Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1606

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

1606 A study on how to Influence Players Interactive Behavior of Victory or Defeat in Party Games

Authors: Shih-Chieh Liao, Cheng-Yan Shuai


"Party game" is a game mode that enables players to maintain a good social and interactive experience. The common game modes include Teamwork, Team competitive, Independent competitive, Battle Royale. Party games are defined as a game with easy rules, easy to play, quickly spice up a party, and support four to six players. It also needs to let the player feel satisfied no matter victory or defeat. However, players may feel negative or angry when the game is imbalanced, especially when they play with teammates. Some players care about winning or losing, and they will blame it on the game mechanics. What is more serious is that the player will cause the argument, which is unnecessary. These behaviors that trigger quarrels and negative emotions often originate from the player's determination of the victory and the ratio of victory during the competition. In view of this, our research invited a group of subjects to the experiment, which is going to inspect player’s emotions by Electromyography (EMG) and Electrodermal Activity (EDA) when they are playing party games with others. When a player wins or loses, the negative and positive feeling will be recorded from the game beginning to the end. At the same time, physiologic and emotional reactions are also being recorded in each part of the game. The game will be designed as telling the interaction when players are in the quest of a party game. The experiment content includes the emotional changes affected by the physiological values of game victory and defeat between “player against friend” and “player against stranger.” Through this experiment, the balance between winners and losers lies in the basis of good game interaction and game interaction in the game and explore the emotional positive and negative effects caused by the result of the party game. The result shows that “player against friend” has a significant negative emotion and significant positive emotion at “player against stranger.” According to the result, the player's experience will be affected with winning rate or form when they play the party game. We suggest the developer balance the game with our experiment method to let players get a better experience.

Keywords: party games, biofeedback, emotional responses, user experience, game design

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1605 The Moving and Special Ability Influence Player Preference in the Dual Protagonist Game

Authors: Shih-Chieh. Liao, Jen-Ying. Ma


Dual protagonists game always bring a unique experience compared to the other games. This research wants to discuss whether the dual protagonists have the moving ability and special ability or not; it will affect the preference of the players. This research will focus on the single-player dual protagonists game. After the observation, we found that when players control the dual protagonists, the moving ability and special ability are a great point defining the preference of players. When players control the character, which is lack of moving ability, they often feel impatient with the inconvenient mechanism and then reduce the will to play with the character or even the game. Furthermore, the special ability is also important in the situation that there is another character to compare with. When the character is too powerful, players tend not to use the weaker one. In addition, gender is a big deal in the games. It surprisingly controls the will of play occasionally. In view of these, this research makes a single-player dual protagonists game and the dual protagonists are limited to male and female. The experiment content detected with Electrodermal Activity (EDA) includes seven different situations. (1) male and females both have the moving ability and special ability. (2) male and female both have a special ability, but female does not have the moving ability. (3) male and females both have a special ability, but the male does not have the moving ability. (4) male and female both have the moving ability, but the male does not have special ability (5) male and female both have the moving ability, but female does not have a special ability (6) male-only has the moving ability and female-only has a special ability (7) male-only has a special ability and female only has the moving ability. The experiment will evaluate the emotional changes of the subjects in those situations. The result sorted by the significance of player preference is (6)>(4)>(1)>(2)>(5)>(3)>(7). The result demonstrates that players prefer females with special abilities or males with moving abilities. The game developer could design the ability of dual protagonists based on this research. Therefore, players may have a better experience.

Keywords: biofeedback, dual protagonists, emotional responses, psychology, user experience

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1604 Mathematical Modeling for the Break-Even Point Problem in a Non-homogeneous System

Authors: Filipe Cardoso de Oliveira, Lino Marcos da Silva, Ademar Nogueira do Nascimento, Cristiano Hora de Oliveira Fontes


This article presents a mathematical formulation for the production Break-Even Point problem in a non-homogeneous system. The optimization problem aims to obtain the composition of the best product mix in a non-homogeneous industrial plant, with the lowest cost until the breakeven point is reached. The problem constraints represent real limitations of a generic non-homogeneous industrial plant for n different products. The proposed model is able to solve the equilibrium point problem simultaneously for all products, unlike the existing approaches that propose a resolution in a sequential way, considering each product in isolation and providing a sub-optimal solution to the problem. The results indicate that the product mix found through the proposed model has economical advantages over the traditional approach used.

Keywords: branch and bound, break-even point, non-homogeneous production system, integer linear programming, management accounting

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1603 Structured Cross System Planning and Control in Modular Production Systems by Using Agent-Based Control Loops

