Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3836

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Humanities and Social Sciences]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

3836 Human Capital in Interaction with Structural Capital: Conditions for Adding Human Value to the Business

Authors: Bárbara P. Ewerling, Alexandre J. Miziara, Bernadete M. Voichcoski

Abstract:

Highly skilled and motivated employees, supported by the leadership through investments in development and by a healthy organizational environment, while performing their duties, produce a considerable amount of intellectual capital, which constitutes part of the intangible wealth that is not explicitly mentioned in accounting reports. The customer relationship is built subtly through three components of intellectual capital: human, structural, and relational capital. The indispensable skill is to understand what employees need in order to shape a favorable environment to the creation and gathering of this capital, given that a dissatisfied employee may intoxicate the environments he or she is part of. This research aims at instigating the reader to understand how the development of intellectual capital occurs within organizations; what are the near-ideal conditions for the process to be as rich and enjoyable as possible, where employees can feel belonging to a group and be motivated to evolve, which supports the idea that the recompense for work goes beyond financial rewards. The study explains how human capital and structural capital — comprised by management philosophy, corporate culture, and management processes — when combined with each other aiming at becoming a robust ecosystem, and how that ecosystem becomes the basis for a competitive advantage when viewed as a principle value-generating principle for the company. Psychometrics proved to be a great method for evaluating potential; however, during the studies, it was observed that due to the complexity of human capital and its relationships with the environment, it is also necessary to consider a set of intrinsic characteristics of each individual which is difficult to measure. Structural capital, shaped by innovation, process, and organizational capital, reflects a company's ability to reinvent itself for longevity, making room for new ideas, organize itself for better profits, and optimize its processes to prevent wasting of time. Considering the findings during the study, it is understood that investing in organizational health and quality of life at work to create a healthy environment encourages good actions from both sides, the company, and the employees, and both are equally responsible for establishing this healthy environment.

Keywords: human value development, intellectual capital, organizational health, structural capital

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3835 ‘Social Health’, ‘Physical Health’ and Wellbeing: Analyzing the Interplay between the Practices of Heavy Drinking and Exercise among Young People with Bourdieusian Concepts

Authors: Jukka TöRröNen

Abstract:

In the article, we examine the interplay between the practices of heavy drinking and exercise among young people as patterned around the ‘social’ and ‘physical health’ approaches. The comparison helps us to clarify why young people are currently drinking less than earlier and how the neoliberal healthism discourse, as well as the feminine tradition of taking care of one’s body, are modifying young people’s heavy drinking practices. The data is based on interviews (n = 56) in Sweden among 15-16-year-olds and 18˗19-year-olds. By drawing on Pierre Bourdieu’s concepts of habitus, field, and capital, we examine what kinds of resources of wellbeing young people accumulate in the fields of heavy drinking and exercise, how these resources carry symbolic value for distinction, and what kind of health-related habitus they imply. The analysis suggests that as heavy drinking is no longer able to stand as a practice through which one may acquire capital that is more valuable than the capital acquired in other fields, this lessens peer pressure to drink among young people. Our analysis further shows that the healthism discourse modifies young people’s heavy drinking practices both from inside and from outside. The interviewees translate the symbolic value of healthism discourse to social vulnerability and deploy it for the purposes of increasing one’s social status among peers. Moreover, our analysis demonstrates that the social spaces and positions in intoxication and exercise are shaped by gendered dualisms of masculine dominance. However, while the interviewees naturalize the gender binaries in intoxication as based on biological drives, they understand gender binaries in exercise as normative social constructions of neoliberal society. As these binaries emphasize the struggle for recognition of the symbolic value of bodily look, they may shift young men’s attention from risk-taking to issues that traditionally have been female concerns.

Keywords: young people, decline in drinking , health, intoxication, exercise, Bourdieu

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3834 Cinema Reception in a Digital World: A Study of Cinema Audiences in India

Authors: Sanjay Ranade

Abstract:

Traditional film theory assumes the cinema audience in a darkened room where cinema is projected on to a white screen, and the audience suspends their sense of reality. Shifts in audiences due to changes in cultural tastes or trends have been studied for decades. In the past two decades, however, the audience, especially the youth, has shifted to digital media for the consumption of cinema. As a result, not only are audiences watching cinema on different devices, they are also consuming cinema in places and ways never imagined before. Public transport often crowded to the brim with a lot of ambient content, and a variety of workplaces have become sites for cinema viewing. Cinema is watched piecemeal and at different times of the day. Audiences use devices such as mobile phones and tablets to watch cinema. The cinema viewing experience is getting redesigned by the user. The emerging design allows the spectator to not only consume images and narratives but also produce, reproduce, and manipulate existing images and narratives, thereby participating in the process and influencing it. Spectatorship studies stress on the importance of subjectivity when dealing with the structure of the film text and the cultural and psychological implications in the engagement between the spectator and the film text. Indian cinema has been booming and contributing to global movie production significantly. In 2005 film production was 1000 films a year and doubled to 2000 by 2016. Digital technology helped push this growth in 2012. Film studies in India have had a decided Euro-American bias. The studies have chiefly analysed the content for ideological leanings or myth or as reflections of society, societal changes, or articulation of identity or presented retrospectives of directors, actors, music directors, etc. The one factor relegated to the background has been the spectator. If they have been addressed, they are treated as a collective of class or gender. India has a performative tradition going back several centuries. How Indians receive cinema is an important aspect to study with respect to film studies. This exploratory and descriptive study looked at 162 young media students studying cinema at the undergraduate and postgraduate levels. The students, speaking as many as 20 languages amongst them, were drawn from across the country’s media schools. The study looked at nine film societies registered with the Federation of Film Societies of India. A structured questionnaire was made and distributed online through media teachers for the students. The film societies were approached through the regional office of the FFSI in Mumbai. Lastly, group discussions were held in Mumbai with students and teachers of media. A group consisted of between five and twelve student participants, along with one or two teachers. All the respondents looked at themselves as spectators and shared their experiences of spectators of cinema, providing a very rich insight into Indian conditions of viewing cinema and challenges for cinema ahead.

