Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1829

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

1829 Standard Essential Patents for Artificial Intelligence Hardware and the Implications For Intellectual Property Rights

Authors: Wendy de Gomez


Standardization is a critical element in the ability of a society to reduce uncertainty, subjectivity, misrepresentation, and interpretation while simultaneously contributing to innovation. Technological standardization is critical to codify specific operationalization through legal instruments that provide rules of development, expectation, and use. In the current emerging technology landscape Artificial Intelligence (AI) hardware as a general use technology has seen incredible growth as evidenced from AI technology patents between 2012 and 2018 in the United States Patent Trademark Office (USPTO) AI dataset. However, as outlined in the 2023 United States Government National Standards Strategy for Critical and Emerging Technology the codification through standardization of emerging technologies such as AI has not kept pace with its actual technological proliferation. This gap has the potential to cause significant divergent possibilities for the downstream outcomes of AI in both the short and long term. This original empirical research provides an overview of the standardization efforts around AI in different geographies and provides a background to standardization law. It quantifies the longitudinal trend of Artificial Intelligence hardware patents through the USPTO AI dataset. It seeks evidence of existing Standard Essential Patents from these AI hardware patents through a text analysis of the Statement of patent history and the Field of the invention of these patents in Patent Vector and examines their determination as a Standard Essential Patent and their inclusion in existing AI technology standards across the four main AI standards bodies- European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI); International Telecommunication Union (ITU)/ Telecommunication Standardization Sector (-T); Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE); and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Once the analysis is complete the paper will discuss both the theoretical and operational implications of F/Rand Licensing Agreements for the owners of these Standard Essential Patents in the United States Court and Administrative system. It will conclude with an evaluation of how Standard Setting Organizations (SSOs) can work with SEP owners more effectively through various forms of Intellectual Property mechanisms such as patent pools.

Keywords: patents, artifical intelligence, standards, F/Rand agreements

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1828 Risk Assessment of Trace Metals in the Soil Surface of an Abandoned Mine, El-Abed Northwestern Algeria

Authors: Farida Mellah, Abdelhak Boutaleb, Bachir Henni, Dalila Berdous, Abdelhamid Mellah


Context/Purpose: One of the largest mining operations for lead and zinc deposits in northwestern Algeria in more than thirty years, El Abed is now the abandoned mine that has been inactive since 2004, leaving large amounts of accumulated mining waste under the influence of Wind, erosion, rain, and near agricultural lands. Materials & Methods: This study aims to verify the concentrations and sources of heavy metals for surface samples containing randomly taken soil. Chemical analyses were performed using iCAP 7000 Series ICP-optical emission spectrometer, using a set of environmental quality indicators by calculating the enrichment factor using iron and aluminum references, geographic accumulation index and geographic information system (GIS). On the basis of the spatial distribution. Results: The results indicated that the average metal concentration was: (As = 30,82),(Pb = 1219,27), (Zn = 2855,94), (Cu = 5,3), mg/Kg,based on these results, all metals except Cu passed by GBV in the Earth's crust. Environmental quality indicators were calculated based on the concentrations of trace metals such as lead, arsenic, zinc, copper, iron and aluminum. Interpretation: This study investigated the concentrations and sources of trace metals, and by using quality indicators and statistical methods, lead, zinc, and arsenic were determined from human sources, while copper was a natural source. And based on the spatial analysis on the basis of GIS, many hot spots were identified in the El-Abed region. Conclusion: These results could help in the development of future treatment strategies aimed primarily at eliminating materials from mining waste.

Keywords: soil contamination, trace metals, geochemical indices, El Abed mine, Algeria

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1827 Stability Analysis and Controller Design of Further Development of Miniaturized Mössbauer Spectrometer II for Space Applications with Focus on the Extended Lyapunov Method – Part I –

Authors: Mohammad Beyki, Justus Pawlak, Robert Patzke, Franz Renz


In the context of planetary exploration, the MIMOS II (miniaturized Mössbauer spectrometer) serves as a proven and reliable measuring instrument. The transmission behaviour of the electronics in the Mössbauer spectroscopy is newly developed and optimized. For this purpose, the overall electronics is split into three parts. This elaboration deals exclusively with the first part of the signal chain for the evaluation of photons in experiments with gamma radiation. Parallel to the analysis of the electronics, a new method for the stability consideration of linear and non-linear systems is presented: The extended method of Lyapunov’s stability criteria. The design helps to weigh advantages and disadvantages against other simulated circuits in order to optimize the MIMOS II for the terestric and extraterestric measurment. Finally, after stability analysis, the controller design according to Ackermann is performed, achieving the best possible optimization of the output variable through a skillful pole assignment.

Keywords: Mössbauer spectroscopy, electronic signal amplifier, light processing technology, photocurrent, trans-impedance amplifier, extended Lyapunov method

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1826 Social Media Retailing in the Creator Economy

Authors: Julianne Cai, Weili Xue, Yibin Wu


Social media retailing (SMR) platforms have become popular nowadays. It is characterized by a creative combination of content creation and product selling, which differs from traditional e-tailing (TE) with product selling alone. Motivated by real-world practices like social media platforms “TikTok” and, we endeavor to study if the SMR model performs better than the TE model in a monopoly setting. By building a stylized economic model, we find that the SMR model does not always outperform the TE model. Specifically, when the SMR platform collects less commission from the seller than the TE platform, the seller, consumers, and social welfare all benefit more from the SMR model. In contrast, the platform benefits more from the SMR model if and only if the creator’s social influence is high enough or the cost of content creation is small enough. For the incentive structure of the content rewards in the SMR model, we found that a strong incentive mechanism (e.g., the quadratic form) is more powerful than a weak one (e.g., the linear form). The previous one will encourage the creator to choose a much higher quality level of content creation and meanwhile allowing the platform, consumers, and social welfare to become better off. Counterintuitively, providing more generous content rewards is not always helpful for the creator (seller), and it may reduce her profit. Our findings will guide the platform to effectively design incentive mechanisms to boost the content creation and retailing in the SMR model and help the influencers efficiently create content, engage their followers (fans), and price their products sold on the SMR platform.

