Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1704

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

1704 Optimal Number of Reconfigurable Robots in a Transport System

Authors: Mari Chaikovskaia, Jean-Philippe Gayon, Alain Quilliot


We consider a fleet of elementary robots that can be connected in different ways to transport loads of different types. For instance, a single robot can transport a small load, and the association of two robots can either transport a large load or two small loads. We seek to determine the optimal number of robots to transport a set of loads in a given time interval, with or without reconfiguration. We show that the problem with reconfiguration is strongly NP-hard by a reduction to the bin-packing problem. Then, we study a special case with unit capacities and derive simple formulas for the minimum number of robots, up to 3 types of loads. For this special case, we compare the minimum number of robots with or without reconfiguration and show that the gain is limited in absolute value but may be significant for small fleets.

Keywords: fleet sizing, reconfigurability, robots, transportation

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1703 Management of Empty Containers by Consignees in the Hinterland

Authors: Benjamin Legros, Jan Fransoo, Oualid Jouini


This study aims to evaluate street-turn strategies for empty container repositioning in the hinterland. Containers arrive over time at the (importer) consignee, while the demand for containers arises from the (exporter) shipper. A match can be operated between an empty container from the consignee and the load from the shipper. Therefore, we model the system as a double-ended queue with non-zero matching time and a limited number of resources in order to optimize the reposition- ing decisions. We determine the performance measures when the consignee operates using a fixed withholding threshold policy. We show that the matching time mainly plays a role in the matching proportion, while under a certain duration, it only marginally impacts the consignee’s inventory policy and cost per container. Also, the withholding level is mainly determined by the shipper’s production rate.

Keywords: container, double-ended queue, inventory, Markov decision process, non-zero matching time, street-turn

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1702 Digital Design and Fabrication: A Review of Trend and Its Impact in the African Context

Authors: Mohamed Al Araby, Amany Salman, Mostafa Amin, Mohamed Madbully, Dalia Keraa, Mariam Ali, Marah Abdelfatah, Mariam Ahmed, Ahmed Hassab


In recent years, the architecture, engineering, and construction (A.E.C.) industry have been exposed to important innovations, most notably the global integration of digital design and fabrication (D.D.F.) processes in the industry’s workflow. Despite this evolution in that sector, Africa was excluded from the examination of this development. The reason behind this exclusion is the preconceived view of it as a developing region that still employs traditional methods of construction. The primary objective of this review is to investigate the trend of digital construction (D.C.) in the African environment and the difficulties in its regular utilization of it. This objective can be attained by recognizing the notion of distributed computing in Africa and evaluating the impact of the projects deploying this technology on both the immediate and broader contexts. The paper’s methodology begins with the collection of data from 224 initiatives throughout Africa. Then, 50 of these projects were selected based on the criteria of the project's recency, typology variety, and location diversity. After that, a literature-based comparative analysis was undertaken. This study’s findings reveal a pattern of motivation for applying digital fabrication processes. Moreover, it is essential to evaluate the socio-economic effects of these projects on the population living near the analyzed subject. The last step in this study is identifying the influence on the neighboring nations.

Keywords: Africa, digital construction, digital design, fabrication

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1701 Joint Replenishment and Heterogeneous Vehicle Routing Problem with Cyclical Schedule

Authors: Ming-Jong Yao, Chin-Sum Shui, Chih-Han Wang


This paper is developed based on a real-world decision scenario that an industrial gas company that applies the Vendor Managed Inventory model and supplies liquid oxygen with a self-operated heterogeneous vehicle fleet to hospitals in nearby cities. We name it as a Joint Replenishment and Heterogeneous Vehicle Routing Problem with Cyclical Schedule and formulate it as a non-linear mixed-integer linear programming problem which simultaneously determines the length of the planning cycle (PC), the length of the replenishment cycle and the dates of replenishment for each customer and the vehicle routes of each day within PC, such that the average daily operation cost within PC, including inventory holding cost, setup cost, transportation cost, and overtime labor cost, is minimized. A solution method based on genetic algorithm, embedded with an encoding and decoding mechanism and local search operators, is then proposed, and the hash function is adopted to avoid repetitive fitness evaluation for identical solutions. Numerical experiments demonstrate that the proposed solution method can effectively solve the problem under different lengths of PC and number of customers. The method is also shown to be effective in determining whether the company should expand the storage capacity of a customer whose demand increases. Sensitivity analysis of the vehicle fleet composition shows that deploying a mixed fleet can reduce the daily operating cost.

