Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1526

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

1526 Maturity Model for Agro-Industrial Logistics

Authors: Wilson Adarme Jaimes, Erika Tatiana Ruiz

Abstract:

This abstract presents the methodology for improving the logistics processes of agricultural production units belonging to the coffee, cocoa, and fruit sectors, starting from the fundamental concepts and detailing each of the phases to carry out the diagnosis, which will be the basis for the formulation of its action plan and implementation of the maturity model. As a result of this work, the maturity model is formulated to improve logistics processes. This model seeks to: generate a progressive model that is useful for all productive units belonging to these sectors at the national level, regardless of their initial conditions, focus on the improvement of logistics processes as a strategy that contributes to improving the competitiveness of the agricultural sector in Colombia and spread the implementation of good logistics practices in postharvest in all departments of the country through autonomous tools. This model has been built through a series of steps that allow the evaluation and improvement of the logistics dimensions or indicators. The potential improvements for each dimension provide the foundation on which to advance to the next level. Within the maturity model, a methodology is indicated for the design and execution of strategies to improve its logistics processes, taking into account the current state of each production unit.

Keywords: Characterization, Logistics, Processes, maturity model, agroindustrial

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1525 Analysis of Correlation Between Manufacturing Parameters and Mechanical Strength Followed by Uncertainty Propagation of Geometric Defects in Lattice Structures

Authors: Chetra Mang, Ahmadali Tahmasebimoradi, Xavier Lorang

Abstract:

Lattice structures are widely used in various applications, especially in aeronautic, aerospace, and medical applications because of their high performance properties. Thanks to advancement of the additive manufacturing technology, the lattice structures can be manufactured by different methods such as laser beam melting technology. However, the presence of geometric defects in the lattice structures is inevitable due to the manufacturing process. The geometric defects may have high impact on the mechanical strength of the structures. This work analyzes the correlation between the manufacturing parameters and the mechanical strengths of the lattice structures. To do that, two types of the lattice structures; body-centered cubic with z-struts (BCCZ) structures made of Inconel718, and body-centered cubic (BCC) structures made of Scalmalloy, are manufactured by laser melting beam machine using Taguchi design of experiment. Each structure is placed on the substrate with a specific position and orientation regarding the roller direction of deposed metal powder. The position and orientation are considered as the manufacturing parameters. The geometric defects of each beam in the lattice are characterized and used to build the geometric model in order to perform simulations. Then, the mechanical strengths are defined by the homogeneous response as Young's modulus and yield strength. The distribution of mechanical strengths is observed as a function of manufacturing parameters. The mechanical response of the BCCZ structure is stretch-dominated, i.e., the mechanical strengths are directly dependent on the strengths of the vertical beams. As the geometric defects of vertical beams are slightly changed based on their position/orientation on the manufacturing substrate, the mechanical strengths are less dispersed. The manufacturing parameters are less influenced on the mechanical strengths of the structure BCCZ. The mechanical response of the BCC structure is bending-dominated. The geometric defects of inclined beam are highly dispersed within a structure and also based on their position/orientation on the manufacturing substrate. For different position/orientation on the substrate, the mechanical responses are highly dispersed as well. This shows that the mechanical strengths are directly impacted by manufacturing parameters. In addition, this work is carried out to study the uncertainty propagation of the geometric defects on the mechanical strength of the BCC lattice structure made of Scalmalloy. To do that, we observe the distribution of mechanical strengths of the lattice according to the distribution of the geometric defects. A probability density law is determined based on a statistical hypothesis corresponding to the geometric defects of the inclined beams. The samples of inclined beams are then randomly drawn from the density law to build the lattice structure samples. The lattice samples are then used for simulation to characterize the mechanical strengths. The results reveal that the distribution of mechanical strengths of the structures with the same manufacturing parameters is less dispersed than one of the structures with different manufacturing parameters. Nevertheless, the dispersion of mechanical strengths due to the structures with the same manufacturing parameters are unneglectable.

Keywords: Uncertainty Propagation, Mechanical Strength, lattice structure, geometric defects

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1524 Key Performance Indicators of Cold Supply Chain Practices in the Agriculture Sector: An Empirical Study on Egyptian Export Companies

Authors: Nourhan A. Saad, Ahmed Barakat, Mahmoud Hammad

Abstract:

Tracking and monitoring agricultural products, cold chain activities, and transportation in real-time can effectively ensure both the quality and safety of agricultural products, as well as reduce overall logistics costs. Effective supply chain practices are one of the main requirements for enhancing agricultural business in Egypt. Cold chain is among the best practices for the storage and transportation of perishable goods and has potential within the agricultural sector in Egypt. This practice has the scope of reducing the wastage of food and increasing the profitability with a reduction in costs. Even though it has several implementation challenges for the farmers, traders, and people involved in the entire supply chain, it has highlighted better benefits for all and for the export of goods for the economic progression for Egypt. The aim of this paper is to explore cold supply chain practices for the agriculture sector in Egypt, to enhance the export performance of fresh goods. In this context, this study attempts to explore those aspects of the performance of cold supply chain practices that can enhance the functioning of the agriculture sector in Egypt from the perspective of export companies (traders) and farmers. Based on the empirical results obtained by data collection from the farmers and traders, the study argues that there is a significant association between cold supply chain practices and enhancement of the agriculture value chain. The paper thus highlights the contribution of the study with final conclusions and limitations with scope for future research.