Keywords: content creation, creator economy, incentive strategy, platform retailing

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1825 Crafting Robust Business Model Innovation Path with Generative Artificial Intelligence in Start-up SMEs

Authors: Ignitia Motjolopane


Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) play an important role in economies by contributing to economic growth and employment. In the fourth industrial revolution, the convergence of technologies and the changing nature of work created pressures on economies globally. Generative artificial intelligence (AI) may support SMEs in exploring, exploiting, and transforming business models to align with their growth aspirations. SMEs' growth aspirations fall into four categories: subsistence, income, growth, and speculative. Subsistence-oriented firms focus on meeting basic financial obligations and show less motivation for business model innovation. SMEs focused on income, growth, and speculation are more likely to pursue business model innovation to support growth strategies. SMEs' strategic goals link to distinct business model innovation paths depending on whether SMEs are starting a new business, pursuing growth, or seeking profitability. Integrating generative artificial intelligence in start-up SME business model innovation enhances value creation, user-oriented innovation, and SMEs' ability to adapt to dynamic changes in the business environment. The existing literature may lack comprehensive frameworks and guidelines for effectively integrating generative AI in start-up reiterative business model innovation paths. This paper examines start-up business model innovation path with generative artificial intelligence. A theoretical approach is used to examine start-up-focused SME reiterative business model innovation path with generative AI. Articulating how generative AI may be used to support SMEs to systematically and cyclically build the business model covering most or all business model components and analyse and test the BM's viability throughout the process. As such, the paper explores generative AI usage in market exploration. Moreover, market exploration poses unique challenges for start-ups compared to established companies due to a lack of extensive customer data, sales history, and market knowledge. Furthermore, the paper examines the use of generative AI in developing and testing viable value propositions and business models. In addition, the paper looks into identifying and selecting partners with generative AI support. Selecting the right partners is crucial for start-ups and may significantly impact success. The paper will examine generative AI usage in choosing the right information technology, funding process, revenue model determination, and stress testing business models. Stress testing business models validate strong and weak points by applying scenarios and evaluating the robustness of individual business model components and the interrelation between components. Thus, the stress testing business model may address these uncertainties, as misalignment between an organisation and its environment has been recognised as the leading cause of company failure. Generative AI may be used to generate business model stress-testing scenarios. The paper is expected to make a theoretical and practical contribution to theory and approaches in crafting a robust business model innovation path with generative artificial intelligence in start-up SMEs.

Keywords: business models, innovation, generative AI, small medium enterprises

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1824 Identifying Confirmed Resemblances in Problem-Solving Engineering, Both in the Past and Present

Authors: Colin Schmidt, Adrien Lecossier, Pascal Crubleau, Simon Richir


Introduction:The widespread availability of artificial intelligence, exemplified by Generative Pre-trained Transformers (GPT) relying on large language models (LLM), has caused a seismic shift in the realm of knowledge. Everyone now has the capacity to swiftly learn how these models can either serve them well or not. Today, conversational AI like ChatGPT is grounded in neural transformer models, a significant advance in natural language processing facilitated by the emergence of renowned LLMs constructed using neural transformer architecture. Inventiveness of an LLM : OpenAI's GPT-3 stands as a premier LLM, capable of handling a broad spectrum of natural language processing tasks without requiring fine-tuning, reliably producing text that reads as if authored by humans. However, even with an understanding of how LLMs respond to questions asked, there may be lurking behind OpenAI’s seemingly endless responses an inventive model yet to be uncovered. There may be some unforeseen reasoning emerging from the interconnection of neural networks here. Just as a Soviet researcher in the 1940s questioned the existence of Common factors in inventions, enabling an Under standing of how and according to what principles humans create them, it is equally legitimate today to explore whether solutions provided by LLMs to complex problems also share common denominators. Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ) : We will revisit some fundamentals of TRIZ and how Genrich ALTSHULLER was inspired by the idea that inventions and innovations are essential means to solve societal problems. It's crucial to note that traditional problem-solving methods often fall short in discovering innovative solutions. The design team is frequently hampered by psychological barriers stemming from confinement within a highly specialized knowledge domain that is difficult to question. We presume ChatGPT Utilizes TRIZ 40. Hence, the objective of this research is to decipher the inventive model of LLMs, particularly that of ChatGPT, through a comparative study. This will enhance the efficiency of sustainable innovation processes and shed light on how the construction of a solution to a complex problem was devised. Description of the Experimental Protocol : To confirm or reject our main hypothesis that is to determine whether ChatGPT uses TRIZ, we will follow a stringent protocol that we will detail, drawing on insights from a panel of two TRIZ experts. Conclusion and Future Directions : In this endeavor, we sought to comprehend how an LLM like GPT addresses complex challenges. Our goal was to analyze the inventive model of responses provided by an LLM, specifically ChatGPT, by comparing it to an existing standard model: TRIZ 40. Of course, problem solving is our main focus in our endeavours.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, Triz, ChatGPT, inventiveness, problem-solving

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1823 A Synopsis of Green Hydrogen Production Methods

Authors: Kazeem Aderemi Bello, Omojola Awoegbemi, Mukondeleli G. Kanakana-Katumba, Sobowale Aladejobi Adedayo


Environmental deterioration and global warming have been made worse by the ongoing exploitation and use of fossil fuels (FB). This situation has made it necessary to rekindle interest in creating sustainable, cheap, and clean energy sources for a range of uses. The scientific community is becoming more interested in researching the use of green hydrogen as a clean energy source and potential replacement for FB energy sources. Unsurprisingly, there is a growing interest among academics in green hydrogen production methods due to the need for inexpensive, sustainable, environmentally friendly, and clean energy sources. This review looks at the most current developments in green hydrogen-generating technologies. An outline of the identified production technologies, including their description, the procedure by which they are produced, the results, advantages, and disadvantages, were discussed. Although the different water electrolysis technologies provide environmentally friendly ways to split water molecules electrochemically and produce green hydrogen, the integrated pyrolysis-gasification biomass conversion technology is more economical, helps with the conversion of biomass into energy, and has efficient waste management techniques. To guarantee high-purity products, cost savings, process enhancement, and a commercialization viewpoint, more cooperative research is needed.

