Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1441

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

1441 Development of a Reduced Multicomponent Jet Fuel Surrogate for Computational Fluid Dynamics Application

Authors: Muhammad Zaman Shakir, Mingfa Yao, Zohaib Iqbal

Abstract:

This study proposed four Jet fuel surrogate (S1, S2 S3, and 4) with careful selection of seven large hydrocarbon fuel components, ranging from C₉-C₁₆ of higher molecular weight and higher boiling point, adapting the standard molecular distribution size of the actual jet fuel. The surrogate was composed of seven components, including n-propyl cyclohexane (C₉H₁₈), n- propylbenzene (C₉H₁₂), n-undecane (C₁₁H₂₄), n- dodecane (C₁₂H₂₆), n-tetradecane (C₁₄H₃₀), n-hexadecane (C₁₆H₃₄) and iso-cetane (iC₁₆H₃₄). The skeletal jet fuel surrogate reaction mechanism was developed by two approaches, firstly based on a decoupling methodology by describing the C₄ -C₁₆ skeletal mechanism for the oxidation of heavy hydrocarbons and a detailed H₂ /CO/C₁ mechanism for prediction of oxidation of small hydrocarbons. The combined skeletal jet fuel surrogate mechanism was compressed into 128 species, and 355 reactions and thereby can be used in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. The extensive validation was performed for individual single-component including ignition delay time, species concentrations profile and laminar flame speed based on various fundamental experiments under wide operating conditions, and for their blended mixture, among all the surrogate, S1 has been extensively validated against the experimental data in a shock tube, rapid compression machine, jet-stirred reactor, counterflow flame, and premixed laminar flame over wide ranges of temperature (700-1700 K), pressure (8-50 atm), and equivalence ratio (0.5-2.0) to capture the properties target fuel Jet-A, while the rest of three surrogate S2, S3 and S4 has been validated for Shock Tube ignition delay time only to capture the ignition characteristic of target fuel S-8 & GTL, IPK and RP-3 respectively. Based on the newly proposed HyChem model, another four surrogate with similar components and composition, was developed and parallel validations data was used as followed for previously developed surrogate but at high-temperature condition only. After testing the mechanism prediction performance of surrogates developed by the decoupling methodology, the comparison was done with the results of surrogates developed by the HyChem model. It was observed that all of four proposed surrogates in this study showed good agreement with the experimental measurements and the study comes to this conclusion that like the decoupling methodology HyChem model also has a great potential for the development of oxidation mechanism for heavy alkanes because of applicability, simplicity, and compactness.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, decoupling methodology Hychem, jet fuel, surrogate, skeletal mechanism

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
1440 Optimal Selection of Replenishment Policies Using Distance Based Approach

Authors: Amit Gupta, Deepak Juneja, Sorabh Gupta

Abstract:

This paper presents a model based on distance based approach (DBA) method employed for evaluation, selection, and ranking of replenishment policies for a single location inventory, which hitherto not developed in the literature. This work recognizes the significance of the selection problem, identifies the selection criteria, the relative importance of selection criteria for this research problem. The developed model is capable of comparing any number of alternate inventory policies for various selection criteria where cardinal values are assigned as a rating to alternate inventory polices for selection criteria and weights of selection criteria. The illustrated example demonstrates the model and presents the result in terms of ranking of replenishment policies.

Keywords: DBA, ranking, replenishment policies, selection criteria

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
1439 Senior Management in Innovative Companies: An Approach from Creativity and Innovation Management

Authors: Juan Carlos Montalvo-Rodriguez, Juan Felipe Espinosa-Cristia, Pablo Islas Madariaga, Jorge Cifuentes Valenzuela

Abstract:

This article presents different relationships between top management and innovative companies, based on the developments of creativity and innovation management. First of all, it contextualizes the innovative company in relation to management, creativity, and innovation. Secondly, it delves into the vision of top management of innovative companies, from the perspectives of the management of creativity and innovation. Thirdly, their commonalities are highlighted, bearing in mind the importance that both approaches attribute to aspects such as leadership, networks, strategy, culture, technology, environment, and complexity in the top management of innovative companies. Based on the above, an integration of both fields of study is proposed, as an alternative to deepen the relationship between senior management and the innovative company.

Keywords: top management, creativity, innovation, innovative firm, leadership, strategy

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
1438 Designing Electronic Kanban in Assembly Line Tailboom at XYZ Corp to Reducing Lead Time

Authors: Nadhifah A. Nugraha, Dida D. Damayanti, Widia Juliani

Abstract:

Airplanes manufacturing is growing along with the increasing demand from consumers. The helicopter's tail called Tailboom is a product of the helicopter division at XYZ Corp, where the Tailboom assembly line is a pull system. Based on observations of existing conditions that occur at XYZ Corp, production is still unable to meet the demands of consumers; lead time occurs greater than the plan agreed upon by the consumers. In the assembly process, each work station experiences a lack of parts and components needed to assemble components. This happens because of the delay in getting the required part information, and there is no warning about the availability of parts needed, it makes some parts unavailable in assembly warehouse. The lack of parts and components from the previous work station causes the assembly process to stop, and the assembly line also stops at the next station. In its completion, the production time was late and not on the schedule. In resolving these problems, the controlling process is needed, which is controlling the assembly line to get all components and subassembly in the right amount and at the right time. This study applies one of Just In Time tools, namely Kanban and automation, should be added as efficiently and effectively communication line becomes electronic Kanban. The problem can be solved by reducing non-value added time, such as waiting time and idle time. The proposed results of controlling the assembly line of Tailboom result in a smooth assembly line without waiting, reduced lead time, and achieving production time according to the schedule agreed with the consumers.