Keywords: cyclic inventory routing problem, joint replenishment, heterogeneous vehicle, genetic algorithm

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1700 A Framework of Dynamic Rule Selection Method for Dynamic Flexible Job Shop Problem by Reinforcement Learning Method

Authors: Rui Wu


In the volatile modern manufacturing environment, new orders randomly occur at any time, while the pre-emptive methods are infeasible. This leads to a real-time scheduling method that can produce a reasonably good schedule quickly. The dynamic Flexible Job Shop problem is an NP-hard scheduling problem that hybrid the dynamic Job Shop problem with the Parallel Machine problem. A Flexible Job Shop contains different work centres. Each work centre contains parallel machines that can process certain operations. Many algorithms, such as genetic algorithms or simulated annealing, have been proposed to solve the static Flexible Job Shop problems. However, the time efficiency of these methods is low, and these methods are not feasible in a dynamic scheduling problem. Therefore, a dynamic rule selection scheduling system based on the reinforcement learning method is proposed in this research, in which the dynamic Flexible Job Shop problem is divided into several parallel machine problems to decrease the complexity of the dynamic Flexible Job Shop problem. Firstly, the features of jobs, machines, work centres, and flexible job shops are selected to describe the status of the dynamic Flexible Job Shop problem at each decision point in each work centre. Secondly, a framework of reinforcement learning algorithm using a double-layer deep Q-learning network is applied to select proper composite dispatching rules based on the status of each work centre. Then, based on the selected composite dispatching rule, an available operation is selected from the waiting buffer and assigned to an available machine in each work centre. Finally, the proposed algorithm will be compared with well-known dispatching rules on objectives of mean tardiness, mean flow time, mean waiting time, or mean percentage of waiting time in the real-time Flexible Job Shop problem. The result of the simulations proved that the proposed framework has reasonable performance and time efficiency.

Keywords: dynamic scheduling problem, flexible job shop, dispatching rules, deep reinforcement learning

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1699 On Mathematical Modelling and Optimization of Emerging Trends Processes in Advanced Manufacturing

Authors: Agarana Michael C., Akinlabi Esther T., Pule Kholopane


Innovation in manufacturing process technologies and associated product design affects the prospects for manufacturing today and in near future. In this study some theoretical methods, useful as tools in advanced manufacturing, are considered. In particular, some basic Mathematical, Operational Research, Heuristic, and Statistical techniques are discussed. These techniques/methods are very handy in many areas of advanced manufacturing processes, including process planning optimization, modelling and analysis. Generally the production rate requires the application of Mathematical methods. The Emerging Trends Processes in Advanced Manufacturing can be enhanced by using Mathematical Modelling and Optimization techniques.

Keywords: mathematical modelling, optimization, emerging trends, advanced manufacturing

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1698 Modeling and Analysis of Laser Sintering Process Scanning Time for Optimal Planning and Control

Authors: Agarana Michael C., Akinlabi Esther T., Pule Kholopane


In order to sustain the advantages of an advanced manufacturing technique, such as laser sintering, minimization of total processing cost of the parts being produced is very important. An efficient time management would usually very important in optimal cost attainment which would ultimately result in an efficient advanced manufacturing process planning and control. During Laser Scanning Process Scanning (SLS) procedures it is possible to adjust various manufacturing parameters which are used to influence the improvement of various mechanical and other properties of the products. In this study, Modelling and mathematical analysis, including sensitivity analysis, of the laser sintering process time were carried out. The results of the analyses were represented with graphs, from where conclusions were drawn. It was specifically observed that achievement of optimal total scanning time is key for economic efficiency which is required for sustainability of the process.

Keywords: modeling and analysis, optimal planning and control, laser sintering process, scanning time

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1697 Developing Digital Twins of Steel Hull Processes

Authors: V. Ložar, N. Hadžić, T. Opetuk, R. Keser


The development of digital twins strongly depends on efficient algorithms and their capability to mirror real-life processes. Nowadays, such efforts are required to establish factories of the future faced with new demands of custom-made production. The ship hull processes face these challenges too. Therefore, it is important to implement design and evaluation approaches based on production system engineering. In this study, the recently developed finite state method is employed to describe the stell hull process as a platform for the implementation of digital twinning technology. The application is justified by comparing the finite state method with the analytical approach. This method is employed to rebuild a model of a real shipyard ship hull process using a combination of serial and splitting lines. The key performance indicators such as the production rate, work in process, probability of starvation, and blockade are calculated and compared to the corresponding results obtained through a simulation approach using the software tool Enterprise dynamics. This study confirms that the finite state method is a suitable tool for digital twinning applications. The conclusion highlights the advantages and disadvantages of methods employed in this context.

Keywords: digital twin, finite state method, production system engineering, shipyard

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1696 Enhancing Dents through Lean Six Sigma

Authors: Prateek Guleria, Shubham Sharma, Rakesh Kumar Shukla, Harshit Sharma


Performance measurement of small and medium-sized businesses is the primary need for all companies to survive and thrive in a dynamic global company. A structured and systematic, integrated organization increases employee reliability, sustainability, and loyalty. This paper is a case study of a gear manufacturing industry that was facing the problem of rejection due to dents and damages in gear. The DMAIC cycle, along with different tools used in the research work includes SIPOC (Supply, Input, Process, Output, Control) Pareto analysis, Root & Cause analysis, and FMEA (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis). The six-sigma level was improved from 4.06 to 3.46, and the rejection rate was reduced from 7.44% to 1.56%. These findings highlighted the influence of a Lean Six Sigma module in the gear manufacturing unit, which has already increased operational quality and continuity to increase market success and meet customer expectations. According to the findings, applying lean six sigma tools will result in increased productivity. The results could assist businesses in deciding the quality tools that were likely to improve efficiency, competitiveness, and expense.