Keywords: biomass conversion, decarbonization, green hydrogen, solar energy, water electrolysis

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1822 Assessing Creative Agents: Engagement in Addressing Sustainability Challenges and Alignment with New European Bauhaus Principles

Authors: Chema Segovia, Pau Díaz-Solano, Tony Ramos Murphy


The PALIMPSEST project, funded by Horizon 2020 and associated with the New European Bauhaus, aims to revitalize sustainability practices in heritage landscapes through co-creation processes led by creative agents. Specifically, PALIMPSEST focuses on the pivotal roles of architecture, design, and art in addressing sustainability challenges. The project aims to demonstrate that these creative disciplines can generate a distinctive kind of value while addressing environmental needs, enhancing societal engagement, supporting foresighting activities, and increasing awareness. In the summer of 2023, Palimpsest launched an open call to select the teams that will lead the development of three creativity-based sustainability processes in three different pilot cities: Jerez de la Frontera (Spain), Lodz (Poland), and Milan (Italy). The call received 141 applications. Through a survey conducted among the candidates and an in-depth analysis of their proposals, we assessed the level of engagement that European creative agents have in tackling sustainability challenges, as well as their alignment with the principles advocated by the New European Bauhaus.

Keywords: arts, architecture, co-creation, design, new European Bauhaus, sustainability

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1821 Hydrogen Penetration in the Steel Industry: Substituting Natural Gas to Mitigate CO₂ Emissions: A Case Study

Authors: Mohamed Mostafa, Arman Ashabi, Dominic T. J. O'Sullivan, Ken Bruton


Iron and steel industry contributes to almost seven percent of the global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and about one third of the worldwide industrial carbon dioxide releases. extremely high industrial processes are challenging when it comes to decarbonization as reaching the needed temperatures is mainly depending on a limited number of fuels. Several critical issues need attention, including the scaling-up process, the quality of iron ore and scrap, the accessibility of green electricity and green hydrogen, and the establishment of markets for green steel. Coke and natural gas replacement and shifting towards green hydrogen as a reducing agent is a promising solution, as the cost of hydrogen production in the near future will decrease drastically since the overall efficiency of the hydrogen system is taking big steps in terms of development. This work investigates the hydrogen penetration to replace natural gas in the direct reduction of iron (DRI) process coupled with electric arc furnace (EAF). Hydrogen is generated from water electrolysis supplied from a PV (photovoltaic) plant. The design methodology is done using Mosek optimizer on MATLAB. The objective function developed in this work is targeting the minimization of the carbon dioxide emissions as well as costs of the components. This is followed by a sensitivity analysis discussed when hydrogen penetration increases from 35% till it reaches 100%. Different electrolyzers technologies are discussed in terms of which best fits for the case study depending on production scale and the amount of hydrogen fuel that will be stored in the hydrogen tank. To support decarbonization efforts and address climate change, upcoming steel production must be adaptable to novel fuels serving as reducing agents and hydrogen fuel is one of the leading candidates towards carbon free manufacturing targeted by 2050.

Keywords: hydrogen, green steel production, industrial decarbonization, direct reduction of iron ore

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1820 Digital Twin Modeling for Smart Car Battery

Authors: Kazeem Aderemi Bello, Mukondeleli Grace Kanakana-Katumba, Rendani Wilson Maladzhi


The electric car’s (EC) performance depends on its battery condition, recharging, and useful life. Therefore, it is imperative to design a model to effectively manage the battery life cycle to achieve efficient and reliable EC. This can be achieved through the application of the Digital Twin (DT) model. Absorbent glass mat (AGM) lead-acid batteries of 12 volts, 150 Ah, Internet of things (IoT), sensors, cloud computing technologies, etc. are used for this study. Though, there is sufficient literature on smart car battery management and prediction only a few studies have been able to address the variable characteristics of the battery. This experimental study seeks to model EC battery management by using DT. The application of DT in smart manufacturing has shown that DT can model variable battery conditions. An experimental study was carried out on EC in three main areas which include performance evaluation, real-life data generation, and battery prediction. This study provides a platform for EC users to monitor EC performance in real life. This is achieved by assembling the right set of sensors, RFID via IoT to enable the EC operations by digital data transmission and processing through cloud computing. The results recorded during the performance evaluation are stored in the cloud, and the real data generated are used to stimulate the EC battery performance by using algorithms and Artificial intelligence (AI). Also, the EC battery prediction is used to determine the EC speed in km/h, Frequency of rotation in RPM, and battery remaining useful life in real-time. This study provides the stakeholders with the assurance to adequately estimate the distance EC can cover before the battery is recharged, and helps to estimate the useful life of the battery.

Keywords: battery performance prediction, digital twin, electric car, Internet of things, sensor

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1819 Investigative Study to Analyze the Impact of Incubator Practices on the Performance of Pakistani Incubation Centers

Authors: Sadaf Zahra Usman


Business Incubation has become a pervasive phenomenon in numerous parts of the world and is seen as a tool for creating a startup ecosystem. The reason for greatest barriers to the advancement of business incubation centers is the need for an entrepreneurial ecosystem and underdeveloped financial assistance and angel investor networks for startup firms. Business incubation helps in creating successful startup ventures by providing administrative support services and assistance in creating their ventures. We identify incubators into three categories: University incubation centers (UICs), Private incubators (PICs), and Government incubator centers (GICs) to measure the influence of different types of business incubation practices and their performance by using a survey questionnaire from incubation managers across Pakistan. The analysis is conducted on eight Business incubators. Results suggest that the quality of incubation centers is extremely important in this regard. The research anticipated helping policymakers, government officials, and incubation management to utilize business incubation more effectively to “hatch” innovation-based entrepreneurial development.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, unemployment, startups, economy, business incubation practice