Keywords: audience, digital, film studies, reception, reception spectatorship

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3833 Students' Perspectives on Quality of Course Evaluation Practices and Feedbacks in Eritrea

Authors: Ermias Melake Tesfay

Abstract:

The importance of evaluation practice and feedback to student advancement and retention has gained importance in the literature over the past ten years. So many issues and cases have been raised about the quality and types of evaluation carried out in higher education and the quality and quantity of student feedback. The aim of this study was to explore the students’ perspectives on the quality of course evaluation practice and feedback in College of Education and College of Science. The study used both quantitative and qualitative methods to collect data. Data were collected from third-year and fourth-year students of 13 departments in the College of Education and College of Science in Eritrea. A modified Service Performance (SERVPERF) questionnaire and focus group discussions were used to collect the data. The sample population comprised of 135 third-year and fourth-year students’ from both Colleges. A questionnaire using a 5 point Likert-scale was administered to all respondents whilst two focus group discussions were conducted. Findings from survey data and focus group discussions showed that the majority of students hold a positive perception of the quality of course evaluation practice but had a negative perception of methods of awarding grades and administrators’ role in listening to the students complain about the course. Furthermore, the analysis from the questionnaire showed that there is no statistically significant difference between third-year and fourth-year students, College of Education and College of Science and male and female students on the quality of course evaluation practice and feedback. The study recommends that colleges improve the quality of fairness and feedback during course assessment.

Keywords: evaluation, feedback, quality, students' perception

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3832 Barriers to Job Satisfaction of Deaf and Hard of Hearing Employees: Implication for Creating Deaf-Friendly Work Environments

Authors: Yunhe Bai

Abstract:

Employment has long been a serious, far-reaching social problem within the deaf and hard-hearing (D/HH) population. In order to unearth potential issues that contribute to such a problem, this research was conducted to focus on barriers to job satisfaction of D/HH employees, in which job satisfaction is a direct evaluation method of the relationship between nature of organizational structures and expectations that employees have of their work. Developed by a qualitative design with a review of existing literature, semi-structured interviews of 11 participants, a data transcription of American Sign Language interviews into English, and an interpretive analysis of interview discoveries, this research offered a more comprehensive understanding of the nine barriers that affect job satisfaction of D/HH employees and five crucial recommendations that facilitate more equitable and inclusive work environments where D/HH employees can grow and thrive on a par with their hearing peers.

Keywords: accommodations, barriers, deaf and hard-of-hearing employees, job satisfaction, work environment

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3831 Factors Affecting on Mid-Career Training for Arab Journalists, United Arab Emirates Case Study

Authors: Maha Abdulmajeed, Nagwa Fahmy

Abstract:

Improving journalism practice in the UAE requires a clear understanding of the mid-career training environment; what Arab journalists’ think about the professional training available to them, what training needs they have and still not achieved, and what factors they think it could help to improve the mid-career training outcomes. This research paper examines the validity and effectiveness of mid-career professional journalistic training in the UAE. The research focuses on Arab journalists’ perceptions and attitudes towards professional training, and the state of journalistic training courses available to them, in comparison to modern trends of professional training. The two main objectives of this paper are to examine how different factors affect the effectiveness of the mid-career training offered to Arab Journalists in UAE, whether they are institutional factories, socio-economic factors, personal factors, etc. Then, to suggest a practical roadmap to improve the mid-career journalism training in the UAE. The research methodology combines qualitative and quantitative approaches. As researchers conduct in-depth interviews with a sample of Arab journalists in the UAE, Media outlets in UAE encompass private and governmental entities, with media products in Arabic and/or English, online and/or offline as well. Besides, content analysis will be applied to the available online and offline journalistic training courses offered to Arab journalists’ in UAE along the past three years. Research outcomes are expected to be helpful and practical to improve professional training in the UAE and to determine comprehensive and concrete criteria to provide up-to-date professional training, and to evaluate its validity. Results and research outcomes can help to better understand the current status of mid-career journalistic training in the UAE, to evaluate it based on studying both; the targeted trainees and the up-to-date journalistic training trends.

Keywords: Arab journalists, Arab journalism culture, journalism practice, journalism and technology

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3830 Motherhood in the Poetry of Rosario Castellanos: Other Face of Womanhood

Authors: Dovile Kuzminskaite

Abstract:

Rosario Castellanos is one of the most important Mexican writers; in her poetry and essays, she demythologizes social stereotypes about womanhood that were deeply present in Mexican society of the XXth century. In her extent poetic work, Rosario Castellanos demythologizes such concepts as romance, marriage, and motherhood, showing them in a way which did not agree with the norms of the catholic based society of her times. The aim of this research is to analyze the poetry of Rosario Castellanos working on sematic and structural levels and to investigate closely how she represents motherhood, what is the role of mother and the relationship of mother and child in her poems. Also, it is of interest to observe what are the elements used in the process of creating a different concept of motherhood. In order to reflect on this subject, this research will be based on semiotics, queer studies, and the philosophy of Michel Foucault, who introduces the concept of power when reflecting on gender and society. Rosario Castellanos turned into an example of disobedience and otherness for a generation of intellectuals in Spanish speaking countries, and because of this reason, it is of great importance to understand the politic and social statements that are represented by her poetry.

Keywords: motherhood, women, poetry, Mexico

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3829 Gaze Patterns of Skilled and Unskilled Sight Readers Focusing on the Cognitive Processes Involved in Reading Key and Time Signatures

Authors: J.F. Viljoen, Catherine Foxcroft

Abstract:

Introduction: Eye-tracking technology in the last decade has provided researchers with specific tools to empirically study the process of reading (language and music). Most of these studies have focused on the 'Eye-Hand Span' phenomenon (the ability to read ahead of the point of playing). Research has shown that deviation from expected musical patterns increases the 'Eye-Hand Span' of expert sight-readers. However, little research investigates the cognitive implications of specific aspects of musical notation when performed in real-time. Aims: This study aimed to investigate the cognitive underpinnings of key and time signatures in the reading of musical notation. Method: Two selected aspects of music notation, key, and time signatures were the main focus of the study. To investigate these aspects, research participants were provided with sight-reading examples for one hand and two hands composed specifically by the researcher. Each example contained one or more unexpected elements (accidentals or changes of time signature) in order to test their effect on fixation count and duration. Tobii eye-tracking equipment and software were used to record the eye movements of 20 participants (11 experienced and 9 inexperienced sight-readers), all of whom performed on an electronic piano keyboard. Through tracking participants’ gaze patterns (a recording of location and duration of fixations), participant responses to the key signature, time signature as well as all unexpected deviations were recorded and analysed by the Tobii Pro software. Fixation counts (the number of static fixations in which the brain absorbs information) for both participant groups were compared as well as the time spent by each participant in the areas of interest in relation to the rest of the score. Results: Three main results emerged from the data analysis. 1) Experienced sight-readers showed a higher fixation count when playing sight-reading examples for two hands and a lower fixation count when playing sight-reading examples for one hand. In contrast, inexperienced players demonstrated a lower fixation count when playing with both hands and a higher fixation count when performing with one hand 2) Experienced sight-readers’ gaze patterns were generally more uniform and focused on the staves, unlike the more haphazard gaze patterns of the inexperienced sight-readers who exhibited frequent fixations at random points in the score. 3) When playing the sight-reading examples for one hand, experienced sight-readers spent considerably less time focusing on the key, time signatures, and additional areas of interest in relation to the rest of the score than inexperienced readers. However, when playing sight-reading examples for two hands, experienced sight-readers spent more time focusing on key, time signatures, and additional areas of interest than the less experienced readers. Conclusion: In conclusion, the results seem to suggest that experienced sight-readers focus more on the key signature, time signature, and deviations in the score in complex music in order to facilitate real-time sight-reading than inexperienced ones. This suggests that sound musical knowledge may play a positive role in performers’ sight-reading skills.