Keywords: six sigma, DMAIC, SIPOC, failure mode, effect analysis

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1695 Improvement of Process Competitiveness Using Intelligent Reference Models

Authors: Julio Macedo


Several methodologies are now available to conceive the improvements of a process so that it becomes competitive as for example total quality, process reengineering, six sigma, define measure analysis improvement control method. These improvements are of different nature and can be external to the process represented by an optimization model or a discrete simulation model. In addition, the process stakeholders are several and have different desired performances for the process. Hence, the methodologies above do not have a tool to aid in the conception of the required improvements. In order to fill this void we suggest the use of intelligent reference models. A reference model is a set of qualitative differential equations and an objective function that minimizes the gap between the current and the desired performance indexes of the process. The reference models are intelligent so when they receive the current state of the problematic process and the desired performance indexes they generate the required improvements for the problematic process. The reference models are fuzzy cognitive maps added with an objective function and trained using the improvements implemented by the high performance firms. Experiments done in a set of students show the reference models allow them to conceive more improvements than students that do not use these models.

Keywords: continuous improvement, fuzzy cognitive maps, process competitiveness, qualitative simulation, system dynamics

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1694 Microfiber Release During Laundry Under Different Rinsing Parameters

Authors: Fulya Asena Uluç, Ehsan Tuzcuoğlu, Songül Bayraktar, Burak Koca, Alper Gürarslan


Microplastics are contaminants that are widely distributed in the environment with a detrimental ecological effect. Besides this, recent research has proved the existence of microplastics in human blood and organs. Microplastics in the environment can be divided into two main categories: primary and secondary microplastics. Primary microplastics are plastics that are released into the environment as microscopic particles. On the other hand, secondary microplastics are the smaller particles that are shed as a result of the consumption of synthetic materials in textile products as well as other products. Textiles are the main source of microplastic contamination in aquatic ecosystems. Laundry of synthetic textiles (34.8%) accounts for an average annual discharge of 3.2 million tons of primary microplastics into the environment. Recently, microfiber shedding from laundry research has gained traction. However, no comprehensive study was conducted from the standpoint of rinsing parameters during laundry to analyze microfiber shedding. The purpose of the present study is to quantify microfiber shedding from fabric under different rinsing conditions and determine the effective rinsing parameters on microfiber release in a laundry environment. In this regard, a parametric study is carried out to investigate the key factors affecting the microfiber release from a front-load washing machine. These parameters are the amount of water used during the rinsing step and the spinning speed at the end of the washing cycle. Minitab statistical program is used to create a design of the experiment (DOE) and analyze the experimental results. Tests are repeated twice and besides the controlled parameters, other washing parameters are kept constant in the washing algorithm. At the end of each cycle, released microfibers are collected via a custom-made filtration system and weighted with precision balance. The results showed that by increasing the water amount during the rinsing step, the amount of microplastic released from the washing machine increased drastically. Also, the parametric study revealed that increasing the spinning speed results in an increase in the microfiber release from textiles.

Keywords: front load, laundry, microfiber, microfiber release, microfiber shedding, microplastic, pollution, rinsing parameters, sustainability, washing parameters, washing machine

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1693 Numerical and Comparative Analysis between Two Composite Plates Notched in Different Shapes and Repaired by Composite

Authors: Amari Khaoula, Berrahou Mohamed


The topic of our article revolves around a numerical and comparative analysis between two notched Boron/epoxy plates that are U-shaped and the other V-shaped, cracked, and repaired by a rectangular patch of the same composite material; the finite element method was used for the analytical study and comparison of the results obtained for determining the optimal shape of notch which will give a longer life to the repair. In this context, we studied the variation of the stress intensity factor, the evolution of the damaged area, and the calculation of the ratio of the damaged area according to the crack length and the concentration of the Von Mises stresses as a function of the lengths of the paths. According to the results obtained, we conclude that the notch plate U is the optimal one than notch plate V because it has lower values either for the stress intensity factor (SIF), damaged area ratio (Dᵣ), or the Von Mises stresses.

Keywords: the notch U, the notch V, the finite element method FEM, comparison, rectangular patch, composite, stress intensity factor, damaged area ratio, Von Mises stresses

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1692 Improving Quality Metrics Like Profile and Lead in a Gear Using Six Sigma’s Methodology

Authors: Shubham Sharma, Nitin Kumar, Harshit Sharma, Nishant Sharma, Rakesh K Shukla, Prateek Guleria


The manufacturing of the gear is fraught with problems, as seen by a wide variety of defects. Rejections owing to the several manufacturing procedures involved in creating a gear have previously been optimized to a great extent. But Lean Six Sigma (LSS) and Six Sigma haven't been used yet on rejection-causing quality metrics like a gear's Profile & Lead. In this article, we'll look at how a firm that makes agricultural equipment used the six sigma Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control (DMAIC) methodology and the Kaizen technique to get rid of Bull Gear defects caused by Profile & Lead fault in the shaving process of gear production. The Project Charter was used to establish the structure of the team and the distribution of responsibilities. Profile Form Error (Ffa), Profile Angle Error (Fha), Profile Crowning (Ca), Lead Form Error (Ffb), Lead Angle Error (Fhb), and Lead Crowning (Cb) are the 12 Critical to Quality (CTQ) factors from the left and right side of the gear tooth that was narrowed down from an initial list of 16. Under the Six Sigma DMAIC framework, we employed the Normality Test, Matrix Plot, Statistical Process Control (SPC), Root Cause Analysis (RCA), and Box plots to draw conclusions. When this case study was being carried out, CTQ parameters accounted for 49% of the defects. Analysis and kaizens led to a drop in Bull Gear rejection from 11.24 % to 4.19 %, leading to an increase in Sigma levels from 3.28 % to 3.70 %, which resulted in the reduction of Cost of Poor Quality (COPQ) up to 41.59 %. The research provides comprehensive data on a variety of resources and the effective use of the DMAIC approach. Now that the dogma around Profile & Lead has been dispelled, the case study is accessible to professionals and students alike, and more may be done to optimize quality in this area.