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1818 Artificial Intelligence Techniques for Enhancing Supply Chain Resilience: A Systematic Literature Review, Holistic Framework, and Future Research

Authors: Adane Kassa Shikur


Today’s supply chains (SC) have become vulnerable to unexpected and ever-intensifying disruptions from myriad sources. Consequently, the concept of supply chain resilience (SCRes) has become crucial to complement the conventional risk management paradigm, which has failed to cope with unexpected SC disruptions, resulting in severe consequences affecting SC performances and making business continuity questionable. Advancements in cutting-edge technologies like artificial intelligence (AI) and their potential to enhance SCRes by improving critical antecedents in the different phases have attracted the attention of scholars and practitioners. The research from academia and the practical interest of the industry have yielded significant publications at the nexus of AI and SCRes during the last two decades. However, the applications and examinations have been primarily conducted independently, and the extant literature is dispersed into research streams despite the complex nature of SCRes. To close this research gap, this study conducts a systematic literature review of 106 peer-reviewed articles by curating, synthesizing, and consolidating up-to-date literature and presents the state-of-the-art development from 2010 to 2022. Bayesian networks are the most topical ones among the 13 AI techniques evaluated. Concerning the critical antecedents, visibility is the first ranking to be realized by the techniques. The study revealed that AI techniques support only the first 3 phases of SCRes (readiness, response, and recovery), and readiness is the most popular one, while no evidence has been found for the growth phase. The study proposed an AI-SCRes framework to inform research and practice to approach SCRes holistically. It also provided implications for practice, policy, and theory as well as gaps for impactful future research.

Keywords: ANNs, risk, Bauesian networks, vulnerability, resilience

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1817 Structural Balance and Creative Tensions in New Product Development Teams

Authors: Shankaran Sitarama


New Product Development involves team members coming together and working in teams to come up with innovative solutions to problems, resulting in new products. Thus, a core attribute of a successful NPD team is their creativity and innovation. They need to be creative as a group, generating a breadth of ideas and innovative solutions that solve or address the problem they are targeting and meet the user’s needs. They also need to be very efficient in their teamwork as they work through the various stages of the development of these ideas, resulting in a POC (proof-of-concept) implementation or a prototype of the product. There are two distinctive traits that the teams need to have, one is ideational creativity, and the other is effective and efficient teamworking. There are multiple types of tensions that each of these traits cause in the teams, and these tensions reflect in the team dynamics. Ideational conflicts arising out of debates and deliberations increase the collective knowledge and affect the team creativity positively. However, the same trait of challenging each other’s viewpoints might lead the team members to be disruptive, resulting in interpersonal tensions, which in turn lead to less than efficient teamwork. Teams that foster and effectively manage these creative tensions are successful, and teams that are not able to manage these tensions show poor team performance. In this paper, it explore these tensions as they result in the team communication social network and propose a Creative Tension Balance index along the lines of Degree of Balance in social networks that has the potential to highlight the successful (and unsuccessful) NPD teams. Team communication reflects the team dynamics among team members and is the data set for analysis. The emails between the members of the NPD teams are processed through a semantic analysis algorithm (LSA) to analyze the content of communication and a semantic similarity analysis to arrive at a social network graph that depicts the communication amongst team members based on the content of communication. This social network is subjected to traditional social network analysis methods to arrive at some established metrics and structural balance analysis metrics. Traditional structural balance is extended to include team interaction pattern metrics to arrive at a creative tension balance metric that effectively captures the creative tensions and tension balance in teams. This CTB (Creative Tension Balance) metric truly captures the signatures of successful and unsuccessful (dissonant) NPD teams. The dataset for this research study includes 23 NPD teams spread out over multiple semesters and computes this CTB metric and uses it to identify the most successful and unsuccessful teams by classifying these teams into low, high and medium performing teams. The results are correlated to the team reflections (for team dynamics and interaction patterns), the team self-evaluation feedback surveys (for teamwork metrics) and team performance through a comprehensive team grade (for high and low performing team signatures).

Keywords: team dynamics, social network analysis, new product development teamwork, structural balance, NPD teams

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1816 Prediction of Design and Process Parameters for Digital Light Processing (DLP) for Manufacture of Compression-Loaded Scaffolds Using Neural Networks

Authors: Brayan Sebastian Najar Gomez, Carlos Alberto Narváez Tovar


In tissue engineering, scaffolds are used for tissue growth and regeneration. In the process of designing a scaffold, it must be considered that its physical and mechanical properties must be as similar as the tissue in which they are going to be implanted. Some of the properties that are usually important in the characterization of a scaffold correspond to its resistance to compression loads; however, these properties have a great dependence on the manufacturing process used. In the present work, a predictive model with neural networks was defined to predict the parameters of the digital light processing (DLP) additive manufacturing process and design specifications for scaffold production, considering compression strength as input variables. To achieve this, different neural network architectures were proposed through the implementation of hyperparameter optimization algorithms. Subsequently, a performance evaluation of each of the proposed architectures was conducted to select the model with the best predictive capability. Finally, the neural network was implemented for scaffold manufacturing, and experimental verification of the proposed model was carried out. A model with a high level of accuracy in its predictions was obtained as a tool for design engineers, thereby reducing the number of experimental iterations required to produce optimal scaffolds according to mechanical requirements.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, digital light proccesing, inverse prediction, neural networks, scaffolds

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1815 Effect of Printing Process on Mechanical Properties of Interface between 3D Printed Concrete Strips

