Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4291

Search results for: substrate concentration

4291 Studying the Effect of Silicon Substrate Intrinsic Carrier Concentration on Performance of ZnO/Si Solar Cells

Authors: Syed Sadique Anwer Askari, Mukul Kumar Das

Abstract:

Zinc Oxide (ZnO) solar cells have drawn great attention due to the enhanced efficiency and low-cost fabrication process. In this study, ZnO thin film is used as the active layer, hole blocking layer, antireflection coating (ARC) as well as transparent conductive oxide. To improve the conductivity of ZnO, top layer of ZnO is doped with aluminum, for top contact. Intrinsic carrier concentration of silicon substrate plays an important role in enhancing the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of ZnO/Si solar cell. With the increase of intrinsic carrier concentration PCE decreased due to increase in dark current in solar cell. At 80nm ZnO and 160µm Silicon substrate thickness, power conversion efficiency of 26.45% and 21.64% is achieved with intrinsic carrier concentration of 1x109/cm3, 1.4x1010/cm3 respectively.

Keywords: hetero-junction solar cell, solar cell, substrate intrinsic carrier concentration, ZnO/Si

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4290 Optimization of Process Parameters Affecting Biogas Production from Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste via Anaerobic Digestion

Authors: B. Sajeena Beevi, P. P. Jose, G. Madhu

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to obtain the optimal conditions for biogas production from anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) using response surface methodology (RSM). The parameters studied were initial pH, substrate concentration and total organic carbon (TOC). The experimental results showed that the linear model terms of initial pH and substrate concentration and the quadratic model terms of the substrate concentration and TOC had significant individual effect (p < 0.05) on biogas yield. However, there was no interactive effect between these variables (p > 0.05). The highest level of biogas produced was 53.4 L/Kg VS at optimum pH, substrate concentration and total organic carbon of 6.5, 99gTS/L, and 20.32 g/L respectively.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, biogas, optimization, response surface methodology

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4289 Effect of Substrate Temperature on Structure and Properties of Sputtered Transparent Conducting Film of La-Doped BaSnO₃

Authors: Alok Tiwari, Ming Show Wong

Abstract:

Lanthanum (La) doped Barium Tin Oxide (BaSnO₃) film is an excellent alternative for expensive Transparent Conducting Oxides (TCOs) film such as Indium Tin Oxide (ITO). However single crystal film of La-doped BaSnO₃ has been reported with a good amount of conductivity and transparency but in order to improve its reachability, it is important to grow doped BaSO₃ films on an inexpensive substrate. La-doped BaSnO₃ thin films have been grown on quartz substrate by Radio Frequency (RF) sputtering at a different substrate temperature (from 200⁰C to 750⁰C). The thickness of the film measured was varying from 360nm to 380nm with varying substrate temperature. Structure, optical and electrical properties have been studied. The carrier concentration is seen to be decreasing as we enhance the substrate temperature while mobility found to be increased up to 9.3 cm²/V-S. At low substrate temperature resistivity found was lower (< 3x10⁻³ ohm-cm) while sudden enhancement was seen as substrate temperature raises and the trend continues further with increasing substrate temperature. Optical transmittance is getting better with higher substrate temperature from 70% at 200⁰C to > 80% at 750⁰C. Overall, understanding of changes in microstructure, electrical and optical properties of a thin film by varying substrate temperature has been reported successfully.

Keywords: conductivity, perovskite, mobility, TCO film

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4288 Influence of the Molar Concentration and Substrate Temperature on Fluorine-Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films Chemically Sprayed

Authors: J. Ramirez, A. Maldonado, M. de la L. Olvera

Abstract:

The effect of both the molar concentration of the starting solution and the substrate temperature on the electrical, morphological, structural and optical properties of chemically sprayed fluorine-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:F) thin films deposited on glass substrates, is analyzed in this work. All the starting solutions employed were aged for ten days before the deposition. The results show that as the molar concentration increases, a decrease in the electrical resistivity values is obtained, reaching the minimum in films deposited from a 0.4 M solution at 500°C. A further increase in the molar concentration leads to a very slight increase in the resistivity. On the other hand, as the substrate temperature is increased, the resistivity decreases and a tendency towards to minimum value is evidenced; taking the molar concentration as parameter, minimum values are reached at 500°C. The attain of ZnO:F thin films, with a resistivity as low as 7.8×10-3 Ώcm (sheet resistance of 130 Ώ/☐ and film thickness of 600 nm) measured in as-deposited films is reported here for the first time. The concurrent effect of the high molar concentration of the starting solution, the substrate temperature values used, and the ageing of the starting solution, which might cause polymerization of the zinc ions with the fluorine species, enhance the electrical properties. The structure of the films is polycrystalline, with a (002) preferential growth. Molar concentration rules the surface morphology as at low concentration an hexagonal and porous structure is developed changing to a uniform compact and small grain size surface in the films deposited with the high molar concentrations.