Keywords: kanban, e-Kanban, lead time, pull system

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
1437 Engineering Academics’ Strategies of Modelling Mathematical Concepts into Their Teaching of an Antenna Design

Authors: Vojo George Fasinu, Nadaraj Govender, Predeep Kumar

Abstract:

An Antenna, which remains the hub of technological development in Africa had been found to be a course that is been taught and designed in an abstract manner in some universities. One of the reasons attached to this is that the appropriate approach of teaching antenna design is not yet understood by many engineering academics in some universities in South Africa. Also, another problem reported is the main difficulty encountered when interpreting and applying some of the mathematical concepts learned into their practical antenna design course. As a result of this, some engineering experts classified antenna as a mysterious technology that could not be described by anybody using mathematical concepts. In view of this, this paper takes it as its point of departure in explaining what an antenna is all about with a strong emphasis on its mathematical modelling. It also argues that the place of modelling mathematical concepts into the teaching of engineering design cannot be overemphasized. Therefore, it explains the mathematical concepts adopted during the teaching of an antenna design course, the Strategies of modelling those mathematics concepts, the behavior of antennas, and their mathematics usage were equally discussed. More so, the paper also sheds more light on mathematical modelling in South Africa context, and also comparative analysis of mathematics concepts taught in mathematics class and mathematics concepts taught in engineering courses. This paper focuses on engineering academics teaching selected topics in electronic engineering (Antenna design), with special attention on the mathematical concepts they teach and how they teach them when teaching the course. A qualitative approach was adopted as a means of collecting data in order to report the naturalistic views of the engineering academics teaching Antenna design. The findings of the study confirmed that some mathematical concepts are being modeled into the teaching of an antenna design with the adoption of some teaching approaches. Furthermore, the paper reports a didactical-realistic mathematical model as a conceptual framework used by the researchers in describing how academics teach mathematical concepts during their teaching of antenna design. Finally, the paper concludes with the importance of mathematical modelling to the engineering academics and recommendations for further researchers.

Keywords: modelling, mathematical concepts, engineering, didactical, realistic model

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
1436 Frequency Control of Self-Excited Induction Generator Based Microgrid during Transition from Grid Connected to Island Mode

Authors: Azhar Ulhaq, Zubair Yameen, Almas Anjum

Abstract:

Frequency behaviour of self-excited induction generator (SEIG) wind turbines during control mode transition from grid connected to islanded mode is studied in detail. A robust control scheme for frequency regulation based on combined action of STATCOM, energy storage system (ESS) and pitch angle control for wind powered microgrid (MG) is proposed. Suggested STATCOM controller comprises a 3-phase voltage source converter (VSC) that contains insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) based pulse width modulation (PWM) inverters along with a capacitor bank. Energy storage system control consists of current controlled voltage source converter and battery bank. Both of them acting simultaneously after detection of island compensates for reactive and active power demands, thus regulating frequency at point of common coupling (PCC) and also improves load stability. STATCOM integrates at point of common coupling and ESS is connected to microgrids main bus. Results reveal that proposed control not only stabilizes frequency during transition duration but also minimizes sudden frequency imbalance caused by load variation or wind intermittencies in islanded operation. System is investigated with and without suggested control scheme. The efficacy of proposed strategy has been verified by simulation in MATLAB/Simulink.

Keywords: energy storage system, island, wind, STATCOM, self-excited induction generator, SEIG, transient

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
1435 Evaluation of Human Ear Anatomy and Functionality by Axiomatic Design

Authors: Pratap Sriram Sundar, Sagar Kamarthi, Chandan Chowdhury

Abstract:

The design of a human ear is one of nature’s engineering marvels. The ear is the organ of both hearing and balance. A sensitive ear can hear frequencies ranging from 20 Hz to 20,000 Hz. The vestibular apparatus of the inner ear is responsible for the static and dynamic equilibrium of the human body. The ear is divided into outer ear, middle ear and inner ear. They play their respective functional roles in transforming sound energy into nerve impulses interpreted in the brain. There are many parts in the human ear such as pinna, auditory canal, eardrum, ossicles, eustachian tube, cochlea, semicircular canals, cochlear nerve, and vestibular nerve. Each of these modules has several subparts. In this paper, the functional requirements (FRs) of these modules are tabulated and mapped on to design parameters (DPs) that nature has already chosen. The “independence axiom” of the axiomatic design methodology is applied to analyze couplings and to evaluate if human ear design is a good design (i.e., uncoupled design) or a bad design (i.e., coupled design). The analysis revealed that the human ear is a perfect design because of its uncoupled structure. It’s not only a perfect design but also a low-cost design. The materials that are used to build the ear atom-by-atom are chiefly carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, calcium, and nitrogen. The material cost is very negligible amounting to only a couple of dollars. After a person deceased, materials in the human system are up-cycled by nature. We consider space requirements, materials cost, and up-cyclability as “constraints” in the axiomatic design. In terms of performance, the human ear design is very impressive, and source inspiration for designing products in industrial environments.

Keywords: human ear, uncoupled design, axiomatic design, nature design

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
1434 Mastering Digital Transformation with the Strategy Tandem Innovation Inside-Out/Outside-In: An Approach to Drive New Business Models, Services and Products in the Digital Age

Authors: S. N. Susenburger, D. Boecker

Abstract:

In the age of Volatility, Uncertainty, Complexity, and Ambiguity (VUCA), where digital transformation is challenging long standing traditional hardware and manufacturing companies, innovation needs a different methodology, strategy, mindset, and culture. What used to be a mindset of scaling per quantity is now shifting to orchestrating ecosystems, platform business models and service bundles. While large corporations are trying to mimic the nimbleness and versatile mindset of startups in the core of their digital strategies, they’re at the frontier of facing one of the largest organizational and cultural changes in history. This paper elaborates on how a manufacturing giant transformed its Corporate Information Technology (IT) to enable digital and Internet of Things (IoT) business while establishing the mindset and the approaches of the Innovation Inside-Out/Outside-In Strategy. It gives insights into the core elements of an innovation culture and the tactics and methodologies leveraged to support the cultural shift and transformation into an IoT company. This paper also outlines the core elements for an innovation culture and how the persona 'Connected Engineer' thrives in the digital innovation environment. Further, it explores how tapping domain-focused ecosystems in vibrant innovative cities can be used as a part of the strategy to facilitate partner co-innovation. Therefore, findings from several use cases, observations and surveys led to conclusion for the strategy tandem of Innovation Inside-Out/Outside-In. The findings indicate that it's crucial in which phases and maturity level the Innovation Inside-Out/Outside-In Strategy is activated: cultural aspects of the business and the regional ecosystem need to be considered, as well as cultural readiness from management and active contributors. The 'not invented here syndrome' is a barrier of large corporations that need to be addressed and managed to successfully drive partnerships, as well as embracing co-innovation and a mindset shifting away from physical products toward new business models, services, and IoT platforms. This paper elaborates on various methodologies and approaches tested in different countries and cultures, including the U.S., Brazil, Mexico, and Germany.

Keywords: innovation management, innovation culture, innovation methodologies, digital transformation

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
1433 A Survey of Key Challenges of Adopting Agile in Global Software Development: A Case Study with Malaysia Perspective

Authors: Amna Batool

Abstract:

Agile methodology is the current most popular technique in software development projects. Agile methods in software development bring optimistic impact on software performances, quality and customer satisfaction. There are some organizations and small-medium enterprises adopting agile into their local software development projects as well as in distributed software development projects. Adopting agile methods in local software development projects is valuable. However, agile global software deployment needs an attention. There are different key challenges in agile global software development that need to resolve and enhance the global software development cycles. The proposed systematic literature review investigates all key challenges of agile in global software development. Moreover, a quantitative methodology (an actual survey) targeted to present a real case scenario of these particular key challenges faced by one of the software houses that is BestWeb Malaysia. The outcomes of systematic literature and the results of quantitative methodology are compared with each other to evaluate if the key challenges pointed out in systematic review still exist. The proposed research and its exploratory results can assist small medium enterprises to avoid these challenges by adopting the best practices in their global software development projects. Moreover, it is helpful for novice researchers to get valuable information altogether.

Keywords: agile software development, ASD challenges, agile global software development, challenges in agile global software development

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
1432 Resistivity Tomography Optimization Based on Parallel Electrode Linear Back Projection Algorithm

Authors: Yiwei Huang, Chunyu Zhao, Jingjing Ding

Abstract:

Electrical Resistivity Tomography has been widely used in the medicine and the geology, such as the imaging of the lung impedance and the analysis of the soil impedance, etc. Linear Back Projection is the core algorithm of Electrical Resistivity Tomography, but the traditional Linear Back Projection can not make full use of the information of the electric field. In this paper, an imaging method of Parallel Electrode Linear Back Projection for Electrical Resistivity Tomography is proposed, which generates the electric field distribution that is not linearly related to the traditional Linear Back Projection, captures the new information and improves the imaging accuracy without increasing the number of electrodes by changing the connection mode of the electrodes. The simulation results show that the accuracy of the image obtained by the inverse operation obtained by the Parallel Electrode Linear Back Projection can be improved by about 20%.

Keywords: electrical resistivity tomography, finite element simulation, image optimization, parallel electrode linear back projection

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
1431 Literature Review and Approach for the Use of Digital Factory Models in an Augmented Reality Application for Decision Making in Restructuring Processes

Authors: Rene Hellmuth, Jorg Frohnmayer

Abstract:

The requirements of the factory planning and the building concerned have changed in the last years. Factory planning has the task of designing products, plants, processes, organization, areas, and the building of a factory. Regular restructuring gains more importance in order to maintain the competitiveness of a factory. Even today, the methods and process models used in factory planning are predominantly based on the classical planning principles of Schmigalla, Aggteleky and Kettner, which, however, are not specifically designed for reorganization. In addition, they are designed for a largely static environmental situation and a manageable planning complexity as well as for medium to long-term planning cycles with a low variability of the factory. Existing approaches already regard factory planning as a continuous process that makes it possible to react quickly to adaptation requirements. However, digital factory models are not yet used as a source of information for building data. Approaches which consider building information modeling (BIM) or digital factory models in general either do not refer to factory conversions or do not yet go beyond a concept. This deficit can be further substantiated. A method for factory conversion planning using a current digital building model is lacking. A corresponding approach must take into account both the existing approaches to factory planning and the use of digital factory models in practice. A literature review will be conducted first. In it, approaches to classic factory planning and approaches to conversion planning are examined. In addition, it will be investigated which approaches already contain digital factory models. In the second step, an approach is presented how digital factory models based on building information modeling can be used as a basis for augmented reality tablet applications. This application is suitable for construction sites and provides information on the costs and time required for conversion variants. Thus a fast decision making is supported. In summary, the paper provides an overview of existing factory planning approaches and critically examines the use of digital tools. Based on this preliminary work, an approach is presented, which suggests the sensible use of digital factory models for decision support in the case of conversion variants of the factory building. The augmented reality application is designed to summarize the most important information for decision-makers during a reconstruction process.