Authors: Wei Chen, Jinlong Pan


3D concrete printing technology is a novel and highly efficient construction method that holds significant promise for advancing low-carbon initiatives within the construction industry. In contrast to traditional construction practices, 3D printing offers a manual and formwork-free approach, resulting in a transformative shift in labor requirements and fabrication techniques. This transition yields substantial reductions in carbon emissions during the construction phase, as well as decreased on-site waste generation. Furthermore, when compared to conventionally printed concrete, 3D concrete exhibits mechanical anisotropy due to its layer-by-layer construction methodology. Therefore, it becomes imperative to investigate the influence of the printing process on the mechanical properties of 3D printed strips and to optimize the mechanical characteristics of these coagulated strips. In this study, we conducted three-dimensional reconstructions of printed blocks using both circular and directional print heads, incorporating various overlap distances between strips, and employed CT scanning for comprehensive analysis. Our research focused on assessing mechanical properties and micro-pore characteristics under different loading orientations. Our findings reveal that increasing the overlap degree between strips leads to enhanced mechanical properties of the strips. However, it's noteworthy that once full overlap is achieved, further increases in the degree of coincidence do not lead to a decrease in porosity between strips. Additionally, due to its superior printing cross-sectional area, the square printing head exhibited the most favorable impact on mechanical properties.

Keywords: 3D printing concrete, mechanical anisotropy, micro-pore structure, printing technology

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1814 The Influence of Gender Role Socialization on Entrepreneurial Choices in 21st Century Africa: The Case of Cultural Ghana

Authors: Priscilla Adoley Moffat


Over the years, entrepreneurship has been promoted as an important tool for bridging the socioeconomic gap between the male gender and the female gender. In the face of the efforts to advance gender equity, however, there exist sociocultural factors whose influence on these efforts cannot be ignored or underrated. This study explored the influence of gender role socialization on entrepreneurial decisions in the male-dominated African society, with special focus on Ghana. The study essentially sought to find out whether gender role socialization in the Ghanaian culture affects the individual’s entrepreneurial choices and/or ventures. And if it does, how? The study analyzed the common gender roles found in the Ghanaian culture and the perceptions about these gender roles. 2507 male and female Ghanaian entrepreneurs were randomly sampled and interviewed. One particularly interesting finding of the study is that, while some entrepreneurs have interests in other enterprises, they fear becoming challengers of societal norms, as those ventures have been assigned to the other gender by the culture. Additionally, most of these entrepreneurs fear low or no patronage from members of the society. The study, thus, revealed a significant relationship between culture, especially gender role socialization, and patronage of businesses, as well as the success and profitability of an enterprise. It was, thus, concluded that most entrepreneurs’ entrepreneurial decisions or choices are influenced by the entrepreneur’s gender role socialization. By extension, gender role socialization was found to influence and limit entrepreneurial ventures.

Keywords: gender, role, socialization, entrepreneur, culture, ghana

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1813 Implementing Activity-Based Costing in Architectural Aluminum Projects: Case Study and Lessons Learned

Authors: Amer Momani, Tarek Al-Hawari, Abdallah Alakayleh


This study explains how to construct an actionable activity-based costing and management system to accurately track and account the total costs of architectural aluminum projects. Two ABC models were proposed to accomplish this purpose. First, the learning and development model was introduced to examine how to apply an ABC model in an architectural aluminum firm for the first time and to be familiar with ABC concepts. Second, an actual ABC model was built on the basis of the results of the previous model to accurately trace the actual costs incurred on each project in a year, and to be able to provide a quote with the best trade-off between competitiveness and profitability. The validity of the proposed model was verified on a local architectural aluminum company.

Keywords: activity-based costing, activity-based management, construction, architectural aluminum

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1812 Unveiling the Potential of PANI@MnO2@rGO Ternary Nanocomposite in Energy Storage and Gas Sensing

Authors: Ahmad Umar, Sheikh Akbar, Ahmed A. Ibrahim, Mohsen A. Alhamami


The development of advanced materials for energy storage and gas sensing applications has gained significant attention in recent years. In this study, we synthesized and characterized PANI@MnO2@rGO ternary nanocomposites (NCs) to explore their potential in supercapacitors and gas sensing devices. The ternary NCs were synthesized through a multi-step process involving the hydrothermal synthesis of MnO2 nanoparticles, preparation of PANI@rGO composites and the assembly to the ternary PANI@MnO2@rGO ternary NCs. The structural, morphological, and compositional characteristics of the materials were thoroughly analyzed using techniques such as XRD, FESEM, TEM, FTIR, and Raman spectroscopy. In the realm of gas sensing, the ternary NCs exhibited excellent performance as NH3 gas sensors. The optimized operating temperature of 100 °C yielded a peak response of 15.56 towards 50 ppm NH3. The nanocomposites demonstrated fast response and recovery times of 6 s and 10 s, respectively, and displayed remarkable selectivity for NH3 gas over other tested gases. For supercapacitor applications, the electrochemical performance of the ternary NCs was evaluated using cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge techniques. The composites exhibited pseudocapacitive behavior, with the capacitance reaching up to 185 F/g at 1 A/g and excellent capacitance retention of approximately 88.54% over 4000 charge-discharge cycles. The unique combination of rGO, PANI, and MnO2 nanoparticles in these ternary NCs offer synergistic advantages, showcasing their potential to address challenges in energy storage and gas sensing technologies.