Keywords: Supply Chain Management, agriculture sector, cold chain management, export companies, non-traded goods

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1523 Managing Inter-Organizational Innovation Project: Systematic Review of Literature

Authors: Lamin B Ceesay, Cecilia Rossignoli

Abstract:

Inter-organizational collaboration is a growing phenomenon in both research and practice. The partnership between organizations enables firms to leverage external resources, experiences, and technology that lie with other firms. This collaborative practice is a source of improved business model performance, technological advancement, and increased competitive advantage for firms. However, the competitive intents, and even diverse institutional logics of firms, make inter-firm innovation-based partnership even more complex, and its governance more challenging. The purpose of this paper is to present a systematic review of research linking the inter-organizational relationship of firms with their innovation practice and specify the different project management issues and gaps addressed in previous research. To do this, we employed a systematic review of the literature on inter-organizational innovation using two complementary scholarly databases - ScienceDirect and Web of Science (WoS). Article scoping relies on the combination of keywords based on similar terms used in the literature:(1) inter-organizational relationship, (2) business network, (3) inter-firm project, and (4) innovation network. These searches were conducted in the title, abstract, and keywords of conceptual and empirical research papers done in English. Our search covers between 2010 to 2019. We applied several exclusion criteria including Papers published outside the years under the review, papers in a language other than English, papers neither listed in WoS nor ScienceDirect and papers that are not sharply related to the inter-organizational innovation-based partnership were removed. After all relevant search criteria were applied, a final list of 84 papers constitutes the data for this review. Our review revealed an increasing evolution of inter-organizational relationship research during the period under the review. The descriptive analysis of papers according to Journal outlets finds that International Journal of Project Management (IJPM), Journal of Industrial Marketing, Journal of Business Research (JBR), etc. are the leading journal outlets for research in the inter-organizational innovation project. The review also finds that Qualitative methods and quantitative approaches respectively are the leading research methods adopted by scholars in the field. However, literature review and conceptual papers constitute the least in the field. During the content analysis of the selected papers, we read the content of each paper and found that the selected papers try to address one of the three phenomena in inter-organizational innovation research: (1) project antecedents; (2) project management and (3) project performance outcomes. We found that these categories are not mutually exclusive, but rather interdependent. This categorization also helped us to organize the fragmented literature in the field. While a significant percentage of the literature discussed project management issues, we found fewer extant literature on project antecedents and performance. As a result of this, we organized the future research agenda addressed in several papers by linking them with the under-researched themes in the field, thus providing great potential to advance future research agenda especially, in the under-researched themes in the field. Finally, our paper reveals that research on inter-organizational innovation project is generally fragmented which hinders a better understanding of the field. Thus, this paper contributes to the understanding of the field by organizing and discussing the extant literature to advance the theory and application of inter-organizational relationship.

Keywords: Project Management, systematic review, inter-organizational relationship, inter-firm collaboration, innovation projects

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1522 Safety System Design and Overfill Protection for Loading Asphalt onto Trucks

Authors: Wendy Ampadu, Ray Diezmos, Hassan Malik, Jeremy Hyslob

Abstract:

There are several technologies out there for use as high-level switches as part of a system for shutting down flow to a vessel. Given that the asphalt truck loading poses issues such as poor visibility, coating, condensation, and fumes, a solution that is robust enough to last in these conditions is often needed in industries. Furthermore, the design of the loading arm, rack, and process equipment should allow for the safety of workers. The objective of this report includes the redesign of structures for use at loading facilities and selecting an overflow technology protection from hot bitumen. The report is based on loading facilities at a Canadian bitumen production company. The engineering design approach was used to create multiple redesign concepts for the loading dock system. Research on overfill systems was also completed by surveying the existing market for technologies and securing quotes from over 20 Canadian and United States instrumentation companies. A final loading dock redesign and level transmitter for overfill protection solution were chosen.

Keywords: Reliability Engineering, Asphalt, Bitumen, Process Safety Management, safety system, loading docks, tanker trucks

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1521 Resource Allocation and Task Scheduling with Skill Level and Time Bound Constraints

Authors: Salam Saudagar, Ankit Kamboj, Niraj Mohan, Satgounda Patil, Nilesh Powar

Abstract:

Task Assignment and Scheduling is a challenging Operations Research problem when there is a limited number of resources and comparatively higher number of tasks. The Cost Management team at Cummins needs to assign tasks based on a deadline and must prioritize some of the tasks as per business requirements. Moreover, there is a constraint on the resources that assignment of tasks should be done based on an individual skill level, that may vary for different tasks. Another constraint is for scheduling the tasks that should be evenly distributed in terms of number of working hours, which adds further complexity to this problem. The proposed greedy approach to solve assignment and scheduling problem first assigns the task based on management priority and then by the closest deadline. This is followed by an iterative selection of an available resource with the least allocated total working hours for a task, i.e. finding the local optimal choice for each task with the goal of determining the global optimum. The greedy approach task allocation is compared with a variant of Hungarian Algorithm, and it is observed that the proposed approach gives an equal allocation of working hours among the resources. The comparative study of the proposed approach is also done with manual task allocation and it is noted that the visibility of the task timeline has increased from 2 months to 6 months. An interactive dashboard app is created for the greedy assignment and scheduling approach and the tasks with more than 2 months horizon that were waiting in a queue without a delivery date initially are now analyzed effectively by the business with expected timelines for completion.

Keywords: Operations Research, Scheduling, assignment, deadline, Hungarian algorithm, greedy approach

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1520 Using Data-Driven Model on Online Customer Journey

Authors: Ing-Jen Hung, Tzu-Chien Wang

Abstract:

Nowadays, customers can interact with firms through miscellaneous online ads on different channels easily. In other words, customer now has innumerable options and limitless time to accomplish their commercial activities with firms, individualizing their own online customer journey. This kind of convenience emphasizes the importance of online advertisement allocation on different channels. Therefore, profound understanding of customer behavior can make considerable benefit from optimizing fund allocation on diverse ad channels. To achieve this objective, multiple firms utilize numerical methodology to create data-driven advertisement policy. In our research, we aim to exploit online customer click data to discover the correlations between each channel and their sequential relations. We use LSTM to deal with sequential property of our data and compare its accuracy with other non-sequential methods, such as CART decision tree, logistic regression, etc. Besides, we also classify our customers into several groups by their behavioral characteristics to perceive the differences between all groups as customer portrait. As a result, we discover distinct customer journey under each customer portrait. Our article provides some insights into marketing research and can help firm to formulate online advertising criteria.