Keywords: zinc oxide, chemical spray, thin films, TCO

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4287 The Effect of Concentrate Containing Probiotics on Fermentation Characteristics and in vitro Nutrient Digestibility

Authors: B. Santoso, B. Tj. Hariadi, H. Abubakar

Abstract:

The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the effect of probiotic addition in concentrate on fermentation characteristics and in vitro nutrient digestibility of the grass Pennisetum purpureophoides. Two strains lactic acid bacteria (LAB) i.e Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus acidhophilus, and one strain yeast of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were used as probiotic. The probiotics was added at 2% and 4% (v/w) in the concentrate. The result showed the concentrate containing between 1.5 × 106 and 3 × 107 CFU/g of lactic acid bacteria and 3 × 103 CFU/g of S. cerevisiae. The DM, OM and NDF digestibility were higher (P<0.01) in grass substrate with concentrate than in grass alone. Addition of probiotic in concentrate increased (P<0.01) DM, OM and NDF compared to concentrate without probiotic. Total VFA and propionic acid concentrations were higher (P<0.01) in grass substrate with concentrate than in grass alone. Concentration of acetic acid decreased (P<0.01) in grass substrate with concentrate than in grass substrate alone. Addition of L. plantarum and L. acidophilus and S. cerevisiae in concentrate increased (P<0.01) propionic acid concentration. It was concluded that addition of probiotic in concentrate increased propionic concentration and in vitro nutrient digestibility.

Keywords: by-products, concentrate, digestibility, probiotics

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4286 Pineapple Waste Valorization through Biogas Production: Effect of Substrate Concentration and Microwave Pretreatment

Authors: Khamdan Cahyari, Pratikno Hidayat

Abstract:

Indonesia has produced more than 1.8 million ton pineapple fruit in 2013 of which turned into waste due to industrial processing, deterioration and low qualities. It was estimated that this waste accounted for more than 40 percent of harvested fruits. In addition, pineapple leaves were one of biomass waste from pineapple farming land, which contributed even higher percentages. Most of the waste was only dumped into landfill area without proper pretreatment causing severe environmental problem. This research was meant to valorize the pineapple waste for producing renewable energy source of biogas through mesophilic (30℃) anaerobic digestion process. Especially, it was aimed to investigate effect of substrate concentration of pineapple fruit waste i.e. peel, core as well as effect of microwave pretreatment of pineapple leaves waste. The concentration of substrate was set at value 12, 24 and 36 g VS/liter culture whereas 800-Watt microwave pretreatment conducted at 2 and 5 minutes. It was noticed that optimum biogas production obtained at concentration 24 g VS/l with biogas yield 0.649 liter/g VS (45%v CH4) whereas microwave pretreatment at 2 minutes duration performed better compare to 5 minutes due to shorter exposure of microwave heat. This results suggested that valorization of pineapple waste could be carried out through biogas production at the aforementioned process condition. Application of this method is able to both reduce the environmental problem of the waste and produce renewable energy source of biogas to fulfill local energy demand of pineapple farming areas.

Keywords: pineapple waste, substrate concentration, microwave pretreatment, biogas, anaerobic digestion

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4285 Effects of Alkaline Pretreatment Parameters on the Corrosion Resistance and ‎Wettability of Magnesium Implant

Authors: Mahtab Assadian, Mohd Hasbullah Idris, Mostafa Rezazadeh Shirdar, Mohammad Mahdi Taheri, ‎S. Izman

Abstract:

Corrosion behaviour and surface roughness of magnesium substrate were investigated after NaOH pretreatment in different concentrations (1, 5, and 10 molar) and duration of (10 min, 30 min, 1 h, 3 h, 6 h and 24 h). Creation of Mg(OH)2 barrier layer after pretreatment enhanced corrostion resistance as well as wettability of substrate surface. Characterization including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) was conducted to detect the existence of this barrier layer. Surface roughness and wettability of substrate was evaluated using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle measurement respectively. It is found that magnesium treated by 1M NaOH for 30 min reveals higher corrosion resistance and lower water contact angle of substrate surface. In addition, this investigation indicates that pH value of SBF solution is strongly influenced by different time and concentration of alkaline pretreatment.

Keywords: magnesium, NaOH pretreatment, corrosion resistance, wettability

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4284 Wetting Properties of Silver Based Alloys

Authors: Zoltán Weltsch, József Hlinka, Eszter Kókai

Abstract:

The temperature dependence of wettability (wetting angle, Θ (T)) for Ag-based melts on graphite and Al2O3 substrates is compared. Typical alloying effects are found, as the Ag host metal is gradually replaced by various metallic elements. The essence of alloying lies in the change of the electron/atom (e/a) ratio. This ratio is also manifested in the shift of wetting angles on the same substrate. Nevertheless, the effects are partially smeared by other (metallurgical) factors, like the interaction between the oxygen-alloying elements and by the graphite substrate-oxygen interaction. In contrast, such effects are not pronounced in the case of Al2O3 substrates. As a consequence, Θ(T) exhibits an opposite trend in the case of two substrates. Crossovers of the Θ(T) curves were often found. The positions of crossovers depend on the chemical character and concentration of solute atoms. Segregation and epitaxial texture formation after solidification were also observed in certain alloy drops, especially in high concentration range. This phenomenon is not yet explained in every detail.