Keywords: cognition, eye tracking, musical notation, sight-reading

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3828 Understanding the Health Issues of Impoverished Child Rag Pickers in India

Authors: Burhan Khan

Abstract:

Objective: This study aims to enhance the body of knowledge about the vulnerabilities of child waste pickers in solid waste management. The primary objective of this research is to investigate the occupational menaces and their potential harm to the health of child waste pickers. Material and Methods: The present study design is descriptive in nature and involves children aged 5 through 14, who were rummaging through garbage in the roads and streets of Aligarh city, Uttar Pradesh. The researcher adopted an empirical approach to interview 65 participants (27 boys and 38 girls) across Aligarh city, Uttar Pradesh. The majority of the participants are Muslims (76.9 %), scheduled Castes (13.8 %), and Hindus (9.2 %). Out of 65 participants, 73.8% of children were migrated within the last five years. The primary data were analysed by utilising descriptive statistics, including frequencies, cross-tabs, means, and percentages. Results: The results show that the vast majority of children (87.7%) have experienced superficial injuries or open wound at their work. More than 32% were suffering from respiratory problems such as coughing, wheezing and short of breath, close to 37% reported skin problems like allergy, irritation and bruising and 4.6% had eye problems such as pain and irritation in eyes. Nearly 78% of children lift and carry a heavy load like large garbage bags. Over 83% informed that they sort through refuse in a filthy environment such as open dumpsites, effluents, and runnels. Conclusion: This research provides pieces of evidence of how children are being tormented in the rag-picking sector. It has been observed that child rag pickers are susceptible to injuries or illnesses due to work-related risks and toxic environment. In India, there is no robust policy to address the concerns of waste pickers and laws to protect their rights. Consequently, these deprived communities of rag pickers, especially children, have become more vulnerable over time in India. Hence, this research paper calls for a quick response to the exigencies of child rag picker by developing a holistic approach that deals with education, medical care, sanitation, and nutrition for child rag pickers.

Keywords: child rag pickers, health impairments, occupational hazards, toxic environment

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3827 A Principled Ethical Approach to Intersex Pediatric Surgeries

Authors: Kevin G. Behrens

Abstract:

Introduction: Surgery for intersex infants should be delayed until individuals are able to decide for themselves, except where it is a medical necessity. In an ideal world, this single principle would suffice, and such surgeries could be totally prohibited. Unfortunately, the world is not perfect, and, in some places, intersex neonates are at risk of being abandoned, mutilated, or even killed. As long as intersex persons are at such high risk in some places, any ethical guidelines for intersex surgeries will need to take these extreme risks of harm into account. Methodology: The standard methods of normative philosophical inquiry were employed. Major Arguments: This paper, therefore, argues for five basic principles that ought to inform ethics guidelines for surgical interventions in intersex children, specifically in contexts in which such children are at risk of significant harm. The paper sets out to come up with a set of principles that do not completely prohibit surgery, but only allow it where a strong case can be made for its necessity, in the best interests of the child, and where there is some kind of oversight to prevent misuse. The first principle is that interventions as drastic as these surgeries should only be performed when there is strong evidence that they are beneficial and not harmful. The second principle is that such surgeries should normally only be performed in cases of true medical necessity. Principle three is that surgeries should normally be delayed until such time as the intersex person is mature enough to assent to treatment or decide against it. Principle four is that the conventional ethical requirements regarding truth-telling apply equally to intersex children as to anyone else. The final principle is that, where physicians or parents think that surgery is in the best interests of the child, the burden of proof lies with them. Conclusion: Thus, intersex pediatric surgeries should turn out to be exceptionally rare, if they happen at all.

Keywords: bioethics, ethics in intersex surgery, Intersex, intersex pediatric surgery

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3826 Impact of Socio-Cultural Attributes of Imo Communities on Widowhood Practice in Imo State, Nigeria

Authors: Otuu O. Obasi, Jude C. Ajaraogu, Happiness C. Anthony-Ikpe

Abstract:

Women in Igbo land generally experience culture-related mistreatment in the event of the death of their husbands. The mistreatment ranges from scraping of widows’ hair to denial of the right to see their husbands’ corpses. The objectives of the study were to determine the forms and prevalence of widowhood practice in the studied communities, the effects of the socio-cultural attributes of the people on the practice, and the perceived effect of the practice on the victims. Data for the study were collected from 64 randomly selected communities out of 640 communities in Imo State, Nigeria. 450 copies of the researcher-made-questionnaire were distributed across the three senatorial zones of the State. A total of 418 or 92.8% were completely filled and returned. The result of the study showed, among other things, that the majority of males and females recognized widowhood practice as dehumanizing, but opined that it cannot be stopped because it is rooted in culture. However, 30.2% of the female population did not agree that the practice is dehumanizing to women since it was their cultural practice. The study also revealed that scrapping of widows’ hair was the commonest practice while sleeping alone with the husband’s corpse was the least practice. Regarding the effect which this practice has on widows, emotional trauma topped the list; and was followed by economic hardship and health deterioration. Also shown by the study was that the level of education and religion did not have a notable effect on widowhood practice. With regard to possible stoppage measures, greater number of the respondents (38%) indicated that a synergy of efforts was needed to curb the social scourge.