Keywords: Marketing, LSTM, customer journey, channel ads

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1519 Fused Deposition Modeling Printing of Bioinspired Triply Periodic Minimal Surfaces Based Polyvinylidene Fluoride Materials for Scaffold Development in Biomedical Application

Authors: Farusil Najeeb Mullaveettil, Rolanas Dauksevicius

Abstract:

Cellular structures produced by additive manufacturing have earned wide research attention due to their unique specific strength and energy absorption potentiality. The literature review concludes that pattern type and density are vital parameters that affect the mechanical properties of parts formed by additive manufacturing techniques and have an influence on printing time and material consumption. Fused deposition modeling technique (FDM) is used here to produce Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) parts. In this work, patterns are based on triply periodic minimal surfaces (TPMS) produced by PVDF-based filaments using the FDM technique. PVDF homopolymer filament Fluorinar-H™ and PVDF copolymer filament Fluorinar-C™ are printed with three types of TPMS patterns. The patterns printed are Gyroid, Schwartz diamond, and Schwartz primitive. Tensile, flexural, and compression tests under quasi-static loading conditions are performed in compliance with ISO standards. The investigation elucidates the deformation mechanisms and a study that establishes a relationship between the printed and nominal specimens' dimensional accuracy. In comparison to the examined TPMS pattern, Schwartz diamond showed a higher relative elastic modulus and strength than the other patterns in tensile loading, and the Gyroid pattern showed the highest mechanical characteristics in flexural loading. The concluded results could be utilized to produce informed cellular designs for biomedical and mechanical applications.

Keywords: Additive manufacturing, tensile, PVDF, flexural, FDM, gyroid, schwartz primitive, schwartz diamond, TPMS

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1518 A Goms Model for Blind Users Website Navigation

Authors: Suraina Sulong

Abstract:

Keyboard support is one of the main accessibility requirements for web pages and web applications for blind user. But it is not sufficient that the blind user can perform all actions on the page using the keyboard. In addition, designers of web sites or web applications have to make sure that keyboard users can use their pages with acceptable performance. We present GOMS models for navigation in web pages with specific task given to the blind user to accomplish. These models can be used to construct the user model for accessible website.

Keywords: Human Computer Interaction, GOMS analysis, usability factor, blind user

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1517 The Effect on Lead Times When Normalizing a Supply Chain Process

Authors: Bassam Istanbouli

Abstract:

Organizations are living in a very competitive and dynamic environment which is constantly changing. In order to achieve a high level of service, the products and processes of these organizations need to be flexible and evolvable. If the supply chains are not modular and well designed, changes can bring combinatorial effects to most areas of a company from its management, financial, documentation, logistics and its information structure. Applying the normalized system’s concept to segments of the supply chain may help in reducing those ripple effects, but it may also increase lead times. Lead times are important and can become a decisive element in gaining customers. Industries are always under the pressure in providing good quality products, at competitive prices, when and how the customer wants them. Most of the time, the customers want their orders now, if not yesterday. The above concept will be proven by examining lead times in a manufacturing example before and after applying normalized systems concept to that segment of the chain. We will then show that although we can minimize the combinatorial effects when changes occur, the lead times will be increased.

Keywords: Supply Chain, lead time, normalization, modular

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1516 Assessing Indicators, Challenges and Benefits of Sustainable Procurement in Construction Projects

Authors: Sareh Rajabi, Taha Anjamrooz, Salwa Bheiry

Abstract:

Procurement is a key process in construction project management. The present construction procurement practices have been extensively analyzed for disregarding sustainability in the project life cycle. Currently, there is a gap of information on status-quo of sustainable procurement in construction field. Thus, the aim of this study is to review sustainable procurement practices in the construction field. Disregard of three sustainability pillars is one of the major drawbacks of present construction procurement practices. Sustainable procurement is a developing idea that can enhance procurement practices and improve the sustainability performance of the construction projects. At present, sustainable procurement is still not entirely used in the construction projects. A comprehensive literature review indicated that the construction industry is still not entirely informed about the benefits and challenges of using sustainable procurement, and about important indicators that play major impacts on those benefits and challenges. This study assesses the major indicator, benefits and challenges encountered in applying sustainable procurement in the construction industry. In addition, this study investigates understanding of construction professionals on the benefits and challenges of utilizing sustainable procurement for construction projects through selected indicators that are categorized according to society and community needs.

Keywords: Sustainable Development, Sustainability, construction industry, Procurement, Sustainable procurement

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1515 Healthcare Social Entrepreneurship: A Positive Theory Applied to the Case of YOU Foundation in Nepal

Authors: Simone Rondelli, Damiano Rondelli, Bishesh Poudyal, Juan Jose Cabrera-Lazarini

Abstract:

One of the main obstacles for Social Entrepreneurship is to find a business model that is financially sustainable. In other words, the captured value generates enough cash flow to ensure business continuity and reinvestment for growth. Providing Health Services in poor countries for the uninsured population affected by a high-cost chronical disease is not the exception for this challenge. As a prime example, cancer has become a high impact on a global disease not only because of the high morbidity but also of the financial impact on both the patient family and health services in underdeveloped countries. Therefore, it is relevant to find a Social Entrepreneurship Model that provides affordable treatment for this disease while maintaining healthy finances not only for the patient but also for the organization providing the treatment. Using the methodology of Constructive Research, this paper applied a Positive Theory and four business models of Social Entrepreneurship to a case of a Private Foundation model whose mission is to address the challenge previously described. It was found that the Foundation analyzed, in this case, is organized as an Embedded Business Model and complies with the four propositions of the Positive Theory considered. It is recommended for this Private Foundation to explore implementing the Integrated Business Model to ensure more robust sustainability in the long term. It evolves as a scalable model that can attract investors interested in contributing to expanding this initiative globally.