Keywords: contact angle, graphite, silver, soldering, solid solubility, substrate, temperature dependence, wetting

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4283 Development and Investigation of Efficient Substrate Feeding and Dissolved Oxygen Control Algorithms for Scale-Up of Recombinant E. coli Cultivation Process

Authors: Vytautas Galvanauskas, Rimvydas Simutis, Donatas Levisauskas, Vykantas Grincas, Renaldas Urniezius

Abstract:

The paper deals with model-based development and implementation of efficient control strategies for recombinant protein synthesis in fed-batch E.coli cultivation processes. Based on experimental data, a kinetic dynamic model for cultivation process was developed. This model was used to determine substrate feeding strategies during the cultivation. The proposed feeding strategy consists of two phases – biomass growth phase and recombinant protein production phase. In the first process phase, substrate-limited process is recommended when the specific growth rate of biomass is about 90-95% of its maximum value. This ensures reduction of glucose concentration in the medium, improves process repeatability, reduces the development of secondary metabolites and other unwanted by-products. The substrate limitation can be enhanced to satisfy restriction on maximum oxygen transfer rate in the bioreactor and to guarantee necessary dissolved carbon dioxide concentration in culture media. In the recombinant protein production phase, the level of substrate limitation and specific growth rate are selected within the range to enable optimal target protein synthesis rate. To account for complex process dynamics, to efficiently exploit the oxygen transfer capability of the bioreactor, and to maintain the required dissolved oxygen concentration, adaptive control algorithms for dissolved oxygen control have been proposed. The developed model-based control strategies are useful in scale-up of cultivation processes and accelerate implementation of innovative biotechnological processes for industrial applications.

Keywords: adaptive algorithms, model-based control, recombinant E. coli, scale-up of bioprocesses

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4282 Effect of Substrate Concentration and Pulp Density on Bioleaching of Metals from as Received Spent Refinery Catalyst

Authors: Haragobinda Srichandan, Ashish Pathak, Dong Jin Kim, Seoung-Won Lee

Abstract:

The present investigation deals with bioleaching of spent refinery catalyst (as received) using At. thiooxidans. The effect of substrate concentration and pulp density was studied. XPS analysis concluded that the metals in spent catalyst were present as both sulfide and oxides. The dissolution behavior of metals during bioleaching was different. During bioleaching, higher dissolution of Ni and lower dissolution of Mo, V and Al was observed. An increase in pulp density from 1% to 10% led to a decrease in leaching yields of all the metals. This was due to the substantial increase in medium pH at higher pulp densities. The maximum negative impact of pulp density was observed on the leaching yield of V. An increase in sulfur concentration from 0.5% to 2.5% didn’t bring positive impact on metal leaching yield. 0.5% sulfur was found to be the optimum above which no significant increase in leaching yields of metals was observed.

Keywords: At. thiooxidans, pulp density, spent catalyst, bioleaching

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4281 Preparation and Characterization of Transparent and Conductive SnO2 Thin Films by Spray Pyrolysis

Authors: V. Jelev, P. Petkov, P. Shindov

Abstract:

Thin films of undoped and As-doped tin oxide (As:SnO2) were obtained on silicon and glass substrates at 450°- 480°C by spray pyrolysis technique. Tin chloride (SnCl4.5H2O) and As oxide (3As2O5.5H2O) were used as a source for Sn and As respectively. The As2O5 concentration was varied from 0 to 10 mol% in the starting water-alcoholic solution. The characterization of the films was provided with XRD, CEM, AFM and UV-VIS spectroscopy. The influence of the synthesis parameters (the temperature of the substrate, solution concentration, gas and solution flow rates, deposition time, nozzle-to substrate distance) on the optical, electrical and structural properties of the films was investigated. The substrate temperature influences on the surface topography, structure and resistivity of the films. Films grown at low temperatures (<300°C) are amorphous whereas this deposited at higher temperatures have certain degree of polycrystallinity. Thin oxide films deposited at 450°C are generally polycrystalline with tetragonal rutile structure. The resistivity decreases with dopant concentration. The minimum resistivity was achieved at dopant concentration about 2.5 mol% As2O5 in the solution. The transmittance greater than 80% and resistivity smaller than 7.5.10-4Ω.cm were achieved in the films deposited at 480°C. The As doped films (SnO2: As) deposited on silicon substrates was used for preparation of a large area position sensitive photodetector (PSD), acting on the base of a lateral photovoltaic effect. The position characteristic of PSD is symmetric to the zero and linear in the 80% of the active area. The SnO2 films are extremely stable under typical environmental conditions and extremely resistant to chemical etching.

Keywords: metal oxide film, SnO2 film, position sensitive photodetectors (PSD), lateral photovoltaic effect

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4280 Humidity Sensing Behavior of Graphene Oxide on Porous Silicon Substrate

Authors: Amirhossein Hasani, Shamin Houshmand Sharifi

Abstract:

In this work, we investigate humidity sensing behavior of the graphene oxide with porous silicon substrate. By evaporation method, aluminum interdigital electrodes have been deposited onto porous silicon substrate. Then, by drop-casting method graphene oxide solution was deposited onto electrodes. The porous silicon was formed by electrochemical etching. The experimental results showed that using porous silicon substrate, we obtained two times larger sensitivity and response time compared with the results obtained with silicon substrate without porosity.