Keywords: paniI@mnO2@rGO ternary NCs, synergistic effects, supercapacitors, gas sensing, energy storage

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1811 Surface Integrity Improvement for Selective Laser Melting (SLM) Additive Manufacturing of C300 Parts Using Ball Burnishing

Authors: Adrian Travieso Disotuar, J. Antonio Travieso Rodriguez, Ramon Jerez Mesa, Montserrat Vilaseca


The effect of the non-vibration-assisted and vibration-assisted ball burnishing on both the surface and mechanical properties of C300 obtained by Selective Laser Melting additive manufacturing technology is studied in this paper. Different vibration amplitudes preloads, and burnishing strategies were tested. A topographical analysis was performed to determine the surface roughness of the different conditions. Besides, micro tensile tests were carried out in situ on Scanning Electron Microscopy to elucidate the post-treatment effects on damaging mechanisms. Experiments show that vibration-assisted ball burnishing significantly enhances mechanical properties compared to the non-vibration-assisted method. Moreover, it was found that the surface roughness was significantly improved with respect to the reference surface.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, ball burnishing, mechanical properties, metals, surface roughness

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1810 The Role of Industrial Design in Fashion

Authors: Rojean Ghafariasar, Leili Nosrati


The article introduces the categories and characteristics of cross-design, respectively, between industry and industry designers, artists, brands and brands, science, technology, and fashion. It focuses on the combination of technology and fashion cross-design methods, corresponding case studies on the combination of new technology fabrics, fashion design, smart devices, and also 3D printing technology, emphasizing the integration and application value of technology and fashion. The document also introduces design elements into fashion design through scientific and technological intelligence, promoting fashion innovation as well as research and development of new materials and functions, and incubates an ecosystem for the fashion industry through science and technology.

Keywords: fashion, design, industrial design, crossover design

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1809 Work System Design in Productivity for Small and Medium Enterprises: A Systematic Literature Review

Authors: Silipa Halofaki, Devi R. Seenivasagam, Prashant Bijay, Kritin Singh, Rajeshkannan Ananthanarayanan


This comprehensive literature review delves into the effects and applications of work system design on the performance of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs). The review process involved three independent reviewers who screened 514 articles through a four-step procedure: removing duplicates, assessing keyword relevance, evaluating abstract content, and thoroughly reviewing full-text articles. Various criteria, such as relevance to the research topic, publication type, study type, language, publication date, and methodological quality, were employed to exclude certain publications. A portion of articles that met the predefined inclusion criteria were included as a result of this systematic literature review. These selected publications underwent data extraction and analysis to compile insights regarding the influence of work system design on SME performance. Additionally, the quality of the included studies was assessed, and the level of confidence in the body of evidence was established. The findings of this review shed light on how work system design impacts SME performance, emphasizing important implications and applications. Furthermore, the review offers suggestions for further research in this critical area and summarizes the current state of knowledge in the field. Understanding the intricate connections between work system design and SME success can enhance operational efficiency, employee engagement, and overall competitiveness for SMEs. This comprehensive examination of the literature contributes significantly to both academic research and practical decision-making for SMEs.

Keywords: literature review, productivity, small and medium sized enterprises-SMEs, work system design

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1808 Configuring Resilience and Environmental Sustainability to Achieve Superior Performance under Differing Conditions of Transportation Disruptions

Authors: Henry Ataburo, Dominic Essuman, Emmanuel Kwabena Anin


Recent trends of catastrophic events, such as the Covid-19 pandemic, the Suez Canal blockage, the Russia-Ukraine conflict, the Israel-Hamas conflict, and the climate change crisis, continue to devastate supply chains and the broader society. Prior authors have advocated for a simultaneous pursuit of resilience and sustainability as crucial for navigating these challenges. Nevertheless, the relationship between resilience and sustainability is a rather complex one: resilience and sustainability are considered unrelated, substitutes, or complements. Scholars also suggest that different firms prioritize resilience and sustainability differently for varied strategic reasons. However, we know little about whether, how, and when these choices produce different typologies of firms to explain differences in financial and market performance outcomes. This research draws inferences from the systems configuration approach to organizational fit to contend that a taxonomy of firms may emerge based on how firms configure resilience and environmental sustainability. The study further examines the effects of these taxonomies on financial and market performance in differing transportation disruption conditions. Resilience is operationalized as a firm’s ability to adjust current operations, structure, knowledge, and resources in response to disruptions, whereas environmental sustainability is operationalized as the extent to which a firm deploys resources judiciously and keeps the ecological impact of its operations to the barest minimum. Using primary data from 199 firms in Ghana and cluster analysis as an analytical tool, the study identifies four clusters of firms based on how they prioritize resilience and sustainability: Cluster 1 - "strong, moderate resilience, high sustainability firms," Cluster 2 - "sigh resilience, high sustainability firms," Cluster 3 - "high resilience, strong, moderate sustainability firms," and Cluster 4 - "weak, moderate resilience, strong, moderate sustainability firms". In addition, ANOVA and regression analysis revealed the following findings: Only clusters 1 and 2 were significantly associated with both market and financial performance. Under high transportation disruption conditions, cluster 1 firms excel better in market performance, whereas cluster 2 firms excel better in financial performance. Conversely, under low transportation disruption conditions, cluster 1 firms excel better in financial performance, whereas cluster 2 firms excel better in market performance. The study provides theoretical and empirical evidence of how resilience and environmental sustainability can be configured to achieve specific performance objectives under different disruption conditions.

Keywords: resilience, environmental sustainability, developing economy, transportation disruption

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1807 Enabling Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing in Aircraft Landing Gear Production and Its Benefits

