Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5140

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Humanities and Social Sciences]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

5140 Queering the (In)Formal Economy: Spatial Recovery and Anti-vending Local Policies in the Global South

Authors: Lorena Munoz


Since the 1990s cities in the global south have implemented revanchist neoliberal urban regeneration policies that cater to urban elites based on “recovering” public space for capital accumulation purposes. These policies often work to reify street vending as survival strategies of ‘last resort’ for marginalized people and as an unorganized, unsystematic economic activities that needs to be disciplined, incorporated and institutionalized into the formal economy. This paper suggests, that by moving away from frameworks that reify formal/informal spheres of the economy, we are able to disrupt and rethink normative understandings of economic practices categorized as ‘informal’. Through queering economies, informal workers center their own understandings of self-value and legitimacy informing their economic lives and contributions to urban life. As such, queering the economy opens up possibilities of rethinking urban redevelopment policies that incorporate rather than remove street vendors, as their economic practices are incorporated into the everyday fabric and aesthetic of urban life.

Keywords: queering economies, street vendors, immigrant economies, race and nationality

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5139 Expecting and Experiencing Negotiated Internationalisation: Lived Engagement of Chinese Students in an International Joint University

Authors: Bowen Zhang


Transnational higher education (TNHE) is one of the most prominent symbols of higher education’s internationalisation. The case university, Xi'an Jiaotong Liverpool University (XJTLU), represents an equal collaboration between its parent institutions as they are tied in academic strength. Therefore, compared to the more prescribed route of UNNC, which is working towards creating another UK university in China, XJTLU’s future is fraught with uncertainty. Such kind of uncertainty underpins the rationale of selecting XJTLU as a case university in researching internationalisation -it does not aim to build an international university based on a template; instead, internationalisation in XJTLU is established in a more participatory manner that also reflects an understanding of its staff and students. Therefore, this article focuses on Chinese students' expectations and experiences in XJTLU. While there are research discussing international students' experiences in TNHE institutions, the experiences of Chinese students who attend their domestic TNHE have been less explored. This might be due to the potential issues they confront are not as intuitive as those faced by international students, whose experiences are largely shaped by mobility and cross-cultural transition, a well-documented and conceptualised phenomenon. Research regarding Chinese students mainly focuses on their motivations, for example, enhancing English proficiency, improving competitive advantage in labour market, and gaining an international perspective. However, it should be noted that these motivations are based on the internationalised features of TNHE institutions. Internationalisation in XJTLU is symbolised through 100% English-medium instruction, internationalised curriculum, and the national diversity of its students and staff. However, in practice, these promises for internationalisation are hardly met; for example, in terms of EMI, lecturers may engage in their native language, either out of their hope to enhance students’ understanding or forcibly switch back to Chinese due to limited language capacity. Therefore, it could be seen that the non-application of internationalised policy may result in a negotiated internationalising experience for students. It is important to point out that, in this study, both the expected capital that students hope to access prior to their enrollment to XJTLU and the actual capital that students are accumulating during their attendance, are examined, as the difference between the actual and potential could be an important indicator of the discrepancy between how internationalisation is perceived and how it is enacted in practice. The potential resources implicate perceived compatibility between habitus and field, which is highly relevant to the way that a field makes itself known, whereas the actual resources represent the lived experience and the actual compatibility between habitus and field. This study explores the similarities and differences between the expected and lived capital from XJTLU, and the way that students form and navigate their expectations, in turn providing insights on how XJTLU, or HE internationalisation as a whole, is depicted, imagined, and enacted among Chinese students.

Keywords: transnational higher education, English-medium instruction, students' experience, Chinese higher education

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5138 “Towards Creating a Safe Future”: An Assessment of the Causes of Flooding in Nsanje District, Lower Shire Malawi

Authors: Davie Hope Moyo


The environment is a combination of two things: resources and hazards. One of the hazards that is a result of environmental changes is the occurrence of flooding. Floods are one of the disasters that are highly feared by people because they have a huge impact on the human population and their environment. In recent years, flooding disasters in the Nsanje district are increasing in both frequency and magnitude. This study aims to understand the root causes of this phenomenon. To understand the causes of flooding, this study focused on the case of TA Ndamera in the Nsanje district, southern Malawi. People in the Nsanje district face disruption in their day-to-day life because of floods that affect their communities. When floods happen, people lose their property, land, livestock, and even lives. The study was carried out in order to have a better understanding of the root causes of floods. The findings of this study may help the government and other development agencies to put in place mitigation measures that will make Nsanje District resilient to the occurrence of future flood hazards. Data was collected from the area of TA Ndamera in order to assess the causes of flooding in the district. Interviews, transect walks, and researcher observation was done to appreciate the topography of the district and evaluate other factors that are making the people become vulnerable to the impacts of flooding in the district. It was found that flooding in the district is mainly caused by heavy rainfall in the upper shire, settlements along river banks, deforestation, and the topography of the district in general. The research study ends by providing recommendation strategies that need to be put in place to increase the resilience of the communities to future flood hazards. The research recommends the development of indigenous knowledge systems to alert people of incoming floods, construction of evacuation centers to ease pressure on schools, savings, and insurance schemes, construction of dykes, desilting rivers, and afforestation.

Keywords: disaster causes, mitigation, safety measures, Nsanje Malawi

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5137 The Impact of Xenophobia on Bi-lateral Relations: A Study of Nigeria and South Africa

Authors: Alaga Zainab Olaitan, Oluwakemi Udoh


This paper interrogates xenophobia and its impact on the bilateral relations between Nigeria and South Africa. Xenophobia has become a persistent social vice in Africa, which is more prevalent in South Africa against Nigerians. The vulnerability of Nigerians to violence, maltreatment and isolation abroad, as well as the protection of their fundamental rights, has been a topic of major concern that cannot be left unnoticed. As a result, conflict, violence, xenophobia and their effects on bilateral relations between both states require some level of attention. The utilitarianism theory, as well as the frustration-aggression theory, are adopted as the framework in this paper to buttress the bitter effects of xenophobia on Nigerians, how this continues to affect the bilateral relationship between both states involved with an attempt to understand the reason behind xenophobic actions in South Africa. The uncertainty of the effects xenophobia has had on the Nigerian people and relations between the two states with legal implications of these violations of human rights is addressed. This paper provides events of violations and the effects of xenophobia on Nigerians whilst relying on the usage of secondary data supported by a qualitative review of already existing literature. Findings reveal that the bilateral relations between Nigeria and South Africa over the years, as a result of xenophobia, have significantly deteriorated. Political and diplomatic relations between the two states have been strained. This paper strongly recommends that the Nigerian government needs to stand and act firmly with purposive intent on the protection of its citizens in its future bilateral relations with South Africa due to the detrimental impact of xenophobia on Nigerians.