Keywords: graphene oxide, porous silicon, humidity sensor, electrochemical

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4279 Synthesis and Characterization of Polypyrrole-Coated Non-Conducting Cellulosic Substrate and Modified by Copper Oxide

Authors: A. Hamam, D. Oukil, A. Dib, L. Makhloufi

Abstract:

The aim of this work is to synthesize modified Polypyrrole films (PPy) containing nanoparticles of copper oxides onto a non conducting cellulosic substrate. Firstly, the chemical polymerization of polypyrrole onto cellulosic substrate is carried out using FeCl3 as an oxidant and Pyrrole as monomer. Different parameters were optimized (monomer concentration, duration of the experiment, nature of supporting electrolyte, temperature, etc.) in order to obtain films with different thickness and different morphologies. Thickness and topography of different PPy deposits were estimated by a profilometer apparatus. The electrochemical reactivity of the obtained electrodes were tested by cyclic voltammetry technique (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Secondly, the modification of the PPy film surface by incorporation of copper oxide nanonoparticles is conducted by applying a galvanostatic procedure from CuCl2 solution. Surface characterization has been carried out using scanning microscope (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The analysis showed the presence of the copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO) in the polymer films with dimensions less than 50 nm.

Keywords: polypyrrole, modified electrode, cellulosic substrate, copper oxide

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4278 The Effect of Spent Mushroom Substrate on Blood Metabolites in Kurdish Male Lambs

Authors: Alireza Vakili, Shahab Ehtesham, Mohsen Danesh Mesgaran

Abstract:

The objective of this study was use different levels of spent mushroom substrate as a suitable substitute for wheat straw in the ration of male lambs. In this study 20 male lambs with the age of 90 days and initial average weight of 33± 1.7 kg were used. The animals were divided separately into single boxes with four treatments (control treatment, spent mushroom substrate 15%, spent mushroom substrate 25% and spent mushroom substrate 35%) and five replications. The experiment period was 114 days being 14 days adaptation and 90 days for breeding. On the days 36 and 94, blood samples were taken from the jugular vein. In order to carry out the trial, 20 male lambs received the four experimental diets in completely randomized design. The statistical analyses were carried out by using the GLM procedure of SAS 9.1. Means among treatments were compared by Tukey test. The results of the study showed that there was no significant differences between the serum biochemical and hematological contents of the lambs in the four treatments (p>0.05). It was concluded that spent mushroom substrate consumption has no harmful effect on the blood parameters of Kurdish male lambs.

Keywords: alternative food, nutrition, sheep performance, spent mushroom substrate

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4277 Effect of Substrate Temperature on Some Physical Properties of Doubly doped Tin Oxide Thin Films

Authors: Ahmet Battal, Demet Tatar, Bahattin Düzgün

Abstract:

Various transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) are mostly used much applications due to many properties such as cheap, high transmittance/electrical conductivity etc. One of the clearest among TCOs, indium tin oxide (ITO), is the most widely used in many areas. However, as ITO is expensive and very low regarding reserve, other materials with suitable properties (especially SnO2 thin films) are be using instead of it. In this report, tin oxide thin films doubly doped with antimony and fluorine (AFTO) were deposited by spray at different substrate temperatures on glass substrate. It was investigated their structural, optical, electrical and luminescence properties. The substrate temperature was varied from 320 to 480 ˚C at the interval of 40 (±5) ºC. X-ray results were shown that the films are polycrystalline with tetragonal structure and oriented preferentially along (101), (200) and (210) directions. It was observed that the preferential orientations of crystal growth are not dependent on substrate temperature, but the intensity of preferential orientation was increased with increasing substrate temperature until 400 ºC. After this substrate temperature, they decreased. So, substrate temperature impact structure of these thin films. It was known from SEM analysis, the thin films have rough and homogenous and the surface of the films was affected by the substrate temperature i.e. grain size are increasing with increasing substrate temperature until 400 ºC. Also, SEM and AFM studies revealed the surface of AFTO thin films to be made of nanocrystalline particles. The average transmittance of the films in the visible range is 70-85%. Eg values of the films were investigated using the absorption spectra and found to be in the range 3,20-3,93 eV. The electrical resistivity decreases with increasing substrate temperature, then the electrical resistivity increases. PL spectra were found as a function of substrate temperature. With increasing substrate temperature, emission spectra shift a little bit to a UV region. Finally, tin oxide thin films were successfully prepared by this method and a spectroscopic characterization of the obtained films was performed. It was found that the films have very good physical properties. It was concluded that substrate temperature impacts thin film structure.

Keywords: thin films, spray pyrolysis, SnO2, doubly doped

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4276 Continuous Production of Prebiotic Pectic Oligosaccharides from Sugar Beet Pulp in a Continuous Cross Flow Membrane Bioreactor

Authors: Neha Babbar, S. Van Roy, W. Dejonghe, S. Sforza, K. Elst

Abstract:

Pectic oligosaccharides (a class of prebiotics) are non-digestible carbohydrates which benefits the host by stimulating the growth of healthy gut micro flora. Production of prebiotic pectic oligosaccharides (POS) from pectin rich agricultural residues involves a cutting of long chain polymer of pectin to oligomers of pectin while avoiding the formation of monosaccharides. The objective of the present study is to develop a two-step continuous biocatalytic membrane reactor (MER) for the continuous production of POS (from sugar beet pulp) in which conversion is combined with separation. Optimization of the ratio of POS/monosaccharides, stability and productivities of the process was done by testing various residence times (RT) in the reactor vessel with diluted (10 RT, 20 RT, and 30 RT) and undiluted (30 RT, 40 RT and 60 RT) substrate. The results show that the most stable processes (steady state) were 20 RT and 30 RT for diluted substrate and 40 RT and 60 RT for undiluted substrate. The highest volumetric and specific productivities of 20 g/L/h and 11 g/gE/h; 17 g/l/h and 9 g/gE/h were respectively obtained with 20 RT (diluted substrate) and 40 RT (undiluted substrate). Under these conditions, the permeates of the reactor test with 20 RT (diluted substrate) consisted of 80 % POS fractions while that of 40 RT (undiluted substrate) resulted in 70% POS fractions. A two-step continuous biocatalytic MER for the continuous POS production looks very promising for the continuous production of tailor made POS. Although both the processes i.e 20 RT (diluted substrate) and 40 RT (undiluted substrate) gave the best results, but for an Industrial application it is preferable to use an undiluted substrate.

Keywords: pectic oligosaccharides, membrane reactor, residence time, specific productivity, volumetric productivity

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4275 High Dissolution of ATC by pH Control and Its Enzymatic Conversion to L-Cysteine

Authors: Deokyeong Choe, Sung Hun Youn, Younggon Kim, Chul Soo Shin

Abstract:

L-Cysteine is extensively used as a supplement of pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, food and feed additives. It has obtained industrially by hydrolysis of human hair and poultry feathers. However, there are some problems such as the restriction of using materials from animals and the intractable waste pollution. The enzymatic conversion has been regarded as an environmental-friendly method. Currently, the biggest bottle-neck of enzymatic conversion is the low yield of L-cysteine due to the low substrate solubility. In this study, the method of enhancing the solubility of the substrate D,L-2-amino-Δ2-thiazoline-4-carboxylicacid (ATC) was developed and the enzymatic reaction at high concentration levels was performed. A large amount of substrate in aqueous solutions was dissolved by pH control using salts. As the pH of the solution increased, the solubility of ATC increased. It was thought that a shift of ATC from acid form (-COOH) to dissociated carboxylic group (-COO-) would improve its hydrophilicity leading to solubility increase. The highest solubility of ATC was 610 mM at pH 10.5, whereas the maximum reaction rate was obtained at pH 8.3. As a result, a high L-cysteine yield of 250 mM was achieved at pH 9.1, which was obtained from a combination of optimum pH conditions for ATC solubility and enzymatic conversion. This yield corresponds to approximately 18 times of that in previous reports.

Keywords: D, L-2-amino-Δ2-thiazoline-4-carboxylicacid, enzymatic conversion, high-substrate solubilization, L-Cysteine

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4274 Mathematical Modeling of Bi-Substrate Enzymatic Reactions in the Presence of Different Types of Inhibitors

Authors: Rafayel Azizyan, Valeri Arakelyan, Aram Gevorgyan, Varduhi Balayan, Emil Gevorgyan

Abstract:

Currently, mathematical and computer modeling are widely used in different biological studies to predict or assess behavior of such complex systems as biological ones. This study deals with mathematical and computer modeling of bi-substrate enzymatic reactions, which play an important role in different biochemical pathways. The main objective of this study is to represent the results from in silico investigation of bi-substrate enzymatic reactions in the presence of uncompetitive inhibitors, as well as to describe in details the inhibition effects. Four models of uncompetitive inhibition were designed using different software packages. Particularly, uncompetitive inhibitor to the first [ES1] and the second ([ES1S2]; [FS2]) enzyme-substrate complexes have been studied. The simulation, using the same kinetic parameters for all models allowed investigating the behavior of reactions as well as determined some interesting aspects concerning influence of different cases of uncompetitive inhibition. Besides that shown, that uncompetitive inhibitors exhibit specific selectivity depending on mechanism of bi-substrate enzymatic reaction.

Keywords: mathematical modeling, bi-substrate enzymatic reactions, reversible inhibition

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4273 In2S3 Buffer Layer Properties for Thin Film Solar Cells Based on CIGS Absorber

Authors: A. Bouloufa, K. Djessas

Abstract:

In this paper, we reported the effect of substrate temperature on the structural, electrical and optical properties of In2S3 thin films deposited on soda-lime glass substrates by physical vapor deposition technique at various substrate temperatures. The In2Se3 material used for deposition was synthesized from its constituent elements. It was found that all samples exhibit one phase which corresponds to β-In2S3 phase. Values of band gap energy of the films obtained at different substrate temperatures vary in the range of 2.38-2.80 eV and decrease with increasing substrate temperature.

Keywords: buffer layer, In2S3, optical properties, PVD, structural properties

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4272 Surface Integration Effect on Mechanical and Piezoelectric Properties of ZnO

Authors: A. Khan, M. Hussain, S. Afgun

Abstract:

In the present work, the effect of the surface integration on the piezoelectric properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods has been investigated. ZnO nanorods were grown by using aqueous chemical growth method on two samples of graphene coated pet plastic substrate. First substrate’s surface was integrated with ZnO nanoparticles while the other substrate was used without ZnO nanoparticles. Various important parameters were analyzed, the growth density and morphological analysis were taken into account through surface scanning electron microscopy; it was observed that the growth density of nanorods on the integrated surface was much higher than the nonintegrated substrate. The crystal quality of growth orientation was analyzed by X-ray diffraction technique. Mechanical stability of ZnO nanorods on an integrated substrate was more appropriate than the nonintegrated substrate. The generated amount of piezoelectric potential from the integrated substrate was two times higher than the nonintegrated substrate. This shows that the layer of nanoparticles plays a crucial role in the enhancement of piezoelectric potential. Besides this, it also improves the performance of fabricated devices like its mechanical stability and piezoelectric properties. Additionally, the obtained results were compared with the other two samples used for the growth of ZnO nanorods on silver coated glass substrates for similar measurement. The consistency of the results verified the importance of surface integration effect. This study will help us to fabricate improved performance devices by using surface integrated substrates.

