Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4146

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Humanities and Social Sciences]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

4146 Examining Bulling Rates among Youth with Intellectual Disabilities

Authors: Kaycee L. Bills

Abstract:

Adolescents and youth who are members of a minority group are more likely to experience higher rates of bullying in comparison to other student demographics. Specifically, adolescents with intellectual disabilities are a minority population that is more susceptible to experience unfair treatment in social settings. This study employs the 2015 Wave of the National Crime Victimization Survey – School Crime Supplement (NCVS/SCS) longitudinal dataset to explore bullying rates experienced among adolescents with intellectual disabilities. This study uses chi-square testing and a logistic regression to analyze if having a disability influences the likelihood of being bullied in comparison to other student demographics. Results of the chi-square testing and the logistic regression indicate that adolescent students who were identified as having a disability were approximately four times more likely to experience higher bullying rates in comparison to all other majority and minority student populations. Thus, it means having a disability resulted in higher bullying rates in comparison to all student groups.

Keywords: Disability, Social Work, Bullying, school bullying

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4145 Using Trust and Context Evaluation for Preserving Privacy in Social Networks

Authors: Nadav Voloch, Nurit Gal-Oz, Ehud Gudes

Abstract:

Online Social Networks (OSN) security and privacy issues have been extensively researched in the past decade. Information is posted and shared by individuals and organizations in social networks in huge quantities, while breaches of privacy occur on a regular basis. Privacy of OSN users has become a major concern for social networks since, in addition to malicious attackers, there is a severe problem of users that are unaware of the potential spread of their data outside their network. In previous research, we have devised a comprehensive Trust-based model that handles this problem from the user's Trust aspect. The model involves Access Control for the direct circle of friends and Flow Control for the friends' networks. In this paper, we propose a context-based model that involves user profiling, OSN features, and OSN activities. This model provides a more accurate understanding of the user's network by learning the different viewpoints of the user's friends in various subjects. The trust of a user in a friend is assessed in a certain context, and accordingly, access to private data in this context can be granted. The model was evaluated using data collected and analyzed from a real OSN with respect to five different contexts. The results support our model and show that the dissemination of private data to a context-based trusted audience can improve the user's privacy.

Keywords: Cyber Security, social networks privacy, context in social media, trust-based privacy

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4144 Exploring the Birth of Modern Art in Borneo, Post-War Era 1945 to 1970

Authors: Rahah Hasan, Faridah Sahari

Abstract:

This paper describes the development of modern art in Borneo, particularly in Sarawak, Sabah, and Brunei, after the Second World War until the 1970s. This was the period when the British Colonial government dictated the education system, which consequentially inculcated visual art through art and craft subjects imposed on all vernacular schools in Borneo. British influence within the state governance, social, and education system designed with Western ideology created not only a westernized society and mindset but at the same time generated artistic opportunities for emerging local painters to be involved in the initiation of Modern Art in Borneo. Through the historical method and analysis of primary and secondary data, it was obvious that the existence of colonial government departments and institutions such as museums and teaching colleges, and other social organizations in Borneo at that time contributed significantly to the artistic movement. The similar structure and motivation of development in other areas of Borneo confirmed that artistic affirmation of modern art advanced homogenously. Their understanding of easel painting as well as a unique interpretation of culture once distanced from traditional art, resulting in a new visual image that transcended their ethnicity and identity through new mediums and tools. These meticulous interventions modestly visualized in each painting, as discussed in this paper, hopefully, will give a deeper understanding and appreciation of the history of modern art in Borneo.

Keywords: Art History, modern art, fine art, Borneo art

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4143 At Home in This World: Nanyang Painter Georgette Chen

Authors: Christine C. Neal

Abstract:

A veritable world citizen, Nanyang painter Georgette Chen (1906-1993) melded artistic influences from both the East and West. Much has been written about her contribution to the art of Singapore, her role in the establishment of the Nanyang Style, the lasting influence that she exerted on younger artists, and her considerable artistic achievements. Never before examined is the development of her oeuvre that reflects this mixture, to the best of the author’s knowledge. The works selected for this investigation reveal her artistic development from student to teacher, the range of her thematic interests, and the stimuli that she absorbed from a life ensconced in eastern and western cultures where she felt, as she wrote, “at home in this world.”