Authors: Simon Komesker, Achim Wagner, Martin Ruskowski


In times of volatile markets with fluctuating demand and the uncertainty of global supply chains, flexible production systems are the key to an efficient implementation of a desired production program. In this publication, the authors present a holistic information concept taking into account various influencing factors for operating towards the global optimum. Therefore, a strategy for the implementation of multi-level planning for a flexible, reconfigurable production system with an alternative production concept in the automotive industry is developed. The main contribution of this work is a system structure mixing central and decentral planning and control evaluated in a simulation framework. The information system structure in current production systems in the automotive industry is rigidly hierarchically organized in monolithic systems. The production program is created rule-based with the premise of achieving uniform cycle time. This program then provides the information basis for execution in subsystems at the station and process execution level. In today's era of mixed-(car-)model factories, complex conditions and conflicts arise in achieving logistics, quality, and production goals. There is no provision for feedback loops of results from the process execution level (resources) and process supporting (quality and logistics) systems and reconsideration in the planning systems. To enable a robust production flow, the complexity of production system control is artificially reduced by the line structure and results, for example in material-intensive processes (buffers and safety stocks - two container principle also for different variants). The limited degrees of freedom of line production have produced the principle of progress figure control, which results in one-time sequencing, sequential order release, and relatively inflexible capacity control. As a result, modularly structured production systems such as modular production according to known approaches with more degrees of freedom are currently difficult to represent in terms of information technology. The remedy is an information concept that supports cross-system and cross-level information processing for centralized and decentralized decision-making. Through an architecture of hierarchically organized but decoupled subsystems, the paradigm of hybrid control is used, and a holonic manufacturing system is offered, which enables flexible information provisioning and processing support. In this way, the influences from quality, logistics, and production processes can be linked holistically with the advantages of mixed centralized and decentralized planning and control. Modular production systems also require modularly networked information systems with semi-autonomous optimization for a robust production flow. Dynamic prioritization of different key figures between subsystems should lead the production system to an overall optimum. The tasks and goals of quality, logistics, process, resource, and product areas in a cyber-physical production system are designed as an interconnected multi-agent-system. The result is an alternative system structure that executes centralized process planning and decentralized processing. An agent-based manufacturing control is used to enable different flexibility and reconfigurability states and manufacturing strategies in order to find optimal partial solutions of subsystems, that lead to a near global optimum for hybrid planning. This allows a robust near to plan execution with integrated quality control and intralogistics.

Keywords: holonic manufacturing system, modular production system, planning, and control, system structure

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1602 An IVRs Storytelling Model for Learning Entrepreneurial Mindsets in Media Dark Zones

Authors: Ananya Agrawal, Vineesh Amin


In a prolonged period of uncertainty and disruptions in the pre-said normal order, non-cognitive skills, especially entrepreneurial mindsets, have become a pillar that can reform the educational models to inform the economy. Born in the middle of the pandemic, Udhyam Learning Foundation's IVR-based storytelling program - Call-a-Kahaani – is an evolving experiment with an aim to kindle entrepreneurial mindsets in the remotest locations of India in an accessible and engaging manner. At the heart of this experiment is the belief that at every phase in our life’s story, we have a choice to make that will direct how the next phase of our life unfolds. This interactive program is thus designed using real-time storytelling principles to empower learners, ages 24 and below, to make choices and take decisions as they become more self-aware practice grit, try new things through stories and guided activities and interactions, simply over a phone call. This research paper highlights a framework to build and deliver a scalable, data-oriented, low-tech program to kindle entrepreneurial mindsets in media dark zones supported by iterative design and prototyping to reach a scale of 9000+ unique learners from across 15+ states in India within one year of its inception. The paper provides an in-depth account of the technical development, content creation, learning and assessment frameworks, as well as mobilization models which have been leveraged to build this end-to-end system.

Keywords: non-cognitive skills, entrepreneurial mindsets, speech interface, remote learning, storytelling

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1601 Model for Remanufacture of Medical Equipment in Cross Border Collaboration

Authors: Kingsley Oturu, Winifred Ijomah, Wale Coker, Chibueze Achi


With the impact of BREXIT and the need for cross-border collaboration, this international research investigated the use of a conceptual model for remanufacturing medical equipment (with a focus on anesthetic machines and baby incubators). Early findings of the research suggest that contextual factors need to be taken into consideration, as well as an emphasis on cleaning (e.g., sterilization) during the process of remanufacturing medical equipment. For example, copper tubings may be more important in the remanufacturing of anesthetic equipment in tropical climates than in cold climates.

Keywords: medical equipment remanufacture, sustainability, circular business models, remanufacture process model

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1600 Simulation and Experimental Verification of Mechanical Response of Additively Manufactured Lattice Structures

Authors: P. Karlsson, M. Åsberg, R. Eriksson, P. Krakhmalev, N. Strömberg


Additive manufacturing of lattice structures is promising for lightweight design, but the mechanical response of the lattices structures is not fully understood. This investigation presents the results of simulation and experimental investigations of the grid and shell-based gyroid lattices. Specimens containing selected lattices were designed with an in-house software and manufactured from 316L steel with Renishaw AM400 equipment. Results of simulation and experimental investigations correlated well.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, computed tomography, material characterization, lattice structures, robust lightweight design

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1599 Multi-Robotic Partial Disassembly Line Balancing with Robotic Efficiency Difference via HNSGA-II

Authors: Tao Yin, Zeqiang Zhang, Wei Liang, Yanqing Zeng, Yu Zhang


To accelerate the remanufacturing process of electronic waste products, this study designs a partial disassembly line with the multi-robotic station to effectively dispose of excessive wastes. The multi-robotic partial disassembly line is a technical upgrade to the existing manual disassembly line. Balancing optimization can make the disassembly line smoother and more efficient. For partial disassembly line balancing with the multi-robotic station (PDLBMRS), a mixed-integer programming model (MIPM) considering the robotic efficiency differences is established to minimize cycle time, energy consumption and hazard index and to calculate their optimal global values. Besides, an enhanced NSGA-II algorithm (HNSGA-II) is proposed to optimize PDLBMRS efficiently. Finally, MIPM and HNSGA-II are applied to an actual mixed disassembly case of two types of computers, the comparison of the results solved by GUROBI and HNSGA-II verifies the correctness of the model and excellent performance of the algorithm, and the obtained Pareto solution set provides multiple options for decision-makers.