Authors: Jun Wang, Chenglei Diao, Emanuele Pagone, Jialuo Ding, Stewart Williams


As a crucial component in aircraft, landing gear systems are responsible for supporting the plane during parking, taxiing, takeoff, and landing. Given the need for high load-bearing capacity over extended periods, 300M ultra-high strength steel (UHSS) is often the material of choice for crafting these systems due to its exceptional strength, toughness, and fatigue resistance. In the quest for cost-effective and sustainable manufacturing solutions, Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing (WAAM) emerges as a promising alternative for fabricating 300M UHSS landing gears. This is due to its advantages in near-net-shape forming of large components, cost-efficiency, and reduced lead times. Cranfield University has conducted an extensive preliminary study on WAAM 300M UHSS, covering feature deposition, interface analysis, and post-heat treatment. Both Gas Metal Arc (GMA) and Plasma Transferred Arc (PTA)-based WAAM methods were explored, revealing their feasibility for defect-free manufacturing. However, as-deposited 300M features showed lower strength but higher ductility compared to their forged counterparts. Subsequent post-heat treatments were effective in normalising the microstructure and mechanical properties, meeting qualification standards. A 300M UHSS landing gear demonstrator was successfully created using PTA-based WAAM, showcasing the method's precision and cost-effectiveness. The demonstrator, measuring Ф200mm x 700mm, was completed in 16 hours, using 7 kg of material at a deposition rate of 1.3kg/hr. This resulted in a significant reduction in the Buy-to-Fly (BTF) ratio compared to traditional manufacturing methods, further validating WAAM's potential for this application. A "cradle-to-gate" environmental impact assessment, which considers the cumulative effects from raw material extraction to customer shipment, has revealed promising outcomes. Utilising Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing (WAAM) for landing gear components significantly reduces the need for raw material extraction and refinement compared to traditional subtractive methods. This, in turn, lessens the burden on subsequent manufacturing processes, including heat treatment, machining, and transportation. Our estimates indicate that the carbon footprint of the component could be halved when switching from traditional machining to WAAM. Similar reductions are observed in embodied energy consumption and other environmental impact indicators, such as emissions to air, water, and land. Additionally, WAAM offers the unique advantage of part repair by redepositing only the necessary material, a capability not available through conventional methods. Our research shows that WAAM-based repairs can drastically reduce environmental impact, even when accounting for additional transportation for repairs. Consequently, WAAM emerges as a pivotal technology for reducing environmental impact in manufacturing, aiding the industry in its crucial and ambitious journey towards Net Zero. This study paves the way for transformative benefits across the aerospace industry, as we integrate manufacturing into a hybrid solution that offers substantial savings and access to more sustainable technologies for critical component production.

Keywords: WAAM, aircraft landing gear, microstructure, mechanical performance, life cycle assessment

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1806 Designing a Legal Framework for Social Innovation

Authors: Prapin Nuchpiam


The importance of social innovation has become increasingly significant as the process of developing effective solutions to social problems and being a force of change for people’s better quality of life. In order to promote social innovation, active collaboration between government, business organizations, and the civil society sector is needed. A proper legal framework also plays an important role in building the social innovation ecosystem. Currently, there is no specific law designed for social innovation or a so-called “social innovation law”. One of the legal frameworks for social innovation is the development of hybrid legal forms for social enterprises such as the UK’s Community Interest Company (CIC), the US’s Low-Profit Limited Liability Company (L3C) and the US’s Benefit Corporation (B-Corp), among others. This is because social enterprise is recognized as an organizational form of social innovation with its aim for social benefit goals and the achievement of financial sustainability. Nonetheless, there has been a debate over the differences and similarities between social innovation and social enterprise. Thus, social enterprise law might not fit well with social innovation, resulting in a search for a legal framework specially designed for social innovation. This paper aims to study the interrelationship between social innovation, social enterprise, and the role of law to see whether we need a specific law for social innovation. If so, what should such a legal framework look like? The paper will provide a critical analysis of innovative legal forms for social enterprise as a type of social innovation law. A proper legal framework for social innovation could help promote the sector, which could result in finding new solutions to social problems. It will also bring about a greater common understanding of the exciting development of legal scholarship in this way, which will, in turn, serve as a productive basis or direction for further research on this increasingly important topic.

Keywords: social innovation, social enterprise, legal framework, regulation

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1805 The Artificial Intelligence (AI) Impact on Project Management: A Destructive or Transformative Agent

Authors: Kwame Amoah


Artificial intelligence (AI) has the prospect of transforming project management, significantly improving efficiency and accuracy. By automating specific tasks with defined guidelines, AI can assist project managers in making better decisions and allocating resources efficiently, with possible risk mitigation. This study explores how AI is already impacting project management and likely future AI's impact on the field. The AI's reaction has been a divided opinion; while others picture it as a destroyer of jobs, some welcome it as an innovation advocate. Both sides agree that AI will be disruptive and revolutionize PM's functions. If current research is to go by, AI or some form will replace one-third of all learning graduate PM jobs by as early as 2030. A recent survey indicates AI spending will reach $97.9 billion by the end of 2023. Considering such a profound impact, the project management profession will also see a paradigm shift driven by AI. The study examines what the project management profession will look like in the next 5-10 years after this technological disruption. The research methods incorporate existing literature, develop trend analysis, and conduct structured interviews with project management stakeholders from North America to gauge the trend. PM professionals can harness the power of AI, ensuring a smooth transition and positive outcomes. AI adoption will maximize benefits, minimize adverse consequences, and uphold ethical standards, leading to improved project performance.

Keywords: project management, disruptive teacnologies, project management function, AL applications, artificial intelligence

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1804 Unveiling the Domino Effect: Barriers and Strategies in the Adoption of Telecommuting as a Post-Pandemic Workspace

Authors: Divnesh Lingam, Devi Rengamani Seenivasagam, Prashant Chand, Caleb Yee, John Chief, Rajeshkannan Ananthanarayanan


Telecommuting Post-Pandemic: Barriers, Solutions, and Strategies. Amidst the COVID-19 outbreak in 2020, remote work emerged as a vital business continuity measure. This study investigates telecommuting’s modern work model, exploring its benefits and obstacles. Utilizing Interpretive Structural Modelling uncovers barriers hindering telecommuting adoption. A validated set of thirteen barriers is examined through departmental surveys, revealing interrelationships. The resulting model highlights interactions and dependencies, forming a foundational framework. By addressing dominant barriers, a domino effect on subservient barriers is demonstrated. This research fosters further exploration, proposing management strategies for successful telecommuting adoption and reshaping the traditional workspace.