Keywords: global healthcare, affordable treatment, social entrepreneurship theory, sustainable business model

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1514 Constant Factor Approximation Algorithm for p-Median Network Design Problem with Multiple Cable Types

Authors: Chaghoub Soraya, Zhang Xiaoyan

Abstract:

This research presents the first constant approximation algorithm to the p-median network design problem with multiple cable types. This problem was addressed with a single cable type and there is a bifactor approximation algorithm for the problem. To the best of our knowledge, the algorithm proposed in this paper is the first constant approximation algorithm for the p-median network design with multiple cable types. The addressed problem is a combination of two well studied problems which are p-median problem and network design problem. The introduced algorithm is a random sampling approximation algorithm of constant factor which is conceived by using some random sampling techniques form the literature. It is based on a redistribution Lemma from the literature and a steiner tree problem as a subproblem. This algorithm is simple, and it relies on the notions of random sampling and probability. The proposed approach gives an approximation solution with one constant ratio without violating any of the constraints, in contrast to the one proposed in the literature. This paper provides a (21 + 2)-approximation algorithm for the p-median network design problem with multiple cable types using random sampling techniques.

Keywords: combinatorial optimization, Network Design, approximation algorithms, buy-at-bulk, p-median

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1513 Optimization of Plastic Injection Molding Parameters by Altering Gate and Runner of Feeding System

Authors: Ali Ramezani

Abstract:

Balancing feeding system of plastic injection molding has overriding importance as it minimizes the process’s product defects such as weld line, shrinkage, sink marks and warpage. This article presents the difference between optimization of feeding system in identical multi-cavity molding and family molding using Moldflow Plastic Insight software. In this work, the effect of dimension, shape, position and type of gates and runners on the products quality was studied. The optimization was carried out by analyzing plastic injection molding process parameters, including melt temperature, mold temperature, cooling time, cooling temperature packing time and packing pressure. It was found that symmetrical feeding system is the most efficient shape for diminishing defects in identical multi-cavity molding. However, the same results were not concluded for family molding due to the differences between volume, mass, thickness and shape of cavities.

Keywords: Plastic injection, balancing feeding system, family molding, multi-cavity, Moldflow

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1512 Development of a Management Framework for the Front-End of Process Innovation Based on a Comprehensive Literature Review and Multiple Case Study

Authors: Hubert Wittke, Ann Ledwith, Mark Southern

Abstract:

Process innovation is critically important if manufacturing enterprises are to be successful in product innovation. The early stage of innovation, the front-end, is the foundation of successful innovation. Research also suggests, if a company is to be successful, a structured framework at the front-end of process innovation should be implemented. The goal of this research is to develop a front-end framework for process innovation in manufacturing enterprises. Process innovation remains under-researched, especially when compared to product innovation. It is frequently regarded as less challenging and less important than product innovation. In innovation literature, 35% of journal papers are focused on product innovation, whereas only 3% concentrates on process innovation. This paper presents a Systematic Literature Review of the frameworks and success factors that have been identified in the literature for the front-end of process innovation. Nine frameworks for process innovation and 45 papers presenting success factors are reviewed. A constant comparison technique was adopted for the synthesis of frameworks and factors. A generic framework for the front-end of process innovation remains elusive. Such a framework does not exist in practice, i.e., a functional stage-gate framework for process innovation. Limitations of the 9 frameworks reviewed include: 1) they are incomplete in terms of their structure, 2) they are based on linear-learning modes despite the fact that the front-end is an iterative trial-end-error process, 3) they involve few details of how to integrate the front-end of process innovation with product innovation and 4) they do not offer detailed solutions to incorporate planning and management of experimental work. This research contributes to the current state of knowledge by presenting a comprehensive review of existing management frameworks and associated success factors for process innovation. It also presents a more complete management framework and set of ranked success factors for the front-end of process innovation in manufacturing enterprises, which were built based on the analysis of 3 case studies. The proposed framework provides managers with a practical tool for managing the iterative early stage of process innovation. It also integrates activities involving process and product innovations. The new framework provides support for companies in planning and managing activities related to process innovation. This research identifies that for successful innovation projects, process innovation must be integrated with the early stage of the front-end of product innovation. In the front-end of process innovation, in turn, it is recommended to conduct systematic and structured analyses of emerging opportunities for product innovation.

Keywords: Product Innovation, Process innovation, Success Factor, the front-end

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1511 Restructuring Cameroon's Educational System: The Value of Inclusive Education for Children with Visual Impairment

Authors: Igor Michel Gachig, Samanta Tiague

Abstract:

The practice of inclusive education within general education classrooms is becoming more prevalent in Cameroon. In this context, quality Education is an important driver of the development agenda in this era of global sustainable development. This requires that the Cameroon’s educational system be strategically restructured to provide every citizen with the needed quality education for sustainable development. This study thus examined the need for the restructuring of the Cameroon educational system towards inclusive education as a target of the Sustainable Development Goal #4 (Ensure Quality Education), from a critical disability theory perspective. Special focus was on the education of children with visual impairment in the early childhood classroom. This study is suggesting a model design of responsive and contextual inclusive education policies, and the provision of quality human, material and financial educational resources to support the improvement of curriculums and inclusive instructional strategies. This paper is therefore designed as a basic starting point for early childhood educators with limited to no experience in working with students having visual impairments. Ultimately, this work represents a contribution to early childhood educators toward understanding visual impairment challenges and innovative practices to approach accessibility in a meaningful way to students in Cameroon. This is important to achieve quality education due to the peculiar nature of the educational needs of children with visual impairment, toward attainment of the global sustainable development agenda.