Keywords: Art, China, Paris, Singapore, Georgette Chen, Nanyang

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4142 Prostitution in Colonial Bengal: Autobiographical Articulations and Fictional Representations

Authors: Aparna Bandyopadhyay

Abstract:

The proposed paper will examine how prostitution produced a vast corpus of literature in colonial Bengal. This corpus included autobiographical accounts by prostitutes themselves. While the authenticity of some of these has, at times, been doubted by contemporary observers, the sheer magnitude of such narrative prose demands critical attention. Many of these autobiographical narratives focused on the prostitute’s early life within respectable society and then proceeded to delineate the transgressions and the inescapable chain of circumstances that eventually rendered her a prostitute. Significantly, these serve to corroborate the findings of official investigations regarding the circumstances that led upper-caste Hindu women in Bengal to embrace prostitution in this period. The literary corpus that dwelt on prostitution also included a vast volume of fiction penned by celebrated writers. These foregrounded a prostitute as the central protagonist, telling the life-stories of prostitutes and the circumstances that made them what they were. Novels and short stories often represented the prostitute as an affective being – an individual capable of deep emotions despite her profession. She was seldom a person who had voluntarily embraced prostitution. She was always a figure of helplessness and suffering, a woman whose desire to love and be loved transcended the carnality of her livelihood. She was an outcast, but she experienced the entire repertoire of emotions experienced by her respectable counterparts. The proposed paper will examine the trends and characteristics of the available repertoire of prostitute-oriented literature in late colonial Bengal. It will begin by focusing on the existing perspectives on the origins of prostitution in late colonial Bengal. It will proceed to discuss the literary corpus supposedly penned by prostitutes themselves and then focus on the manner in which some of the stalwarts of high literature represented the prostitute in their literary creations.

Keywords: Literature, prostitution, Emotions, transgression

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4141 Raising Forest Voices: A Cross-Country Comparative Study of Indigenous Peoples’ Engagement with Grassroots Climate Change Mitigation Projects in the Initial Pilot Phase of Community-Based Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation

Authors: Karl D. Humm

Abstract:

The United Nations’ Community-based REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation) (CBR+) is a programme that directly finances grassroots climate change mitigation strategies that uplift Indigenous Peoples (IPs) and other marginalised groups. A pilot for it in six countries was developed in response to criticism of the REDD+ programme for excluding IPs from dialogues about climate change mitigation strategies affecting their lands and livelihoods. Despite the pilot’s conclusion in 2017, no complete report has yet been produced on the results of CBR+. To fill this gap, this study investigated the experiences with involving IPs in the CBR+ programmes and local projects across all six pilot countries. A literature review of official UN reports and academic articles identified challenges and successes with IP participation in REDD+ which became the basis for a framework guiding data collection. A mixed methods approach was used to collect and analyse qualitative and quantitative data from CBR+ documents and written interviews with CBR+ National Coordinators in each country for a cross-country comparative analysis. The study found that the most frequent challenges were lack of organisational capacity, illegal forest activities, and historically-based contentious relationships in IP and forest-dependent communities. Successful programmes included IPs and incorporated respect and recognition of IPs as major stakeholders in managing sustainable forests. Findings are summarized and shared with a set of recommendations for improvement of future projects.

Keywords: Climate Change, Forests, Indigenous Peoples, REDD+

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4140 Palliative Care: Optimizing the Quality of Life through Strengthening the Legal Regime of Bangladesh

Authors: Sonia Mannan, M. Jobair Alam

Abstract:

The concept of palliative care in Bangladesh largely remained limited to the sympathetic caring of patients with a life-limiting illness. Quality of Life (QoL) issues are rarely practiced in Bangladesh. Furthermore, palliative medicine, in the perspective of holistic palliative care service, does not have its proper recognition in Bangladesh. Apart from those socio-medical aspects, palliative care patients face legal issues that impact their quality of life, including access to health services and social benefits and dealing with other life-transactions of the patients and their families (such as disposing of property; planning for children). This paper is an attempt to articulate these legal dimensions of the right to palliative care in the context of Bangladesh. The major focus of this paper will be founded on the doctrinal analysis of the constitutional provisions and other relevant legislation on the right to health and their judicial interpretation, which is argued to offer a meaningful space for the right to palliative care. This paper will also investigate the gaps in the said legal framework to better secure such care. In conclusion, a few recommendations are made so that the palliative care practices in Bangladesh are better aligned with international standards, and it can respond more humanely to the patients who need palliative care.