Keywords: barriers, interpretive structural modelling, post-pandemic, telecommuting

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1803 Synchronized Vehicle Routing for Equitable Resource Allocation in Food Banks

Authors: Rabiatu Bonku, Faisal Alkaabneh


Inspired by a food banks distribution operation for non-profit organization, we study a variant synchronized vehicle routing problem for equitable resource allocation. This research paper introduces a Mixed Integer Programming (MIP) model aimed at addressing the complex challenge of efficiently distributing vital resources, particularly for food banks serving vulnerable populations in urban areas. Our optimization approach places a strong emphasis on social equity, ensuring a fair allocation of food to partner agencies while minimizing wastage. The primary objective is to enhance operational efficiency while guaranteeing fair distribution and timely deliveries to prevent food spoilage. Furthermore, we assess four distinct models that consider various aspects of sustainability, including social and economic factors. We conduct a comprehensive numerical analysis using real-world data to gain insights into the trade-offs that arise, while also demonstrating the models’ performance in terms of fairness, effectiveness, and the percentage of food waste. This provides valuable managerial insights for food bank managers. We show that our proposed approach makes a significant contribution to the field of logistics optimization and social responsibility, offering valuable insights for improving the operations of food banks.

Keywords: food banks, humanitarian logistics, equitable resource allocation, synchronized vehicle routing

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1802 Methodology to Assess the Circularity of Industrial Processes

Authors: Bruna F. Oliveira, Marcelo M. Sousa, Flávia V. Barbosa


Circular economy is a popular concept used in many companies nowadays. Some industries are better forwarded to this reality than others, but the textile industry is a sector that needs bigger attention due to the lack of recyclability and second use of its products, as well as the industrial effluents generated by the manufacturing processes. For these reasons, the zero-waste goal and the European objectives are further from being achieved. In this context, a need arises to provide an effective methodology that allows to determine the level of circularity of textile companies. Regarding the complexity of the circular economy concept, few factories have a specialist in sustainability to assess the company’s circularity or that have the ability to implement circular strategies that could benefit the manufacturing processes. Although there are several methodologies to assess the circularity in companies and in specific industrial sectors, there is not an easy go-to methodology applied in factories aiming for cleaner production. Therefore, a straight-forward methodology to assess the level of circularity, in this case of a textile industry, is presented and discussed in this work, allowing any company to measure the impact of their activities. The methodology developed consists in calculating the overall circular index (OCI) by evaluating the circularity of four key areas – Energy, Material, Economic and Social – in a specific factory. The index is a value between 0 and 1, where 0 means a linear economy, and 1 is a complete circular economy. Each key area has a sub-index, obtained through Key-Performance Indicators (KPIs) regarding each theme, and the OCI reflects the average of the four sub-indexes. Some fieldwork in the appointed company was required in order to obtain all the necessary data. By having separate sub-indexes, one can observe which areas are more linear and which ones are more circular. Thus, it is possible to work on the most critical areas by implementing strategies to increase the circular index. After these strategies are implemented, the OCI is recalculated to check the improvements made and if any other changes in the remaining sub-indexes occurred. As such, the methodology in discussion works through continuous improvement, constantly reevaluating the circularity of the factory and improving it. The methodology is also flexible enough to be implemented in any industrial sector, by adapting the KPIs. This methodology was implemented to a selected Portuguese Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SME) textile industry and proves to be a relevant tool to measure the circularity level of the factory. It was witnessed that it is easier for non-specialists to evaluate circularity and identify possible solutions to increase its value as well as learn how one action can impact their environment. At the end, energetic and environmental inefficiencies were identified and corrected, increasing the sustainability and circularity of the company. Through this work, important contributions were provided, helping the Portuguese SME to achieve the European and UN 2030 sustainable goals.

Keywords: circular economy, circularity index, sustainability, textile industry, zero waste

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1801 Developing a Flexible and Reusable Supply Chain Simulator

Authors: Vincent Béchard


Modern supply chains can be complex. Generally speaking, they consist of a multimodal transportation network with arrival rates, transit times, intermediate storage centers and rehandling points, distribution centers, and delivery points. The complexity of these systems grows quickly as the number of entry and exit points increases. Moreover, variability needs to be considered in the capacity assessment: any activity and transit time is not a constant value but rather a variable quantity. Although more realistic, introducing variability makes it more difficult to optimize resource assignment, design adequate storage capacities, or determine the optimal number of transport vehicles. A discrete event simulation framework was developed to perform an entire supply chain network assessment. Using abstraction and functional analysis, the model was designed to be highly reusable regardless of the application domain (mining, pulp and paper, agri-food, etc.). To achieve this, flexibility and user-friendliness were at the center of the framework thinking. Finally, integrating an object-oriented mindset made it possible to develop a high-speed simulator easily usable on a personal computer. Having this tool in hand, one can then add an optimization engine to tune specific network parameters, or run many “what if” scenarios, or design computer experiments to optimize fleet sizes within several minutes only. In this article, the framework that was put in place is presented, and the various features of the simulator, including the management of random numbers and statistical distributions, are explained. This is followed by the illustration using an industrial case study where a network of mines was studied: mining, multimodal transportation, storage, and rehandling sites, and handling of several ore grades, then processing at a mill. Since this application was based on existing data and field observations, actual and future bottlenecks were discovered and addressed using a simulation. Finally, the article concludes with an opening on the next generation and possible applications of this simulator.

Keywords: discrete event simulation, modelling, supply chain simulation, fleet optimization, material handling, multimodal transportation network

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1800 Through Integrated Project Management and Systems Engineering to Support System Design Development: A Project Management-based Systems Engineering Approach

Authors: Xiaojing Gao, James Njuguna


This paper emphasizes the importance of integrating project management and systems engineering for innovative system design and production development. The research highlights the need for a flexible approach that unifies these disciplines, as their isolation often leads to communication challenges and complexity within multidisciplinary teams. The paper aims to elucidate the intricate relationship between project management and systems engineering, recommending the consolidation of engineering disciplines into a single lifecycle for improved support of the design and development process. The research identifies a synergy between these disciplines, focusing on streamlining information communication during product design and development. The insights gained from this process can lead to product design optimization. Additionally, the paper introduces a proposed Project Management-Based Systems Engineering (PMBSE) framework, emphasizing effective communication, efficient processes, and advanced tools to enhance product development outcomes within the product lifecycle.

Keywords: system engineering, product design and development, project management, cross-disciplinary

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