Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 35

Search results for: A. Ghani

35 Elements of Usability and Sociability in Activity Management System for e-Masjid

Authors: Hidayah bt Rahmalan, Marhazli Kipli, Muhammad Suffian Sikandar Ghani, Maisarah Abu, Muhammad Faisal Ashaari, Norlizam Md Sukiban

Abstract:

This study presents an example of activity management system for e-Masjid implementing elements of usability and sociability. It is expected to resolve the shortcomings of the most e-Masjid that provide lot of activities to their community. However, the data on handling a lot of activities or events in which involve a lot of people will be difficult to manipulate. Thus, this paper presents the usability and sociability element on an activity management system that not only eases the job for the user but being practical for future when the community join any events. For the time being, this activity management system was only applied for Sayyidina Abu Bakar Mosque in Utem, Malacca.

Keywords: e-masjid, usability, sociability, activity management system

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
34 Coding of RMAC and Its Theoretical and Simulation-Based Performance Comparison with SMAC

Authors: Hamida Qumber Ali, Waseem Muhammad Arain, Shama Siddiqui, Sayeed Ghani

Abstract:

We present an implementing of RMAC in TinyOS 1.x. RMAC is a cross layer and Duty-cycle MAC protocols that was proposed to provide energy efficient transmission services for wireless sensor networks. The protocol has a unique and efficient packet transmission scheduling mechanism that enables it to overcome delivery latency and overcome traffic congestion. Design details and implementation challenges are divulged. Experiments are conducted to show the correctness of our implementation with numerous assumptions. Simulations are performed to compare the performance of RMAC and SMAC. Our results show that RMAC outperforms SMAC in energy efficiency and delay.

Keywords: MAC protocol, performance, RMAC, wireless sensor networks

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
33 An Improved Genetic Algorithm for Traveling Salesman Problem with Precedence Constraint

Authors: M. F. F. Ab Rashid, A. N. Mohd Rose, N. M. Z. Nik Mohamed, W. S. Wan Harun, S. A. Che Ghani

Abstract:

Traveling salesman problem with precedence constraint (TSPPC) is one of the most complex problems in combinatorial optimization. The existing algorithms to solve TSPPC cost large computational time to find the optimal solution. The purpose of this paper is to present an efficient genetic algorithm that guarantees optimal solution with less number of generations and iterations time. Unlike the existing algorithm that generates priority factor as chromosome, the proposed algorithm directly generates sequence of solution as chromosome. As a result, the proposed algorithm is capable of generating optimal solution with smaller number of generations and iteration time compare to existing algorithm.

Keywords: traveling salesman problem, sequencing, genetic algorithm, precedence constraint

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32 Inter Religion Harmony and World Peace: Theory from Shah Wali Ullah's Philosophy

Authors: Muhammad Usman Ghani

Abstract:

Religious tolerance is essential for the establishment of peace in the world. In the system created by Almighty Allah where a lot of diversity is found, still, this world holds unity itself. In today's world, human beings have been divided into clashes of civilizations or divided on the basis of religions or lingual differences. A religious scholar of Indo- Pak subcontinent describes four ethics, on the basis of which all religions of the world can unite. He says in his philosophy of religion that, there is a number of elements common in all religions but four are very common and they are: cleanliness, nobel deeds, relation to Almighty (existence of Almighty) and justice. He says that this universe also holds its integrity in itself. All humans are different in their attributes but to be a human being is common in them. Similarly, all species of the universe are different in their nature, but to be the creature of God is commonly shared by all of them.

Keywords: inter-religious relation, peace and harmony, unity, four common ethics/virtues

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
31 An Early Detection Type 2 Diabetes Using K - Nearest Neighbor Algorithm

Authors: Ng Liang Shen, Ngahzaifa Abdul Ghani

Abstract:

This research aimed at developing an early warning system for pre-diabetic and diabetics by analyzing simple and easily determinable signs and symptoms of diabetes among the people living in Malaysia using Particle Swarm Optimized Artificial. With the skyrocketing prevalence of Type 2 diabetes in Malaysia, the system can be used to encourage affected people to seek further medical attention to prevent the onset of diabetes or start managing it early enough to avoid the associated complications. The study sought to find out the best predictive variables of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, developed a system to diagnose diabetes from the variables using Artificial Neural Networks and tested the system on accuracy to find out the patent generated from diabetes diagnosis result in machine learning algorithms even at primary or advanced stages.

Keywords: diabetes diagnosis, Artificial Neural Networks, artificial intelligence, soft computing, medical diagnosis

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30 Impact of Digitized Monitoring & Evaluation System in Technical Vocational Education and Training

Authors: Abdul Ghani Rajput

Abstract:

Although monitoring and evaluation concept adopted by Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) organization to track the progress over the continuous interval of time based on planned interventions and subsequently, evaluating it for the impact, quality assurance and sustainability. In digital world, TVET providers are giving preference to have real time information to do monitoring of training activities. Identifying the benefits and challenges of digitized monitoring & evaluation real time information system has not been sufficiently tackled in this date. This research paper looks at the impact of digitized M&E in TVET sector by analyzing two case studies and describe the benefits and challenges of using digitized M&E system. Finally, digitized M&E have been identified as carriers for high potential of TVET sector.