Keywords: Sustainable Development, Inclusive Education, Early Childhood Educators, Visual Impairment

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1510 Social Inclusion Challenges in Indigenous Communities: Case of the Baka Pygmies Community of Cameroon

Authors: Igor Michel Gachig, Samanta Tiague

Abstract:

Baka ‘Pygmies’ is an indigenous community living in the rainforest region of Cameroon. This community is known to be poor and marginalized from the political, economic and social life, regardless of sedentarization and development efforts. In fact, the social exclusion of ‘Pygmy’ people prevents them from gaining basic citizen’s rights, among which access to education, land, healthcare, employment and justice. In this study, social interactions, behaviors, and perceptions were considered. An interview guide and focus group discussions were used to collect data. A sample size of 97 was used, with 60 Baka Pygmies and 37 Bantus from two Baka-Bantu settlements/villages of the south region of Cameroon. The data were classified in terms of homogenous, exhaustive and exclusive categories. This classification has enabled factors explaining social exclusion in the Baka community to be highlighted using content analysis. The study shows that (i) limited access to education, natural resources and care in modern healthcare organizations, and (ii) different views on the development expectations and integration approaches both highlight the social exclusion in the Baka ‘Pygmies’ community. Therefore, an effective and adequate social integration of ‘Pygmies’ based on cultural peculiarities and identity, as well as reduction of disparities and improvement of their access to education should be of major concern to the government and policy makers.

Keywords: Development, Integration, Social Exclusion, indigenous people

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1509 From Design, Experience and Play Framework to Common Design Thinking Tools: Using Serious Modern Board Games

Authors: Micael Sousa

Abstract:

Board games (BGs) are thriving as new designs emerge from the hobby community to greater audiences all around the world. Although digital games are gathering most of the attention in game studies and serious games research fields, the post-digital movement helps to explain why in the world dominated by digital technologies, the analog experiences are still unique and irreplaceable to users, allowing innovation in new hybrid environments. The BG’s new designs are part of these post-digital and hybrid movements because they result from the use of powerful digital tools that enable the production and knowledge sharing about the BGs and their face-to-face unique social experiences. These new BGs, defined as modern by many authors, are providing innovative designs and unique game mechanics that are still not yet fully explored by the main serious games (SG) approaches. Even the most established frameworks settled to address SG, as fun games implemented to achieve predefined goals need more development, especially when considering modern BGs. Despite the many anecdotic perceptions, researchers are only now starting to rediscover BGs and demonstrating their potentials. They are proving that BGs are easy to adapt and to grasp by non-expert players in experimental approaches, with the possibility of easy-going adaptation to players’ profiles and serious objectives even during gameplay. Although there are many design thinking (DT) models and practices, their relations with SG frameworks are also underdeveloped, mostly because this is a new research field, lacking theoretical development and the systematization of the experimental practices. Using BG as case studies promise to help develop these frameworks. Departing from the Design, Experience, and Play (DPE) framework and considering the Common Design Think Tools (CDST), this paper proposes a new experimental framework for the adaptation and development of modern BG design for DT: the Design, Experience, and Play for Think (DPET) experimental framework. This is done through the systematization of the DPE and CDST approaches applied in two case studies, where two different sequences of adapted BG were employed to establish a DT collaborative process. These two sessions occurred with different participants and in different contexts, also using different sequences of games for the same DT approach. The first session took place at the Faculty of Economics at the University of Coimbra in a training session of serious games for project development. The second session took place in the Casa do Impacto through The Great Village Design Jam light. Both sessions had the same duration and were designed to progressively achieve DT goals, using BGs as SGs in a collaborative process. The results from the sessions show that a sequence of BGs, when properly adapted to address the DPET framework, can generate a viable and innovative process of collaborative DT that is productive, fun, and engaging. The DPET proposed framework intents to help establish how new SG solutions could be defined for new goals through flexible DT. Applications in other areas of research and development can also benefit from these findings.

Keywords: Methodology, Serious Games, Design Thinking, Board Games

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1508 The Potential of Tempo-Oxidized Cellulose Nanofibers to Replace EthylenE-propylene-Diene Monomer Rubber

Authors: Sibel Dikmen Küçük, Yusuf Guner

Abstract:

In recent years, petroleum-based polymers began to be limited due to the effects on the human and environmental point of view in many countries. Thus, organic-based biodegradable materials have attracted much interest in the composite industry because of environmental concerns. As a result of this, it has been asked that inorganic and petroleum-based materials should be reduced and altered with biodegradable materials. In this point, in this study, it is aimed to investigate the potential of the use of TEMPO (2,2,6,6- tetramethylpiperidine 1-oxyl)-mediated oxidation nano-fibrillated cellulose instead of EPDM (ethylene-propylene-diene monomer) rubber, which is a petroleum-based material. Thus, the exchange of petroleum-based EPDM rubber with organic-based cellulose nanofibers, which are environmentally friendly (green) and biodegradable, will be realized. The effect of tempo-oxidized cellulose nanofibers (TCNF) instead of EPDM rubber was analyzed by rheological, mechanical, chemical, thermal, and aging analyses. The aged surfaces were visually scrutinized, and surface morphological changes were examined via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results obtained showed that TEMPO oxidation nano-fibrillated cellulose could be used at an amount of 1.0 and 2.2 phr resulting the values stay within tolerance according to customer standard and without any chemical degradation, crack, color change or staining.