Keywords: palliative care, Constitution, Quality of Life, Bangladesh, legal regime

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4139 RE:SOUNDING a 2000-Year-Old Vietnamese Dong Son Bronze Drum; Artist-Led Collaborations outside the Museum to Challenge the Impasse of Repatriating and Rematriating Cultural Instruments

Authors: H. A. J. Nguyen, V. A. Pham

Abstract:

RE:SOUNDING is an ongoing research project and artwork seeking to return the sound and knowledge of Dong Son bronze drums back to contemporary musicians. Colonial collections of ethnographic instruments are problematic in how they commit acts of conceptual, cultural, and acoustic silencing. The collection (or more honestly), the plagiarism, and pillaging of these instruments have systemically separated them from living and breathing cultures. This includes diasporic communities, who have come to resettle in close proximity - but still have little access - to the museums and galleries that display their cultural objects. Despite recent attempts to 'open up' and 'recognise' the tensions and violence of these ethnographic collections, many museums continue to structurally organize and reproduce knowledge with the same procedural distance and limitations of imperial condescension. Impatient with the slowness of these museums, our diaspora led collaborations participated in the opaque economy of the auction market to gain access and begin the process of digitally recording and archiving the actual sounds of the ancient Dong Son drum. This self-directed, self-initiated artwork not only acoustically reinvigorated an ancient instrument but redistributed these sonic materials back to contemporary musicians, composers, and their diasporic communities throughout Vietnam, South East Asia, and Australia. Our methodologies not only highlight the persistent inflexibility of museum infrastructures but demand that museums refrain from their paternalistic practice of risk-averse ownership, to seriously engage with new technologies and political formations that require all public institutions to be held accountable for the ethical and intellectual viability of their colonial collections. The integrated and practical resolve of diasporic artists and their communities are more than capable of working with new technologies to reclaim and reinvigorate what is culturally and spiritually theirs. The motivation to rematriate – as opposed to merely repatriate – the acoustic legacies of these instruments to contemporary musicians and artists is a new model for decolonial and restorative practices. Exposing the inadequacies of western scholarship that continues to treat these instruments as discreet, disembodied, and detached artifacts, these collaborative strategies have thus far produced a wealth of new knowledge – new to the west perhaps – but not that new to these, our own communities. This includes the little-acknowledged fact that the Dong Son drum were political instruments of war and technology, rather than their simplistic description in the museum and western academia as agrarian instruments of fertility and harvest. Through the collective and continued sharing of knowledge and sound materials produced from this research, these drums are gaining a contemporary relevance beyond the cultural silencing of the museum display cabinet. Acknowledgement: We acknowledge the Wurundjeri and Boon Wurrung of the Kulin Nation and the Gadigal of the Eora Nation where we began this project. We pay our respects to the Peoples, Lands, Traditional Custodians, Practices, and Creator Ancestors of these Great Nations, as well as those First Nations peoples throughout Australia, Vietnam, and Indonesia, where this research continues, and upon whose stolen lands and waterways were never ceded.