Keywords: digitized M&E, innovation, quality assurance, TVET

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
29 Simulation versus Hands-On Learning Methodologies: A Comparative Study for Engineering and Technology Curricula

Authors: Mohammed T. Taher, Usman Ghani, Ahmed S. Khan

Abstract:

This paper compares the findings of two studies conducted to determine the effectiveness of simulation-based, hands-on and feedback mechanism on students learning by answering the following questions: 1). Does the use of simulation improve students’ learning outcomes? 2). How do students perceive the instructional design features embedded in the simulation program such as exploration and scaffolding support in learning new concepts? 3.) What is the effect of feedback mechanisms on students’ learning in the use of simulation-based labs? The paper also discusses the other aspects of findings which reveal that simulation by itself is not very effective in promoting student learning. Simulation becomes effective when it is followed by hands-on activity and feedback mechanisms. Furthermore, the paper presents recommendations for improving student learning through the use of simulation-based, hands-on, and feedback-based teaching methodologies.

Keywords: simulation-based teaching, hands-on learning, feedback-based learning, scaffolding

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28 Adsorption Studies of Methane on Zeolite NaX, LiX, KX at High Pressures

Authors: El Hadi Zouaoui, Djamel Nibou, Mohamed Haddouche, Wan Azlina Wan Ab Karim Ghani, Samira Amokrane

Abstract:

In this study, CH₄ adsorption isotherms on NaX or Faujasite X and exchanged zeolites with Li⁺(LiX), and K⁺(KX) at different temperatures (298, 308, 323 and 353 K) has been investigated, using high pressure (3 MPa (30 bar)) thermo-gravimetric analyser. The experimental results were then validated using several isothermal kinetics models, namely Langmuir, Toth, and Marczewski-Jaroniec, followed by a calculation of the error coefficients between the experimental and theoretical results. It was found that the CH₄ adsorption isotherms are characterized by a strong increase in adsorption at low pressure and a tendency towards a high pressure limit value Qₘₐₓ. The size and position of the exchanged cations, the spherical shape of methane, the specific surface, and the volume of the pores revealed the most important influence parameters for this study. These results revealed that the experimentation and the modeling, well correlated with Marczewski-Jaroniec, Toth, and gave the best results whatever the temperature and the material used.

Keywords: CH₄ adsorption, exchange cations, exchanged zeolite, isotherm study, NaX zeolite

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27 Beneficial Ownership in Islamic Finance: The Need for Shari'ah Parameters

Authors: Nik Abdul Rahim Nik Abdul Ghani, Mat Noor Mat Zain, Ahmad Dahlan Salleh

Abstract:

Ownership of asset is an important aspect in ensuring the validity of sale contract. Nevertheless, in Islamic finance, the issue of beneficial ownership as practiced in the current system is seriously debated among Shariah scholars. It has been argued as violating the real concept of ownership (milkiyyah) in Shariah law. This article aims at studying the status of beneficial ownership from the Shariah perspective. This study begins with examining the meaning of ownership and its attributes from the Islamic point of view and followed by the discussion on the origin of beneficial ownership from the legal perspective. The approach that is applied to clarify the concept of beneficial ownership is content analysis. Subsequently, this study explains some current applications of beneficial ownership in Islamic finance to be analyzed further from the Shariah aspect. The research finding suggests that beneficial ownership should be recognized as a real ownership due to the fact that Shariah allows the transfer of ownership after the execution of offer (ijab) and acceptance (qabul).

Keywords: beneficial ownership, ownership, Islamic finance, parameter

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26 On the Analysis of Strategies of Buechi Games

Authors: Ahmad Termimi Ab Ghani, Kojiro Higuchi

Abstract:

In this paper, we present some results of simultaneous infinite games. We mainly work with generalized reachability games and Buechi games. These games are two-player concurrent games where each player chooses simultaneously their moves at each step. Our goal is to give simple expressions of values for each game. Moreover, we are interested in the question of what type of optimal (ε-optimal) strategy exists for both players depending on the type of games. We first show the determinacy (optimal value) and optimal (ε-optimal) strategies in generalized reachability games. We provide a simple expressions of value of this game and prove the existence of memoryless randomized ε-optimal strategy for Player I in any generalized reachability games. We then observe games with more complex objectives, games with Buechi objectives. We present how to compute an ε-optimal strategies and approximate a value of game in some way. Specifically, the results of generalized reachability games are used to show the value of Buechi games can be approximated as values of some generalized reachability games.