Keywords: Green Materials, Lignin, EPDM, biodegradable fillers

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1507 A Fermatean Fuzzy MAIRCA Approach for Maintenance Strategy Selection of Process Plant Gearbox Using Sustainability Criteria

Authors: Soumava Boral, Sanjay K. Chaturvedi, Ian Howard, Kristoffer McKee, V. N. A. Naikan

Abstract:

Due to strict regulations from government to enhance the possibilities of sustainability practices in industries, and noting the advances in sustainable manufacturing practices, it is necessary that the associated processes are also sustainable. Maintenance of large scale and complex machines is a pivotal task to maintain the uninterrupted flow of manufacturing processes. Appropriate maintenance practices can prolong the lifetime of machines, and prevent associated breakdowns, which subsequently reduces different cost heads. Selection of the best maintenance strategies for such machines are considered as a burdensome task, as they require the consideration of multiple technical criteria, complex mathematical calculations, previous fault data, maintenance records, etc. In the era of the fourth industrial revolution, organizations are rapidly changing their way of business, and they are giving their utmost importance to sensor technologies, artificial intelligence, data analytics, automations, etc. In this work, the effectiveness of several maintenance strategies (e.g., preventive, failure-based, reliability centered, condition based, total productive maintenance, etc.) related to a large scale and complex gearbox, operating in a steel processing plant is evaluated in terms of economic, social, environmental and technical criteria. As it is not possible to obtain/describe some criteria by exact numerical values, these criteria are evaluated linguistically by cross-functional experts. Fuzzy sets are potential soft-computing technique, which has been useful to deal with linguistic data and to provide inferences in many complex situations. To prioritize different maintenance practices based on the identified sustainable criteria, multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) approaches can be considered as potential tools. Multi-Attributive Ideal Real Comparative Analysis (MAIRCA) is a recent addition in the MCDM family and has proven its superiority over some well-known MCDM approaches, like TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution) and ELECTRE (ELimination Et Choix Traduisant la REalité). It has a simple but robust mathematical approach, which is easy to comprehend. On the other side, due to some inherent drawbacks of Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets (IFS) and Pythagorean Fuzzy Sets (PFS), recently, the use of Fermatean Fuzzy Sets (FFSs) has been proposed. In this work, we propose the novel concept of FF-MAIRCA. We obtain the weights of the criteria by experts’ evaluation and use them to prioritize the different maintenance practices according to their suitability by FF-MAIRCA approach. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is carried out to highlight the robustness of the approach.

Keywords: Sustainable Manufacturing, MCDM, Fermatean fuzzy sets, Fermatean fuzzy MAIRCA, maintenance strategy selection

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1506 Mechanical Analysis and Characterization of Friction Stir Processed Aluminium Alloy

Authors: Jaswinder Kumar, Kulbir Singh Sandhu

Abstract:

Friction stir processing (FSP) is a solid-state surface processing technique. A single-pass FSP was performed on Aluminum alloy at combinations of different tool rotational speeds with cylindrical threaded pin profiled tool. The effect of these parameters on tribological properties was studied. The wear resistance is found to be increased from base metal to a single pass FSP sample. The results revealed that with an increase in tool rotational speed, the wear rate increases. The high heat generation causes matrix softening, which results in an increased wear rate; on the other hand, high heat generation leads to coarse grains, which also affected tribological properties. Furthermore, Microstructure results showed that FSPed alloy has a more refined grain structure as compare to the base material, which may be resulted in enhancement of hardness and resistance to wear in FSP.

Keywords: Microstructure, Microhardness, aluminium alloy, friction stir processing

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1505 Freight Time and Cost Optimization in Complex Logistics Networks, Using a Dimensional Reduction Method and K-Means Algorithm

Authors: Egemen Sert, Aabir Abubaker Kar, Olha Buchel, Leila Hedayatifar, Rachel A. Rigg, Amir Akhavan, Dominic Elias Saadi, Alfredo J. Morales, Yaneer Bar-Yam

Abstract:

The complexity of providing timely and cost-effective distribution of finished goods from industrial facilities to customers makes effective operational coordination difficult, yet effectiveness is crucial for maintaining customer service levels and sustaining a business. Logistics planning becomes increasingly complex with growing numbers of customers, varied geographical locations, the uncertainty of future orders, and sometimes extreme competitive pressure to reduce inventory costs. Linear optimization methods become cumbersome or intractable due to a large number of variables and nonlinear dependencies involved. Here we develop a complex systems approach to optimizing logistics networks based upon dimensional reduction methods and apply our approach to a case study of a manufacturing company. In order to characterize the complexity in customer behavior, we define a “customer space” in which individual customer behavior is described by only the two most relevant dimensions: the distance to production facilities over current transportation routes and the customer's demand frequency. These dimensions provide essential insight into the domain of effective strategies for customers; direct and indirect strategies. In the direct strategy, goods are sent to the customer directly from a production facility using box or bulk trucks. In the indirect strategy, in advance of an order by the customer, goods are shipped to an external warehouse near a customer using trains and then "last-mile" shipped by trucks when orders are placed. Each strategy applies to an area of the customer space with an indeterminate boundary between them. Specific company policies determine the location of the boundary generally. We then identify the optimal delivery strategy for each customer by constructing a detailed model of costs of transportation and temporary storage in a set of specified external warehouses. Customer spaces help give an aggregate view of customer behaviors and characteristics. They allow policymakers to compare customers and develop strategies based on the aggregate behavior of the system as a whole. In addition to optimization over existing facilities, using customer logistics and the k-means algorithm, we propose additional warehouse locations. We apply these methods to a medium-sized American manufacturing company with a particular logistics network, consisting of multiple production facilities, external warehouses, and customers along with three types of shipment methods (box truck, bulk truck and train). For the case study, our method forecasts 10.5% savings on yearly transportation costs and an additional 4.6% savings with three new warehouses.