Keywords: waste disposal, disassembly line balancing, multi-robot station, robotic efficiency difference, HNSGA-II

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1598 Identification of Service Quality Determinants in the Hotel Sector: A Systematic Literature Review

Authors: Asem M. Othman


The expansion of the hospitality industry is unmistakable. Services, by nature, are intangible. Hence, service quality, in general, is a complicated process to be measured and evaluated. Hotels, as a service sector and part of the hospitality industry, are growing rapidly. This research paper was carried out to identify the quality determinants that may affect hotel guests’ service quality perception. In this research paper, each quality determinant will be discussed, illustrated, and justified thoroughly via a systematic literature review. The purpose of this paper is to set the stage to measure the significant influence of the service quality determinants on guest satisfaction. The knowledge produced from this study will assist practitioners and/or hotel service providers to imply into their policies.

Keywords: service quality, hotel service, quality management, quality determinants

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1597 Research on Autonomous Controllability of BeiDou Navigation Satellite System Based on Knowledge Transformation

Authors: Hang Ju, Changmin Zhu


The development level of the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) can strongly reflect national defense strength as an important spatial information infrastructure. BDS can be not only used for military purposes, such as intelligence gathering, nuclear explosion monitoring, emergency communications, but also for location services, transportation, mapping, precision agriculture. In order to ensure the national defense security and the wide application of BDS in civil and military areas, BDS must be autonomous and controllable. As a complex system of knowledge-intensive, knowledge transformation runs through the whole process of research and development, production, operation, and maintenance of BDS. Based on the perspective of knowledge transformation, this paper expounds on the meaning of socialization, externalization, combination, and internalization of knowledge transformation, and the coupling relationship of autonomy and control on the basis of analyzing the status quo and problems of the autonomy and control of BDS. The autonomous and controllable framework of BDS based on knowledge transformation is constructed from six dimensions of management capability, R&D capability, technical capability, manufacturing capability, service support capability, and application capability. It can provide support for the smooth implementation of information security policy, provide a reference for the autonomy and control of the upstream and downstream industrial chains in Beidou, and provide a reference for the autonomous and controllable research of aerospace components, military measurement test equipment, and other related industries.

Keywords: knowledge transformation, BeiDou Navigation Satellite System, autonomy and control, framework

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1596 Technological Applications in Automobile Manufacturing Sector - A Case Study Analysis

Authors: Raja Kannusamy


The research focuses on the applicable technologies in the automobile industry and their effects on the productivity and annual revenue of the industry. A study has been conducted on 6 major automobile manufacturing industries represented in this research as M1, M2, M3, M4, M5 and M6. The results indicate that M1, which is a pioneer in technological applications, remains the market leader, followed by M5 & M2 taking the second and third positions, respectively. M3, M6 and M4 are the followers and are placed next in positions. It has also been observed that M1 and M2 have entered into an agreement to share the basic structural technologies and they maintain long-term and trusted relationships with their suppliers through the Keiretsu system. With technological giants such as Apple, Microsoft, Uber and Google entering the automobile industry in recent years, an upward trend is expected in the futuristic market with self-driving cars to dominate the automobile sector. To keep up with the market trend, it is essential for automobile manufacturers to understand the importance of developing technological capabilities and skills to be competitive in the marketplace.

Keywords: automobile manufacturing industries, competitiveness, performance improvement, technological applications

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1595 Green Supply Chain Design: A Mathematical Modeling Approach

Authors: Nusrat T. Chowdhury


Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM) is becoming a key to success for profitable businesses. The various activities contributing to carbon emissions in a supply chain are transportation, ordering and holding of inventory. This research work develops a mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) model that considers the scenario of a supply chain with multiple periods, multiple products and multiple suppliers. The model assumes that the demand is deterministic, the buyer has a limited storage space in each period, the buyer is responsible for the transportation cost, a supplier-dependent ordering cost applies for each period in which an order is placed on a supplier and inventory shortage is permissible. The model provides an optimal decision regarding what products to order, in what quantities, with which suppliers, and in which periods in order to maximize the profit. For the purpose of evaluating the carbon emissions, three different carbon regulating policies i.e., carbon cap-and-trade, the strict cap on carbon emission and carbon tax on emissions, have been considered. The proposed MINLP has been validated using a randomly generated data set.