Keywords: augmented reality, digital factory model, factory planning, restructuring

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
1430 Method for Requirements Analysis and Decision Making for Restructuring Projects in Factories

Authors: Rene Hellmuth

Abstract:

The requirements for the factory planning and the building concerned have changed in the last years. Factory planning has the task of designing products, plants, processes, organization, areas, and the building of a factory. Regular restructuring gains more importance in order to maintain the competitiveness of a factory. Restrictions regarding new areas, shorter life cycles of product and production technology as well as a VUCA (volatility, uncertainty, complexity and ambiguity) world cause more frequently occurring rebuilding measures within a factory. Restructuring of factories is the most common planning case today. Restructuring is more common than new construction, revitalization and dismantling of factories. The increasing importance of restructuring processes shows that the ability to change was and is a promising concept for the reaction of companies to permanently changing conditions. The factory building is the basis for most changes within a factory. If an adaptation of a construction project (factory) is necessary, the inventory documents must be checked and often time-consuming planning of the adaptation must take place to define the relevant components to be adapted, in order to be able to finally evaluate them. The different requirements of the planning participants from the disciplines of factory planning (production planner, logistics planner, automation planner) and industrial construction planning (architect, civil engineer) come together during reconstruction and must be structured. This raises the research question: Which requirements do the disciplines involved in the reconstruction planning place on a digital factory model? A subordinate research question is: How can model-based decision support be provided for a more efficient design of the conversion within a factory? Because of the high adaptation rate of factories and its building described above, a methodology for rescheduling factories based on the requirements engineering method from software development is conceived and designed for practical application in factory restructuring projects. The explorative research procedure according to Kubicek is applied. Explorative research is suitable if the practical usability of the research results has priority. Furthermore, it will be shown how to best use a digital factory model in practice. The focus will be on mobile applications to meet the needs of factory planners on site. An augmented reality (AR) application will be designed and created to provide decision support for planning variants. The aim is to contribute to a shortening of the planning process and model-based decision support for more efficient change management. This requires the application of a methodology that reduces the deficits of the existing approaches. The time and cost expenditure are represented in the AR tablet solution based on a building information model (BIM). Overall, the requirements of those involved in the planning process for a digital factory model in the case of restructuring within a factory are thus first determined in a structured manner. The results are then applied and transferred to a construction site solution based on augmented reality.

Keywords: augmented reality, digital factory model, factory planning, restructuring

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
1429 Methodical Approach for the Integration of a Digital Factory Twin into the Industry 4.0 Processes

Authors: R. Hellmuth

Abstract:

The orientation of flexibility and adaptability with regard to factory planning is at machine and process level. Factory buildings are not the focus of current research. Factory planning has the task of designing products, plants, processes, organization, areas and the construction of a factory. The adaptability of a factory can be divided into three types: spatial, organizational and technical adaptability. Spatial adaptability indicates the ability to expand and reduce the size of a factory. Here, the area-related breathing capacity plays the essential role. It mainly concerns the factory site, the plant layout and the production layout. The organizational ability to change enables the change and adaptation of organizational structures and processes. This includes structural and process organization as well as logistical processes and principles. New and reconfigurable operating resources, processes and factory buildings are referred to as technical adaptability. These three types of adaptability can be regarded independently of each other as undirected potentials of different characteristics. If there is a need for change, the types of changeability in the change process are combined to form a directed, complementary variable that makes change possible. When planning adaptability, importance must be attached to a balance between the types of adaptability. The vision of the intelligent factory building and the 'Internet of Things' presupposes the comprehensive digitalization of the spatial and technical environment. Through connectivity, the factory building must be empowered to support a company's value creation process by providing media such as light, electricity, heat, refrigeration, etc. In the future, communication with the surrounding factory building will take place on a digital or automated basis. In the area of industry 4.0, the function of the building envelope belongs to secondary or even tertiary processes, but these processes must also be included in the communication cycle. An integrative view of a continuous communication of primary, secondary and tertiary processes is currently not yet available and is being developed with the aid of methods in this research work. A comparison of the digital twin from the point of view of production and the factory building will be developed. Subsequently, a tool will be elaborated to classify digital twins from the perspective of data, degree of visualization, and the trades. Thus a contribution is made to better integrate the secondary and tertiary processes in a factory into the added value.

Keywords: adaptability, digital factory twin, factory planning, industry 4.0

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
1428 Artificial Neural Network Approach for Modeling and Optimization of Conidiospore Production of Trichoderma harzianum

Authors: Joselito Medina-Marin, Maria G. Serna-Diaz, Alejandro Tellez-Jurado, Juan C. Seck-Tuoh-Mora, Eva S. Hernandez-Gress, Norberto Hernandez-Romero, Iaina P. Medina-Serna

Abstract:

Trichoderma harzianum is a fungus that has been utilized as a low-cost fungicide for biological control of pests, and it is important to determine the optimal conditions to produce the highest amount of conidiospores of Trichoderma harzianum. In this work, the conidiospore production of Trichoderma harzianum is modeled and optimized by using Artificial Neural Networks (AANs). In order to gather data of this process, 30 experiments were carried out taking into account the number of hours of culture (10 distributed values from 48 to 136 hours) and the culture humidity (70, 75 and 80 percent), obtained as a response the number of conidiospores per gram of dry mass. The experimental results were used to develop an iterative algorithm to create 1,110 ANNs, with different configurations, starting from one to three hidden layers, and every hidden layer with a number of neurons from 1 to 10. Each ANN was trained with the Levenberg-Marquardt backpropagation algorithm, which is used to learn the relationship between input and output values. The ANN with the best performance was chosen in order to simulate the process and be able to maximize the conidiospores production. The obtained ANN with the highest performance has 2 inputs and 1 output, three hidden layers with 3, 10 and 10 neurons in each layer, respectively. The ANN performance shows an R2 value of 0.9900, and the Root Mean Squared Error is 1.2020. This ANN predicted that 644175467 conidiospores per gram of dry mass are the maximum amount obtained in 117 hours of culture and 77% of culture humidity. In summary, the ANN approach is suitable to represent the conidiospores production of Trichoderma harzianum because the R2 value denotes a good fitting of experimental results, and the obtained ANN model was used to find the parameters to produce the biggest amount of conidiospores per gram of dry mass.