Keywords: Experimental Music, Museum Collections, repatriation, decolonisation, acoustic archaeology, rematriation, Dong Son, digital recording

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4138 Performing a Chamber Theatre Adaptation of Nick Joaquin's 'the Summer Solstice'

Authors: Allen B. Baylosis

Abstract:

Chamber Theatre has been one of the least articulated staging devices in the field of theatre and performance studies. This creative exploratory-descriptive study responds to this gap by employing the staging technique in a Chamber Theatre production based on Nick Joaquin’s The Summer Solstice. Specifically, this study opts to understand three processes involved in the Chamber Theatre creative thesis production of The Summer Solstice as performance: performance of the theatre-maker, performance of the spect-actors, and performance of the spectators. For this purpose, the theatre-maker describes the creative process of transforming The Summer Solstice text to a Chamber Theatre production—from text to staging. The theatre-maker also analyzes the performers’ experiences and the spectators’ responses as they participate in a Chamber Theatre performance. In doing so, the theatre-maker collects qualitative data from seventeen (17) performers and qualitative feedback from twenty (20) spectators. For the mode of data analysis, this study employed Ranciere’s concept on the Emancipated Spectator (2008) and Schechner’s Performance Theory (1988). The study’s findings examine how the theatre-maker, the performers, and the spectators become distant viewers of their respective restored behavior performances. Through these viewed performances, this study implies that it is possible to ascertain a reasonable definition of purpose for Chamber Theatre. Hence, despite the existence of other modern staging devices in the field of theatre and performance studies, this study concludes that Chamber Theatre remains to be a relevant staging technique.

Keywords: adaptation of text, chamber theatre, experimental theater, oral interpretation

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4137 Historic Urban Landscape Approach, a Methodology to Elaborate Sustainable Development Plans through Culture and Heritage: The Case Study of Valverde de Burguillos (Spain)

Authors: Julia Rey Perez, Victoria Dominguez Ruiz

Abstract:

The phenomenon of depopulation puts the authorities at risk of abandoning a number of rural-urban areas of significant cultural value, affecting their architecture and intangible cultural heritage. The purpose of this research is to present a methodology created according to the UNESCO Recommendation on the Historic Urban Landscape (HUL), which through the identification of cultural values and attributes, leads to ´Strategic Plans´ build upon the culture and heritage. This methodology is based on the analysis of the town from three perspectives: 1) from the public administration, 2) from the discipline of architecture, and 3) from citizen perception. In order to be able to work on the development of a diagnosis from three very different approaches, collaborative cartographies have been used as working tools. The methodology discussed was applied in Valverde de Burguillos, in Spain, leading to the construction of an inclusive ‘Strategic Plan’ that integrates the management of the town within the overall territorial development plan. The importance of incorporating culture and heritage as a conductor for sustainable urban development through the HUL approach has allowed the local authorities to assume these new tools for heritage conservation, acknowledging community participation as the main element for the ´Strategic Plan” elaboration.

Keywords: citizen participation, Urban Governance, UNESCO, Inclusiveness, rural heritage

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4136 The Work and Life Ethics at the Beginning of the 21st Century and the Vulnerability of Long-Term Unemployed over 45 Years Old in Spain since the Economic Crisis of 2008

Authors: Maria Del Mar Maira Vidal, Alvaro Briales

Abstract:

In this paper, we will conduct an analysis of the results of the I+D+i research project “New types of socio-existential vulnerability, support and care in Spain” (VULSOCU) (2016-20). This project had the objective to analyze the new types of vulnerability that are the result of the combination of several factors as the economic crisis, the unemployment, the transformations of the Welfare State, the individualization, etc. We have, therefore, analyzed the way that Spanish long-term unemployed over 45 years experience vulnerability and its consequences on their lives. We have focused on long-term unemployed over 45 that had previously developed stable career paths and have been looking for a job for two years or more. In order to carry out this analysis, we will try to break the dichotomy between the social and the individual, between the socio-historical and the subjectivity, to overcome some of the limits of the research on unemployment. The fieldwork consisted of more than ten focus groups and fifty in-depth interviews. The work and life ethics completely changed at the turn of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. In the nineteenth century, companies had trouble maintaining their staff, but in the 21st century, unemployed workers feel that they are useless people. Workers value themselves if they have a job. This unveils that labor is a comprehensive social relationship in capitalist societies. In general, unemployed workers are not able to analyze their unemployment as a social problem. They analyze their unemployment as an individual problem. They blame themselves for their unemployment; instead of taking into account that there are millions of unemployed, they talk about themselves as if they were on their own. And the problems caused by unemployment are explained as psychological problems and are medicalized. Anyway, it is important to highlight that this is the result of an ideology and a social relationship that is part of our historical time.