Keywords: widowhood practice, socio-cultural attributes, violence, impact

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3825 Enhancing Maritime Governance in Africa: Challenges of Maritime Policy Development in the East African Community

Authors: Christantus Begealawuh Nchongayi

Abstract:

As clearly stated in goal 14 of sustainable development goals, global oceans greatly contribute to making the earth habitable for mankind. This explains why ocean governance is an important global concern today. The emerging maritime security problems and the impact of climate change on African oceans, evidenced by tropical cyclones as seen recently in the Southern region of Africa, is also an indication that maritime governance and policymaking are important elements of peace and security in Africa. Within the last decade, there have been commendable efforts towards maritime governance and policymaking in Africa, although implementation of existing maritime policies is still lacking. This paper provides a snapshot of the overall state of the maritime policymaking process in Africa. It specifically explores the challenges facing policymakers in developing national and regional maritime security strategy in the East African Community. For methodology, the paper relied on primary and secondary data. Primary data was collected from informal discussions with policymakers and key policy-making bodies in Africa, and from a survey of public opinions. The study found that the Africa Integrated Maritime Strategy (2050 AIMS) is a recent template for regional and national maritime security policymaking in Africa and that although maritime security has in the past not been prioritized in the security agenda of the East African Community, developing and aligning a regional maritime security strategy to the 2050 AIMS will result to positive regional integration outcomes in East Africa.

Keywords: 2050 Africa integrated maritime strategy, east African community, maritime policy-making, maritime security

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3824 Implementing Universal Design for Learning in Social Work Education

Authors: Kaycee Bills

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Action research is a method of inquiry useful in solving social problems in social work. This study seeks to address a significant problem: higher education’s use of traditional instructional methods in social work education. Ineffective techniques, such as lecturing, fail to account for students’ variable learning needs. In contrast to traditional pedagogy, universal design for learning (UDL) is a robust framework that '[improves] and [optimizes] teaching and learning for all people' (CAST, 2018), including students with disabilities. For this project, the research team interviewed the UDL and Accessibility Specialist at their institution for two reasons: (1) to learn how to implement UDL practices in their classrooms, and in turn, (2) to motivate other faculty members at their institution to consider enacting UDL principles. A thematic analysis of the interview’s transcript reveals themes relevant to practicing UDL. Implications for future practice, as well as the researcher’s reflections on the research process, are shared in the discussion section.

Keywords: disabilities, higher education, inclusive education, universal design for learning

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3823 Virtual Reality Learning Environment in Embryology Education

Authors: Salasabeel F. M. Alfalah, Jannat F. Falah, Nadia Muhaidat, Amjad Hudaib, Diana Koshebye, Sawsan AlHourani

Abstract:

Educational technology is changing the way how students engage and interact with learning materials. This improved the learning process amongst various subjects. Virtual Reality (VR) applications are considered one of the evolving methods that have contributed to enhancing medical education. This paper utilizes VR to provide a solution to improve the delivery of the subject of Embryology to medical students, and facilitate the teaching process by providing a useful aid to lecturers, whilst proving the effectiveness of this new technology in this particular area. After evaluating the current teaching methods and identifying students ‘needs, a VR system was designed that demonstrates in an interactive fashion the development of the human embryo from fertilization to week ten of intrauterine development. This system aims to overcome some of the problems faced by the students’ in the current educational methods, and to increase the efficacy of the learning process.

Keywords: virtual reality, student assessment, medical education, 3D, embryology

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3822 Subjective Realities of Neoliberalized Social Media Natives: Trading Affect for Effect

Authors: Rory Austin Clark

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This primary research represents an ongoing two year inductive mixed-methods project endeavouring to unravel the subjective reality of hyperconnected young adults in Western societies who have come of age with social media and smartphones. It is to be presented as well as analyzed and contextualized through a written master’s thesis as well as a documentary/mockumentary meshed with a Web 2.0 app providing the capacity for prosumer, 'audience 2.0' functionality. The media component seeks to explore not only thematic issues via real-life research interviews and fictional narrative but technical issues within the format relating to the quest for intimate, authentic connection as well as compelling dissemination of scholarly knowledge in an age of ubiquitous personalized daily digital media creation and consumption. The overarching hypothesis is that the aforementioned individuals process and make sense of their world, find shared meaning, and formulate notions-of-self in ways drastically different than pre-2007 via hyper-mediation-of-self and surroundings. In this pursuit, research questions have progressed from examining how young adult digital natives understand their use of social media to notions relating to the potential functionality of Web 2.0 for prosocial and altruistic engagement, on and offline, through the eyes of these individuals no longer understood as simply digital natives, but social media natives, and at the conclusion of that phase of research, as 'neoliberalized social media natives' (NSMN). This represents the two most potent macro factors in the paradigmatic shift in NSMS’s worldview, that they are not just children of social media, but of the palpable shift to neoliberal ways of thinking and being in the western socio-cultures since the 1980s, two phenomena that have a reflexive æffective relationship on their perception of figure and ground. This phase also resulted in the working hypothesis of 'social media comparison anxiety' and a nascent understanding of NSMN’s habitus and habitation in a subjective reality of fully converged online/offline worlds, where any phenomena originating in one realm in some way are, or at the very least can be, re-presented or have effect in the other—creating hyperreal reception. This might also be understood through a 'society as symbolic cyborg model', in which individuals have a 'digital essence'-- the entirety of online content that references a single person, as an auric living, breathing cathedral, museum, gallery, and archive of self of infinite permutations and rhizomatic entry and exit points.

Keywords: affect, hyperreal, neoliberalism, postmodernism, social media native, subjective reality, Web 2.0

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3821 Advertising Disability Index: A Content Analysis of Disability in Television Commercial Advertising from 2018

Authors: Joshua Loebner

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Tectonic shifts within the advertising industry regularly and repeatedly present a deluge of data to be intuited across a spectrum of key performance indicators with innumerable interpretations where live campaigns are vivisected to pivot towards coalescence amongst a digital diaspora. But within this amalgam of analytics, validation, and creative campaign manipulation, where do diversity and disability inclusion fit in? In 2018 several major brands were able to answer this question definitely and directly by incorporating people with disabilities into advertisements. Disability inclusion, representation, and portrayals are documented annually across a number of different media, from film to primetime television, but ongoing studies centering on advertising have not been conducted. Symbols and semiotics in advertising often focus on a brand’s features and benefits, but this analysis on advertising and disability shows, how in 2018, creative campaigns and the disability community came together with the goal to continue the momentum and spark conversations. More brands are welcoming inclusion and sharing positive portrayals of intersectional diversity and disability. Within the analysis and surrounding scholarship, a multipoint analysis of each advertisement and meta-interpretation of the research has been conducted to provide data, clarity, and contextualization of insights. This research presents an advertising disability index that can be monitored for trends and shifts in future studies and to provide further comparisons and contrasts of advertisements. An overview of the increasing buying power within the disability community and population changes among this group anchors the significance and size of the minority in the US. When possible, viewpoints from creative teams and advertisers that developed the ads are brought into the research to further establish understanding, meaning, and individuals’ purposeful approaches towards disability inclusion. Finally, the conclusion and discussion present key takeaways to learn from the research, build advocacy and action both within advertising scholarship and the profession. This study, developed into an advertising disability index, will answer questions of how people with disabilities are represented in each ad. In advertising that includes disability, there is a creative pendulum. At one extreme, among many other negative interpretations, people with disables are portrayed in a way that conveys pity, fosters ableism and discrimination, and shows that people with disabilities are less than normal from a societal and cultural perspective. At the other extreme, people with disabilities are portrayed with a type of undue inspiration, considered inspiration porn, or superhuman, otherwise known as supercrip, and in ways that most people with disabilities could never achieve, or don’t want to be seen for. While some ads reflect both extremes, others stood out for non-polarizing inclusion of people with disabilities. This content analysis explores television commercial advertisements to determine the presence of people with disabilities and any other associated disability themes and/or concepts. Content analysis will allow for measuring the presence and interpretation of disability portrayals in each ad.