Keywords: Trichoderma harzianum, modeling, optimization, artificial neural network

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
1427 Comparative Analysis of Fused Deposition Modeling and Binding-Jet 3d Printing Technologies

Authors: Mohd Javaid, Shahbaz Khan, Abid Haleem

Abstract:

Purpose: Large numbers of 3D printing technologies are now available for sophisticated applications in different fields. Additive manufacturing has established its dominance in design, development, and customisation of the product. In the era of developing technologies, there is a need to identify the appropriate technology for different application. In order to fulfil this need, two widely used printing technologies such as Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM), and Binding-Jet 3D Printing are compared for effective utilisation in the current scenario for different applications. Methodology: Systematic literature review conducted for both technologies with applications and associated factors enabling for the same. Appropriate MCDM tool is used to compare critical factors for both the technologies. Findings: Both technologies have their potential and capabilities to provide better direction to the industry. Additionally, this paper is helpful to develop a decision support system for the proper selection of technologies according to their continuum of applications and associated research and development capability. The vital issue is raw materials, and research-based material development is key to the sustainability of the developed technologies. FDM is a low-cost technology which provides high strength product as compared to binding jet technology. Researcher and companies can take benefits of this study to achieve the required applications in lesser resources. Limitations: Study has undertaken the comparison with the opinion of experts, which may not always be free from bias, and some own limitations of each technology. Originality: Comparison between these technologies will help to identify best-suited technology as per the customer requirements. It also provides development in this different field as per their extensive capability where these technologies can be successfully adopted. Conclusion: FDM and binding jet technology play an active role in industrial development. These help to assist the customisation and production of personalised parts cost-effectively. So, there is a need to understand how these technologies can provide these developments rapidly. These technologies help in easy changes or in making revised versions of the product, which is not easily possible in the conventional manufacturing system. High machine cost, the requirement of skilled human resources, low surface finish, and mechanical strength of product and material changing option is the main limitation of this technology. However, these limitations vary from technology to technology. In the future, these technologies are to be commercially viable for efficient usage in direct manufacturing of varied parts.

Keywords: 3d printing, comparison, fused deposition modeling, FDM, binding jet technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
1426 Developing Dynamic Capabilities: The Case of Western Subsidiaries in Emerging Market

Authors: O. A. Adeyemi, M. O. Idris, W. A. Oke, O. T. Olorode, S. O. Alayande, A. E. Adeoye

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the process of capability building at subsidiary level and the challenges to such process. The relevance of external factors for capability development, have not been explicitly addressed in empirical studies. Though, internal factors, acting as enablers, have been more extensively studied. With reference to external factors, subsidiaries are actively influenced by specific characteristics of the host country, implying a need to become fully immersed in local culture and practices. Specifically, in MNCs, there has been a widespread trend in management practice to increase subsidiary autonomy,  with subsidiary managers being encouraged to act entrepreneurially, and to take advantage of host country specificity. As such, it could be proposed that: P1: The degree at which subsidiary management is connected to the host country, will positively influence the capability development process. Dynamic capabilities reside to a large measure with the subsidiary management team, but are impacted by the organizational processes, systems and structures that the MNC headquarter has designed to manage its business. At the subsidiary level, the weight of the subsidiary in the network, its initiative-taking and its profile building increase the supportive attention of the HQs and are relevant to the success of the process of capability building. Therefore, our second proposition is that: P2: Subsidiary role and HQ support are relevant elements in capability development at the subsidiary level. Design/Methodology/Approach: This present study will adopt the multiple case studies approach. That is because a case study research is relevant when addressing issues without known empirical evidences or with little developed prior theory. The key definitions and literature sources directly connected with operations of western subsidiaries in emerging markets, such as China, are well established. A qualitative approach, i.e., case studies of three western subsidiaries, will be adopted. The companies have similar products, they have operations in China, and both of them are mature in their internationalization process. Interviews with key informants, annual reports, press releases, media materials, presentation material to customers and stakeholders, and other company documents will be used as data sources. Findings: Western Subsidiaries in Emerging Market operate in a way substantially different from those in the West. What are the conditions initiating the outsourcing of operations? The paper will discuss and present two relevant propositions guiding that process. Practical Implications: MNCs headquarter should be aware of the potential for capability development at the subsidiary level. This increased awareness could induce consideration in headquarter about the possible ways of encouraging such known capability development and how to leverage these capabilities for better MNC headquarter and/or subsidiary performance. Originality/Value: The paper is expected to contribute on the theme: drivers of subsidiary performance with focus on emerging market. In particular, it will show how some external conditions could promote a capability-building process within subsidiaries.

Keywords: case studies, dynamic capability, emerging market, subsidiary

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
1425 Digital Library Evaluation by SWARA-WASPAS Method

Authors: Mehmet Yorukoglu, Serhat Aydin

Abstract:

Since the discovery of the manuscript, mechanical methods for storing, transferring, and using the information have evolved into digital methods over time. In this process, libraries that are the center of the information have also become digitized and become accessible from anywhere and at any time in the world by taking on a structure that has no physical boundaries. In this context, some criteria for information obtained from digital libraries have become more important for users. This paper evaluates the user criteria from different perspectives that make a digital library more useful. The SWARA-WASPAS method is used with flexibility and easy calculation steps for the evaluation of digital library criteria. Three different digital libraries are evaluated by information technology experts according to five conflicting main criteria, ‘interface design’, ‘effects on users’, ‘services’, ‘user engagement’ and ‘context’. Finally, alternatives are ranked in descending order.