Keywords: xenophobia, bi-lateral relations, utilitarianism, frustration-aggression, Nigeria, South Africa

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5136 The Various Bodies of a Person and How to Cleanse Them Spiritually

Authors: J. B. Athavale, Sean Clarke


Introduction According to ancient Indian scriptures, a person’s consciousness includes the physical body, the vital energy sheath (Pranshakti), the mental body (which includes one’s feelings and emotions), the intellectual body (which refers to one’s decision-making ability), and the Soul (which is the God Principle that resides in every person). Apart from the physical body, all the other aspects are subtle in nature. In today’s world, much attention is given to one’s physical appearance and intellectual prowess. While there have been improvements in the attention given to mental health, its complete nature is not understood, and in many cultures, mental ill health is considered taboo and looked down upon. Regarding the spiritual well-being of a person, our spiritual research has shown that people’s understanding and efforts are mostly lacking and superficial as they do not conform to Universal Spiritual Principles. Also, true well-being occurs only when all the bodies are healthy. Methodology The spiritual research team at the University has found that the spiritual aspect of a person’s life affects all the physical, psychological, and intellectual bodies of a person resulting in ill health. Cleansing these bodies at a spiritual level is essential to regain well-being. Using Aura and Energy Scanners and advanced sixth sense, we studied what causes spiritual impurity in various bodies and how to cleanse them. We measured the spiritual vibrations of a person and how they get affected due to various daily activities. For example, we studied the difference in a person’s aura before and after applying chemical-based makeup vs. natural makeup. Key Findings From the various spiritual research experiments we conducted, we found that: • All our actions and our thoughts affect our various bodies and have the potential to change the aura for the better or worse. • When there is an increase in negative vibrations around a person, negative energies from the subtle dimension are more likely to affect a person. • As the person’s spiritual level increases, the positivity in their aura also increases, and it is much easier to cleanse the various bodies spiritually. • Spiritual practice is like a general spiritual tonic that increases the positivity in one’s aura. The benefits of this are that it leads to mental stability and intellectual clarity. • Spiritual healing remedies augment any spiritual practice to obtain a faster healing effect. Conclusion Taking care of oneself spiritually has a positive halo effect on all one’s bodies. Spiritual cleansing is required regularly if one wants to attain a state of well-being. Spiritual practice and spiritual healing lead to spiritual growth, stability of mind, and less stress and reactions. Spiritually purer people affect the environment positively, and there is less unrest and more harmony between man and nature.

Keywords: body, spirituality, cleansing, consciousness

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5135 Moral Dilemmas, Difficulties in the Digital Games

Authors: YuPei Chang


In recent years, moral judgement tasks have served as an increasingly popular plot mechanism in digital gameplay. As a moral agency, the player's choice judgment in digital games is to shuttle between the real world and the game world. The purpose of the research is to explore the moral difficulties brewed by the interactive mechanism of the game and the moral choice of players. In the theoretical level, this research tries to combine moral disengagement, moral foundations theory, and gameplay as an aesthetic experience. And in the methodical level, this research tries to use methods that combine text analysis, diary method, and in-depth interviews. There are three research problems that will be solved in three stages. In the first stage, this project will explore how moral dilemmas are represented in game mechanics. In the second stage, this project will analyze the appearance and conflicts of moral dilemmas in game mechanics based on the five aspects of moral foundations theory. In the third stage, this project will try to understand the players' choices when they face the choices of moral dilemmas, as well as their explanations and reflections after making the decisions.

Keywords: morality, moral disengagement, moral foundations theory, PC game, gameplay, moral dilemmas, player

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5134 Perpetrators of Ableist Sexual Violence: Understanding Who They Are and Why They Target People with Intellectual Disabilities in Australia

Authors: Michael Rahme


Over the past decade, there is an overwhelming consensus spanning across academia, government commissions, and civil societies that concede that individuals with disabilities (IWDs), particularly those with intellectual differences, are a demographic most ‘vulnerable’ to experiences of sexual violence. From this global accord, numerous policies have sprouted in the protection of this ‘pregnable’ sector of society, primarily framed around liberal obligations of stewardship over the ‘defenceless.’ As such, these initiatives mainly target post-incident or victim-based factors of sexual violence, which is apparent in proposals for more inclusive sexual education and accessible contact lines for IWDs. Yet despite the necessity of these initiatives, sexual incidents among this demographic persist and, in nations such as Australia, continue to rise. Culture of Violence theory reveals that such discrepancies in theory and practice stem from societal structures that frame individuals as ‘vulnerable’, ‘impregnable’, or ‘defenceless’ because of their disability, thus propagating their own likelihood of abuse. These structures, as embodied by the Australian experience, allow these sexual violences to endure through cultural ideologies that place the IWDs ‘failures’ at fault while sidelining the institutions that permit this abuse. Such is representative of the initiatives of preventative organizations like People with Disabilities Australia, which have singularly strengthened victim protection networks, despite abuse continuing to rise dramatically among individuals with intellectual disabilities alone. Yet regardless of this rise, screenings of families and workers remain inadequate and practically untouched, a reflection of a tremendous societal warp in understanding surrounding the lived experiences of IWDs. This theory is also representative of broader literature, where the study of the perpetrators of disability rights, particularly sexual rights, is almost unapparent in a field that is already seldom studied. Therefore, placing power on the abuser via stripping that of the victims. As such, the Culture of Violence theory (CVT) sheds light on the institutions that allow these perpetrators to prosper. This paper, taking a CVT approach, aims to dissipate this discrepancy in the Australian experience by way of a qualitative analysis of all available court proceedings and tribunals between 2020-2022. Through an analysis of the perpetrator, their relation to the IWD, and the motives for their actions granted by court and tribunal transcripts and the psychological, and behavioural reports, among other material, that have been presented and consulted during these proceedings. All of which would be made available under the 1982 Freedom of Information Act. The findings from this study, through the incorporation of CVT, determine the institutions in which these abusers function and the ideologies which motivate such behaviour; while being conscious of the issue of re-traumatization and language barriers of the abusees. Henceforth, this study aims to be a potential policy guide on strengthening support institutions that provide IWDs with their basic rights. In turn, undermining sexual violence among individuals with intellectual disabilities at its roots.