Keywords: ZnO nanorods, surface integration, mechanical properties, harvesting piezoelectricity

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4271 Device for Thermal Depolymerisation of Organic Substrates Prior to Methane Fermentation

Authors: Marcin Dębowski, Mirosław Krzemieniewski, Marcin Zieliński

Abstract:

This publication presents a device designed to depolymerise and structurally change organic substrate, for use in agricultural biogas plants or sewage treatment plants. The presented device consists of a heated tank equipped with an inlet valve for the crude substrate and an outlet valve for the treated substrate. The system also includes a gas conduit, which is at its tip equipped with a high-pressure solenoid valve and a vacuum relief solenoid valve. A conduit behind the high-pressure solenoid valve connects to the vacuum tank equipped with the outlet valve. The substrate introduced into the device is exposed to agents such as high temperature and cavitation produced by abrupt, short-term reduction of pressure within the heated tank. The combined effect of these processes is substrate destruction rate increase of about 20% when compared to using high temperature alone, and about 30% when compared to utilizing only cavitation. Energy consumption is greatly reduced, as the pressure increase is generated by heating the substrate. Thus, there is a 18% reduction of energy consumption when compared to a device designed to destroy substrate through high temperature alone, and a 35% reduction if compared to using cavitation as the only means of destruction.

Keywords: thermal depolymerisation, organic substrate, biogas, pre-treatment

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4270 Characterization of the Microorganisms Associated with Pleurotus ostractus and Pleurotus tuber-Regium Spent Mushroom Substrate

Authors: Samuel E. Okere, Anthony E. Ataga

Abstract:

Introduction: The microbial ecology of Pleurotus osteratus and Pleurotus tuber–regium spent mushroom substrate (SMS) were characterized to determine other ways of its utilization. Materials and Methods: The microbiological properties of the spent mushroom substrate were determined using standard methods. This study was carried out at the Microbiology Laboratory University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. Results: Quantitative microbiological analysis revealed that Pleurotus osteratus spent mushroom substrate (POSMS) contained 7.9x10⁵ and 1.2 x10³ cfu/g of total heterotrophic bacteria and total fungi count respectively while Pleurotus tuber-regium spent mushroom substrate (PTSMS) contained 1.38x10⁶ and 9.0 x10² cfu/g of total heterotrophic bacteria count and total fungi count respectively. The fungi species encountered from Pleurotus tuber-regium spent mushroom substrate (PTSMS) include Aspergillus and Cladosporum species, while Aspergillus and Penicillium species were encountered from Pleurotus osteratus spent mushroom substrate (POSMS). However, the bacteria species encountered from Pleurotus tuber-regium spent mushroom substrate include Bacillus, Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Actinobacter, and Pseudomonas species while Bacillus, Actinobacteria, Aeromonas, Lactobacillus and Aerococcus species were encountered from Pleurotus osteratus spent mushroom substrate (POSMS). Conclusion: Therefore based on the findings from this study, it can be concluded that spent mushroom substrate contain microorganisms that can be utilized both in bioremediation of oil-polluted soils as they contain important hydrocarbon utilizing microorganisms such as Penicillium, Aspergillus and Bacillus species and also as sources of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) such as Pseudomonas and Bacillus species which can induce resistance on plants. However, further studies are recommended, especially to molecularly characterize these microorganisms.

Keywords: characterization, microorganisms, mushroom, spent substrate

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4269 Effect of Surface Preparation of Concrete Substrate on Bond Tensile Strength of Thin Bonded Cement Based Overlays

Authors: S. Asad Ali Gillani, Ahmed Toumi, Anaclet Turatsinze

Abstract:

After a certain period of time, the degradation of concrete structures is unavoidable. For large concrete areas, thin bonded cement-based overlay is a suitable rehabilitation technique. Previous research demonstrated that durability of bonded cement-based repairs is always a problem and one of its main reasons is deboning at interface. Since durability and efficiency of any repair system mainly depend upon the bond between concrete substrate and repair material, the bond between concrete substrate and repair material can be improved by increasing the surface roughness. The surface roughness can be improved by performing surface treatment of the concrete substrate to enhance mechanical interlocking which is one of the basic mechanisms of adhesion between two surfaces. In this research, bond tensile strength of cement-based overlays having substrate surface prepared using different techniques has been characterized. In first step cement based substrate was prepared and then cured for three months. After curing two different types of the surface treatments were performed on this substrate; cutting and sandblasting. In second step overlay was cast on these prepared surfaces, which were cut and sandblasted surfaces. The overlay was also cast on the surface without any treatment. Finally, bond tensile strength of cement-based overlays was evaluated in direct tension test and the results are discussed in this paper.