Keywords: Unemployment, Work Ethics, life ethics, unemployed over 45 years old

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4135 Foreign Women Affecting the Social Life of the Ottoman Empire at the Beginning of the Twentieth Century: The Case of Lady Alice Lowther (1873-1939)

Authors: Meliha Nur Cercinli

Abstract:

In the last period of the Ottoman Empire, foreign officers played important role in the political area. Behind their political activities, their wives had a considerable influence on Ottoman social life. Despite the difficult conditions, these women involved in educating girls, encouraging Ottoman women to take part in the production area. For this purpose, they opened many schools and workplaces in various regions of the capital-Istanbul. One of these women was Lady Alice Lowther, who was known as the wife of British ambassador Gerard Agustus Lowther. She arranged various organizations in order to create necessary resources to help families of martyrs. Also, she chaired the Committee for Aid to Ottoman Military Families (Asker Ailelerine Yardım Komitesi), made an effort to establish the Society for Protection Animals in Istanbul (Istanbul Himaye-i Hayvanat Cemiyeti) with the supports of The Royal Society For Prevention Cruelty For Animals. Apart from these, she was also a good observer and writer as a traveller. She wrote and published her memories with the name of Down The Old Road (1921), When It Was June (1923) Land Of Gold Mohur (1932), Moments In Portugal Or Land Of The Laurel (1939). This paper aims to analyze Lady Alice Lowther’s activities in Istanbul based on Ottoman Archive documents. In addition, her books will also be examined as they will present a different perspective regarding her experiences.

Keywords: Ottoman Empire, Social Life, Women History, Lady Lowther

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4134 In Search of Good Fortune: Individualization, Youth and the Spanish Labour Market within a Context of Crisis

Authors: Matthew Lee Turnbough

Abstract:

In 2007 Spain began to experience the effects of a deep economic crisis, which would generate a situation characterised by instability and uncertainty. This has been an obstacle, especially acute for the youth of this country seeking to enter the workforce. As a result of the impact of COVID-19, the youth in Spain are now suffering the effects of a new crisis that has deepened an already fragile labour environment. In this paper, we analyse the discourses that have emerged from a precarious labour market, specifically from two companies dedicated to operating job portals and job listings in Spain, Job Today, and CornerJob. These two start-up businesses have developed mobile applications geared towards young adults in search of employment in the service sector, two of the companies with the highest user rates in Spain. Utilizing a discourse analysis approach, we explore the impact of individualization and how the process of psychologization may contribute to an increasing reliance on individual solutions to social problems. As such, we seek to highlight the expectations and demands that are placed upon young workers and the type of subjectivity that this dynamic could foster, all this within an unstable framework seemingly marked by chance, a context which is key for the emergence of individualization. Furthermore, we consider the extent to which young adults incorporate these discourses and the strategies they employ basing our analysis on the VULSOCU (New Forms of Socio-Existential Vulnerability, Supports, and Care in Spain) research project, specifically the results of nineteen in-depth interviews and three discussion groups with young adults in this country. Consequently, we seek to elucidate the argumentative threads rooted in the process of individualization and underline the implications of this dynamic for the young worker and his/her labour insertion while also identifying manifestations of the goddess of fortune as a representation of chance in this context. Finally, we approach this panorama of social change in Spain from the perspective of the individuals or young adults who find themselves immersed in this transition from one crisis to another.

Keywords: Work, Youth, Crisis, discourses, individualization, chance

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4133 Examining E-Government Impact Using Public Value Approach: A Case Study in Pakistan

Authors: Shahid Nishat, Keith Thomas

Abstract:

E-government initiatives attract substantial public investments around the world. These investments are based on the premise of digital transformation of the public services, improved efficiency and transparency, and citizen participation in the social democratic processes. However, many e-Government projects, especially in developing countries, fail to achieve their intended outcomes, and a strong disparity exists between the investments made and outcomes achieved, often referred to as e-Government paradox. Further, there is lack of research on evaluating the impacts of e-Government in terms of public value it creates, which ultimately drives usage. This study aims to address these gaps by identifying key enablers of e-Government success and by proposing a public value based framework to examine impact of e-Government services. The study will extend Delone and McLean Information System (IS) Success model by integrating Technology Readiness (TR) characteristics to develop an integrated success model. Level of analysis will be mobile government applications, and the framework will be empirically tested using quantitative methods. The research will add to the literature on e-Government success and will be beneficial for governments, especially in developing countries aspiring to improve public services through the use of Information Communication Technologies (ICT).