Keywords: criminal profiling, intellectual disabilities, prevention, sexual violence

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5133 From Research to Practice: Upcycling Cinema Icons

Authors: Mercedes Rodriguez Sanchez, Laura Luceño Casals


With the rise of social media, creative people and brands everywhere are constantly generating content. The students with Bachelor's Degrees in Fashion Design use platforms such as Instagram or TikTok to look for inspiration and entertainment, as well as a way to develop their own ideas and share them with a wide audience. Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) have become a central aspect of higher education, virtually affecting every aspect of the student experience. Following the current trend, during the first semester of the second year, a collaborative project across two subjects –Design Management and History of Fashion Design– was implemented. After an introductory class focused on the relationship between fashion and cinema, as well as a brief history of 20th-century fashion, the students freely chose a work team and an iconic look from a movie costume. They researched the selected movie and its sociocultural context, analyzed the costume and the work of the designer, and studied the style, fashion magazines and most popular films of the time. Students then redesigned and recreated the costume, for which they were compelled to recycle the materials they had available at home as an unavoidable requirement of the activity. Once completed the garment, students delivered in-class, team-based presentations supported by the final design, a project summary poster and a making-of video, which served as a documentation tool of the costume design process. The methodologies used include Challenge-Based Learning (CBL), debates, Internet research, application of Information and Communications Technologies, and viewing clips of classic films, among others. After finishing the projects, students were asked to complete two electronic surveys to measure the acquisition of transversal and specific competencies of each subject. Results reveal that this activity helped the students' knowledge acquisition, a deeper understanding of both subjects and their skills development. The classroom dynamic changed. The multidisciplinary approach encouraged students to collaborate with their peers, while educators were better able to keep students' interest and promote an engaging learning process. As a result, the activity discussed in this paper confirmed the research hypothesis: it is positive to propose innovative teaching projects that combine academic research with playful learning environments.

Keywords: cinema, cooperative learning, fashion design, higher education, upcycling

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5132 Comparison between RILM, JSTOR, and WorldCat Used to Search for Secondary Literature

Authors: Stacy Jarvis


Databases such as JSTOR, RILM and WorldCat have been the main source and storage of literature in the music orb. The Reference Index to Music Literature is a bibliographic database of over 2.6 million citations to writings about music from over 70 countries. The Research Institute produces RILM for the Study of Music at the University of Buffalo. JSTOR is an e-library of academic journals, books, and primary sources. Database JSTOR helps scholars find, utilise, and build upon a vast range of literature through a powerful teaching and research platform. Another database, WorldCat, is the world's biggest library catalogue, assisting scholars in finding library materials online. An evaluation of these databases in the music sphere is conducted by looking into the description and intended use and finding similarities and differences among them. Through comparison, it is found that these aim to serve different purposes, though they have the same goal of providing and storing literature. Also, since each database has different parts of literature that it majors on, the intended use of the three databases is evaluated. This can be found in the description, scope, and intended uses section. These areas are crucial to the research as it addresses the functional or literature differences among the three databases. It is also found that these databases have different quantitative potentials. This is determined by addressing the year each database began collecting literature and the number of articles, periodicals, albums, conference proceedings, music, dissertations, digital media, essays collections, journal articles, monographs, online resources, reviews, and reference materials that can be found in each one of them. This can be found in the sections- description, scope and intended uses and the importance of the database in identifying literature on different topics. To compare the delivery of services to the users, the importance of databases in identifying literature on different topics is also addressed in the section -the importance of databases in identifying literature on different topics. Even though these databases are used in research, they all have disadvantages and advantages. This is addressed in the sections on advantages and disadvantages. This will be significant in determining which of the three is the best. Also, it will help address how the shortcomings of one database can be addressed by utilising two databases together while conducting research. It is addressed in the section- a combination of RILM and JSTOR. All this information revolves around the idea that a huge amount of quantitative and qualitative data can be found in the presented databases on music and digital content; however, each of the given databases has a different construction and material features contributing to the musical scholarship in its way.

Keywords: RILM, JSTOR, WorldCat, database, literature, research

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5131 Perfect Prey: Coercive Control and Subjugation, A Foundation for Dismissing the Truth

Authors: Christine Marie Cocchiola


This study assesses the relationship between coercive control and subjugation. Coercive control is the foundation of most domestic violence and a serious public health problem, having significant legal and social justice ramifications. Beyond the physical, it oftentimes is preceded by or motivated by a need for control. Subjugation, as a personality trait and a maladaptive schema, leads individuals to minimize their own needs or wants and, thereby, often to a loss of autonomy, a dismissal of what one might know to be true. This includes a dismissal of the trademarks of an abusive relationship. Subjugation may contribute to a person engaging in or remaining in a coercively controlling relationship. One hundred fifty-four female survivors of domestic violence participated in this study, assessing their own level of subjugation. Participants were limited to individuals who experienced non-physical abuse in their relationships. Subjugation was attributed as a “concern” or greater in 137 of the 154 participants. 11 participants were interviewed to determine their personal experiences in this abusive relationship. Common themes emerged from interviews, including that the participants worked diligently to fix these abusive relationships by regulating their own behaviors and attempting to please the offender. The results indicate a continued need for advocacy and support of this vulnerable population. Further education is indicated for mental health professionals and for individuals in or having left an abusive relationship on how to identify signs of subjugation, thereby empowering individuals to avoid future experiences of abuse.