Keywords: concrete substrate, surface preparation, overlays, bond tensile strength

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4268 Substrate Coupling in Millimeter Wave Frequencies

Authors: Vasileios Gerakis, Fontounasios Christos, Alkis Hatzopoulos

Abstract:

A study of the impact of metal guard rings on the coupling between two square metal pads is presented. The structure is designed over a bulk silicon substrate with epitaxial layer, so the coupling through the substrate is also involved. A lightly doped profile is adopted and is simulated by means of an electromagnetic simulator for various pad distances and different metal layers, assuming a 65 nm bulk CMOS technology. The impact of various guard ring design (geometrical) parameters is examined. Furthermore, the increase of isolation (resulting in reduction of the noise coupling) between the pads by cutting the ring, or by using multiple rings, is also analyzed. S parameters are used to compare the various structures.

Keywords: guard rings, metal pad coupling, millimeter wave frequencies, substrate noise,

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4267 Rapid Start-Up and Efficient Long-Term Nitritation of Low Strength Ammonium Wastewater with a Sequencing Batch Reactor Containing Immobilized Cells

Authors: Hammad Khan, Wookeun Bae

Abstract:

Major concerns regarding nitritation of low-strength ammonium wastewaters include low ammonium loading rates (usually below 0.2 kg/m3-d) and uncertainty about long-term stability of the process. The purpose of this study was to test a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) filled with cell-immobilized polyethylene glycol (PEG) pellets to see if it could achieve efficient and stable nitritation under various environmental conditions. SBR was fed with synthetic ammonium wastewater of 30±2 mg-N/L and pH: 8±0.05, maintaining the dissolved oxygen concentration of 1.7±0.2 mg/L and the temperature at 30±1oC. The reaction was easily converted to partial nitrification mode within a month by feeding relatively high ammonium substrate (~100 mg-N/L) in the beginning. We observed stable nitritation over 300 days with high ammonium loading rates (as high as ~1.1 kg-N/m3-d), nitrite accumulation rates (mostly over 97%) and ammonium removal rate (mostly over 95%). DO was a major limiting substrate when the DO concentration was below ~4 mg/L and the NH4+-N concentration was above 5 mg/L, giving almost linear increase in the ammonium oxidation rate with the bulk DO increase. Low temperatures mainly affected the reaction rate, which could be compensated for by increasing the pellet volume (i.e. biomass). Our results demonstrated that an SBR filled with small cell-immobilized PEG pellets could achieve very efficient and stable nitritation of a low-strength ammonium wastewater.

Keywords: ammonium loading rate (ALR), cell-immobilization, long-term nitritation, sequencing batch reactor (SBR), sewage treatment

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4266 Biomass Production Improvement of Beauveria bassiana at Laboratory Scale for a Biopesticide Development

Authors: G. Quiroga-Cubides, M. Cruz, E. Grijalba, J. Sanabria, A. Ceballos, L. García, M. Gómez

Abstract:

Beauveria sp. has been used as an entomopathogenic microorganism for biological control of various plant pests such as whitefly, thrips, aphids and chrysomelidaes (including Cerotoma tingomariana species), which affect soybean crops in Colombia´s Altillanura region. Therefore, a biopesticide prototype based on B. bassiana strain Bv060 was developed at Corpoica laboratories. For the production of B. bassiana conidia, a baseline fermentation was performed at laboratory in a solid medium using broken rice as a substrate, a temperature of 25±2 °C and a relative humidity of 60±10%. The experimental design was completely randomized, with a three-time repetition. These culture conditions resulted in an average conidial concentration of 1.48x10^10 conidia/g, a yield of 13.07 g/kg dry substrate and a productivity of 8.83x10^7 conidia/g*h were achieved. Consequently, the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of the particle size reduction of rice (<1 mm) and the addition of a complex nitrogen source over conidia production and efficiency parameters in a solid-state fermentation, in a completely randomized experiment with a three-time repetition. For this aim, baseline fermentation conditions of temperature and humidity were employed in a semisolid culture medium with powdered rice (10%) and a complex nitrogen source (8%). As a result, it was possible to increase conidial concentration until 9.87x10^10 conidia/g, yield to 87.07 g/g dry substrate and productivity to 3.43x10^8 conidia/g*h. This suggested that conidial concentration and yield in semisolid fermentation increased almost 7 times compared with baseline while the productivity increased 4 times. Finally, the designed system for semisolid-state fermentation allowed to achieve an easy conidia recovery, which means reduction in time and costs of the production process.

Keywords: Beauveria bassiana, biopesticide, solid state fermentation, semisolid medium culture

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4265 Device for Thermo-Magnetic Depolymerisation of Plant Biomass Prior to Methane Fermentation

Authors: Mirosław Krzemieniewski, Marcin Zieliński, Marcin Dębowski

Abstract:

This publication presents a device for depolymerisation of plant substrates applicable to agricultural biogas plants and closed-chamber sewage treatment plants where sludge fermentation is bolstered with plant mass. The device consists of a tank with a cover equipped with a heating system, an inlet for the substrate, and an outlet for the depolymerised substrate. Within the tank, a magnet shaft encased in a spiral casing is attached, equipped on its upper end with an internal magnetic disc. A motoreducer is mounted on an external magnetic disc located on the centre of the cover. Depolymerisation of the plant substrate allows for substrate destruction at much lower power levels than by conventional means. The temperature within the reactor can be lowered by 40% in comparison to existing designs. During the depolymerisation process, free radicals are generated within the magnetic field, oxidizing the conditioned substrate and promoting biodegradation. Thus, the fermentation time in the fermenters is reduced by approximately 20%.