Keywords: e-Government, Technology Adoption, Public value, IS success model, technology readiness

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4132 A Tribe, a County, and a Casino: Socioeconomic Disparities between the Mohegan Tribe and New London County through Two Decades

Authors: Michaela Wang

Abstract:

Since British established colonial settlements across the East Coast, Native Americans have suffered stark socio economic disparities in comparison to their neighboring communities. This paper employs the 1990, 2000, and 2010 United States Decennial Census to assess whether and to what extent the casino economy helped to close this socioeconomic gap between the Mohegan tribe and its surrounding community. These three Decennial Censuses cover two decades, from six years prior to the erection of Mohegan Sun casino to 14 years afterwards, including the Great Recession 2007-2009. Income, employment, education and housing parameters are selected as socio economic indicators. The profitable advent of the Mohegan Sun in 1996 dramatically improved the socio economic status of the Mohegan Tribe between 1990 and 2000. In fact, for most of these indicators––poverty, median household income, employment, home ownership, and car ownership––disparities shifted; tribal socioeconomic parameters improved from well below the level of New London County in 1990, to the same level or above the county rates in 2000. However, economic downturn in 2007-2009 Great Recession impacted Mohegan people remarkably. By 2010, disparities for household income, employment, home ownership, and car ownership returned. The casino bridged socio economic inequalities, but at the face of economic crises, the mono-product economy grew vulnerable.

Keywords: Indigenous, disparity, socio economic, native American

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4131 Awareness of 'Psychosocial Restraint': A Proper Caring Attitude and Truly Listening to People with Dementia in the Hong Kong’S Residential Care Homes

Authors: Kenny Chi Man Chui

Abstract:

Background: In Chinese culture, the traditional equivalent term for English dementia is chi dai zheng, which, whether translated as ‘insanity’ or ‘idiocy’ carries a sharply negative connotation. In fact, even though the traditional name for dementia has evolved, from chi dai zheng to shi zhi zheng, nao tui hua zheng or ren zhi zhang ai zheng, educating the population about more respectful terms for the condition and promoting a positive understanding about people with dementia in society have proven to be time-intensive endeavors. By extension, the use of such terms promotes the perception that people with dementia undergo a ‘total loss of self’ or experience a ‘living death’ or ‘social death’. Both in Asia and elsewhere, the appropriate nomenclature for dementia remains controversial, and different medical and healthcare professionals in Hong Kong have taken various stances on how to refer to the condition there. Indeed, how this negative perception affects the interaction between people with dementia and the surrounding others? Methodology: Qualitative research with the concept of postmodernism, interpretivism, and Foucauldian theory was adopted as frameworks in applying participatory observations, in-depth interviews, and other qualitative methods. First, ten people with dementia—one man and nine women—living in two residential care homes in Hong Kong were interviewed, as were ten members of the care staff, all of whom were women. Next, to coach the staff in understanding the feelings and self-perceptions of people with dementia, two reflective training sessions were provided. Afterward, to assess the impact of the training sessions on the staff, two focus groups were held. Findings: The findings revealed that residents with dementia did not perceive themselves as being ‘demented’ and were confused by not getting responses from the others. From the understanding of care staff, they perceived the residents as being ‘demented’, desolate troublemakers. They described people with dementia as ‘naughty children’ who should be controlled and be punished while treated them as ‘psychiatric patients’ who could be ignored and be mute. “Psychosocial restraint” happened regarding the discrepancy of perception between people with dementia and the care staff. People with dementia did not think that their confusion of memory was related to dementia or, frankly speaking, they did not know what dementia was. When others treated them as ‘demented patients, the residents with mild to moderate dementia fiercely rejected that designation and reported a host of negative feelings, hence the fluctuations of mood and emotion noted by the care staff. Conclusion: As the findings revealed, the people with dementia were also discontent with the care arrangements in the care homes, felt abandoned by others and worried about bothering others. Their shifting emotional states and moods were treated as the Behavioral and Psychological symptoms of Dementia (BPSD), which nothing can do reported by the care staff in the residential care homes. People with dementia become social withdrawal or isolated in daily living, which should be alert and be changed by the social work professionals about the occurrence of “psychosocial restraint” in dementia care.