Keywords: advertising, brand, disability, marketing

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3820 'Critical Performance,' an Arts-Based Method for Exploring HIV-Related Stigma, Social Support, and Access to Care among People Living with HIV/AIDS in Rural China

Authors: Chiao-Wen Lan, David Gere

Abstract:

Background and Significance: Performance has a rich history of imparting information and encouraging reflection, yet there is a paucity of literature on applying performance as a method of analysis and not as a medium for health education. This study aimed to apply ethnodrama strategies to the issue of HIV-related stigma in rural China and to use a critical performance as a vehicle for communication of health research. Methods: The program, titled 'STOP STIGMA,' included dance, narratives and original quotes from people living with HIV/AIDS in China, and spectacle such as photographs, set, and props corresponding to the history of HIV in rural China. Results: The performance represented a step away from a completely textual interpretation of data towards a theatrical style that begins to privilege what arts-based research scholars Rossiter and colleagues have termed 'an embodied, theatrical representation of data.' It offered an opportunity to deliver individual and collective stories that represent how HIV-positive people experience living with HIV/AIDS in China, which could play an integral part in the formulation of actions to effect change. Discussion: This method of communicating health research has implications for fostering dialogue among researchers, community members, and medical practitioners. Although arts-based approaches are not new to the scientific community, the integration of dance, video, ethnodrama, and sciences provides opportunities to innovate in non-traditional research dissemination and communication.

Keywords: health communication, HIV/AIDS, stigma, vulnerable populations

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3819 Social Freedom and Real Utopias: Making ‘Eroding Capitalism’ a Theme in Axel Honneth’s Theory of Socialism

Authors: Yotaro Natani

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In his recent works, Frankfurt School theorist Axel Honneth elucidates an intersubjective notion of social freedom and outlines a vision of socialism as the realization of social freedom in the family, market economy, and public sphere. These arguments are part of his broader project of defending the tradition of immanent critique and normative reconstruction. In contrast, American Marxist sociologist Erik Olin Wright spells out a vision of socialism in terms of building real utopias -democratic, egalitarian, alternative institutions- through the exercise of civil society’s social power over the economy and state. Wright identifies ‘eroding capitalism’ as the framework for thinking about the strategic logics of gradually diminishing the dominance of capitalism. Both thinkers envision the transition toward socialism in terms of democratic experimentation; Honneth is more attentive to the immanent norms of social life, whereas Wright is better aware of the power of antagonistic structures. This paper attempts to synthesize the ideas of Honneth and Wright. It will show that Honneth’s critique of capitalism suffers from certain ambiguities because he attributes normative legitimacy to existing institutions, resulting in arguments that do not problematize aspects of capitalist structures. This paper will argue that incorporating the notion of power and thematizing the erosion of capitalism as a long-term goal for socialist change will allow Honneth to think more precisely about the conditions for realizing social freedom, in a manner that is still consistent with the immanent critique tradition. Such reformulation will result in a concept of social freedom that is less static and rooted in functional teleology and more oriented toward creative agency and experimental democracy.

Keywords: Axel Honneth, immanent critique, real utopias, social freedom, socialism

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3818 The Story behind the Numbers: A Comparison of Two Qualitative Methodologies Employed in Different Social and Cultural Settings

Authors: Tia Simanovic, Ionut Cioarta

Abstract:

This methodology paper will discuss the applicability of qualitative research methods in two contrasting research contexts, the community, and prison. It will examine the benefits and the pitfalls of using different philosophical frameworks, namely, critical realism and phenomenology, to guide social work research in the United Kingdom and Romania. This paper is a joint effort that arose from the methodology sections of two ongoing PhD studies examining populations on contrasting ends of a social spectrum; (1) social workers and the use of activism in their work and daily life, and (2) prisoners’ experiences of death-related grief prior to and/or during custody. While both studies employ interviews, the first one focuses on a critical realist approach to a complex phenomenon of social work activism through comparative research of practices in the UK and Romania, and the second study takes a phenomenological approach to understanding the interplay of bereavement and imprisonment in two Scottish prisons. The authors will argue that the different cultural and social environments of these two exploratory studies, as well as the power differentials between the participants and the researcher in each respective context, will steer the data collection and analysis, potentially leading to very discrete policy implications. In a world driven by numbers and exactness, it can be tempting to overlook the story behind the data, the motives behind one’s actions. Gathering those highly individualized accounts of a complex phenomenon can be time-consuming, involve different gatekeepers on various research stages, and be of limited generalizability and impact. Yet, personal experiences and drivers behind certain behaviors can elucidate individuals’ understanding of a phenomenon examined and provide an insight into participants’ inner world. This paper will emphasize the importance of conducting a comparison of research procedures in juxtaposed research settings with populations from opposite ends of a social work continuum, namely, practitioners and wards of the state. It will demonstrate that different social and cultural contexts of research can be challenging and constraining with regards to participant availability and recruitment, rapport building, data gathering, and making sense of the data. Different ontological and epistemological frameworks used will further impact the results, and many of these challenges will be mitigated or aggravated by researcher’s positionality, socio-cultural background, and experiences. Finally, an eclectic theoretical and philosophical approach used in each individual study could provide a new comprehension of the researched phenomena, their practical manifestation, as well as their influence on individual’s life, decision-making, and actions.