Keywords: green supply chain, carbon emission, mixed integer non-linear program, inventory shortage, carbon cap-and-trade

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1594 Second Order Cone Optimization Approach to Two-stage Network DEA

Authors: K. Asanimoghadam, M. Salahi, A. Jamalian


Data envelopment analysis is an approach to measure the efficiency of decision making units with multiple inputs and outputs. The structure of many decision making units also has decision-making subunits that are not considered in most data envelopment analysis models. Also, the inputs and outputs of the decision-making units usually are considered desirable, while in some real-world problems, the nature of some inputs or outputs are undesirable. In this thesis, we study the evaluation of the efficiency of two stage decision-making units, where some outputs are undesirable using two non-radial models, the SBM and the ASBM models. We formulate the nonlinear ASBM model as a second order cone optimization problem. Finally, we compare two models for both external and internal evaluation approaches for two real world example in the presence of undesirable outputs. The results show that, in both external and internal evaluations, the overall efficiency of ASBM model is greater than or equal to the overall efficiency value of the SBM model, and in internal evaluation, the ASBM model is more flexible than the SBM model.

Keywords: network DEA, conic optimization, undesirable output, SBM

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1593 Design for Sentiment-ancy: Conceptual Framework to Improve User’s Well-Being Through Fostering Emotional Attachment in the Use Experience With Their Assistive Devices

Authors: Seba Quqandi


This study investigates the bond that people form using their assistive devices and the tactics applied during the product design process to help improve the user experience leading to a long-term product relationship. The aim is to develop a conceptual framework with which to describe and analyze the bond people form with their assistive devices and to integrate human emotions as a factor during the development of the product design process. The focus will be on the assistive technology market, namely, the Aid-For-Daily-Living market for situational impairments, to increase the quality of wellbeing. Findings will help us better understand the real issues of the product experience concerning people’s interaction throughout the product performance, establish awareness of the emotional effects in the daily interaction that fosters the product attachment, and help product developers and future designers create a connection between users and their assistive devices. The research concludes by discussing the implications of these findings for professionals and academics in the form of experiments in order to identify new areas that can stimulate new /or developed design directions.

Keywords: experience design, interaction design, emotion, design psychology, assistive tools, customization, userentred design

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1592 Design On Demand (DoD): Spiral Model of The Lifecycle of Products in The Personal 3D-Printed Products' Market

Authors: Zuk Nechemia Turbovich


This paper introduces DoD, a contextual spiral model that describes the lifecycle of products intended for manufacturing using Personal 3D Printers (P3DP). The study is based on a review of the desktop P3DPs market that shows that the combination of digital connectivity, coupled with the potential ownership of P3DP by home users, is radically changing the form of the product lifecycle, comparatively to familiar lifecycle paradigms. The paper presents the change in the design process, considering the characterization of product types in the P3DP market and the possibility of having a direct dialogue between end-user and product designers. The model, as an updated paradigm, provides a strategic perspective on product design and tools for success, understanding that design is subject to rapid and continuous improvement and that products are subject to repair, update, and customization. The paper will include a review of real cases.

Keywords: lifecycle, mass-customization, personal 3d-printing, user involvement

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1591 Sustainable Milling Process for Tensile Specimens

Authors: Shilpa Kumari, Ramakumar Jayachandran


Machining of aluminium extrusion profiles in the automotive industry has gained much interest in the last decade, particularly due to the higher utilization of aluminum profiles and the weight reduction benefits it brings. Milling is the most common material removal process, where the rotary milling cutter is moved against a workpiece. The physical contact of the milling cutter to the workpiece increases the friction between them, thereby affecting the longevity of the milling tool and also the surface finish of the workpiece. To minimise this issue, the milling process uses cutting fluids or emulsions; however, the use of emulsion in the process has a negative impact on the environment ( such as consumption of water, oils and the used emulsion needs to be treated before disposal) and also on the personal ( may cause respiratory problems, exposure to microbial toxins generated by bacteria in the emulsions on prolonged use) working close to the process. Furthermore, the workpiece also needs to be cleaned after the milling process, which is not adding value to the process, and the cleaning also disperses mist of emulsion in the working environment. Hydro Extrusion is committed to improving the performance of sustainability from its operations, and with the negative impact of using emulsion in the milling process, a new innovative process- Dry Milling was developed to minimise the impact the cutting fluid brings. In this paper, the authors present one application of dry milling in the machining of tensile specimens in the laboratory. Dry milling is an innovative milling process without the use of any cooling/lubrication and has several advantages. Several million tensile tests are carried out in extrusion laboratories worldwide with the wet milling process. The machining of tensile specimens has a significant impact on the reliability of test results. The paper presents the results for different 6xxx alloys with different wall thicknesses of the specimens, which were machined by both dry and wet milling processes. For both different 6xxx alloys and different wall thicknesses, mechanical properties were similar for samples milled using dry and wet milling. Several tensile specimens were prepared using both dry and wet milling to compare the results, and the outcome showed the dry milling process does not affect the reliability of tensile test results.