Keywords: optimal Strategies, generalized reachability games, Buechi games

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25 Optimization of Machining Parameters in AlSi/10%AlN Metal Matrix Composite Material by TiN Coating Insert

Authors: Nurul Na'imy Wan, Mohamad Sazali Said, Jaharah Ab. Ghani, Rusli Othman

Abstract:

This paper presents the surface roughness of the aluminium silicon alloy (AlSi) matrix composite which has been reinforced with aluminium nitride (AlN). Experiments were conducted at various cutting speeds, feed rates, and depths of cut, according to a standard orthogonal array L27 of Taguchi method using TiN coating tool of insert. The signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and analysis of variance are applied to study the characteristic performance of cutting speeds, feed rates and depths of cut in measuring the surface roughness during the milling operation. The surface roughness was observed using Mitutoyo Formtracer CS-500 and analyzed using the Taguchi method. From the Taguchi analysis, it was found that cutting speed of 230 m/min, feed rate of 0.4 mm/tooth, depth of cut of 0.3 mm were the optimum machining parameters using TiN coating insert.

Keywords: AlSi/AlN metal matrix composite (MMC), surface roughness, Taguchi method, machining parameters

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24 Surface Roughness of AlSi/10%AlN Metal Matrix Composite Material Using the Taguchi Method

Authors: Nurul Na'imy Wan, Mohamad Sazali Said, Jaharah Ab. Ghani, Mohd Asri Selamat

Abstract:

This paper presents the surface roughness of the Aluminium silicon alloy (AlSi) matrix composite which has been reinforced with aluminium nitride (AlN), with three types of carbide inserts. Experiments were conducted at various cutting speeds, feed rates, and depths of cut, according to the Taguchi method, using a standard orthogonal array L27 (34). The signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and analysis of variance are applied to study the characteristic performance of machining parameters in measuring the surface roughness during the milling operation. The analysis of results, using the Taguchi method concluded that a combination of low feed rate, medium depth of cut, low cutting speed, and insert TiB2 give a better value of surface roughness. From Taguchi method, it was found that cutting speed of 230m/min, feed rate of 0.4 mm/tooth, depth of cut of 0.5mm and type of insert of TiB2 were the optimal machining parameters that gave the optimal value of surface roughness.

Keywords: AlSi/AlN Metal Matrix Composite (MMC), surface roughness, Taguchi method

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23 Static Priority Approach to Under-Frequency Based Load Shedding Scheme in Islanded Industrial Networks: Using the Case Study of Fatima Fertilizer Company Ltd - FFL

Authors: S. H. Kazmi, T. Ahmed, K. Javed, A. Ghani

Abstract:

In this paper static scheme of under-frequency based load shedding is considered for chemical and petrochemical industries with islanded distribution networks relying heavily on the primary commodity to ensure minimum production loss, plant downtime or critical equipment shutdown. A simplistic methodology is proposed for in-house implementation of this scheme using underfrequency relays and a step by step guide is provided including the techniques to calculate maximum percentage overloads, frequency decay rates, time based frequency response and frequency based time response of the system. Case study of FFL electrical system is utilized, presenting the actual system parameters and employed load shedding settings following the similar series of steps. The arbitrary settings are then verified for worst overload conditions (loss of a generation source in this case) and comprehensive system response is then investigated.

Keywords: islanding, under-frequency load shedding, frequency rate of change, static UFLS

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22 Corporate Social Responsibility vs Corporate Social Reactivity: An Exploration of Corporate Social Responsibility Planning in a Multinational Oil and Gas in Indonesia

Authors: Endang Ghani Ashfiya

Abstract:

This study explores corporate social responsibility (CSR) planning in a downstream business of multinational oil and gas company in Indonesia from managerial perspectives. The institutional logic is employed in this research to gain a comprehensive understanding of the way the MNC manages the socio-cultural aspects in the host countries, especially in the process of translation and adaptation of the company’s CSR global guidelines. The interviews are conducted with fifteen managers in that company, both at the top managerial level and operational level. In the beginning, this research explains the Indonesian society’s conception of CSR from the managerial standpoints. The society’s understanding of the CSR concept becomes the fundamental foundations of the company in developing CSR programs. This study found the company’s approach to its CSR in two ways. First, proactive CSR which reflects the global CSR guidelines. Second, reactive CSR which do not show any explicit relations to the global guidelines, but conform with society’s demands. The findings stimulate discussions regarding the power of an MNC vis-à-vis the socio-cultural implication in society’s demand for CSR.