Keywords: K-means algorithm, dimensional reduction, Logistics Network Optimization, Direct and Indirect Strategies

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1504 The Effect of Improvement Programs in the Mean Time to Repair and in the Mean Time between Failures on Overall Lead Time: A Simulation Using the System Dynamics-Factory Physics Model

Authors: Marcel Heimar Ribeiro Utiyama, Fernanda Caveiro Correia, Dario Henrique Alliprandini

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The importance of the correct allocation of improvement programs is of growing interest in recent years. Due to their limited resources, companies must ensure that their financial resources are directed to the correct workstations in order to be the most effective and survive facing the strong competition. However, to our best knowledge, the literature about allocation of improvement programs does not analyze in depth this problem when the flow shop process has two capacity constrained resources. This is a research gap which is deeply studied in this work. The purpose of this work is to identify the best strategy to allocate improvement programs in a flow shop with two capacity constrained resources. Data were collected from a flow shop process with seven workstations in an industrial control and automation company, which process 13.690 units on average per month. The data were used to conduct a simulation with the System Dynamics-Factory Physics model. The main variables considered, due to their importance on lead time reduction, were the mean time between failures and the mean time to repair. The lead time reduction was the output measure of the simulations. Ten different strategies were created: (i) focused time to repair improvement, (ii) focused time between failures improvement, (iii) distributed time to repair improvement, (iv) distributed time between failures improvement, (v) focused time to repair and time between failures improvement, (vi) distributed time to repair and between failures improvement, (vii) hybrid time to repair improvement, (viii) hybrid time between failures improvements, (ix) time to repair improvement strategy towards the two capacity constrained resources, (x) time between failures improvement strategy towards the two capacity constrained resources. The ten strategies tested are variations of the three main strategies for improvement programs named focused, distributed and hybrid. Several comparisons among the effect of the ten strategies in lead time reduction were performed. The results indicated that for the flow shop analyzed, the focused strategies delivered the best results. When it is not possible to perform a large investment on the capacity constrained resources, companies should use hybrid approaches. An important contribution to the academy is the hybrid approach, which proposes a new way to direct the efforts of improvements. In addition, the study in a flow shop with two strong capacity constrained resources (more than 95% of utilization) is an important contribution to the literature. Another important contribution is the problem of allocation with two CCRs and the possibility of having floating capacity constrained resources. The results provided the best improvement strategies considering the different strategies of allocation of improvement programs and different positions of the capacity constrained resources. Finally, it is possible to state that both strategies, hybrid time to repair improvement and hybrid time between failures improvement, delivered best results compared to the respective distributed strategies. The main limitations of this study are mainly regarding the flow shop analyzed. Future work can further investigate different flow shop configurations like a varying number of workstations, different number of products or even different positions of the two capacity constrained resources.

Keywords: lead time, allocation of improvement programs, capacity constrained resource, hybrid strategy, mean time to repair, mean time between failures

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1503 Development of a Triangular Evaluation Protocol in a Multidisciplinary Design Process of an Ergometric Step

Authors: A. Borghi-Silva, D. Braatz, M. B. Ricardo De Oliveira, E. Paravizo, F. Lizarelli, L. Di Thomazzo

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Prototypes are a critical feature in the product development process, as they help the project team visualize early concept flaws, communicate ideas and introduce an initial product testing. Involving stakeholders, such as consumers and users, in prototype tests allows the gathering of valuable feedback, contributing for a better product and making the design process more participatory. Even though recent studies have shown that user evaluation of prototypes is valuable, few articles provide a method or protocol on how designers should conduct it. This multidisciplinary study (involving the areas of physiotherapy, engineering and computer science) aims to develop an evaluation protocol, using an ergometric step prototype as the product prototype to be assessed. The protocol consisted of performing two tests (the 2 Minute Step Test and the Portability Test) to allow users (patients) and consumers (physiotherapists) to have an experience with the prototype. Furthermore, the protocol contained four Likert-Scale questionnaires (one for users and three for consumers), that inquired participants about how they perceived the design characteristics of the product (performance, safety, materials, maintenance, portability, usability and ergonomics), in their use of the prototype. Additionally, the protocol indicated the need to conduct interviews with the product designers, in order to link their feedback to the ones from the consumers and users. Both tests and interviews were recorded for further analysis. The participation criteria for the study was gender and age for patients, gender and experience with 2 Minute Step Test for physiotherapists and involvement level in the product development project for designers. The questionnaire's reliability was validated using Cronbach's Alpha and the quantitative data of the questionnaires were analyzed using non-parametric hypothesis tests with a significance level of 0.05 (p <0.05) and descriptive statistics. As a result, this study provides a concise evaluation protocol which can assist designers in their development process, collecting quantitative feedback from consumer and users, and qualitative feedback from designers.

Keywords: Product Design, Prototypes, STEP, product evaluation

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1502 Analysis and Comparison of Prototypes of an Ergometric Step in a Multidisciplinary Design Process

Authors: A. Borghi-Silva, M. B. Ricardo De Oliveira, L. Di Thommazo, D. Braatz

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Prototypes can be understood as representations of a product concept. Furthermore, prototyping consists in an important stage in product development and results in better team communication, decision making, testing and problem solving through feedback. Although there are several methods of prototyping suggested by recent studies for designers to choose from, some methods present different advantages, such as cost and time reduction, performance and fidelity, which should be taken in account during a product development project. In this multidisciplinary study, involving areas of physiotherapy, engineering and computer science (hardware and software), we compared four developed prototypes of an ergometric step: a virtual prototype, a 3D printed prototype, a bricolage prototype and a prototype manufactured by a third-party company. These prototypes were evaluated in a comparative-qualitative approach for their contribution to the concept’s maturation of the product, the different prototyping methods used and the advantages and disadvantages of each one based on the product’s design specifications (performance, safety, materials, cost, maintenance, usability, ergonomics and portability). Our results indicated that despite prototypes show overall advantages, all of them have limitations, thus being crucial to have different methods of testing and interacting with the product. Additionally, virtual and 3D printed prototypes were essential at early stages of the project due to their low-cost and high-fidelity representation of the product, while the prototype manufactured by a third-party company and bricolage prototype introduced functional tests in real scenarios, allowing more detailed evaluations. This study also resulted in a patent for an ergometric step.