Keywords: digital library, multi criteria decision making, SWARA-WASPAS method

Procedia PDF Downloads 4
1424 Designing Entrepreneurship Education Contents for Entrepreneurial Intention Building among Undergraduates in India

Authors: Sumita Srivastava

Abstract:

Despite several measures taken by the Government of India, entrepreneurship is still not perceived as a viable career option by the young generation. Although the rate of startups has improved a little after the penetration of e portals as business platforms, still the numbers are not very significant. It is also important to note that entrepreneurial initiatives are mostly taken up by graduates of premier institutions of India like Indian Institute of Technology (IITs) and Indian Institute of Management (IIMs). The scenario is not very satisfactory amongst the masses graduating from mainstream universities of the country. Indian youth at large are not attracted towards entrepreneurship as a career choice. The reason probably lies in the social fabric of the country and inappropriate education system which does not support the entrepreneurship at large amongst youth in the country. Education is critical to the development of an economy from the poverty level to the level of self-sustenance and development. The current curriculum in the majority of business schools in India prepares the average graduate to become employed by the available firms or business owners in society. For graduates in other streams, employment opportunities are very limited. The aim of this study was to identify and design entrepreneurship education contents to encourage undergraduates to pursue entrepreneurship as a career choice. This comprehensive study was conducted in multiple stages. Extensive research was conducted at each stage with an appropriate methodology. These stages of the project study were interconnected with each other, and each preceding stage provided inputs for the following stage of the study. In the first stage of the study, an empirical analysis was conducted to understand the current state of entrepreneurial intentions of undergraduates of Agra city. Various stakeholders were contacted at the stage, including students (n = 500), entrepreneurs (n = 20) and academicians and field experts (n = 10). At the second stage of the project study, a systems science technique, Nominal Group Technique (NGT) was used to identify the critical elements of entrepreneurship education in India based upon the findings of stage 1. The application of the Nominal Group Technique involved a workshop format; 15 domain experts participated in the workshop. Throughout the process, a democratic process was followed to avoid individual dominance and premature focusing on a single idea. The study obtained 63 responses from experts for effective entrepreneurship education in India. The responses were reduced to seven elements after a few thematic iterations. These elements were then segregated into content (knowledge, skills and attitude) and learning interaction on the basis of experts’ responses. After identifying critical elements of entrepreneurship education in the previous stage, the course was designed and validated at stage 3 of the project. Scientific methods were used at this stage to validate the curriculum contents and training interventions experimentally. The educational and training interventions designed through this study would not only help in developing entrepreneurial intentions but also creating skills relevant to the local entrepreneurial opportunities in the vicinity.

Keywords: curriculum design, entrepreneurial intention, entrepreneuship education, nominal group technique

Procedia PDF Downloads 9
1423 A Study of Using Multiple Subproblems in Dantzig-Wolfe Decomposition of Linear Programming

Authors: William Chung

Abstract:

This paper is to study the use of multiple subproblems in Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition of linear programming (DW-LP). Traditionally, the decomposed LP consists of one LP master problem and one LP subproblem. The master problem and the subproblem is solved alternatively by exchanging the dual prices of the master problem and the proposals of the subproblem until the LP is solved. It is well known that convergence is slow with a long tail of near-optimal solutions (asymptotic convergence). Hence, the performance of DW-LP highly depends upon the number of decomposition steps. If the decomposition steps can be greatly reduced, the performance of DW-LP can be improved significantly. To reduce the number of decomposition steps, one of the methods is to increase the number of proposals from the subproblem to the master problem. To do so, we propose to add a quadratic approximation function to the LP subproblem in order to develop a set of approximate-LP subproblems (multiple subproblems). Consequently, in each decomposition step, multiple subproblems are solved for providing multiple proposals to the master problem. The number of decomposition steps can be reduced greatly. Note that each approximate-LP subproblem is nonlinear programming, and solving the LP subproblem must faster than solving the nonlinear multiple subproblems. Hence, using multiple subproblems in DW-LP is the tradeoff between the number of approximate-LP subproblems being formed and the decomposition steps. In this paper, we derive the corresponding algorithms and provide some simple computational results. Some properties of the resulting algorithms are also given.

Keywords: approximate subproblem, Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition, large-scale models, multiple subproblems

Procedia PDF Downloads 5
1422 Non-parametric Linear Technique for Measuring the Efficiency of Winter Road Maintenance in the Arctic Area

Authors: Mahshid Hatamzad, Geanette Polanco

Abstract:

Improving the performance of Winter Road Maintenance (WRM) can increase the traffic safety and reduce the cost as well as environmental impacts. This study evaluates the efficiency of WRM technique, named salting, in the Arctic area by using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), which is a non-parametric linear method to measure the efficiencies of decision-making units (DMUs) based on handling multiple inputs and multiple outputs at the same time that their associated weights are not known. Here, roads are considered as DMUs for which the efficiency must be determined. The three input variables considered are traffic flow, road area and WRM cost. In addition, the two output variables included are level of safety in the roads and environment impacts resulted from WRM, which is also considered as an uncontrollable factor in the second scenario. The results show the performance of DMUs from the most efficient WRM to the inefficient/least efficient one and this information provides decision makers with technical support and the required suggested improvements for inefficient WRM, in order to achieve a cost-effective WRM and a safe road transportation during wintertime in the Arctic areas.

Keywords: environmental impacts, DEA, risk and safety, WRM

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
1421 Performance Enhancement of Autopart Manufacturing Industry Using Lean Manufacturing Strategies: A Case Study

Authors: Raman Kumar, Jasgurpreet Singh Chohan, Chander Shekhar Verma

Abstract:

Today, the manufacturing industries respond rapidly to new demands and compete in this continuously changing environment, thus seeking out new methods allowing them to remain competitive and flexible simultaneously. The aim of the manufacturing organizations is to reduce manufacturing costs and wastes through system simplification, organizational potential, and proper infrastructural planning by using modern techniques like lean manufacturing. In India, large number of medium and large scale manufacturing industries has successfully implemented lean manufacturing techniques. Keeping in view the above-mentioned facts, different tools will be involved in the successful implementation of the lean approach. The present work is focused on the auto part manufacturing industry to improve the performance of the recliner assembly line. There is a number of lean manufacturing tools available, but the experience and complete knowledge of manufacturing processes are required to select an appropriate tool for a specific process. Fishbone diagrams (scrap, inventory, and waiting) have been drawn to identify the root cause of different. Effect of cycle time reduction on scrap and inventory is analyzed thoroughly in the case company. Results have shown that there is a decrease in inventory cost by 7 percent after the successful implementation of the lean tool.