Keywords: depolymerisation, pre-treatment, biomass, fermentation

Procedia PDF Downloads 376
4264 Improving the Ability of Constructed Wetlands to Treat Acid Mine Drainage

Authors: Chigbo Emmanuel Ikechukwu

Abstract:

Constructed wetlands are seen as a potential means of ameliorating the poor quality water that derives from coal and gold mining operations. However, the processes whereby a wetland environment is able to improve water quality are not well understood and techniques for optimising their performance poorly developed. A parameter that may be manipulated in order to improve the treatment capacity of a wetland is the substrate in which the aquatic plants are rooted. This substrate can provide an environment wherein sulphate reducing bacteria, which contribute to the removal of contaminants from the water, are able to flourish. The bacteria require an energy source which is largely provided by carbon in the substrate. This paper discusses the form in which carbon is most suitable for the bacteria and describes the results of a series of experiments in which different materials were used as substrate. Synthetic acid mine drainage was passed through an anaerobic bioreactor that contained either compost or cow manure. The effluent water quality was monitored with respect to time and the effect of the substrate composition discussed.

Keywords: constructed wetland, bacteria, carbon, acid mine drainage, sulphate

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4263 Optimization of Assay Parameters of L-Glutaminase from Bacillus cereus MTCC1305 Using Artificial Neural Network

Authors: P. Singh, R. M. Banik

Abstract:

Artificial neural network (ANN) was employed to optimize assay parameters viz., time, temperature, pH of reaction mixture, enzyme volume and substrate concentration of L-glutaminase from Bacillus cereus MTCC 1305. ANN model showed high value of coefficient of determination (0.9999), low value of root mean square error (0.6697) and low value of absolute average deviation. A multilayer perceptron neural network trained with an error back-propagation algorithm was incorporated for developing a predictive model and its topology was obtained as 5-3-1 after applying Levenberg Marquardt (LM) training algorithm. The predicted activity of L-glutaminase was obtained as 633.7349 U/l by considering optimum assay parameters, viz., pH of reaction mixture (7.5), reaction time (20 minutes), incubation temperature (35˚C), substrate concentration (40mM), and enzyme volume (0.5ml). The predicted data was verified by running experiment at simulated optimum assay condition and activity was obtained as 634.00 U/l. The application of ANN model for optimization of assay conditions improved the activity of L-glutaminase by 1.499 fold.

Keywords: Bacillus cereus, L-glutaminase, assay parameters, artificial neural network

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4262 The Influence of Bacteriocins Producing Lactic Acid Bacteria Multiplied in an Alternative Substrate on Calves Blood Parameters

Authors: E. Bartkiene, V. Krungleviciute, J. Kucinskiene, R. Antanaitis, A. Kucinskas

Abstract:

In calves less than 10-day-old, infection commonly cause severe diarrhoea and high mortality. To prevention of calves diseases a common practice is to treat calves with prophylactic antibiotics, in this case the use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is promising. Often LAB strains are incubated in comercial de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe (MRS) medium, the culture are centrifuged, the cells are washing with sterile water, and this suspension is used as a starter culture for animal health care. Juice of potatoe tubers is industrial wastes, wich may constitute a source of digestible nutrients for microorganisms. In our study the ability of LAB to utilize potatoe tubers juice in cell synthesis without external nutrient supplement was investigated, and the influence of multiplied LAB on calves blood parameters was evaluated. Calves were selected based on the analogy principle (treatment group (n=6), control group (n=8)). For the treatment group 14 days was given a 50 ml of fermented potatoe tubers juice containing 9.6 log10 cfu/ml of LAB. Blood parameters (gas and biochemical) were assessed by use of an auto-analyzers (Hitachi 705 and EPOC). Before the experiment, blood pH of treatment group calves was 7.33, control – 7.36, whereas, after 14 days, 7.28 and 7.36, respectively. Calves blood pH in the treatment group remained stable over the all experiment period. Concentration of PCO2 in control calves group blood increased from 63.95 to 70.93, whereas, in the treatment group decreased from 63.08 to 60.71. Concentration of lactate in the treatment group decreased from 3.20 mmol/l to 2.64 mmol/l, whereas, in control - increased from 3.95 mmol/l to 4.29 mmol/l. Concentration of AST in the control calves group increased from 50.18 IU/L to 58.9 IU/L, whereas, in treatment group decreased from 49.82 IU/L to 33.1 IU/L. We conclude that the 50 ml of fermented potatoe tubers juice containing 9.6 log10 cfu/ml of LAB per day, by using 14 days, reduced risk of developing acidosis (stabilizes blood pH (p < 0.05)), reduces lactates and PCO2 concentration (p < 0.05) and risk of liver lesions (reduces AST concentration (p < 0.005)) in blood of calves.

Keywords: alternative substrate, blood parameters, calves, lactic acid bacteria

Procedia PDF Downloads 187