Keywords: comparative study, critical realism, prison research, qualitative research methods

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3817 Belonging without Believing: Life Narratives of Six Social Generations of Members of the Apostolic Society

Authors: Frederique A. Demeijer

Abstract:

This article addresses the religious beliefs of members of the Apostolic Society –a Dutch religious community wherein the oldest living members were raised with very different beliefs than those upheld today. Currently, the Apostolic Society is the largest liberal religious community of the Netherlands, consisting of roughly 15,000 members. It is characterized by its close-knit community life and the importance of its apostle: the spiritual leader who writes a weekly letter around which the Sunday morning service is centered. The society sees itself as ‘religious-humanistic’, inspired by its Judeo-Christian roots without being dogmatic. Only a century earlier, the beliefs of the religious community revolved more strongly around the Bible, the apostle is a link to Christ. Also, the community believed in the return of the Lord, resonating with the millenarian roots of community in 1830. Thus, the oldest living members have experienced fundamental changes in beliefs and rituals, yet remained members. This article reveals how members experience(d) their religious beliefs and feelings of belonging to the community, how these may or may not have changed over time, and what role the Apostolic Society played in their lives. The article presents a qualitative research approach based on two main pillars. First, life narrative interviews were conducted, to work inductively and allow different interview topics to emerge. Second, it uses generational theory, in three ways: 1) to select respondents; 2) to guide the interview methodology –by being sensitive to differences in socio-historical context and events experienced during formative years of interviewees of different social generations, and 3) to analyze and contextualize the qualitative interview data. The data were gathered from 27 respondents, belonging to six social generations. All interviews were recorded, transcribed, coded, and analyzed, using the Atlas.ti software program. First, the elder generations talk about growing up with the Apostolic Society being absolutely central in their daily and spiritual lives. They spent most of their time with fellow members and dedicated their free time to Apostolic activities. The central beliefs of the Apostolic Society were clear and strongly upheld, and they experienced strong belonging. Although they now see the set of central beliefs to be more individually interpretable and are relieved to not have to spend all that time to Apostolic activities anymore, they still regularly attend services and speak longingly of the past with its strong belief and belonging. Second, the younger generations speak of growing up in a non-dogmatic, religious-humanist set of beliefs, but still with a very strong belonging to the religious community. They now go irregularly to services, and talk about belonging, but not as strong as the elderly generations do. Third, across the generations, members spend more time outside of the Apostolic Society than within. The way they speak about their religious beliefs is fluid and differs as much within generations as between: for example, there is no central view on what God is. It seems the experience of members of the Apostolic Society across different generations can now be characterized as belonging without believing.

Keywords: generational theory, individual religious experiences, life narrative history interviews, qualitative research design

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3816 Gardening as a Contextual Scaffold for Learning: Connecting Community Wisdom for Science and Health Learning through Participatory Action Research

Authors: Kamal Prasad Acharya

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The related literature suggests that teaching and learning science at the basic level community schools in Nepal is based on book recitation. Consequently, the achievement levels and the understanding of basic science concepts is much below the policy expectations. In this context, this study intended to gain perception in the implementation practices of school gardens ‘One Garden One School’ for science learning and to meet the target of sustainable development goals that connects community wisdom regarding school gardening activities (SGAs) for science learning. This Participatory Action Research (PAR) study was done at the action school located in Province 3, Chitwan of Federal Nepal, supported under the NORHED/Rupantaran project. The purpose of the study was to connect the community wisdom related to gardening activities as contextual scaffolds for science learning. For this, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions were applied to collect data which were analyzed using a thematic analysis. Basic level students, science teachers, and parents reported having wonderful experiences such as active and meaningful engagement in school gardening activities for science learning as well as science teachers’ motivation in activity-based science learning. Overall, teachers, students, and parents reported that the school gardening activities have been found to have had positive effects on students’ science learning as they develop basic scientific concepts by connecting community wisdom as a contextual scaffold. It is recommended that the establishment of a school garden is important for science learning in community schools throughout Nepal.

Keywords: contextual scaffold, community wisdom, science and health learning, school garden

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3815 The Death of Ruan Lingyu: Leftist Aesthetics and Cinematic Reality in the 1930s Shanghai

Authors: Chen Jin

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This topic seeks to re-examine the New Women Incident in 1935 Shanghai from the perspective of the influence of leftist cinematic aesthetics on public discourse in 1930s Shanghai. Accordingly, an original means of interpreting the death of Ruan Lingyu will be provided. On 8th March 1935, Ruan Lingyu, the queen of Chinese silent film, committed suicide through overdosing on sleeping tablets. Her last words, ‘gossip is fearful thing’, interlinks her destiny with the protagonist she played in the film The New Women (Cai Chusheng, 1935). The coincidence was constantly questioned by the masses following her suicide, constituting the enduring question: ‘who killed Ruan Lingyu?’ Responding to this query, previous scholars primarily analyze the characters played by women -particularly new women as part of the leftist movement or public discourse of 1930s Shanghai- as a means of approaching the truth. Nevertheless, alongside her status as a public celebrity, Ruan Lingyu also plays as a screen image of mechanical reproduction. The overlap between her screen image and personal destiny attracts limited academic focus in terms of the effect and implications of leftist aesthetics of reality in relation to her death, which itself has provided impetus to this research. With the reconfiguration of early Chinese film theory in the 1980s, early discourses on the relationship between cinematic reality and consciousness proposed by Hou Yao and Gu Kenfu in the 1920s are integrated into the category of Chinese film ontology, which constitutes a transcultural contrast with the Euro-American ontology that advocates the representation of reality. The discussion of Hou and Gu overlaps cinematic reality with effect, which emphasizes the empathy of cinema that is directly reflected in the leftist aesthetics of the 1930s. As the main purpose of leftist cinema is to encourage revolution through depicting social reality truly, Ruan Lingyu became renowned for her natural and realistic acting proficiency, playing leading roles in several esteemed leftist films. The realistic reproduction and natural acting skill together constitute the empathy of leftist films, which establishes a dialogue with the virtuous female image within the 1930s public discourse. On this basis, this research considers Chinese cinematic ontology and affect theory as the theoretical foundation for investigating the relationship between the screen image of Ruan Lingyu reproduced by the leftist film The New Women and the female image in the 1930s public discourse. Through contextualizing Ruan Lingyu’s death within the Chinese leftist movement, the essay indicates that the empathy embodied within leftist cinematic reality limits viewers’ cognition of the actress, who project their sentiments for the perfect screen image on to Ruan Lingyu’s image in reality. Essentially, Ruan Lingyu is imprisoned in her own perfect replication. Consequently, this article states that alongside leftist anti-female consciousness, the leftist aesthetics of reality restricts women in a passive position within public discourse, which ultimately plays a role in facilitating the death of Ruan Lingyu.