Keywords: COPQ, DMAIC, profile & lead, six sigma

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1691 Multi-Classification Deep Learning Model for Diagnosing Different Chest Diseases

Authors: Bandhan Dey, Muhsina Bintoon Yiasha, Gulam Sulaman Choudhury


Chest disease is one of the most problematic ailments in our regular life. There are many known chest diseases out there. Diagnosing them correctly plays a vital role in the process of treatment. There are many methods available explicitly developed for different chest diseases. But the most common approach for diagnosing these diseases is through X-ray. In this paper, we proposed a multi-classification deep learning model for diagnosing COVID-19, lung cancer, pneumonia, tuberculosis, and atelectasis from chest X-rays. In the present work, we used the transfer learning method for better accuracy and fast training phase. The performance of three architectures is considered: InceptionV3, VGG-16, and VGG-19. We evaluated these deep learning architectures using public digital chest x-ray datasets with six classes (i.e., COVID-19, lung cancer, pneumonia, tuberculosis, atelectasis, and normal). The experiments are conducted on six-classification, and we found that VGG16 outperforms other proposed models with an accuracy of 95%.

Keywords: deep learning, image classification, X-ray images, Tensorflow, Keras, chest diseases, convolutional neural networks, multi-classification

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1690 Innovative Solutions for Enhancing Efficiency and Quality of Quantity Surveying Services

Authors: Lo Kar Yin, Chung Man Kit


In view of the increasing speed, efficiency, and quality in the housing supply, building and civil engineering infrastructure works triggered by pandemic across globe, contractors and professional services providers (PSP) including consultants (e.g., architect, project manager, civil/geotechnical/structural engineer, building services engineer, quantity surveyor, environmental design consultant, etc.) are facing tremendous challenges of fierce market competition, limited manpower and resources under construction contract prices inflation and all-inclusive consultancy fees. Technology, contract and people are the key requirements for shaping the construction industry. Information technology is used to provide innovative solutions for enhancing efficiency and quality of quantity surveying services deliverables across global manufacturing and supply chains for public organizations and private companies’ sustainable growth, not limited to checking the construction document and data transfer over multiplatform / function. By the adoption of modern construction procurement approach, the loopholes are solved together with securing different levels of staff employment and retention in particular experienced mid-career professionals for achieving the best value for money.

Keywords: efficiency, quality, technology, contract, people, quantity surveying

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1689 The Competitive Power of Supply Chain Quality Management in Manufacturing Companies in Cameroon

Authors: Nicodemus Tiendem, Arrey Mbayong Napoleon


The heightening of competition and the quest for market share has left business persons and research communities re-examining and reinventing their competitive practices. A case in point is Porter’s generic strategy which has received a lot of criticism lately regarding its inability to maintain a company’s competitive power. This is because it focuses more on the organisation and ignores her external partners, who have a strong bearing on the company’s performance. This paper, therefore, sought to examine Porter’s generic strategies alongside supply chain quality management practices in terms of their effectiveness in building the competitive power of manufacturing companies in Cameroon. This was done with the use of primary data captured from a survey study across the supply chains of 20 manufacturing companies in Cameroon using a five-point Likert scale questionnaire. For each company, four 1st tier suppliers and four 1st tier distributors were carefully chosen to participate in the study alongside the companies themselves. In each case, attention was directed to persons involved in the supply chains of the companies. This gave a total of 180 entities comprising the supply chains of the 20 manufacturing companies involved in the study, making a total of 900 participants. The data was analysed using three multiple regression models to assess the effect of Porter’s generic strategy and supply chain quality management on the marketing performance of the companies. The findings proved that in such a competitive atmosphere, supply chain quality management is a better tool for marketing performance over Porter’s generic strategies and hence building the competitive power of the companies at all levels of the study. Although the study made use of convenience sampling, where sample selectivity biases the results, the findings aligned with many other recent developments in line with building the competitive power of manufacturing companies and thereby made the findings suitable for generalisation.