Keywords: lean tool, fish-bone diagram, cycle time reduction, case study

Procedia PDF Downloads 5
1420 Challenges for Interface Designers in Designing Sensor Dashboards in the Context of Industry 4.0

Authors: Naveen Kumar, Shyambihari Prajapati

Abstract:

Industry 4.0 is the fourth industrial revolution that focuses on interconnectivity of machine to machine, human to machine and human to human via Internet of Things (IoT). Technologies of industry 4.0 facilitate communication between human and machine through IoT and forms Cyber-Physical Production System (CPPS). In CPPS, multiple shop floors sensor data are connected through IoT and displayed through sensor dashboard to the operator. These sensor dashboards have enormous amount of information to be presented which becomes complex for operators to perform monitoring, controlling and interpretation tasks. Designing handheld sensor dashboards for supervision task will become a challenge for the interface designers. This paper reports emerging technologies of industry 4.0, changing context of increasing information complexity in consecutive industrial revolutions and upcoming design challenges for interface designers in context of Industry 4.0. Authors conclude that information complexity of sensor dashboards design has increased with consecutive industrial revolutions and designs of sensor dashboard causes cognitive load on users. Designing such complex dashboards interfaces in Industry 4.0 context will become main challenges for the interface designers.

Keywords: Industry4.0, sensor dashboard design, cyber-physical production system, Interface designer

Procedia PDF Downloads 6
1419 Nelder-Mead Parametric Optimization of Elastic Metamaterials with Artificial Neural Network Surrogate Model

Authors: Jiaqi Dong, Qing-Hua Qin, Yi Xiao

Abstract:

Some of the most fundamental challenges of elastic metamaterials (EMMs) optimization can be attributed to the high consumption of computational power resulted from finite element analysis (FEA) simulations that render the optimization process inefficient. Furthermore, due to the inherent mesh dependence of FEA, minuscule geometry features, which often emerge during the later stages of optimization, induce very fine elements, resulting in enormously high time consumption, particularly when repetitive solutions are needed for computing the objective function. In this study, a surrogate modelling algorithm is developed to reduce computational time in structural optimization of EMMs. The surrogate model is constructed based on a multilayer feedforward artificial neural network (ANN) architecture, trained with prepopulated eigenfrequency data prepopulated from FEA simulation and optimized through regime selection with genetic algorithm (GA) to improve its accuracy in predicting the location and width of the primary elastic band gap. With the optimized ANN surrogate at the core, a Nelder-Mead (NM) algorithm is established and its performance inspected in comparison to the FEA solution. The ANNNM model shows remarkable accuracy in predicting the band gap width and a reduction of time consumption by 47%.

Keywords: artificial neural network, machine learning, mechanical metamaterials, Nelder-Mead optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 2
1418 Design and Optimization of Open Loop Supply Chain Distribution Network Using Hybrid K-Means Cluster Based Heuristic Algorithm

Authors: P. Suresh, K. Gunasekaran, R. Thanigaivelan

Abstract:

Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has been attracting considerable attention with the expectation of improved supply chain visibility for consumer goods, apparel, and pharmaceutical manufacturers, as well as retailers and government procurement agencies. It is also expected to improve the consumer shopping experience by making it more likely that the products they want to purchase are available. Recent announcements from some key retailers have brought interest in RFID to the forefront. A modified K- Means Cluster based Heuristic approach, Hybrid Genetic Algorithm (GA) - Simulated Annealing (SA) approach, Hybrid K-Means Cluster based Heuristic-GA and Hybrid K-Means Cluster based Heuristic-GA-SA for Open Loop Supply Chain Network problem are proposed. The study incorporated uniform crossover operator and combined crossover operator in GAs for solving open loop supply chain distribution network problem. The algorithms are tested on 50 randomly generated data set and compared with each other. The results of the numerical experiments show that the Hybrid K-means cluster based heuristic-GA-SA, when tested on 50 randomly generated data set, shows superior performance to the other methods for solving the open loop supply chain distribution network problem.

Keywords: RFID, supply chain distribution network, open loop supply chain, genetic algorithm, simulated annealing

Procedia PDF Downloads 10
1417 Integration of Constraints Related to Composite Materials in the Design of Industrial Products

Authors: A. Boumedine, K. Benfriha, S. Lecheb

Abstract:

Manufacturing methods for products and structures made of composite materials reduce the number of parts and integrate technical functions, this advantage of composite materials leads to a lot of innovation but also to a reduction of costs and a gain in quality. A material has attributes: its density, it’s resistance, it’s cost, it’s resistance to corrosion. For the design of a product, a certain profile of these attributes is required: low density, resistance removed, low cost. The problem is then to identify this attribute profile and to compare it with those of the materials, in order to find the one that comes closest. The aim of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility of characterizing a mini turbine made of 3D printed fiber-filled composite material by the process of additive manufacturing, then compare the performance of the alloy turbine with the composite turbine according to the results of the simulation by Abaqus software.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, composite materials, design, 3D printer, turbine

Procedia PDF Downloads 10
1416 Effects of Tool State on the Output Parameters of Front Milling Using Discrete Wavelet Transform

Authors: Bruno S. Soria, Mauricio R. Policena, Andre J. Souza

Abstract:

The state of the cutting tool is an important factor to consider during machining to achieve a good surface quality. The vibration generated during material cutting can also directly affect the surface quality and life of the cutting tool. In this work, the effect of mechanical broken failure (MBF) on carbide insert tools during face milling of AISI 304 stainless steel was evaluated using three levels of feed rate and two spindle speeds for each tool condition: three carbide inserts have perfect geometry, and three other carbide inserts have MBF. The axial and radial depths remained constant. The cutting forces were determined through a sensory system that consists of a piezoelectric dynamometer and data acquisition system. Discrete Wavelet Transform was used to separate the static part of the signals of force and vibration. The roughness of the machined surface was analyzed for each machining condition. The MBF of the tool increased the intensity and force of vibration and worsened the roughness factors.