Keywords: cinematic reality, leftist aesthetics, Ruan Lingyu, The New Women

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3814 High Culture or Low Culture: The Propagation and Popularization of the Classic of Poetry in Modern China

Authors: Fang Tang

Abstract:

A major Confucian masterpiece and the earliest-known poetry anthology (composed approximately 1046-771 BCE), The Classic of Poetry, reflects different cultures in ancient China. It is regarded as a Chinese classic and one of the world’s most significant written works, an essential part of our global cultural heritage. This paper explores how the ancient Chinese classic became transformed into part of popular culture, found in folk songs circulated in Fangxian county, a mountainous location in Hubei province in central mainland China. It is the hometown of one of the most well-known authors of The Classic of Poetry, whose name is Yin Jifu. Local villagers process, refine, and recreate these poems into popular folk songs, which have been handed down from generation to generation. The folk songs based on The Classic of Poetry vividly reflect local customs, life styles, and various cultural activities. After thousands of years of singing these traditional songs, the region has become an important area to maintain part of Chinese cultural heritages; here, the original high culture is converted into a popular culture that is absorbed into people’s daily life. Based on a year’s field research and many interviews with local singers, this paper explores the ways in which locals have transformed the contents of The Classic of Poetry. It examines how today these popular folk songs become part of much-treasured culture heritage, illustrating the transformation of traditional high culture into popular culture. The paper argues that the modern adaptations of the traditional poems of The Classic of Poetry combine both oral and written cultural heritage and reflects the interaction between ancient Chinese official literature and folk literature. The paper also explores the reasons why the folk songs of The Classic of Poetry are so popular in the area, including the influences of its author Yin Jifu, the impact of ancient diasporic culture from the political centre to remote rural areas, and the interactions of local cultures (famous as Chu culture) and Chinese mainstream cultural policies.

Keywords: high/low culture, The Classic of Poetry, the functions of media, cultural policy

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3813 The Application on Interactivity of Light in New Media Art

Authors: Yansong Chen

Abstract:

In the age of media convergence, new media technology is constantly impacting, changing, and even reshaping the limits of Art. From the technological ontology of the new media art, the concept of interaction design has always been dominated by I/O (Input/Output) systems through the ages, which ignores the content of systems and kills the aura of art. Light, as a fusion media, basically comes from the extension of some human feelings and can be the content of the input or the effect of output. In this paper, firstly, on the basis of literature review, the interaction characteristics research was conducted on light. Secondly, starting from discourse patterns of people and machines, people and people, people, and imagining things, we propose three light modes: object-oriented interaction, Immersion interaction, Tele-Presence interaction. Finally, this paper explains how to regain the aura of art through light elements in new media art and understand multiple levels of 'Interaction design'. In addition, the new media art, especially the light-based interaction art, enriches the language patterns and motivates emerging art forms to be more widespread and popular, which achieves its aesthetics growth.

Keywords: new media art, interaction design, light art, immersion

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3812 An Exploration of the Place of Buddhism in the Tham Luang Cave Rescue and Its Aftermath

Authors: Hamish de Nett

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On 23rd June 2018, twelve young footballers from the Wild Boar Academy and their coach went to explore the Tham Luang cave in the Doi Nang Non mountain range in Chiang Rai Province, Northern Thailand. Whilst they were inside the cave, monsoon rains hit, and the complex became partially flooded. In the following days, Thai Navy SEALs and an international team of expert divers assembled at the cave complex in order to rescue the boys. Although it was only marginally reported in the Western press, Buddhism and ritual activities played a major role in the rescue and its aftermath. This paper utilises numerous news articles and books written by reporters who covered the cave rescue to uncover what the place of Buddhism was in the Tham Luang cave rescue. This paper initially sets out the development of Thai Buddhism and the Thai nation state, paying particular note to the tension in Thai Buddhism between Buddhism as it is popularly practised and normative, state-favoured Buddhism. Secondly, this paper demonstrates that, during the Tham Luang cave rescue, Buddhism helped people cope with the disaster, provided an explanation for its occurrence, and allowed bystanders some efficacy in the process. Thirdly, this paper discusses how Buddhism helped people to give thanks after the rescue, achieve reconciliation, and gain closure. Finally, this paper analyses how the government and the political sphere utilised Buddhism during the rescue. The conclusion reached is that the Buddhism practiced during the Tham Luang cave rescue and its aftermath is representative of the wider tension between popular Buddhism and normative state-favoured Buddhism that is currently present within Thai Buddhism and has been for centuries.

Keywords: cave rescue, contemporary Buddhism, lived religion, Thai Buddhism, Tham Luang cave rescue

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3811 Ethnographic Representations of Surrogate Motherhood through Digital Story-Telling: Fictionalizing Embodiment and Relatedness

Authors: Apostolidou Anna, Daskalaki Ivi, Lasica Ilona-Elefteryja

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This paper aims at mapping out certain strands of the feminist and anthropological literature relevant to the practice of surrogate motherhood that endorse digital forms of ethnographic textuality in which research findings could be narrated through fictional and digitally mediated modalities (e.g. poetry, short stories, animation, podcasts, ethnographic hypertexts that contain research-related recordings, videos, photos, notes, academic papers and discussion excerpts). What we hope to achieve through fictional transmedia ethnography of surrogate motherhood is the creation of a new discursive-ethnographic space that 'accurately' reflects new sensibilities and manners of registering the 'non-tellable' of social reality and/or motherhood. Simultaneously, we seek to fashion ethnographic ‘texts’ which facilitate the non-linear reading of fictional ethnography and its access by non-expert readers. The paper draws on literature reviews produced in the framework of the research project 'Ethnography and/as hypertext fiction: representing surrogate motherhood' (HYFRESMO), currently implemented at the Anthropology Department of Panteion University of Social and Political Sciences and funded by the Hellenic Foundation for Research and Innovation and the General Secretariat for Research and Technology. The project HYFRESMO focuses on the emerging social practice of surrogate motherhood in contemporary Greece in order to critically address digital ethnographic textuality. By employing a transmedia approach, in this paper, we seek to discuss how the interlocutors’ -the surrogates’ and the social mothers’- narratives of bodily experiences and practices as well as narratives of relatedness/kinship or non-relatedness/non-kinship linked to surrogacy procedures are best represented through multimodality and fiction. Drawing on the feminist literature on the body, embodiment and corporeality as well as on the anthropological literature of medically assisted reproductive technologies, gender and kinship, this presentation aims to discuss alternative (fictional and digital) possibilities of dealing with story-telling about embodiment and disembodiment, kinship and non-kinship. In doing so, we look at the interrelation between story-telling and the concepts of metaphor and creativity or the discursively constructed creative means employed both by the surrogates and the social mothers to define and uphold the categories of motherhood, kinship, body and nature.