Keywords: dry milling, tensile testing, wet milling, 6xxx alloy

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1590 Design and 3D-Printout of The Stack-Corrugate-Sheel Core Sandwiched Decks for The Bridging System

Authors: K. Kamal


Structural sandwich panels with core of Advanced Composites Laminates l Honeycombs / PU-foams are used in aerospace applications and are also fabricated for use now in some civil engineering applications. An all Advanced Composites Foot Over Bridge (FOB) system, designed and developed for pedestrian traffic is one such application earlier, may be cited as an example here. During development stage of this FoB, a profile of its decks was then spurred as a single corrugate sheet core sandwiched between two Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastics(GFRP) flat laminates. Once successfully fabricated and used, these decks did prove suitable also to form other structure on assembly, such as, erecting temporary shelters. Such corrugated sheet core profile sandwiched panels were then also tried using the construction materials but any conventional method of construction only posed certain difficulties in achieving the required core profile monolithically within the sandwiched slabs and hence it was then abended. Such monolithic construction was, however, subsequently eased out on demonstration by dispensing building materials mix through a suitably designed multi-dispenser system attached to a 3D Printer. This study conducted at lab level was thus reported earlier and it did include the fabrication of a 3D printer in-house first as ‘3DcMP’ as well as on its functional operation, some required sandwich core profiles also been 3D-printed out producing panels hardware. Once a number of these sandwich panels in single corrugated sheet core monolithically printed out, panels were subjected to load test in an experimental set up as also their structural behavior was studied analytically, and subsequently, these results were correlated as reported in the literature. In achieving the required more depths and also to exhibit further the stronger and creating sandwiched decks of better structural and mechanical behavior, further more complex core configuration such as stack corrugate sheets core with a flat mid plane was felt to be the better sandwiched core. Such profile remained as an outcome that turns out merely on stacking of two separately printed out monolithic units of single corrugated sheet core developed earlier as above and bonded them together initially, maintaining a different orientation. For any required sequential understanding of the structural behavior of any such complex profile core sandwiched decks with special emphasis to study of the effect in the variation of corrugation orientation in each distinct tire in this core, it obviously calls for an analytical study first. The rectangular,simply supported decks have therefore been considered for analysis adopting the ‘Advanced Composite Technology(ACT), some numerical results along with some fruitful findings were obtained and these are all presented here in this paper. From this numerical result, it has been observed that a mid flat layer which eventually get created monolethically itself, in addition to eliminating the bonding process in development, has been found to offer more effective bending resistance by such decks subjected to UDL over them. This is understood to have resulted here since the existence of a required shear resistance layer at the mid of the core in this profile, unlike other bending elements. As an addendum to all such efforts made as covered above and was published earlier, this unique stack corrugate sheet core profile sandwiched structural decks, monolithically construction with ease at the site itself, has been printed out from a 3D Printer. On employing 3DcMP and using some innovative building construction materials, holds the future promises of such research & development works since all those several aspects of a 3D printing in construction are now included such as reduction in the required construction time, offering cost effective solutions with freedom in design of any such complex shapes thus can widely now be realized by the modern construction industry.

Keywords: advance composite technology(ACT), corrugated laminates, 3DcMP, foot over bridge (FOB), sandwiched deck units

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1589 Gaits Stability Analysis for a Pneumatic Quadruped Robot Using Reinforcement Learning

Authors: Soofiyan Atar, Adil Shaikh, Sahil Rajpurkar, Pragnesh Bhalala, Aniket Desai, Irfan Siddavatam


Deep reinforcement learning (deep RL) algorithms leverage the symbolic power of complex controllers by automating it by mapping sensory inputs to low-level actions. Deep RL eliminates the complex robot dynamics with minimal engineering. Deep RL provides high-risk involvement by directly implementing it in real-world scenarios and also high sensitivity towards hyperparameters. Tuning of hyperparameters on a pneumatic quadruped robot becomes very expensive through trial-and-error learning. This paper presents an automated learning control for a pneumatic quadruped robot using sample efficient deep Q learning, enabling minimal tuning and very few trials to learn the neural network. Long training hours may degrade the pneumatic cylinder due to jerk actions originated through stochastic weights. We applied this method to the pneumatic quadruped robot, which resulted in a hopping gait. In our process, we eliminated the use of a simulator and acquired a stable gait. This approach evolves so that the resultant gait matures more sturdy towards any stochastic changes in the environment. We further show that our algorithm performed very well as compared to programmed gait using robot dynamics.

Keywords: model-based reinforcement learning, gait stability, supervised learning, pneumatic quadruped

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1588 Process Optimization for 2205 Duplex Stainless Steel by Laser Metal Deposition

Authors: Siri Marthe Arbo, Afaf Saai, Sture Sørli, Mette Nedreberg


This work aims to establish a reliable approach for optimizing a Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) process for a critical maritime component, based on the material properties and structural performance required by the maritime industry. The component of interest is a water jet impeller, for which specific requirements for material properties are defined. The developed approach is based on the assessment of the effects of LMD process parameters on microstructure and material performance of standard AM 2205 duplex stainless steel powder. Duplex stainless steel offers attractive properties for maritime applications, combining high strength, enhanced ductility and excellent corrosion resistance due to the specific amounts of ferrite and austenite. These properties are strongly affected by the microstructural characteristics in addition to microstructural defects such as porosity and welding defects, all strongly influenced by the chosen LMD process parameters. In this study, the influence of deposition speed and heat input was evaluated. First, the influences of deposition speed and heat input on the microstructure characteristics, including ferrite/austenite fraction, amount of porosity and welding defects, were evaluated. Then, the achieved mechanical properties were evaluated by standard testing methods, measuring the hardness, tensile strength and elongation, bending force and impact energy. The measured properties were compared to the requirements of the water jet impeller. The results show that the required amounts of ferrite and austenite can be achieved directly by the LMD process without post-weld heat treatments. No intermetallic phases were observed in the material produced by the investigated process parameters. A high deposition speed was found to reduce the ductility due to the formation of welding defects. An increased heat input was associated with reduced strength due to the coarsening of the ferrite/austenite microstructure. The microstructure characterizations and measured mechanical performance demonstrate the great potential of the LMD process and generate a valuable database for the optimization of the LMD process for duplex stainless steels.