Keywords: corporate social responsibility planning, Indonesia, institutional logic, multinational company, oil and gas company, socio-cultural aspects

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21 Role of Feedbacks in Simulation-Based Learning

Authors: Usman Ghani

Abstract:

Feedback is a vital element for improving student learning in a simulation-based training as it guides and refines learning through scaffolding. A number of studies in literature have shown that students’ learning is enhanced when feedback is provided with personalized tutoring that offers specific guidance and adapts feedback to the learner in a one-to-one environment. Thus, emulating these adaptive aspects of human tutoring in simulation provides an effective methodology to train individuals. This paper presents the results of a study that investigated the effectiveness of automating different types of feedback techniques such as Knowledge-of-Correct-Response (KCR) and Answer-Until- Correct (AUC) in software simulation for learning basic information technology concepts. For the purpose of comparison, techniques like simulation with zero or no-feedback (NFB) and traditional hands-on (HON) learning environments are also examined. The paper presents the summary of findings based on quantitative analyses which reveal that the simulation based instructional strategies are at least as effective as hands-on teaching methodologies for the purpose of learning of IT concepts. The paper also compares the results of the study with the earlier studies and recommends strategies for using feedback mechanism to improve students’ learning in designing and simulation-based IT training.

Keywords: simulation, feedback, training, hands-on, labs

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20 The Relationship between Body Esteem and Self-Esteem with Sport-Confidence Students

Authors: Saeid Motevalli, Siti Fatimah Azzahrah Binti Abd Mutalib, Mohd Sahandri Ghani Hamzah, Hazalizah Hamzah

Abstract:

The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between body esteem and self-esteem with sport-confidence among university students. This study was conducted by using the descriptive and correlational study design. Meanwhile, the method involved in this study was the online survey method. The population of the sample are mainly Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris (UPSI) students only which 120 participants were selected by cluster sampling method from two faculties named Fakulti Pembangunan Manusia (FPM) and Fakulti Sains Sukan dan Kejurulatihan (FSSKJ). The instrument used in this study was The Body-Esteem Scale (BES) by Franzoi and Shields (1984), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) by Rosenberg (1965) and the Vealey’s Trait Sport-Confidence Inventory (TSCI) by (Vealey, 1986). The results of the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient showed that there was a positive and moderate correlation between students’ body-esteem and sport-confidence and a negative and low correlation between students’ self-esteem and sport-confidence. Likewise, based on the entry method used all two predictor variables were significant in explaining sport confidence among UPSI students. In conclusion, it can be said that students’ sport-confidence affected by students’ self-esteem and body-esteem.

Keywords: body esteem, self-esteem, sport-confidence, students

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19 Towards the Use of Software Product Metrics as an Indicator for Measuring Mobile Applications Power Consumption

Authors: Ching Kin Keong, Koh Tieng Wei, Abdul Azim Abd. Ghani, Khaironi Yatim Sharif

Abstract:

Maintaining factory default battery endurance rate over time in supporting huge amount of running applications on energy-restricted mobile devices has created a new challenge for mobile applications developer. While delivering customers’ unlimited expectations, developers are barely aware of efficient use of energy from the application itself. Thus developers need a set of valid energy consumption indicators in assisting them to develop energy saving applications. In this paper, we present a few software product metrics that can be used as an indicator to measure energy consumption of Android-based mobile applications in the early of design stage. In particular, Trepn Profiler (Power profiling tool for Qualcomm processor) has used to collect the data of mobile application power consumption, and then analyzed for the 23 software metrics in this preliminary study. The results show that McCabe cyclomatic complexity, number of parameters, nested block depth, number of methods, weighted methods per class, number of classes, total lines of code and method lines have direct relationship with power consumption of mobile application.

Keywords: battery endurance, software metrics, mobile application, power consumption

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18 Real Time Traffic Performance Study over MPLS VPNs with DiffServ

Authors: Naveed Ghani

Abstract:

With the arrival of higher speed communication links and mature application running over the internet, the requirement for reliable, efficient and robust network designs rising day by day. Multi-Protocol Label Switching technology (MPLS) Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) have committed to provide optimal network services. They are gaining popularity in industry day by day. Enterprise customers are moving to service providers that offer MPLS VPNs. The main reason for this shifting is the capability of MPLS VPN to provide built in security features and any-to-any connectivity. MPLS VPNs improved the network performance due to fast label switching as compare to traditional IP Forwarding but traffic classification and policing was still required on per hop basis to enhance the performance of real time traffic which is delay sensitive (particularly voice and video). QoS (Quality of service) is the most important factor to prioritize enterprise networks’ real time traffic such as voice and video. This thesis is focused on the study of QoS parameters (e.g. delay, jitter and MOS (Mean Opinion Score)) for the real time traffic over MPLS VPNs. DiffServ (Differentiated Services) QoS model will be used over MPLS VPN network to get end-to-end service quality.