Keywords: Qualitative Research, psychosocial restraint, social work with dementitude, voice of people with dementia

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4130 Socialist Ideology in Africa: A Comparative Study of Pre and Post Socialism

Authors: Haymanot Gebre-Amlak, Selamawit Gebre-Amlak

Abstract:

Since its original declaration in the 18th century, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels's Communist Manifesto has become one of the most influential political tracts. Socialism is a political path that leads towards communism by fostering a cooperative economy through the creation of cooperative enterprises, common ownership, state ownership, or shared equity. The ultimate objective of communism is to bring everyone working toward the same collective goal of a healthy, happy, and free society. The European establishment of 19-century colonial rule over the continent of Africa reinforced inflows of European investment and forced a profound change in the operation of labor and land markets. The colonial era and forced labor schemes in Africa lasted for several decades. When exiting from colonialism, these African countries were attracted to socialism’s ideology to bridge the social gap and freedom to their society. In this paper, we compare a pre and post socialist ideology and the impact in various African countries. We analyse the different aspects, which led to inconsistent outcomes. Our finding indicates that while they have some facets in common, each African country had a unique interpretation and influence from the socialist ideology.

Keywords: Africa, African politics, socialism in Africa, African history

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4129 The Novel of 'the Adventure of the Secrets': Character in Postmodern Labyrinth, the Problem of Time and Subject

Authors: Nargiz Ismayilova

Abstract:

In Kamal Abdulla's "The Adventure of Mysteries", the plot develops on two parallel lines. While reading the work, the future looks hazy on the background of the present and the past. It is impossible to predict the end of the work in particular. This can be considered the success of the author. The novel has reflected the features of postmodernism. The novel is characterized by a richness of intertwined plots, themes, meta- submission, device (fiction) typical of postmodern prose technique. The introduction and progress of the work takes the reader to the place, which is an unrecognizable unknown for him but at the same time, its native for him very well. Parts of the novel, divided into chapter techniques, force the reader to distinguish mystical repetitions from the artistic circulation of reality. This makes people think directly. Intertextual communication and the variety of fiction, intelligence, and informativeness determine the perspective of the exemplary reader. As is well known, “postmodern novels, which often use intertextual communication and superstructure techniques, focus on expression rather than on the subject, and benefit from history by combining fiction with historical facts, are able to attract attention with their extraordinary foreign fiction.

Keywords: Postmodernism, Parallelism, comparison, novel, Kamal Abdulla, labyrinth

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4128 Historical Analysis of the First Lady of the Silent Screen: Exploring Parallels between Media Portrayals and Fan Letters to Film Star Lillian Gish

Authors: Annette Davies

Abstract:

This paper examines a collection of four fan letters written by two fans to the early film star, Lillian Gish. The letters were sent to Gish between 1929 and 1962 and were later archived at the New York Library of Performing Arts in Manhattan, New York. This paper also analyzes the media's portrayal of Gish during the time period of these written letters in order to identify parallels between the portrayal of Gish in the media and the perception of Gish by her fans, which is espoused in these fan letters. The media analyzed includes newspapers, fan magazines, Paine's 1932 biography Life and Lillian Gish, a film publicity poster for Gish's film Intolerance, and the film roles performed by Gish. Several parallels are found and assessed using the four processes of audience involvement with a media persona-transportation, parasocial interaction, identification, and worship.