Keywords: coercive control, intimate partner violence, subjugation, schemas, gender oppression, autonomy, gaslighting

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5130 Mindful Self-Compassion Training to Alleviate Work Stress and Fatigue in Community Workers: A Mixed Method Evaluation

Authors: Catherine Begin, Jeanne Berthod, Manon Truchon


In Quebec, there are more than 8,000 community organizations throughout the province, representing more than 72,000 jobs. Working in a community setting involves several particularities (e.g., contact with the suffering of users, feelings of powerlessness, institutional pressure, unstable funding, etc.), which can put workers at risk of fatigue, burnout, and psychological distress. A 2007 study shows that 52% of community workers surveyed have a high psychological distress index. The Ricochet project, founded in 2019, is an initiative aimed at providing various care and services to community workers in the Quebec City region, with a global health approach. Within this program, mindful self-compassion training (MSC) is offered at a low cost. MSC is one of the effective strategies proposed in the literature to help prevent and reduce burnout. Self-compassion is the recognition that suffering, failure, and inadequacies are inherent in the human experience and that everyone, including oneself, deserves compassion. MSC training targets several behavioral, cognitive, and emotional learnings (e.g., motivating oneself with caring, better managing difficult emotions, promoting resilience, etc.). A mixed-method evaluation was conducted with the participants in order to explore the effects of the training on community workers in the Quebec City region. The participants were community workers (management or caregiver). 15 participants completed satisfaction and perceived impact surveys, and 30 participated in structured interviews. Quantitative results showed that participants were generally completely satisfied or satisfied with the training (94%) and perceived that the training allowed them to develop new strategies for dealing with stress (87%). Participants perceived effects on their mood (93%), their contact with others (80%), and their stress level (67%). Some of the barriers raised were scheduling constraints, length of training, and guilt about taking time for oneself. The qualitative results show that individuals experienced long-term benefits, as they were able to apply the tools they received during the training in their daily lives. Some barriers were noted, such as difficulty in getting away from work or problems with the employer, which prevented enrollment. Overall, the results of this evaluation support the use of MSC (mindful self-compassion) training among community workers. Future research could support this evaluation by using a rigorous design and developing innovative ways to overcome the barriers raised.

Keywords: mindful self-compassion, community workers, work stres, burnout, wellbeing at work

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5129 “It Takes a Community to Save a Child”: A Qualitative Analysis of Child Trafficking Interventions from Practitioner Perspectives

Authors: Crispin Rakibu Mbamba


Twenty-two years after the adoption of the United Nation Trafficking Protocol, evidence suggest that child trafficking continues to rise. Community level factors, like poverty which creates the conditions for children’s vulnerability is key to the rise in trafficking cases in Ghana. Albeit, growing evidence suggestthat despite the vulnerabilities, communities have the capacity to prevent and address child trafficking issues. This study contributes to this positive agenda by exploring the ways in which communities (and the key actors) in Ghana contribute to child trafficking interventions.The study objective is explored through in-depth interviews with practitioners (including social workers) from an organization working in trafficking hotspots in Ghana. Interviews wereanalyzed thematically with the help of HyperRESEARCH software. From the in-depth interviews, three themes were identified as the ways in which communities are involved in child trafficking interventions: 1) engagement of community leaders, 2) community-led anti-trafficking committees and 3) knowledge about trafficking. Albeit the cultural differences, evidence on the instrumental role of community chiefs and leaders provide important learning on how to harness trafficking intervention measures and ensure better child protection practices. Based on the findings, we recommend the need to intensify trafficking awareness campaigns in rural communities where education is lacking to contribute to United Nations (UN) promoting Just, Peaceful and Inclusive societies’ mandate.

Keywords: child trafficking, community interventions, knowledge on trafficking, human trafficking intervention

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5128 The Cult of St. Agata as Cultural Mark of Heritage Community Resilience in Abruzzo (Italy, Central Apennine)

Authors: Carmen Soria


The aim of this paper is the study of the cultural and anthropological consequences of the historical natural disasters in Abruzzo (Italy, Central Apennine). These events have left cultural marks in local traditions as well as mythological stories, specific cults, or sanctuary areas in apotropaic function to prevent catastrophic events. Despite the difficult to find archaeological evidence of natural disasters, neverthless, the analisys of micro placenames, directly or indirectly related to such events, represents an integrated and interdisciplinary approach between seismology studies and landscape analysis. Toponymic data, indeed, highlight the strong relation between geomorphological features of areas affected by natural disasters and heritage community resilience, such as, for example, the cult of St. Agatha, widespread in the nearby of healing spring-water and ancient caves as a place of worship, in continuity with pagan rituals.

Keywords: abruzzo, heritage community resilience, seismic planames, St. agata

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5127 Painting in Neolithic of Northwest Iberia: Archaeometrical Studies Applied to Megalithic Monuments

Authors: César Oliveira, Ana M. S. Bettencourt, Luciano Vilas Boas, Luís Gonçalves, Carlo Bottaini


Funerary megalithic monuments are probably under the most remarkable remains of the Neolithic period of western Europe. Some monuments are well known for their paintings, sometimes associated with engraved motifs, giving the funerary crypts a character of great symbolic value. The engraved and painted motifs, the colors used in the paintings, and the offerings associated with the deposited corpses are archaeological data that, being part of the funeral rites, also reveal the ideological world of these communities and their way of interacting with the world. In this sense, the choice of colors to be used in the paintings, the pigments collected, and the proceeds for making the paints would also be significant performances. The present study will focus on the characterization of painted art from megalithic monuments located in different areas of North-Western Portugal (coastal and inland). The colorant composition of megalithic barrows decorated with rock art motifs was studied using a multi-analytical approach (XRD, SEM-EDS, FTIR, and GC-MS), allowing the characterization of the painting techniques, pigments, and the organic compounds used as binders. Some analyses revealed that the pigments used for painting were produced using a collection of mined or quarried organic and inorganic substances. The results will be analyzed from the perspective of contingencies and regularity among the different case studies in order to interpret more or less standardized behaviors.