Keywords: network, MPLS, VPN, DiffServ, MPLS VPN, DiffServ QoS, QoS Model, GNS2

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
17 Survey Based Data Security Evaluation in Pakistan Financial Institutions against Malicious Attacks

Authors: Naveed Ghani, Samreen Javed

Abstract:

In today’s heterogeneous network environment, there is a growing demand for distrust clients to jointly execute secure network to prevent from malicious attacks as the defining task of propagating malicious code is to locate new targets to attack. Residual risk is always there no matter what solutions are implemented or whet so ever security methodology or standards being adapted. Security is the first and crucial phase in the field of Computer Science. The main aim of the Computer Security is gathering of information with secure network. No one need wonder what all that malware is trying to do: It's trying to steal money through data theft, bank transfers, stolen passwords, or swiped identities. From there, with the help of our survey we learn about the importance of white listing, antimalware programs, security patches, log files, honey pots, and more used in banks for financial data protection but there’s also a need of implementing the IPV6 tunneling with Crypto data transformation according to the requirements of new technology to prevent the organization from new Malware attacks and crafting of its own messages and sending them to the target. In this paper the writer has given the idea of implementing IPV6 Tunneling Secessions on private data transmission from financial organizations whose secrecy needed to be safeguarded.

Keywords: network worms, malware infection propagating malicious code, virus, security, VPN

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16 Surface Roughness of Al-Si/10% AlN MMC Material in Milling Operation Using the Taguchi Method

Authors: M. S. Said, J. A. Ghani, Izzati Osman, Z. A. Latiff, S. A .F. Syed Mohd

Abstract:

Metal matrix composites have demand for light-weight structural and functional materials. MMCs have been shown to offer improvements in strength, rigidity, temperature stability, wear resistance, reliability and control of physical properties such as density and coefficient of thermal expansion, thereby providing improved engineering performance in comparison to the un-reinforced matrix. Experiment were conducted at various cutting speed, feed rate and difference cutting tools according to Taguchi method using a standard orthogonal array L9. The volume of AlN reinforced particle was 10% in MMC. The milling process was carried out under dry cutting condition using uncoated carbide, TiN and TiCN tool insert. The parameters used were the cutting speed of (230,300,370 m/min) the federate used were (0.4, 0.6, 0.8 mm/tooth) while the depth of cut is constant (0.3 mm). The tool diameter is 20mm. From the project, the surface roughness mechanism was investigated in detail using Mitutoyo portable surface roughness measurements surftest SJ-310. This machining will be fabricated on MMC with 150mm length, 100mm width and 30mm thick. The results showed using S/N ratio, concluded that a combination of low cutting speed, medium feed rate and uncoated insert give a remarkable surface finish. From the ANOVA result showed the feed rate was major contributing factor (43.76%) following type of insert (40.89%).

Keywords: MMC, milling operation and surface roughness, Taguchi method

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15 Maximisation of Consumer Welfare in the Enforcement of Intellectual Property Rights in Competition Guidelines: The Malaysian Experience

Authors: Ida Madieha Abdul Ghani Azmi, Heng Gee Lim, Adlan Abdul Razak, Nasaruddin Abdul Rahman

Abstract:

The objective of competition law is to maximise consumer welfare through the regulation of anti-competitive behaviour that results in the distortion of the market. Intellectual property law also seeks to enhance consumer welfare in the long run by encouraging the development of useful devices and processes. Nevertheless, in some circumstances, the IP owners behave in such a way that makes it difficult for rival companies to sell substitute products and technology in the market. Intellectual property owners may also reach a dominant position in the market such that they are able to dictate unfair terms and conditions on other market players. Among the two major categories of anti-competitive behavior is the use of horizontal and vertical agreement to constrain effective competition and abuse of dominant position. As a result, many countries have regulated the conduct of the IP owners that are considered as anti-competitive including the US, Canada, and Singapore. This paper visits the proposed IP Guidelines recently drafted by the Malaysian Competition Commission and investigates to what extent it resolves most of the anti-competitive behavior of the IP owners. The paper concludes by suggesting some of the rules that could be prescribed by the Competition Commission in order to maintain the relevancy of competition law as the main check against the abuse of rights by the intellectual property owners.

Keywords: abuse of dominant position, consumer welfare, intellectual property rights, vertical and horizontal agreements

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14 Effect of Constant and Variable Temperature on the Morphology of TiO₂ Nanotubes Prepared by Two-Step Anodization Method

Authors: Tayyaba Ghani, Mazhar Mehmood, Mohammad Mujahid

Abstract:

TiO₂ nanotubes are receiving immense attraction in the field of dye-sensitized solar cells due to their well-defined nanostructures, efficient electron transport and large surface area as compared to other one dimensional structures. In the present work, we have investigated the influence of temperature on the morphology of anodically produced self-organized Titanium oxide nanotubes (TiNTs). TiNTs are synthesized by two-step anodization method in an ethylene glycol based electrolytes containing ammonium fluoride. Experiments are performed at constant anodization voltage for two hours. An investigation by the SEM images reveals that if the temperature is kept constant during the anodizing experiment, variation in the average tube diameter is significantly reduced. However, if the temperature is not controlled then due to the exothermic nature of reactions for the formation of TiNTs, the temperature of electrolyte keep on increasing. This variation in electrolyte bath temperature introduced strong variations in tube diameter (20 nm to 160 nm) along the length of tubes. Current profiles, recorded during the anodization experiment, predict the effect of constant and varying experimental temperatures as well. In both cases, XRD results show the complete anatase crystal structure of nanotube upon annealing at 450 °C. Present work highlights the importance of constant temperature during the anodization experiments in order to develop an ordered array of nanotubes with a uniform tube diameter.