Keywords: body and embodiment, creativity and metaphor, digital/fictional ethnography, feminist literature, relatedness, story-telling, surrogate motherhood

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3810 Citizen Journalist: A Case Study of Audience Participation in Mainstream TV News Production in India

Authors: Sindhu Manjesh

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This paper examines citizen journalism in India, specifically the inclusion of user-generated content (UGC) by mainstream media, by focusing on the case study of the Citizen Journalist show on CNN-News 18, a national television news broadcaster. It studies the processes of production involved in Citizen Journalist to find out how professional journalists and citizens interact to put together the show in order to help readers understand the relationship between journalists and the public in the evolving media landscape of India, the world’s largest democracy, and a leader in the Global South. Using an in-depth case study approach involving newsroom ethnography, interviews, and an examination of Citizen Journalist content, it studies the implications of audience participation for traditional journalistic routines and values – specifically gatekeeping and objectivity. Citizen Journalist began to much fanfare and promise about including neglected citizen views and voices. Based on evidence gathered, this study, however, argues that claims made by CNN-News18 about democratizing news production through Citizen Journalist were overstated. It made some effort to do this and broadcast a lot of important stories. But overall, in terms of bringing in citizen voices, it did not live up to its initial promise because the show was anchored in traditional journalistic norms and roles and the channel’s economic imperatives. Professional journalists were ironically the producers of 'citizen journalism' in this case. Mainstream media’s authority in defining journalistic work –who says what, where, when, why, and how– remains predominant in India. This has implications for democratic participation in India. The example of Citizen Journalist –the model it followed, its partial success, and many limitations– could well presage outcomes for other news outlets, in India and beyond, which copy its template.

Keywords: citizen journalism, digital journalism, participatory journalism, public sphere

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3809 Women's Vulnerability to Cross-Border Criminality in Saki/Iseyin Area of Oyo State in Nigeria: Insight and Experiences

Authors: Samuel Kehinde Okunade, Daniel Sunday Tolorunshagba

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Globally women are classified to be part of the vulnerable group in any environment. In a conflict-ridden environment, women being vulnerable often suffer the consequences as it relates to security and access to basic social services such as medical care. This is the situation in border communities in Nigeria where cross-border crimes are on the rife, thus, putting women at a disadvantaged position and, eventually, victims of such inimical activities. Border communities in the Saki/Iseyin area of Oyo state are a case in point where the lives of inhabitants are daily threatened most, especially women. In light of the above, this article examined the security situation of the Saki/Iseyin area of Oyo State with a view to ascertaining its status in terms of safety of lives and property. This paper also explored the experiences of women in the border communities within the area as it relates to their safety, the safety of their children, access to good health facilities in their immediate environment, and above all, how they have been able to cope or manage the situation. The qualitative research model was adopted utilizing a phenomenological case study approach. A Focused Group Discussion was conducted with 10 pregnant women and 10 mothers in Okerete and Abugudu communities while a Key Informant Interview was conducted with the women leaders in both communities of the Saki/Iseyin border area of Oyo State. The findings of the study revealed the poor state of basic infrastructure. So bad to a point that inhabitants of these communities no longer see themselves as Nigerians because they have been neglected by the government for too long. The only solution is for the government to embark on developmental projects within these communities so that they can live a good life just as those in the cities do. More importantly, this will increase the loyalty of these communities to the Nigeria state by defending and resisting all forms of cross-border criminal activities that go on along the porous borders.

Keywords: security, women, Saki/Iseyin border area, cross-border criminalities, basic infrastructure

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3808 Multiple Identity Construction among Multilingual Minorities: A Quantitative Sociolinguistic Case Study

Authors: Stefanie Siebenhütter

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This paper aims to reveal criterions involved in the process of identity-forming among multilingual minority language speakers in Northeastern Thailand and in the capital Bangkok. Using sociolinguistic interviews and questionnaires, it is asked which factors are important for speakers and how they define their identity by their interactions socially as well as linguistically. One key question to answer is how sociolinguistic factors may force or diminish the process of forming social identity of multilingual minority speakers. However, the motivation for specific language use is rarely overt to the speaker’s themselves as well as to others. Therefore, identifying the intentions included in the process of identity construction is to approach by scrutinizing speaker’s behavior and attitudes. Combining methods used in sociolinguistics and social psychology allows uncovering the tools for identity construction that ethnic Kui uses to range themselves within a multilingual setting. By giving an overview of minority speaker’s language use in context of the specific border near multilingual situation and asking how speakers construe identity within this spatial context, the results exhibit some of the subtle and mostly unconscious criterions involved in the ongoing process of identity construction.

Keywords: social identity, identity construction, minority language, multilingualism, social networks, social boundaries

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3807 An In-Depth Definition of the 24 Levels of Consciousness and Its Relationship to Buddhism and Artificial Intelligence

Authors: James V. Luisi

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Understanding consciousness requires a synthesis of ideas from multiple disciplines, including obvious ones like psychology, biology, evolution, neurology, and neuroscience, as well as less obvious ones like protozoology, botany, entomology, carcinology, herpetology, mammalogy, and computer sciences. Furthermore, to incorporate the necessary backdrop, it is best presented in a theme of Eastern philosophy, specifically leveraging the teachings of Buddhism for its relevance to early thought on consciousness. These ideas are presented as a multi-level framework that illustrates the various aspects of consciousness within a tapestry of foundational and dependent building blocks as to how living organisms evolved to understand elements of their reality sufficiently to survive, and in the case of Homo sapiens, eventually move beyond meeting the basic needs of survival, but to also achieve survival of the species beyond the eventual fate of our planet. This is not a complete system of thought, but just a framework of consciousness gathering some of the key elements regarding the evolution of consciousness and the advent of free will, and presenting them in a unique way that encourages readers to continue the dialog and thought process as an experience to enjoy long after reading the last page. Readers are encouraged to think for themselves about the issues raised herein and to question every facet presented, as much further exploration is needed. Needless to say, this subject will remain a rapidly evolving one for quite some time to come, and it is probably in the interests of everyone to at least consider attaining both an ability and willingness to participate in the dialog.

Keywords: consciousness, sentience, intelligence, artificial intelligence, Buddhism

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