Keywords: supply chain quality management, Porter’s generic strategies, competitive power, marketing performance, manufacturing companies, Cameroon

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1688 Infusing Social Business Skills into the Curriculum of Higher Learning Institutions with Special Reference to Albukhari International University

Authors: Abdi Omar Shuriye


A social business is a business designed to address socio-economic problems to enhance the welfare of the communities involved. Lately, social business, with its focus on innovative ideas, is capturing the interest of educational institutions, governments, and non-governmental organizations. Social business uses a business model to achieve a social goal, and in the last few decades, the idea of imbuing social business into the education system of higher learning institutions has spurred much excitement. This is due to the belief that it will lead to job creation and increased social resilience. One of the higher learning institutions which have invested immensely in the idea is Albukhari International University; it is a private education institution, on a state-of-the-art campus, providing an advantageous learning ecosystem. The niche area of this institution is social business, and it graduates job creators, not job seekers; this Malaysian institution is unique and one of its kind. The objective of this paper is to develop a work plan, direction, and milestone as well as the focus area for the infusion of social business into higher learning institutions with special reference to Al-Bukhari International University. The purpose is to develop a prototype and model full-scale to enable higher learning education institutions to construct the desired curriculum fermented with social business. With this model, major predicaments faced by these institutions could be overcome. The paper sets forth an educational plan and will spell out the basic tenets of social business, focusing on the nature and implementational aspects of the curriculum. It will also evaluate the mechanisms applied by these educational institutions. Currently, since research in this area remains scarce, institutions adopt the process of experimenting with various methods to find the best way to reach the desired result on the matter. The author is of the opinion that social business in education is the main tool to educate holistic future leaders; hence educational institutions should inspire students in the classroom to start up their own businesses by adopting creative and proactive teaching methods. This proposed model is a contribution in that direction.

Keywords: social business, curriculum, skills, university

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1687 Design and Comparative Analysis of Grid-Connected Bipv System with Monocrystalline Silicon and Polycrystalline Silicon in Kandahar Climate

Authors: Ahmad Shah Irshad, Naqibullah Kargar, Wais Samadi


Building an integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) system is a new and modern technique for solar energy production in Kandahar. Due to its location, Kandahar has abundant sources of solar energy. People use both monocrystalline and polycrystalline silicon solar PV modules for the grid-connected solar PV system, and they don’t know which technology performs better for the BIPV system. This paper analyses the parameters described by IEC61724, “Photovoltaic System Performance Monitoring Guidelines for Measurement, Data Exchange and Analysis,” to evaluate which technology shows better performance for the BIPV system. The monocrystalline silicon BIPV system has a 3.1% higher array yield than the polycrystalline silicon BIPV system. The final yield is 0.2%, somewhat higher for monocrystalline silicon than polycrystalline silicon. Monocrystalline silicon has 0.2% and 4.5% greater yearly yield factor and capacity factors than polycrystalline silicon, respectively. Monocrystalline silicon shows 0.3% better performance than polycrystalline silicon. With 1.7% reduction and 0.4% addition in collection losses and useful energy produced, respectively, monocrystalline silicon solar PV system shows good performance than polycrystalline silicon solar PV system. But system losses are the same for both technologies. The monocrystalline silicon BIPV system injects 0.2% more energy into the grid than the polycrystalline silicon BIPV system.

Keywords: photovoltaic technologies, performance analysis, solar energy, solar irradiance, performance ratio

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1686 Risk Management and Resiliency: Evaluating Walmart’s Global Supply Chain Leadership Using the Supply Chain Resilience Assessment and Management Framework

Authors: Meghan Biallas, Amanda Hoffman, Tamara Miller, Kimmy Schnibben, Janaina Siegler


This paper assesses Walmart’s supply chain resiliency amidst continuous supply chain disruptions. It aims to evaluate how Walmart can use supply chain resiliency theory to retain its status as a global supply chain leader. The Bloomberg terminal was used to organize Walmart’s 754 Tier-1 suppliers by the size of their relationship to Walmart. Additional data from IBISWorld and Statista was also used in the analysis. This research focused on the top ten Tier-1 suppliers, with the greatest percentage of their revenue attributed to Walmart. This paper also applied the firm’s information to the Supply Chain Resilience Assessment and Management (SCRAM) framework for supply chain resiliency to evaluate the firm’s capabilities, vulnerabilities, and gaps. A rubric was created to quantify Walmart’s risks using four pillars: flexibility, velocity, visibility, and collaboration. Information and examples were reported from Walmart’s 10k filing. For each example, a rating of 1 indicated “high” resiliency, 0 indicated “medium” resiliency, and -1 indicated “low” resiliency. Findings from this study include the following: (1) Walmart has maintained its leadership through its ability to remain resilient with regard to visibility, efficiency, capacity, and collaboration. (2) Walmart is experiencing increases in supply chain costs due to internal factors affecting the company and external factors affecting its suppliers. (3) There are a number of emerging supply chain risks with Walmart’s suppliers, which could cause issues for Walmart to remain a supply chain leader in the future. Using the SCRAM framework, this paper assesses how Walmart measures up to the Supply Chain Resiliency Theory, identifying areas of strength as well as areas where Walmart can improve in order to remain a global supply chain leader.

Keywords: supply chain resiliency, zone of balanced resilience, supply chain resilience assessment and management, supply chain theory.