Keywords: funerary megalithic monuments, painting motifs, archaeometrical studies, Northwest Iberia, behaviors

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5126 The Roles of Art Extra Activities in Promoting the Psychological Sides in the Higher Education Institutions and Its Challenges: Oman as a Case Study

Authors: Mohammed Hamood Al-Amri, Fakhriya Khalfan Al Yahyai


The current case study aimed to investigate the roles of art extra activities in promoting the psychological sides in the Higher Education Institutions in the Sultanate of Oman and its challenges. The sample of the study consisted of (331) students (111 males and 220 females) were chosen randomly from four higher education institutions in Oman. For the purpose of achieving the objectives of the study, the researchers prepared a questioner consisted of (52 items) divided into two main sections (psychological sides & challenges), and the validity and reliability were established. The results of the study showed that the important of the roles of art extra activities in promoting and supporting the psychologic sides in the Higher Education Institutions as the respondents scored highly in all study tool sections with means rated between (3.65 to 4.25). The results also indicated that there were statistically differences between the average scores of the study sample members regarding the roles of art extra activities in promoting the psychological sides in the Higher Education Institutions due to type of institution in favor of the private institutions as well as in favor of females' students. The results also show there is statistically significant differences in the type of accommodation regarding the psychological side due to inside compass accommodation. Regarding the challenges facing students to participating in art extra activities, the results showed that the challenges relating to the academic study become the first, followed by the personal challenges related to the students themselves. The results also indicated that there were statistically differences at (α=0.05) between the average scores of the study sample members regarding identify the challenges for students' reluctance in favour of the private institutions. The results also there were no statistically significant differences among the sample responds due to the agenda, year of study, and type of accommodations. This study ended up with some recommendations and suggestions to activate the roles of art extra activities in promoting the psychological sides in the Higher Education Institutions with references to some solutions for the challenges.

Keywords: art activities, psychological sides, higher education institutions, challenges and oman

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5125 Investigating the Relationship between Internet Deserts and Socio-Economic Determinants of Prosperity across Congressional Districts in the United States

Authors: Uma Kalkar


In 1995, the Scottish Nutrition Task Force coined the term “food deserts” to describe geographic areas that lacked adequate access to grocery stores, which tended to overlap with lower-income communities. Variables such as geographic proximity, store quality, race, and transportation access helped refine the concept. The phenomenon of pockets of paucity is not limited to issues of food scarcity. In 2000, Robert Putnam’s Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community presented a critical thesis on American disengagement of in-person social interactions and political engagement, which drove lower voter turnout, increased distrust in government, and, he argued, would eventually erode social and democratic fabrics. This paper examines Putnam’s hypothesis as it relates to digital connectivity. The scientific and social advances in communications technology and digital spaces over the past 30 years tend not to be equitably distributed, leading to the creation of ‘internet’ deserts, or areas of low internet availability and subscription, and resulting in many Americans who are still bowling alone. This study examines the question: to what extent do discrepancies between urban and rural communities related to internet access (a) affect the quality of life and (b) lead to the creation of internet deserts downstream? Using k-means cluster analysis, this work identifies ‘Internet Deserts’ (ID) and ‘Internet Shangri-Las’ (IS) across 2016, 2018, and 2020. It then conducts multivariate linear regression analysis across the ten top ID and IS congressional districts. Quantitative results show that in both ID and IS, income-related internet subscription is a statistically significant factor in levels of internet access and subscription rates. However, ID faces structural issues of access (or lack thereof) that precludes income, demonstrating a need for policies to encourage domestic internet infrastructure investment.

Keywords: broadband access, digital equity, internet deserts, online inclusion, socio-economic prosperity

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5124 Gender Cultural Scripts and Career Choices

Authors: Caroline Hoorn


Post-matriculants in disadvantaged communities such as Douglas encounter a number of career challenges. The transition to the democratic dispensation in 1994, coupled with the rapid changes in the information domain that are characteristic of post-industrial life, complicate the career development trajectories of disadvantaged youth. The career development stories and experiences of disadvantaged youth in provinces such as the Northern Cape have not been told, leading to their marginalisation. It is against this background that the study explored the gendered dimensions of career development narratives, experiences, and choices of post-matriculants in the Douglas community in the Northern Cape. Using a qualitative, narrative approach, the researcher elicited career development stories from 23 participants in Douglas using semi-structured interviews. Two main themes were highlighted through the narratives; (1) willingness to challenge the traditional male dominated career script (2) breaking gender barriers. The study showed that gender did not have any influence on the career choices of the post-matriculants. The perceptions around career choices and gender were being challenged partly by the urge to affirm equality and the constant reminder of the poverty-stricken conditions prevalent in the households. A preferred gender is not required to be attached to the fulfilment of outcomes in a knowledge-based economy. Thus, it is not an issue of gender or masculinity but knowledge and skills. Furthermore, the study revealed that the career choices being considered are still the traditionally stereotypical careers like nursing, teaching, and social work, which demonstrates a lack of information to a broader pool of career options to select from.

Keywords: career development, gender, narratives, post-matriculants

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5123 Connected Female Sufi Disciples: The Workings of Social Online Communities in a Transnational Sufi Order

Authors: Sarah Hebbouch


Two decades ago, research on diasporic women’s participation within Sufi circles would have been inconceivable, not only because of a general lack of recognition of their contribution to Sufism but due to the intimacy of the rituals, often taking place in confined spaces, like zawiyas (Sufi lodges). Recent scholarly attention to female spiritual experience owes to a digital awareness and interest in exploring diasporic community reproduction of those experiences. Within a context where female disciples of a Sufi convent undergo a physical separation from the saint’s sanctuary -because of immigration from the homeland to the host country- technology becomes a social hub accounting for Sufis’ ritual commitment and preservation of cultural capital in the diaspora. This paper elucidates how female Sufi immigrants affiliating with the Boudchichi brotherhood (Morocco-based) maintain ‘a relational network’ and strong social online relationships with their female compatriots in Morocco through the use of online platforms. Sufi communities living in the diaspora find the internet an open interactive space that serves to kindle their distance of spiritual participation and corroborate their transnational belonging. The current paper explores the implications of the use of a digital baseline named “Tariqa Info,” the convent’s digital online platform, and how it mediates everyday ritual performance, the promotion of digital connection, and the communication of ideas and discourses. Such a platform serves the bolstering emotional bonds for transnational female disciples and inclusion within online communities in the homeland. Assisted by an ethnographic lens, this paper discusses the research findings of participatory field observation of Sufi women’s online communities, informed by the need to trace the many ostensible aspects of interconnectedness and divergences.