Keywords: duplex stainless steel, laser metal deposition, process optimization, microstructure, mechanical properties

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1587 The Analysis on Leadership Skills in UK Automobile Manufacturing Enterprises

Authors: Yanting Cao


The UK has strong economic growth, which attracts other countries to invest there through globalization. This research process will be based on quantitative and qualitative descriptive analysis using interviews. The secondary analysis will involve a case study approach to understand the important aspects of leadership skills. The research outcomes will be identifying the strength and weaknesses of the leadership skills of UK automobile manufacturing enterprises and suggest the best practices adopted by the respective countries for better results.

Keywords: engineering management, leadership, Industrial project management, Project managers, automobile manufacturing

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1586 Fabrication of Miniature Gear of Hastelloy X by WEDM Process

Authors: Bhupinder Singh, Joy Prakash Misra


This article provides the information regarding machining of hastelloy-X on wire electro spark machining (WEDM). Experimental investigation has been carried out by varying pulse-on time (TON), pulse-off time (TOFF), peak current (IP) and spark gap voltage (SV). Effect of these parameters is studied on material removal rate (MRR). Experiments are designed as per box-behnken design (BBD) technique of response surface methodology (RSM). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) results indicates that TON, TOFF, IP, SV, TON x IP are significant parameters that influenced the MRR, and it is depicted that value of MRR is more at high discharge energy (HDE) and less at low discharge energy (LDE). Furthermore, miniature impeller and miniature gear (OD≤10MM) is fabricated by WEDM at optimized condition.

Keywords: advanced manufacturing, WEDM, super alloy, gear

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1585 Investigating the Environmental Impact of Additive Manufacturing Compared to Conventional Manufacturing through Life Cycle Assessment

Authors: Gustavo Menezes De Souza Melo, Arnaud Heitz, Johannes Henrich Schleifenbaum


Additive manufacturing is a growing market that is taking over in many industries as it offers numerous advantages like new design possibilities, weight-saving solutions, ease of manufacture, and simplification of assemblies. These are all unquestionable technical or financial assets. As to the environmental aspect, additive manufacturing is often discussed whether it is the best solution to decarbonize our industries or if conventional manufacturing remains cleaner. This work presents a life cycle assessment (LCA) comparison based on the technological case of a motorbike swing-arm. We compare the original equipment manufacturer part made with conventional manufacturing (CM) methods to an additive manufacturing (AM) version printed using the laser powder bed fusion process. The AM version has been modified and optimized to achieve better dynamic performance without any regard to weight saving. Lightweight not being a priority in the creation of the 3D printed part brings us a unique perspective in this study. To achieve the LCA, we are using the open-source life cycle, and sustainability software OpenLCA combined with the ReCiPe 2016 at midpoint and endpoint level method. This allows the calculation and the presentation of the results through indicators such as global warming, water use, resource scarcity, etc. The results are then showing the relative impact of the AM version compared to the CM one and give us a key to understand and answer questions about the environmental sustainability of additive manufacturing.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, environmental impact, life cycle assessment, laser powder bed fusion

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1584 The Client-Supplier Relationship in Managing Innovation: Delineating Defence Industry First Mover Challenges within the Government Contract Competition

Authors: Edward Pol


All companies are confronted with the need to innovate in order to meet market demands. In so doing they are challenged with the dilemma of whether to aim to be first into the market with a new innovative product or to deliberately wait and learn from a pioneers’ mistakes; potentially avoiding higher risks. It is therefore important to critically understand from a first-mover advantage and disadvantage perspective the decision-making implications of defence industry transformation onset by an innovative paradigm shift. This paper will argue that the type of industry characteristics matter, especially when considering what role the clients play in the innovation process and what is their level of influence. Through investigation of qualitative case study research, this inquiry will focus on first mover advantages and first mover disadvantages with a view to establish practical and value-added academic findings by focusing on specific industries where the clients play an active role in cooperation with the supplier innovation. The resulting findings will help managers to mitigate risk in innovative technology introduction. A selection from several defense industry innovations is specifically chosen because of the client-supplier relationship typically differing from traditional first-mover research. In this instance, case studies will be used referencing vertical-takeoff-and-landing defence equipment innovations.