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1685 Dynamic Compensation for Environmental Temperature Variation in the Coolant Refrigeration Cycle as a Means of Increasing Machine-Tool Precision

Authors: Robbie C. Murchison, Ibrahim Küçükdemiral, Andrew Cowell


Thermal effects are the largest source of dimensional error in precision machining, and a major proportion is caused by ambient temperature variation. The use of coolant is a primary means of mitigating these effects, but there has been limited work on coolant temperature control. This research critically explored whether CNC-machine coolant refrigeration systems adapted to actively compensate for ambient temperature variation could increase machining accuracy. Accuracy data were collected from operators’ checklists for a CNC 5-axis mill and statistically reduced to bias and precision metrics for observations of one day over a sample period of 27 days. Temperature data were collected using three USB dataloggers in ambient air, the chiller inflow, and the chiller outflow. The accuracy and temperature data were analysed using Pearson correlation, then the thermodynamics of the system were described using system identification with MATLAB. It was found that 75% of thermal error is reflected in the hot coolant temperature but that this is negligibly dependent on ambient temperature. The effect of the coolant refrigeration process on hot coolant outflow temperature was also found to be negligible. Therefore, the evidence indicated that it would not be beneficial to adapt coolant chillers to compensate for ambient temperature variation. However, it is concluded that hot coolant outflow temperature is a robust and accessible source of thermal error data which could be used for prevention strategy evaluation or as the basis of other thermal error strategies.

Keywords: CNC manufacturing, machine-tool, precision machining, thermal error

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1684 A Review on the Evolution of Demand Forecasting Methods

Authors: Jeeval Kumari, Itish Garg, Samadrito Mukherjee, Priya Raj, Vivekanand S. Gogi


Our ancestors in ancient times prayed to the Almighty for rain during drought, rich harvest, peace, and for all other things which were needed for their existence. However, they were never sure about the Almighty’s wish even after performing any number of rituals. They lived a totally reactive life with no real prediction for the future. With the passage of time, people gradually devised ways to have a better understanding of the future and began to comprehend what lay ahead. This way, the science of forecasting took its shape. The evolution of demand forecasting, which has taken its current shape, has developed over time. The contribution of technology, customer and organization expectations, and global perspective with respect to demand forecasting has been discussed in this review paper. Traditional versus machine learning forecasting methods have been reviewed. Inventory management and control are one of the key challenges faced by every organization in business. The common challenges are competitive pricing, perishable products, stringent safety regulations of the government, fragile products, etc. Furthermore, business organizations have to deal with issues in the global supply chain, seasonal fluctuations in demand, and bottlenecks in transportation. However, developments in demand forecasting technologies offer solutions to deal with such an erratic environment. The use of the latest software and technologies provides accurate solutions to every domain of demand forecasting. At present, there are strong and accepted means to use software and new technologies to trace, document, and analyse every aspect of demand forecasting. This review paper presents findings of literature and web research on the evolution of demand forecasting methods.

Keywords: demand forecasting, traditional methods, machine learning methods, supply chain, inventory management

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1683 Bio-polymer Materials for Sustainable Consumer and Medical Applications

Authors: Sonny Yip Hong Choy


With the ubiquity of 3D printing technology in the last decade, a wide array of material choices are available for Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) 3D printing technology. Exploration into creating printable bio-polymers has also seen progress recently in attempts to further the sustainability agenda and circular economy. By tackling waste and pollution via recycling and reusing, food by-products resulting from mass food production may see opportunities for renewed value and alternate applications through 3D printing. To date, many pure polymers, blends, as well as composites have been developed specifically for FDM printing contexts to heighten the physical performance of final printed products. This review article covers general information on various FDM printed polymers and composites while exploring experiments designed to create printable biopolymers made from reused food by-products. The biopolymer-based composites preparation is described in detail, while their advantages and disadvantages are also discussed. In addition, this article shares knowledge and highlights experimentation that aims to achieve acceptable 3D-printed biopolymer composite properties that may address the functional requirements of different application contexts. Furthermore, the article describes a brief overview of the potential applications of such bio-polymers and the future scope in this field.

Keywords: food by-products, bio-polymers, FDM, 3d printing

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1682 Applying Serious Game Design Frameworks to Existing Games for Integration of Custom Learning Objectives

Authors: Jonathan D. Moore, Mark G. Reith


Serious games (SGs) have been shown to be an effective teaching tool in many contexts. Because of the success of SGs, several design frameworks have been created to expedite the process of making original serious games to teach specific learning objectives (LOs). Even with these frameworks, the time required to create a custom SG from conception to implementation can range from months to years. Furthermore, it is even more difficult to design a game framework that allows an instructor to create customized game variants supporting multiple LOs within the same field. This paper proposes a refactoring methodology to apply the theoretical principles from well-established design frameworks to a pre-existing serious game. The expected result is a generalized game that can be quickly customized to teach LOs not originally targeted by the game. This methodology begins by describing the general components in a game, then uses a combination of two SG design frameworks to extract the teaching elements present in the game. The identified teaching elements are then used as the theoretical basis to determine the range of LOs that can be taught by the game. This paper evaluates the proposed methodology by presenting a case study of refactoring the serious game Battlespace Next (BSN) to teach joint military capabilities. The range of LOs that can be taught by the generalized BSN are identified, and examples of creating custom LOs are given. Survey results from users of the generalized game are also provided. Lastly, the expected impact of this work is discussed and a road map for future work and evaluation is presented.