Keywords: digital connection, Sufi convent, social online relationship, transnational female disciples

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5122 From Context to Text and Back Again: Teaching Toni Morrison Overseas

Authors: Helena Maragou


Introducing Toni Morrison’s fiction to a classroom overseas entails a significant pedagogical investment, from monitoring students’ uncertain journey through Morrison’s shifty semantics to filling in the gaps of cultural knowledge and understanding for the students to be able to relate text to context. A rewarding process, as Morrison’s works present a tremendous opportunity for transnational dialogue, an opportunity that hinges upon Toni Morrison’s bringing to the fore the untold and unspeakable lives of racial ‘Others’, but also, crucially, upon her broader critique of Western ideological hegemony. This critique is a fundamental aspect of Toni Morrison’s politics and one that appeals to young readers of Toni Morrison in Greece at a time when the questioning of institutions and ideological traditions is precipitated by regional and global change. It is more or less self-evident that to help a class of international students get aboard a Morrison novel, an instructor should begin by providing them with cultural context. These days, students’ exposure to Hollywood representations of the African American past and present, as well as the use of documentaries, photography, music videos, etc., as supplementary class material, provide a starting point, a workable historical and cultural framework for textual comprehension. The true challenge, however, lies ahead: it is one thing for students to intellectually grasp the historical hardships and traumas of Morrison’s characters and to even engage in aesthetic appreciation of Morrison’s writing; quite another to relate to her works as articulations of experiences akin to their own. The great challenge, then, is in facilitating students’ discovery of the universal Morrison, the author who speaks across cultures while voicing the untold tales of her own people; this process of discovery entails, on a pedagogical level, that students be guided through the works’ historical context, to plunge into the intricacies of Morrison’s discourse, itself an elaborate linguistic booby trap, so as to be finally brought to reconsider their own historical experiences using the lens of Morrison’s fiction. The paper will be based on experience of teaching a Toni Morrison seminar to a class of Greek students at the American College of Greece and will draw from students’ exposure and responses to Toni Morrison’s “Nobel Prize Lecture,” as well as her novels Song of Solomon and Home.

Keywords: toni morrison, international classroom, pedagogy, African American literature

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5121 Cooperation and Resistance: Chorus as a Special Form of Communication Practice for Sexual Minorities in China Based on the Ethnographic Study of a Chorus in Beijing

Authors: Xuanang Ma


In recent years, sexual minorities chorus, whose main activities are public performances and the production and dissemination of new media content, have gradually gained influence in China’s society and the Internet. Based on ethnographic research of chorus B(a chorus in Beijing), from the theoretical perspective of the Symbolic interactionism, this paper provides an interpretive analysis of the chorus as a special form of sexual minority organizational communication practice. The study found that the queer chorus is the special practice made by part of elites of a sexual minority who have the good educational background and full theoretical consciousness. Aiming at changing the current gender system in China, the chorus practiced under the deep involvement of new media platforms such as wechat, Weibo, and Bilibili, forming a dual organization of task-oriented and interest-oriented. Internally, they formed a broad pluralism community based on gender pluralism, and externally they sought to change gender culture through the export of media content such as video and music. In the process of practice, has adopted a way of "cooperation" with the mainstream culture to realize its resistance to China's gender system. Firstly, in its internal communication, the chorus has selectively neglected the patriarchy and gender dualism of the chorus tradition in order to improve its efficiency, while in its external communication, the chorus has deliberately avoided the gender dualism. Secondly, when media content is disseminated, joins and caters to China's mainstream discourse fields, such as gender equality, AIDS prevention, etc., even though these discourse fields actually contain the gender dualism structure and the stigmatization of sexual minorities. By "joining the mainstream," gains its communication power in the new media content market in order to create a good image of sexual miniorities. As a collective art form, chorus has been constructed a profound political connotation in the context of Chinese history and social culture, and its artistry has given way to politics. But the amateur queer chorus precisely regards artistry as the premise, with the music professionalism to obtain the social legitimacy and thus obtains the communication power, then the new social meaning of chorus appealing to gender politics is constructed. Different from Birmingham School's argument that marginal cultures resist the mainstream culture with subcultural style and are then incorporated into the mainstream culture, their communication practice reflects the Chinese sexual minorities’ initiative cooperation with mainstream culture under the new media ecosystem so as to achieve a gentle resistance to the gender system. However, it can not be ignored that such practice also has obvious limitations: the requirement of high-level chorus determines that it is bound to have a strong elite color. And from the chorus's general antipathy to Chinese politics and high consciousness of the western gender theory, we can see that this is the local practice of the western sexual minority political correctness movement in China under the background of globalization. It is interesting to note that this particular form, chorus, serves as a vehicle for both tensional ideologies in the process.

Keywords: sexual minority chorus, cooperation, resistance, China’s gender system, local practice

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5120 Modern Problems: Solutions from the Prophetic Leadership Strategy

Authors: Sajjad Azeez


The Leadership of prophet(PBUH) indicates the basic norms of leadership to the society to be lead in the best possible manner. The prophet (PBUH) manifests the world with Justice, equality, humanity, and respect. Because of his leadership strategy, the companions who had to be depicted in the history as uncivilised and ignorant people became someone who caught the eyes of the world. Therefore, it is need of the today to understand the strategy of prophetic leadership in order to construct a good and generous society. However, this paper discusses some of the modern problems which can be solved through implementing the prophetic leadership strategy. References for preparing this paper are taken mainly from the traditions of the prophet (PBUH)

Keywords: prophet Muhammad PBUH, leadership strategy, modern problems, solutions

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5119 Factors Responsible for the Activities of the Transitional Rites of Passage on Youth’s Morality in South Africa: A Study of Thulamela Municipality

Authors: Rofem Inyang Bassey, Pfarelo Matshidze, Dolphin Mabale, Ishmael Iwara


This article strove to establish the factors responsible for the activities of the transitional rites of passage on youth’s morality. South Africa, among other countries, has serious effects on the moral systems of youths. Factors responsible for the activities of the transitional rites of passage on youth’s morality has been brought to the fore by on-going transitional rites depicted by weekend’s social activities with the practice of substance use and abuse among the youths at various recreational spots. The transitional rites are structured under the guise of “freaks” as an evolving culture among the youths. The freaks culture is a counterculture of the usual initiation’s schools for transitional rites of passage which instil morality among youths. Qualitative design was used to obtain data from custodians, parents of the youths, and the youths themselves. The findings widely show that the factors responsible for the activities of the transitional rites is the act of the current on-going transitional rites effect as an inappropriate behaviour towards youth morality. This study concluded that to establish the factors responsible for the activities of the transitional rites of passage on youth’s morality, activities and practices evolved as a current socialization standard for quick maturity status, as a result of that, it will be harder to provide a complete change of this evolving culture. However, what will work is to build on the existing transitional rites of passage to moderate appropriate youths’ morality in Thulamela communities.