Keywords: anodization, ordering, temperature, TiO₂ nanotubes

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13 A Conceptual Framework of Scheduled Waste Management in Highway Industry

Authors: Nurul Nadhirah Anuar, Muhammad Fauzi Abdul Ghani

Abstract:

Scheduled waste management is very important in environmental and health aspects. Despite it is very important, the research study on schedule waste management is very little in the highway industry even though there is a rapid growth of highway operation in the Asian region. It should be noted that there are many unnoticeable wastes in highway industry that should be managed properly. This paper aims to define the scheduled waste, to provide a conceptual framework of the scheduled waste management in highway industry, to highlight the effect of improper management of scheduled waste and to encourage future researchers to identify and share the present practice of scheduled management in their country. The understanding on effective management of scheduled waste will help the operators of highway industry, the academicians, future researchers, and encourage a friendly environment around the world. The study on scheduled waste management in highway industry is very crucial as compared to factories in which the factories are located on specified areas whereas, highway transverse and run along kilometers crossing the various type of environment, residential and schools. Using Environmental Quality (Scheduled Waste) Regulations, 2005 as a guide, this conceptual paper highlight several scheduled wastes produced by highway industry in Malaysia and provide a conceptual framework of scheduled waste management that focused on the highway industry. Understanding on schedule waste management is vital in order to preserve the environment. Besides that, the waste substances are hazardous to human being. Many diseases have been associated with the improper management of scheduled waste such as cancer, throat irritation and respiration problem.

Keywords: Asia region, environment, highway industry, scheduled waste

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12 Spatial Distribution and Time Series Analysis of COVID-19 Pandemic in Italy: A Geospatial Perspective

Authors: Muhammad Farhan Ul Moazzam, Tamkeen Urooj Paracha, Ghani Rahman, Byung Gul Lee, Nasir Farid, Adnan Arshad

Abstract:

The novel coronavirus pandemic disease (COVID-19) affected the whole globe, though there is a lack of clinical studies and its epidemiological features. But as per the observation, it has been seen that most of the COVID-19 infected patients show mild to moderate symptoms, and they get better without any medical assistance due to a better immune system to generate antibodies against the novel coronavirus. In this study, the active cases, serious cases, recovered cases, deaths and total confirmed cases had been analyzed using the geospatial inverse distance weightage technique (IDW) within the time span of 2nd March to 3rd June 2020. As of 3rd June, the total number of COVID-19 cases in Italy were 231,238, total deaths 33,310, serious cases 350, recovered cases 158,951, and active cases were 39,177, which has been reported by the Ministry of Health, Italy. March 2nd-June 3rd, 2020 a sum of 231,238 cases has been reported in Italy out of which 38.68% cases reported in the Lombardia region with a death rate of 18%, which is high from its national mortality rate followed by Emilia-Romagna (14.89% deaths), Piemonte (12.68% deaths), and Vento (10% deaths). As per the total cases in the region, the highest number of recoveries has been observed in Umbria (92.52%), followed by Basilicata (87%), Valle d'Aosta (86.85%), and Trento (84.54%). The COVID-19 evolution in Italy has been particularly found in the major urban area, i.e., Rome, Milan, Naples, Bologna, and Florence. Geospatial technology played a vital role in this pandemic by tracking infected patient, active cases, and recovered cases. Geospatial techniques are very important in terms of monitoring and planning to control the pandemic spread in the country.

Keywords: COVID-19, public health, geospatial analysis, IDW, Italy

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11 Contractual Risk Transfer in Islamic Home Financing: Analysis in Bank Malaysia

Authors: Ahmad Dahlan Salleh, Nik Abdul Rahim Nik Abdul Ghani, Muhamad Firdaus M. Hatta

Abstract:

Risk management has implications on pricing, governance arrangements, business practices and strategy. Nowadays, home financing contract offers more in the risk transfer form to increase bank profit. This is parallel with Islamic jurisprudence method al-Kharaj bi al-thaman (gain accompanies liability for loss) and al-ghurm bil ghunm (gain is justified with risk) that determine the matching between risk transfer and returns. Malaysian financing trend is to buy house. Besides, exists transparency lacking risk transfer issues to the clients because of not been informed clearly. Terms and conditions of each financing also do not reflect clearly that the risk has been transferred to the client, justifying a determination price been made. The assumption on risk occurrence is also inaccurate as each risk is different with the type of financing contract. This makes the Islamic Financial Services Act 2013 in providing standards that transparent and consistent can be used by Islamic financial institution less effective. This study examines how far the level of the risk and obligation incurred by bank and client under various Islamic home financing contract. This research is qualitative by using two methods, document analysis, and semi-structured interviews. Document analysis from literature review to identify profile, themes and risk transfer element in home financing from Islamic jurisprudence perspective. This study finds that need to create a risk transfer parameter by banks which are consistent with risk transfer theory according to Islamic jurisprudence. This study has potential to assist the authority in Islamic finance such as The Central Bank of Malaysia (Bank Negara Malaysia) in regulating Islamic banking industry so that the risk transfer valuation in home financing contract based on home financing good practice and determined risk limits.

Keywords: risk transfer, home financing contract, Sharia compliant, Malaysia

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10 Design and Development of Fleet Management System for Multi-Agent Autonomous Surface Vessel

Authors: Zulkifli Zainal Abidin, Ahmad Shahril Mohd Ghani

Abstract:

Agent-based systems technology has been addressed as a new paradigm for conceptualizing, designing, and implementing software systems. Agents are sophisticated systems that act autonomously across open and distributed environments in solving problems. Nevertheless, it is impractical to rely on a single agent to do all computing processes in solving complex problems. An increasing number of applications lately require multiple agents to work together. A multi-agent system (MAS) is a loosely coupled network of agents that interact to solve problems that are beyond the individual capacities or knowledge of each problem solver. However, the network of MAS still requires a main system to govern or oversees the operation of the agents in order to achieve a unified goal. We had developed a fleet management system (FMS) in order to manage the fleet of agents, plan route for the agents, perform real-time data processing and analysis, and issue sets of general and specific instructions to the agents. This FMS should be able to perform real-time data processing, communicate with the autonomous surface vehicle (ASV) agents and generate bathymetric map according to the data received from each ASV unit. The first algorithm is developed to communicate with the ASV via radio communication using standard National Marine Electronics Association (NMEA) protocol sentences. Next, the second algorithm will take care of the path planning, formation and pattern generation is tested using various sample data. Lastly, the bathymetry map generation algorithm will make use of data collected by the agents to create bathymetry map in real-time. The outcome of this research is expected can be applied on various other multi-agent systems.

Keywords: autonomous surface vehicle, fleet management system, multi agent system, bathymetry

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9 Analysis of Buddhist Rock Carvings in Diamer Basha Dam Reservoir Area, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan

Authors: Abdul Ghani Khan

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the Buddhist rock carvings in the Diamer-Basha reservoir area, Gilgit-Baltistan, which is perhaps the largest rock art province of the world. The study region has thousands of rock carvings, particularly of the stupa carvings, engraved by artists, devotees or pilgrims, merchants have left their marks in the landscape or for the propagation of Buddhism. The Pak-German Archaeological Mission prepared, documented, and published the extensive catalogues of these carvings. Though, to date, very little systematic or statistically driven analysis was undertaken for in-depth understandings of the Buddhist rock carving tradition of the study region. This paper had made an attempt to examine stupa carvings and their constituent parts from the five selected sites, namely Oshibat, Shing Nala, Gichi Nala, Dadam Das, and Chilas Bridge. The statistical analyses and classification of the stupa carvings and their chronological contexts were carried out with the help of modern scientific tools such as STATA, FileMaker Pro, and MapSource softwares. The study had found that the tradition of stupa carvings on the surfaces of the rocks at the five selected sites continued for around 900 years, from the 1st century BCE to 8th century CE. There is a variation within the chronological settings of each of selected sites, possibly impacted by their utilization within particular landscapes, such as political (for example, change in political administrations or warfare) landscapes and geographical (for example, shifting of routes). The longer existence of the stupa carvings' tradition at these specific locations also indicates their central position on the trade and communication routes, and these were possibly also linked with religious ideologies within their particular times. The analyses of the different architectural elements of stupa carvings in the study area show that this tradition had structural similarities and differences in temporal and spatial contexts.

Keywords: rock carvings, stupa, stupa carvings, Buddhism, Pak-German archaeological mission

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8 Effects of Destination Image, Perceived Value, Tourist Satisfaction and Service Quality on Destination Loyalty

Authors: Mahadzirah Mohamad, Nur Izzati Ab Ghani

Abstract:

Worldwide, tourism sustained growth and remained to be one of the fast-growing sectors. Malaysia tourism industry experienced an unstable and declining pattern of international tourist arrival’s growth rate. The situation suggested that the industry was competitive and denoted the need to study factors that influence tourist loyalty. The primary purpose of this study was to develop a model that examined how destination image, perceived value, service quality and tourist satisfaction affect destination loyalty. The study was conducted at the Kuala Lumpur International Airport and Kota Kinabalu International Airport. The respondents were international tourists from United Kingdom and Australia and they were selected using simple random sampling method. A total of 337 respondents were subjected to data analysis using structural equation modelling. The study uncovered that perceived value and destination image was highly correlated and the model suggested that these constructs should be treated as one construct. The construct was labelled as overall destination image. Overall image had significant direct effect on service quality, satisfaction and loyalty. Service quality had a significant indirect effect on loyalty through satisfaction as a moderating variable. However, satisfaction had no mediating effect on the relationship between overall destination image and loyalty. The study suggested that more efforts should be focused on portraying the image of experiencing joy with many interesting natural scenic places to see whilst on a holiday to Malaysia. In addition, the destination management office should promote tourist visiting to Malaysia would enjoy quality service related to accommodation, information facilities, health, and shopping. Tourist satisfaction empirically proved to be an important construct that influenced destination loyalty. This study contributed to the extended knowledge that postulated overall image of a destination was measured by perceived value and destination image.

Keywords: destination image, destination loyalty, structural equation modelling, tourist satisfaction

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7 The Association of Slope Failure and Lineament Density along the Ranau-Tambunan Road, Sabah, Malaysia

Authors: Norbert Simon, Rodeano Roslee, Abdul Ghani Rafek, Goh Thian Lai, Azimah Hussein, Lee Khai Ern

Abstract:

The 54 km stretch of Ranau-Tambunan (RTM) road in Sabah is subjected to slope failures almost every year. This study is focusing on identifying section of roads that are susceptible to failure based on temporal landslide density and lineament density analyses. In addition to the analyses, the rock slopes in several sections of the road were assessed using the geological strength index (GSI) technique. The analysis involved 148 landslides that were obtained in 1978, 1994, 2009 and 2011. The landslides were digitized as points and the point density was calculated based on every 1km2 of the road. The lineaments of the area was interpreted from Landsat 7 15m panchromatic band. The lineament density was later calculated based on every 1km2 of the area using similar technique with the slope failure density calculation. The landslide and lineament densities were classified into three different classes that indicate the level of susceptibility (low, moderate, high). Subsequently, the two density maps were overlap to produce the final susceptibility map. The combination of both high susceptibility classes from these maps signifies the high potential of slope failure in those locations in the future. The final susceptibility map indicates that there are 22 sections of the road that are highly susceptible. Seven rock slopes were assessed along the RTM road using the GSI technique. It was found from the assessment that rock slopes along this road are highly fractured, weathered and can be classified into fair to poor categories. The poor condition of the rock slope can be attributed to the high lineament density that presence in the study area. Six of the rock slopes are located in the high susceptibility zones. A detailed investigation on the 22 high susceptibility sections of the RTM road should be conducted due to their higher susceptibility to failure, in order to prevent untoward incident to road users in the future.

Keywords: GSI, landslide, landslide density, landslide susceptibility, lineament density

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6 Relationship of Oxidative Stress to Elevated Homocysteine and DNA Damage in Coronary Artery Disease Patients

Authors: Shazia Anwer Bukhari, Madiha Javeed Ghani, Muhammad Ibrahim Rajoka

Abstract:

Objective: Biochemical, environmental, physical and genetic factors have a strong effect on the development of coronary disease (CAD). Plasma homocysteine (Hcy) level and DNA damage play a pivotal role in its development and progression. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive strength of an oxidative stress, clinical biomarkers and total antioxidant status (TAS) in CAD patients to find the correlation of homocysteine, TOS and oxidative DNA damage with other clinical parameters. Methods: Sixty confirmed patients with CAD and 60 healthy individuals as control were included in this study. Different clinical and laboratory parameters were studied in blood samples obtained from patients and control subjects using commercially available biochemical kits and statistical software Results: As compared to healthy individuals, CAD patients had significantly higher concentrations of indices of oxidative stress: homocysteine (P=0.0001), total oxidative stress (TOS) (P=0.0001), serum cholesterol (P=0.04), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) (P=0.01), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL) (P=0.0001), and malondialdehyde (MDA) (P=0.001) than those of healthy individuals. Plasma homocysteine level and oxidative DNA damage were positively correlated with cholesterol, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, urea, total protein and albumin (P values= 0.05). Both Hcy and oxidative DNA damage were negatively correlated with TAS and proteins. Conclusion: Coronary artery disease patients had a significant increase in homocysteine level and DNA damage due to increased oxidative stress. In conclusion, our study shows a significantly increase in lipid peroxidation, TOS, homocysteine and DNA damage in the erythrocytes of patients with CAD. A significant decrease level of HDL-C and TAS was observed only in CAD patients. Therefore these biomarkers may be useful diagnosis of patients with CAD and play an important role in the pathogenesis of CAD.

Keywords: antioxidants, coronary artery disease, DNA damage, homocysteine, oxidative stress, malondialdehyde, 8-Hydroxy-2’deoxyguanosine

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