Keywords: serious games, learning objectives, game design, learning theory, game framework

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1681 Design of Real-Time Failure Detection System for Space-Based 3D Printing

Authors: Jianning Tang, Xiaofeng Wu


3D printing with multiple exclusive merits has shown great potential in the field of space manufacturing. Some institutes (NASA, ESA, and CAIA) and commercial groups (Made In Space, OHB system, Incus, and Lithoz) have tested the 3D printers in space or are planning to test further. Because of the environment in space (vacuum, micro-gravity, radiation, and potentially unexpected collision with debris), human presence is strictly limited. Unlike 3D printing on the ground, the operation of 3D printing tasks in space needs to be autonomous without human supervision. The failure detection for the 3D printed pieces is vital to ensure the reliability of the printing results. In this paper, a newly designed real-time failure detection system capable of detecting several types of failures, using Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) will be proposed to resolve the concerns on the quality control of space-based 3D printing without reliance on human supervision.

Keywords: 3D printing, quality assessment, real-time, space manufacturing

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1680 A Fast Optimizer for Large-scale Fulfillment Planning based on Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Choonoh Lee, Seyeon Park, Dongyun Kang, Jaehyeong Choi, Soojee Kim, Younggeun Kim


Market Kurly is the first South Korean online grocery retailer that guarantees same-day, overnight shipping. More than 1.6 million customers place an average of 4.7 million orders and add 3 to 14 products into a cart per month. The company has sold almost 30,000 kinds of various products in the past 6 months, including food items, cosmetics, kitchenware, toys for kids/pets, and even flowers. The company is operating and expanding multiple dry, cold, and frozen fulfillment centers in order to store and ship these products. Due to the scale and complexity of the fulfillment, pick-pack-ship processes are planned and operated in batches, and thus, the planning that decides the batch of the customers’ orders is a critical factor in overall productivity. This paper introduces a metaheuristic optimization method that reduces the complexity of batch processing in a fulfillment center. The method is an iterative genetic algorithm with heuristic creation and evolution strategies; it aims to group similar orders into pick-pack-ship batches to minimize the total number of distinct products. With a well-designed approach to create initial genes, the method produces streamlined plans, up to 13.5% less complex than the actual plans carried out in the company’s fulfillment centers in the previous months. Furthermore, our digital-twin simulations show that the optimized plans can reduce 3% of operation time for packing, which is the most complex and time-consuming task in the process. The optimization method implements a multithreading design on the Spring framework to support the company’s warehouse management systems in near real-time, finding a solution for 4,000 orders within 5 to 7 seconds on an AWS c5.2xlarge instance.

Keywords: fulfillment planning, genetic algorithm, online grocery retail, optimization

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1679 Advancing Entrepreneurial Knowledge Through Re-Engineering Social Studies Education

Authors: Chukwuka Justus Iwegbu, Monye Christopher Prayer


Propeller aircraft engines, and more generally engines with a large rotating part (turboprops, high bypass ratio turbojets, etc.) are widely used in the industry and are subject to numerous developments in order to reduce their fuel consumption. In this context, unconventional architectures such as open rotors or distributed propulsion appear, and it is necessary to consider the influence of these systems on the aircraft's stability in flight. Indeed, the tendency to lengthen the blades and wings on which these propulsion devices are fixed increases their flexibility and accentuates the risk of whirl flutter. This phenomenon of aeroelastic instability is due to the precession movement of the axis of rotation of the propeller, which changes the angle of attack of the flow on the blades and creates unsteady aerodynamic forces and moments that can amplify the motion and make it unstable. The whirl flutter instability can ultimately lead to the destruction of the engine. We note the existence of a critical speed of the incident flow. If the flow velocity is lower than this value, the motion is damped and the system is stable, whereas beyond this value, the flow provides energy to the system (negative damping) and the motion becomes unstable. A simple model of whirl flutter is based on the work of Houbolt & Reed who proposed an analytical expression of the aerodynamic load on a rigid blade propeller whose axis orientation suffers small perturbations. Their work considered a propeller subjected to pitch and yaw movements, a flow undisturbed by the blades and a propeller not generating any thrust in the absence of precession. The unsteady aerodynamic forces were then obtained using the thin airfoil theory and the strip theory. In the present study, the unsteady aerodynamic loads are expressed for a general movement of the propeller (not only pitch and yaw). The acceleration and rotation of the flow by the propeller are modeled using a Blade Element Momentum Theory (BEMT) approach, which also enable to take into account the thrust generated by the blades. It appears that the thrust has a stabilizing effect. The aerodynamic model is further developed using Theodorsen theory. A reduced order model of the aerodynamic load is finally constructed in order to perform linear stability analysis.

Keywords: advancing, entrepreneurial, knowledge, industralization

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1678 Role of Community Participation in Sustainability of Projects: A Multiple Case Study of Developmental Projects in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Authors: Sajid Ali Khan, Karim Ullah, Usman Ghani


Community participation is the collaboration of project beneficiaries; voluntarily or because of some incentives or persuasion agree to put effort and work with development projects. Sustainability of projects is the ability to maintain its services, operations, and other benefits during its anticipated time. This study investigated the dynamics of community participation and its contribution to the sustainability of projects. In multiple case-study designs with semi-structured questionnaires and interviews, this study analyzes community participation with the help of individual case analysis followed by cross-case analysis in the RAHA & CDLD developmental project. Finally, the study outcomes are linked with the specified literature in order to comprehend the phenomena. The findings of the study suggest an Analytical framework developed by the current study covering different barriers and enablers to community participation and its implications.