Keywords: innovation, pioneer, first-mover advantage, first-mover disadvantage, risk

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1583 Quantification Model for Capability Evaluation of Optical-Based in-Situ Monitoring System for Laser Powder Bed Fusion (LPBF) Process

Authors: Song Zhang, Hui Wang, Johannes Henrich Schleifenbaum


Due to the increasing demand for quality assurance and reliability for additive manufacturing, the development of an advanced in-situ monitoring system is required to monitor the process anomalies as input for further process control. Optical-based monitoring systems, such as CMOS cameras and NIR cameras, are proved as effective ways to monitor the geometrical distortion and exceptional thermal distribution. Therefore, many studies and applications are focusing on the availability of the optical-based monitoring system for detecting varied types of defects. However, the capability of the monitoring setup is not quantified. In this study, a quantification model to evaluate the capability of the monitoring setups for the LPBF machine based on acquired monitoring data of a designed test artifact is presented, while the design of the relevant test artifacts is discussed. The monitoring setup is evaluated based on its hardware properties, location of the integration, and light condition. Methodology of data processing to quantify the capacity for each aspect is discussed. The minimal capability of the detectable size of the monitoring set up in the application is estimated by quantifying its resolution and accuracy. The quantification model is validated using a CCD camera-based monitoring system for LPBF machines in the laboratory with different setups. The result shows the model to quantify the monitoring system's performance, which makes the evaluation of monitoring systems with the same concept but different setups possible for the LPBF process and provides the direction to improve the setups.

Keywords: data processing, in-situ monitoring, LPBF process, optical system, quantization model, test artifact

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1582 A Mathematical Optimization Model for Locating and Fortifying Capacitated Warehouses under Risk of Failure

Authors: Tareq Oshan


Facility location and size decisions are important to any company because they affect profitability and success. However, warehouses are exposed to various risks of failure that affect their activity. This paper presents a mixed-integer non-linear mathematical model that can be used to determine optimal warehouse locations and sizes, which warehouses to fortify, and which branches should be assigned to specific warehouses when there is a risk of warehouse failure. Every branch is assigned to a fortified primary warehouse or a nonfortified primary warehouse and a fortified backup warehouse. The standard method and an introduced method, based on the average probabilities, for linearizing this mathematical model were used. A Canadian case study was used to demonstrate the developed mathematical model, followed by some sensitivity analysis.

Keywords: supply chain network design, fortified warehouse, mixed-integer mathematical model, warehouse failure risk

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1581 An Approach to Capture, Evaluate and Handle Complexity of Engineering Change Occurrences in New Product Development

Authors: Mohammad Rostami Mehr, Seyed Arya Mir Rashed, Arndt Lueder, Magdalena Missler-Behr


This paper represents the conception that complex problems do not necessarily need a similar complex solution in order to cope with the complexity. Furthermore, a simple solution based on established methods can provide a sufficient way to deal with the complexity. To verify this conception, the presented paper focuses on the field of change management as a part of the new product development process in the automotive sector. In this field, dealing with increasing complexity is essential, while only non-flexible rigid processes that are not designed to handle complexity are available. The basic methodology of this paper can be divided into four main sections: 1) analyzing the complexity of the change management, 2) literature review in order to identify potential solutions and methods, 3) capturing and implementing expertise of experts from the change management field of an automobile manufacturing company and 4) systematical comparison of the identified methods from literature and connecting these with defined requirements of the complexity of the change management in order to develop a solution. As a practical outcome, this paper provides a method to capture the complexity of engineering changes (EC) and includes it within the EC evaluation process, following case-related process guidance to cope with the complexity. Furthermore, this approach supports the conception that dealing with complexity is possible while utilizing rather simple and established methods by combining them into a powerful tool.

Keywords: complexity management, new product development, engineering change management, flexibility

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1580 Engineering Economic Analysis of Implementing a Materials Recovery Facility in Jamaica: A Green Industry Approach towards a Sustainable Developing Economy

Authors: Damian Graham, Ashleigh H. Hall, Damani R. Sulph, Michael A. James, Shawn B. Vassell


This paper assesses the design and feasibility of a Materials Recovery Facility (MRF) in Jamaica as a possible green industry approach to the nation’s economic and solid waste management problems. Jamaica is a developing nation that is vulnerable to climate change that can affect its blue economy and tourism on which it is heavily reliant. Jamaica’s National Solid Waste Management Authority (NSWMA) collects only a fraction of all the solid waste produced annually which is then transported to dumpsites. The remainder is either burnt by the population or disposed of illegally. These practices negatively impact the environment, threaten the sustainability of economic growth from blue economy and tourism and its waste management system is predominantly a cost centre. The implementation of an MRF could boost the manufacturing sector, contribute to economic growth, and be a catalyst in creating a green industry with multiple downstream value chains with supply chain linkages. Globally, there is a trend to reuse and recycle that created an international market for recycled solid waste. MRFs enable the efficient sorting of solid waste into desired recoverable materials thus providing a gateway for entrance to the international trading of recycled waste. Research into the current state and effort to improve waste management in Jamaica in contrast with the similar and more advanced territories are outlined. The study explores the concept of green industrialization and its applicability to vulnerable small state economies like Jamaica. The study highlights the possible contributions and benefits derived from MRFs as a seeding factory that can anchor the reverse and forward logistics of other green industries as part of a logistic-cantered economy. Further, the study showcases an engineering economic analysis that assesses the viability of the implementation of an MRF in Jamaica. This research outlines the potential cost of constructing and operating an MRF and provides a realistic cash flow estimate to establish a baseline for profitability. The approach considers quantitative and qualitative data, assumptions, and modelling using industrial engineering tools and techniques that are outlined. Techniques of facility planning, system analysis and operations research with a focus on linear programming techniques are expressed. Approaches to overcome some implementation challenges including policy, technology and public education are detailed. The results of this study present a reasonable judgment of the prospects of incorporating an MRF to improve Jamaica’s solid waste management and contribute to socioeconomic and environmental benefits and an alternate pathway for economic sustainability.

