses the characteristics of big data (volume, variety, velocity and veracity), data mining techniques and tools for handling very large data sets, mining big data in telecommunication and the benefits and opportunities gained from them.

Keywords: mining big data, big data, machine learning, telecommunication

Procedia PDF Downloads 308