Keywords: behaviour, morality, transitional rites, youths, socials activities, freak culture

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5118 Destroying the Body for the Salvation of the Soul: A Modern Theological Approach

Authors: Angelos Mavropoulos


Apostle Paul repeatedly mentioned the bodily sufferings that he voluntarily went through for Christ, as his body was in chains for the ‘mystery of Christ’ (Col 4:3), while on his flesh he gladly carried the ‘thorn’ and all his pains and weaknesses, which prevent him from being proud (2 Cor 12:7). In his view, God’s power ‘is made perfect in weakness’ and when we are physically weak, this is when we are spiritually strong (2 Cor 12:9-10). In addition, we all bear the death of Jesus in our bodies so that His life can be ‘revealed in our mortal body’ (2 Cor 4:10-11), and if we indeed share in His sufferings, we will share in His glory as well (Rom 8:17). Based on these passages, several Christian writers projected bodily suffering, pain, death, and martyrdom, in general, as the means to a noble Christian life and the way to attain God. Even more, Christian tradition is full of instances of voluntary self-harm, mortification of the flesh, and body mutilation for the sake of the soul by several pious men and women, as an imitation of Christ’s earthly suffering. It is a fact, therefore, that, for Christianity, he or she who not only endures but even inflicts earthly pains for God is highly appreciated and will be rewarded in the afterlife. Nevertheless, more recently, Gaudium et Spes and Veritatis Splendor decisively and totally overturned the Catholic Church’s view on the matter. The former characterised the practices that violate ‘the integrity of the human person, such as mutilation, torments inflicted on body or mind’ as ‘infamies’ (Gaudium et Spes, 27), while the latter, after confirming that there are some human acts that are ‘intrinsically evil’, that is, they are always wrong, regardless of ‘the ulterior intentions of the one acting and the circumstances’, included in this category, among others, ‘whatever violates the integrity of the human person, such as mutilation, physical and mental torture and attempts to coerce the spirit.’ ‘All these and the like’, the encyclical concludes, ‘are a disgrace… and are a negation of the honour due to the Creator’ (Veritatis Splendor, 80). For the Catholic Church, therefore, willful bodily sufferings and mutilations infringe human integrity and are intrinsically evil acts, while intentional harm, based on the principle that ‘evil may not be done for the sake of good’, is always unreasonable. On the other hand, many saints who engaged in these practices are still honoured for their ascetic and noble life, while, even today, similar practices are found, such as the well-known Good Friday self-flagellation and nailing to the cross, performed in San Fernando, Philippines. So, the viewpoint of modern Theology about these practices and the question of whether Christians should hurt their body for the salvation of their soul is the question that this paper will attempt to answer.

Keywords: human body, human soul, torture, pain, salvation

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5117 The Multi-Sensory Teaching Practice for Primary Music Classroom in China

Authors: Xiao Liulingzi


It is important for using multi-sensory teaching in music learning. This article aims to provide knowledge in multi-sensory learning and teaching music in primary school. For primary school students, in addition to the training of basic knowledge and skills of music, students' sense of participation and creativity in music class are the key requirements, especially the flexibility and dynamics in music class, so that students can integrate into music and feel the music. The article explains the multi-sensory sense in music learning, the differences between multi-sensory music teaching and traditional music teaching, and music multi-sensory teaching in primary schools in China.

Keywords: multi-sensory, teaching practice, primary music classroom, China

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5116 Asian Cinema and Hollywood Remakes: Cultural Hybridization, Convergence and Partition in the Age of Global Capitalism

Authors: Chan Ka Lok Sobel


Recently, several famous Asian films have been remade in North America, set in the context of U.S. society and with the financial and cultural scale of Hollywood cinema. Notably, the practice of remaking films is interactive, with famous Hollywood films also being remade in Asia; for example, Charlie’s Angels (McG, 2002) was remade as So Close (Yuen, 2002), Seven (Fincher, 1995) was remade as Double Vision (Fu, 2002), and Cellular (Ellis, 2004) was remade as Connected (Chan, 2008). Conversely, Asian films such as Infernal Affairs (Lau & Mak, 2002), il Mare (Lee, 2000), and Bangkok Dangerous (Pang, 2000) were remade into Hollywood blockbuster films The Departed (Scorsese, 2006), The Lake House (Agresti, 2006), and Bangkok Dangerous (Pang, 2007), respectively. This research examined Asian cinema and Hollywood remakes from the perspective of cultural hybridization and partition in the context of global capitalism and postmodernism. Using Infernal Affairs and The Departed as a case study, key concepts such as crosscultural adaptation, intercultural and global communication competence, and cultural identity and authorship were compared and analyzed.

Keywords: remake and originality, double cultural identity, studio system, genre and authorship

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5115 Detroit Latinx Adolescents Depend on Relationships, Recreation, and Internal Homeostasis to Live their Healthiest Lives

Authors: Jenny Clift, Rebeccah Sokol, LaTricia Mitchell, Nicholas Alexander, Karissa Rusnick


Aims: This study sought to identify prevalent promotive factors supporting urban adolescent health and wellbeing, per adolescent and caregiver reports. Setting: The research team conducted online surveys with adolescent (n=520) and caregiver (n=73) respondents from a predominately Latinx urban high school. Methodology: A cross-sectional, qualitative study. Analysis: Inductive thematic analysis was used to analyze responses to open-ended questions. -Findings. Adolescent and caregiver respondents identified promotive factors (eight and six, respectively) that encourage adolescent health and well-being. Supportive relationships were the most frequently reported factor among adolescents (68%) and caregivers (55%). Implications: Health promotion interventions among adolescents should consider how to promote relationships to counteract negative social determinants of health (SDH) and promote optimal quality of life.