Keywords: engineering-economic analysis, facility design, green industry, MRF, manufacturing, plant layout, solid-waste management, sustainability, waste disposal

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1579 The Possibility of Solving a 3x3 Rubik’s Cube under 3 Seconds

Authors: Chung To Kong, Siu Ming Yiu


Rubik's cube was invented in 1974. Since then, speedcubers all over the world try their best to break the world record again and again. The newest record is 3.47 seconds. There are many factors that affect the timing, including turns per second (tps), algorithm, finger trick, hardware of the cube. In this paper, the lower bound of the cube solving time will be discussed using convex optimization. Extended analysis of the world records will be used to understand how to improve the timing. With the understanding of each part of the solving step, the paper suggests a list of speed improvement techniques. Based on the analysis of the world record, there is a high possibility that the 3 seconds mark will be broken soon.

Keywords: Rubik's Cube, speed, finger trick, optimization

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1578 Complex Decision Rules in Quality Assurance Processes for Quick Service Restaurant Industry: Human Factors Determining Acceptability

Authors: Brandon Takahashi, Marielle Hanley, Gerry Hanley


The large-scale quick-service restaurant industry is a complex business to manage optimally. With over 40 suppliers providing different ingredients for food preparation and thousands of restaurants serving over 50 unique food offerings across a wide range of regions, the company must implement a quality assurance process. Businesses want to deliver quality food efficiently, reliably, and successfully at a low cost that the public wants to buy. They also want to make sure that their food offerings are never unsafe to eat or of poor quality. A good reputation (and profitable business) developed over the years can be gone in an instant if customers fall ill eating your food. Poor quality also results in food waste, and the cost of corrective actions is compounded by the reduction in revenue. Product compliance evaluation assesses if the supplier’s ingredients are within compliance with the specifications of several attributes (physical, chemical, organoleptic) that a company will test to ensure that a quality, safe to eat food is given to the consumer and will deliver the same eating experience in all parts of the country. The technical component of the evaluation includes the chemical and physical tests that produce numerical results that relate to shelf-life, food safety, and organoleptic qualities. The psychological component of the evaluation includes organoleptic, which is acting on or involving the use of the sense organs. The rubric for product compliance evaluation has four levels: (1) Ideal: Meeting or exceeding all technical (physical and chemical), organoleptic, & psychological specifications. (2) Deviation from ideal but no impact on quality: Not meeting or exceeding some technical and organoleptic/psychological specifications without impact on consumer quality and meeting all food safety requirements (3) Acceptable: Not meeting or exceeding some technical and organoleptic/psychological specifications resulting in reduction of consumer quality but not enough to lessen demand and meeting all food safety requirements (4) Unacceptable: Not meeting food safety requirements, independent of meeting technical and organoleptic specifications or meeting all food safety requirements but product quality results in consumer rejection of food offering. Sampling of products and consumer tastings within the distribution network is a second critical element of the quality assurance process and are the data sources for the statistical analyses. Each finding is not independently assessed with the rubric. For example, the chemical data will be used to back up/support any inferences on the sensory profiles of the ingredients. Certain flavor profiles may not be as apparent when mixed with other ingredients, which leads to weighing specifications differentially in the acceptability decision. Quality assurance processes are essential to achieve that balance of quality and profitability by making sure the food is safe and tastes good but identifying and remediating product quality issues before they hit the stores. Comprehensive quality assurance procedures implement human factors methodologies, and this report provides recommendations for systemic application of quality assurance processes for quick service restaurant services. This case study will review the complex decision rubric and evaluate processes to ensure the right balance of cost, quality, and safety is achieved.

Keywords: decision making, food safety, organoleptics, product compliance, quality assurance

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1577 Ambient Vibration Test and Numerical Modelling of Wind Turbine Towers including Soil Structure Interaction

Authors: Heba Kamal, Ghada Saudi


Due to The rapid expansion of energy and growing number of wind turbines construction in earthquake areas, a design method for simple and accurate evaluation of seismic load to ensure structural integrity is required. In Egypt, there are some appropriate places to build wind turbine towers lie in active seismically regions, so accurate analysis is necessary for prediction of seismic loads with consideration of intensity of the earthquake, soil and structural characteristics. In this research, seismic behavior of wind turbine towers Gamesa Type G52 in Zafarana Wind Farm Egypt is investigated using experimental work by ambient vibration test, and fully dynamic analysis based on time history from El Aqaba Earthquake 1995 using 3D by PLAXIS 3D software, including the soil structure interaction effect. The results obtained from dynamic analyses are discussed. From this study, it is concluded that, the fully dynamic seismic analysis based on used PLAXIS 3D with the aid of the full scale ambient vibration test gives almost good simulation for the seismic loads that can be applied to wind turbine tower design in Egypt.

Keywords: Wind turbine towers, Zafarana Wind Farm, Gamesa Type G52, ambient vibration test

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