Keywords: community participation, enablers, barriers, project sustainability

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1677 Investigation of Residual Stress Relief by in-situ Rolling Deposited Bead in Directed Laser Deposition

Authors: Ravi Raj, Louis Chiu, Deepak Marla, Aijun Huang


Hybridization of the directed laser deposition (DLD) process using an in-situ micro-roller to impart a vertical compressive load on the deposited bead at elevated temperatures can relieve tensile residual stresses incurred in the process. To investigate this stress relief mechanism and its relationship with the in-situ rolling parameters, a fully coupled dynamic thermo-mechanical model is presented in this study. A single bead deposition of Ti-6Al-4V alloy with an in-situ roller made of mild steel moving at a constant speed with a fixed nominal bead reduction is simulated using the explicit solver of the finite element software, Abaqus. The thermal model includes laser heating during the deposition process and the heat transfer between the roller and the deposited bead. The laser heating is modeled using a moving heat source with a Gaussian distribution, applied along the pre-formed bead’s surface using the VDFLUX Fortran subroutine. The bead’s cross-section is assumed to be semi-elliptical. The interfacial heat transfer between the roller and the bead is considered in the model. Besides, the roller is cooled internally using axial water flow, considered in the model using convective heat transfer. The mechanical model for the bead and substrate includes the effects of rolling along with the deposition process, and their elastoplastic material behavior is captured using the J2 plasticity theory. The model accounts for strain, strain rate, and temperature effects on the yield stress based on Johnson-Cook’s theory. Various aspects of this material behavior are captured in the FE software using the subroutines -VUMAT for elastoplastic behavior, VUHARD for yield stress, and VUEXPAN for thermal strain. The roller is assumed to be elastic and does not undergo any plastic deformation. Also, contact friction at the roller-bead interface is considered in the model. Based on the thermal results of the bead, the distance between the roller and the deposition nozzle (roller o set) can be determined to ensure rolling occurs around the beta-transus temperature for the Ti-6Al-4V alloy. It is identified that roller offset and the nominal bead height reduction are crucial parameters that influence the residual stresses in the hybrid process. The results obtained from a simulation at roller offset of 20 mm and nominal bead height reduction of 7% reveal that the tensile residual stresses decrease to about 52% due to in-situ rolling throughout the deposited bead. This model can be used to optimize the rolling parameters to minimize the residual stresses in the hybrid DLD process with in-situ micro-rolling.

Keywords: directed laser deposition, finite element analysis, hybrid in-situ rolling, thermo-mechanical model

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1676 Effect of Freight Transport Intensity on Firm Performance: Mediating Role of Operational Capability

Authors: Bonaventure Naab Dery, Abdul Muntaka Samad


During the past two decades, huge population growth has been recorded in developing countries. Thisled to an increase in the demand for transport services for human and merchandises. The study sought to examine the effect of freight transport intensity on firm performance. Among others, this study sought to examine the link between freight transport intensity and firm performance; the link between operational capability and firm performance, and the mediating role of operational capability on the relationship between freight transport intensity and firm performance. The study used a descriptive research design and a quantitative research approach. Questionnaireswereusedfor the data collection through snowball sampling and purposive sampling. SPSS and Mplus are being used to analyze the data. It is anticipated that, when the data is analyzed, it would validate the hypotheses that have been proposed by the researchers. Base on the findings, relevant recommendations would be made for managerial implications and future studies.

Keywords: freight transport intensity, freight economy transport intensity, freight efficiency transport intensity, operational capability, firm performance

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1675 Let’s Make Waves – Changing the Landscape for the Solent’s Film Industry

Authors: Roy Hanney


This research study aims to develop an evidential basis to inform strategic development of the film industry in the Solent (south central) region of the UK. The density of the creative industries around the region is driving the growth of jobs. Yet, film production in particular, appears to struggle with field configuration, lacks ecological cohesion, and suffers from underdeveloped ecosystems when compared to other areas bordering the region. Though thriving, a lack of coordinated leadership results in the continued reproduction of an ill-configured, constricted and socio-economically filtered workforce. One that struggles to seize strategic opportunities arising as a consequence of the ongoing investment in UK film production around the west of London. Taking a participatory approach, the study seeks to avoid the universalism of place marketing and focus on the situatedness of the region and its specific cultural, social, and economic contexts. The staging of a series of high profile networking events provided a much needed field configuring activity and enabled the capture of voices of those currently working in the sector. It will also provided the opportunity for an exploratory network mapping of the regional creative industries as a value exchange ecosystem. It is understood that a focus on production is not in itself a solution to the challenges faced in the region. There is a need to address issues of access as a counterbalance to skewed representation among the creative workforces thus the study also aims to report on opportunities for embedding diversity and inclusion in any strategic solutions.

Keywords: creative, industries, ecosystem, ecology

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