Keywords: Product Design, Product Development, Prototypes, STEP

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1501 Automated Method Time Measurement System for Redesigning Dynamic Facility Layout

Authors: Alzubaidi Salam, G. Fantoni, F. Failli, M. Frosolini

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The dynamic facility layout problem is a really critical issue in the competitive industrial market, thus solving this problem requires robust design and effective simulation systems. The sustainable simulation requires inputting reliable and accurate data into the system. So this paper describes an automated system integrated in the real environment to measure the duration of the material handling operations, collect the data in real-time, and determine the variances between the real and estimated time schedule of the operations in order to update the simulation software and redesign the facility layout periodically. The automated method- time measurement system collects the real data through using Radio Frequency- Identification (RFID) and Internet of Things (IoT) technologies. Hence, attaching RFID- antenna reader and RFID tags enables the system to identify the location of the objects and gathering the time data. The real duration gathered will be manipulated by calculating the moving average duration of the material handling operations, choosing the shortest material handling path, and then updating the simulation software to redesign the facility layout accommodating with the shortest/real operation schedule. The periodic simulation in real-time is more sustainable and reliable than the simulation system relying on an analysis of historical data. The case study of this methodology is in cooperation with an international company for producing automotive products. Although there are some technical limitations, this methodology is promising, and it can be significantly useful in the redesigning of the manufacturing layout.

Keywords: Internet of Things, Simulation, Radio Frequency Identification, Dynamic facility layout problem, method time measurement

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1500 Microstructural Evolution of Maraging Steels from Powder Particles to Additively Manufactured Samples

Authors: Mohsen Mohammadi, Seyedamirreza Shamsdini

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In this research, 18Ni-300 maraging steel powder particles are investigated by studying particle size distribution along with their morphology and grain structure. The powder analysis shows mostly spherical morphologies with cellular structures. A laser-based additive manufacturing process, selective laser melting (SLM) is used to produce samples for further investigation of mechanical properties and microstructure. Several uniaxial tensile tests are performed on the as-built parts to evaluate the mechanical properties. The macroscopic properties, as well as microscopic studies, are then investigated on the printed parts. Hardness measurements, as well as porosity levels, are measured for each sample and are correlated with microstructures through electron microscopy techniques such as Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The grain structure is studied for the as-printed specimens and compared to the powder particle microstructure. The cellular structure of the printed samples is observed to have dendritic forms with dendrite width dimensions similar to the powder particle cells. The process parameter is changed, and the study is performed for different powder layer thickness, and the resultant mechanical properties and grain structure are shown to be similar. A phase study is conducted both on the powder and the printed samples using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) techniques, and the austenite phase is observed to at first decrease due to the manufacturing process and again during the uniaxial tensile deformation. The martensitic structure is formed in the first stage based on the heating cycles of the manufacturing process and the remaining austenite is shown to be transformed to martensite due to different deformation mechanisms.

Keywords: Microstructure, Additive manufacturing, Mechanical Properties, maraging steel

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1499 Estimating Directional Shadow Prices of Air Pollutant Emissions by Transportation Modes

Authors: Huey-Kuo Chen

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This paper applies directional marginal productivity model to study the shadow price of emissions by transportation modes in the years of 2011 and 2013 with the aim to provide a reference for policy makers to improve the emission of pollutants. One input variable (i.e., energy consumption), one desirable output variable (i.e., vehicle kilometers traveled) and three undesirable output variables (i.e., carbon dioxide, sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides) generated by road transportation modes were used to evaluate directional marginal productivity and directional shadow price for 18 transportation modes. The results show that the directional shadow price (DSP) of SOx is much higher than CO2 and NOx. Nevertheless, the emission of CO2 is the largest among the three kinds of pollutants. To improve the air quality, the government should pay more attention to the emission of CO2 and apply the alternative solution such as promoting public transportation and subsidizing electric vehicles to reduce the use of private vehicles.

Keywords: undesirable outputs, marginal productivity, road transportation modes, shadow price

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1498 Developing a Model – an Application of Fuzzy Analytic Network Process Techniques for Hostels

Authors: Pin-Ju Juan, Peng-Yu Juan, Yi-Shan Chen

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The main purpose of this paper is to present a fuzzy Analytic Network Process (ANP) model for the hostel organizational performance selection. In this article, we created 39 criteria for selecting hostel organizational performance acquired from literature's review and experts method practical investigations, and the methods of fuzzy analytic network process are used to consolidate decision-makers’ assessments about criteria weightings. Finally, we selected organizational performance of a hostel in Taiwan to determine the effectiveness of the proposed evaluation model in this paper.

Keywords: Strategy Management, hostel, organizational performance, Fuzzy ANP

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1497 How Reverse Logistics Can Improve the Sustainability Performance of a Business?

Authors: Jiangang Fei, Peggy Shu-Ling Chen, Taknaz Banihashemi

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Reverse logistics (RL) is a part of the logistics of companies and its aim is to reclaim value from the returned products in an environmentally friendly manner. In recent years, RL has attracted significant attention among both practitioners and academics due to environmental directives and governmental legislation, consumer concerns and social responsibilities for environment, awareness of the limits of natural resources and economic potential. Sustainability development is considered as a critical goal for organisations due to its impact on competitive advantage. With growing environmental concerns and legal regulations related to green and sustainability issues, product disposition through RL can be considered as an environmental, economic and social sound way to achieve sustainable development. When employed properly, RL can help firms to improve their sustainability performance. The aim of this paper is to investigate the sustainability issues in the context of RL in the perspective of the triple-bottom-line approach. Content analysis was used to collect the information. The findings show that there is a research gap to investigate the relationship between RL and sustainability performance. Most of the studies have focused on performance evaluation of RL by considering the factors related to economic and environmental performance. RL can have significant effects on social issues along with economic and environmental issues. The inclusion of the social aspect in the sustainability performance will provide a complete and holistic picture of how RL may impact on the sustainability performance of firms. Generally, there is a lack of research on investigating the relationship between RL and sustainability by integrating the three pillars of triple-bottom-line sustainability performance. This paper provides academics and researchers a broad view of the correlations between RL and sustainability performance.

Keywords: Sustainability, review, sustainability performance, verse Logistics

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