Keywords: Latinx adolescents, health and wellbeing, social determinants of health, school

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5114 New Subculture in Social Media

Authors: Maryam Mousivand


Subculture is one of the important concepts in social sciences and the field of cultural studies, which falls under the huge concept of culture. In general, subculture is a kind of movement and experience of collective resistance that is manifested by a population as a reaction against the acceptance of official identities approved by custom and society. Subcultures exist in the virtual world in the new era, and they emerged in various forms, such as the emergence of a subculture under common concepts and interests in the form of sites, channels, and groups of virtual space, which will be discussed in this article.

Keywords: subculture, social media, cultural studies, culture

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5113 Factors Affecting Green Consumption Behaviors of the Urban Residents in Hanoi, Vietnam

Authors: Phan Thi Song Thuong


This paper uses data from a survey on the green consumption behavior of Hanoi residents in October 2022. Data was gathered from a survey conducted in ten districts in the center of Hanoi, with 393 respondents. The hypothesis focuses on understanding the factors that may affect green consumption behavior, such as demographic characteristics, concerns about the environment and health, people living around, self-efficiency, and mass media. A number of methods, such as the T-test, exploratory factor analysis, and a linear regression model, are used to prove the hypotheses. Accordingly, the results show that gender, age, and education level have separate effects on the green consumption behavior of respondents.

Keywords: green consumption, urban residents, environment, sustainable, linear regression

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5112 Right Livelihood (Samma Arjiva) for Lay Disciple

Authors: Kyaw Myint


Each and everyone seeking happiness. People are trying various kinds of ways to earn happiness. Noble eight fold path is the way to attain the highest peace and happiness which includes three parts Morality ( Sila ) Concentration ( smadi ), and Wisdom ( Pyanna ). According to the Buddha’s teaching to attain higher level of peace and happiness, one must walk on this path . In the Buddha’s teaching morality is basic for all of these three parts. The right Livelihood consider as morality to reach peace or earn happiness in this life and here after next life. It is a way of earn a living without breaking the precepts. The essence of the teaching is to practice metal purity through the material gaining. In this article attempts to study right way of livelihood laid down by the Buddha for lay disciple special reference to Vinijja suttha, Ardiya Sutta, Dighajanu Sutta and singalovoda sutta. This paper approach qualitative research based mainly on documentary analysis. The result of the study shows that right livelihood in Buddha's teaching involves both abstaining from wrong livelihood and taking right livelihood with right view and right effort. Buddha guidance on right livelihood can consist both materially and spiritually for lay disciple.

Keywords: right livelihood, eight fold path, lay disciple, wrong livelihood

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5111 Associations Between Pornography Use Motivations and Sexual Satisfaction in Gender Diverse and Cisgender Individuals in the 43-Country International Sex Survey

Authors: Aurélie Michaud, Émilie Gaudet, Mónika Koós, Léna Nagy, Zsolt Demetrovics, Shane W. Kraus, Marc N. Potenza, Beáta Bőthe


Pornography use is prevalent among adults worldwide. Prior studies have assessed the associations between pornography use frequency and sexual satisfaction, in cisgender and heterosexual individuals, with mixed results. However, measuring pornography use solely by pornography use frequency is problematic, as it can lead to disregarding important contextual factors that may be related to pornography use’s potential effects. Pornography use motivations (PUMs) represent key predictors of sexual behaviors. Yet, their associations with different indicators of sexual wellbeing have yet to be extensively studied. This cross-cultural study examined the links between the eight PUMs most often reported in the general population (i.e. sexual pleasure, sexual curiosity, emotional distraction or suppression, fantasy, stress reduction, boredom avoidance, lack of sexual satisfaction, and self-exploration) and sexual satisfaction in gender diverse and cisgender individuals. Given the lack of scientific data on associations between individuals’ PUMs and sexual satisfaction, these links were examined in an exploratory manner. A total of 43 countries from five continents were included in the International Sex Survey (ISS). A secure online platform was used to collect self-report, anonymous data from 82,243 participants (39.6% men, 57% women, 3.4% gender diverse individuals; M = 32.4 years, SD = 12.5). Gender-based differences in levels of sexual pleasure, sexual curiosity, emotional distraction, fantasy, stress reduction, boredom avoidance, lack of sexual satisfaction, and self-exploration PUMs were examined using one-way ANOVAs. Then, for each gender group, the associations between each PUM and sexual satisfaction were examined using multiple linear regression, controlling for frequency of masturbation. One-way ANOVAs indicated significant differences between men, women, and gender diverse individuals on all PUMs. For sexual pleasure, sexual curiosity, fantasy, boredom avoidance, lack of sexual satisfaction, emotional distraction, and stress reduction PUMs, men showed the highest scores, followed by gender-diverse individuals, and women. However, for self-exploration, gender-diverse individuals had higher average scores than men. For all PUMs, women’s average scores were the lowest. After controlling for frequency of masturbation, for all genders, sexual pleasure, sexual curiosity and boredom avoidance were significant positive predictors of sexual satisfaction, while lack of sexual satisfaction PUM was a significant negative predictor. Fantasy, stress reduction and self-exploration PUMs were positive significant predictors of sexual satisfaction, and fantasy was a negative significant predictor, but only for women. Findings highlight important gender differences in regards to the main motivations underlying pornography use and their relations to sexual satisfaction. While men and gender diverse individuals show similar motivation profiles, woman report a particularly unique experience, with fantasy, stress reduction and self-exploration being associated to their sexual satisfaction. This work outlines the importance of considering the role of pornography use motivations when studying the links between pornography viewing and sexual well-being, and may provide basis for gender-based considerations when working with individuals seeking help for their pornography use or sexual satisfaction.

Keywords: pornography, sexual satifsaction, cross-cultural, gender diversity

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