Keywords: face milling, stainless steel, tool condition monitoring, wavelet discrete transform

Procedia PDF Downloads 13
1415 A Design of Anisotropic Wet Etching System to Reduce Hillocks on Etched Surface of Silicon Substrate

Authors: Alonggot Limcharoen Kaeochotchuangkul, Pathomporn Sawatchai

Abstract:

This research aims to design and build a wet etching system, which is suitable for anisotropic wet etching, in order to reduce etching time, to reduce hillocks on the etched surface (to reduce roughness), and to create a 45-degree wall angle (micro-mirror). This study would start by designing a wet etching system. There are four main components in this system: an ultrasonic cleaning, a condenser, a motor and a substrate holder. After that, an ultrasonic machine was modified by applying a condenser to maintain the consistency of the solution concentration during the etching process and installing a motor for improving the roughness. This effect on the etch rate and the roughness showed that the etch rate increased and the roughness was reduced.

Keywords: anisotropic wet etching, wet etching system, hillocks, ultrasonic cleaning

Procedia PDF Downloads 3
1414 Examining the Correlations between Reverse Logistics and Sustainability Performance: A Literature Review

Authors: Taknaz Alsadat Banihashemi, Jiangang Fei, Peggy Shu-Ling Chen

Abstract:

In today’s competitive world, the growth of manufacturing activities has contributed to the use of resources and environmental concerns as a result of increasing wastes during production and consumption. Reverse logistics (RL) as a crucial component of green supply chain management can reduce the waste generated by handling returned and used products and product disposition through different disposition options such as reuse, remanufacturing and recycling. Although RL can make a significant contribution to improving the sustainability performance of firms, little research has been undertaken exploring the relationship between RL and sustainability performance. The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of the literature to evaluate the performance of the RL process regarding three dimensions of sustainability including environmental, economic, and social aspects. The content analysis method has been adopted to collect information. The findings show that most of the studies have focused on performance evaluation of RL by considering the factors associated with economic and environmental performance. They found that RL can have a significant impact on the economic and environmental performance of a business. The social aspect of RL needs to be investigated as there are reasons to think it may contribute to positive social outcomes, yet this aspect has been overlooked in research. To our best knowledge, there is a lack of research investigating the relationship between RL and sustainability by integrating the three pillars of the triple-bottom-line sustainability performance. This paper would help the practitioners, academics, and researchers to get a broad view of the relationship between RL and sustainability performance. Finally, the paper concludes by providing some guidance for future research.

Keywords: reverse logistics, review, sustainability, sustainability performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 3
1413 Non-Destructive Testing of Selective Laser Melting Products

Authors: Luca Collini, Michele Antolotti, Diego Schiavi

Abstract:

At present, complex geometries within production time shrinkage, rapidly increasing demand, and high-quality standard requirement make the non-destructive (ND) control of additively manufactured components indispensable means. On the other hand, a technology gap and the lack of standards regulating the methods and the acceptance criteria indicate the NDT of these components a stimulating field to be still fully explored. Up to date, penetrant testing, acoustic wave, tomography, radiography, and semi-automated ultrasound methods have been tested on metal powder based products so far. External defects, distortion, surface porosity, roughness, texture, internal porosity, and inclusions are the typical defects in the focus of testing. Detection of density and layers compactness are also been tried on stainless steels by the ultrasonic scattering method. In this work, the authors want to present and discuss the radiographic and the ultrasound ND testing on additively manufactured Ti₆Al₄V and inconel parts obtained by the selective laser melting (SLM) technology. In order to test the possibilities given by the radiographic method, both X-Rays and γ-Rays are tried on a set of specifically designed specimens realized by the SLM. The specimens contain a family of defectology, which represent the most commonly found, as cracks and lack of fusion. The tests are also applied to real parts of various complexity and thickness. A set of practical indications and of acceptance criteria is finally drawn.

Keywords: non-destructive testing, selective laser melting, radiography, UT method

Procedia PDF Downloads 13
1412 A Data Driven Approach for the Degradation of a Lithium-Ion Battery Based on Accelerated Life Test

Authors: Alyaa M. Younes, Nermine Harraz, Mohammad H. Elwany

Abstract:

Lithium ion batteries are currently used for many applications including satellites, electric vehicles and mobile electronics. Their ability to store relatively large amount of energy in a limited space make them most appropriate for critical applications. Evaluation of the life of these batteries and their reliability becomes crucial to the systems they support. Reliability of Li-Ion batteries has been mainly considered based on its lifetime. However, another important factor that can be considered critical in many applications such as in electric vehicles is the cycle duration. The present work presents the results of an experimental investigation on the degradation behavior of a Laptop Li-ion battery (type TKV2V) and the effect of applied load on the battery cycle time. The reliability was evaluated using an accelerated life test. Least squares linear regression with median rank estimation was used to estimate the Weibull distribution parameters needed for the reliability functions estimation. The probability density function, failure rate and reliability function under each of the applied loads were evaluated and compared. An inverse power model is introduced that can predict cycle time at any stress level given.

Keywords: accelerated life test, inverse power law, lithium-ion battery, reliability evaluation, Weibull distribution

Procedia PDF Downloads 10