Keywords: celebrity, congruency, fan, persona

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4127 Evidence of Social Media Addiction and Problematic Internet Use Among High School and University Students in Cyprus

Authors: Costas Christodoulides

Abstract:

Excessive use of social networking sites (SNS) and the Internet by high school pupils and university students, can cause consequences similar to those observed in substance or gambling related addictions, negatively influence individual well-being notwithstanding self-assessments that people make about their life and experiences. The present study examined, for the first time in Cyprus, the levels of problematic use of the Social Media and the Internet among Cypriot pupils and students aiming at contributing to the discussion about the need for a more conclusive policy framework in the island. The Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale (BSMAS) and the Generalized Problematic Internet Use Scale 2 (GPIUS-2) were adapted to a Cypriot version and along with a sociodemographic questionnaire were introduced to a sample of 1059 young persons in order to respectively assess the addiction risk for Social Media Use and the risk of Problematic Internet Use. The sample consisted of 59% females, aged 15 to 35 (M=18.9 years, SD=3.20), 465 of them were high school students and 594 university students. Of 1059 respondents from 4 high-schools and 5 Universities (HEI) in Cyprus, 8.3% of the sample had BSMAS scores suggestive of addiction. Approximately a quarter of the sample (24%), demonstrated GPIUS-2 scores suggestive of high risk for problematic internet use. It is notable that differences seem to exist across gender with the score of the female population (11.1%) reaching levels of addiction to social media more than twice the level of addiction of the male population (4.3%). Also, the female population of high school students seems to be at the most vulnerable position for problematic internet use (28%). The 26% of the sample often or very often used some SNSs to forget of personal problems. The results of this study show that half of those surveyed used the Internet to feel better when they were upset or to escape the isolation they felt. Among the sample population, the study reports that 60% of the pupils and female university students are in agreement with the relevant statements. Conclusively, this study suggests that SNSs addiction levels among pupils and students in Cyprus ought to be an important public health concern. The same if not more alarming is the identified by the study prevalence of problematic Internet use among the same population. These results confirm international trends reported by scholarly research while also suggest that particular categories such as high school pupils and young females may be more exposed to problem SNSs and Internet use. Preventive strategies need first to acknowledge the problem in order to then formulate an effective strategy for prevention and intervention. For relevant authorities it is of primary importance to “exploit” the fact that high schools and universities can be seen as small communities and units potentially available for forging alliances for healthy Social Media and Internet use.

Keywords: Well-being, social media addiction, social networking sites, problematic internet use

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4126 Reformed Curricula for the Religious Educational Institutions in Pakistan and the Muslim World

Authors: Hafiz Khubaib Ur Rehman Awan

Abstract:

Education used to play a central role in the formation and transfiguration of society since early times, owing in part to the centrality of scripture and its study in the human circles. According to the Islamic purpose of education, its pivotal contribution in the society is to produce a balanced growth of the entire persona of an individual through training the spirit, intellect, rational self, feelings, and bodily senses such that faith is infused into the whole personality. The purpose of this study is to attempt the exploration of the development of the Islamic religious curriculum in the Islamic world with an emphasis on Pakistan because this homeland came into existence under the name of Islam. This study persists of necessary historical background on the curricular reform of religious education in Pakistan and their impact on it and the suburban countries. However, the mainstay of this paper bases on reform in the religious education curriculum and the challenges faced by Pakistan and the Islamic world. Some suggestions are positioned at the end for areas of Islamic religious education and the improvement of Islamic curricular reform, especially in Pakistan and generally in Muslim countries.

Keywords: Educational, Curricula, Pakistan, Religious, muslim world, religious educational institutions

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4125 An Analysis of Methodological Approaches of Ahmed Cevdet and Fatma Aliye towards the Ottoman Historiography in a Comparative Context

Authors: Aysen Muderrisoglu Esiner

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As an intellectual, scholar, bureaucrat, and statesman, Ahmed Cevdet Pasha (1822-1895) was the prominent figure of “Tanzimat” (reorganization) reforms of the Ottoman State while his daughter Fatma Aliye (1862-1936) was a novelist, columnist, essayist, and women’s rights activist. His father had numerous books on law, grammar, linguistics, logic, and astronomy, moreover, Aliye accepted as the first female novelist in the Turkish literature and the Islamic world. Even if she was better known as a novelist, she also published some works on philosophy, Islam, poetry. In addition, Aliye who was one of the pioneers of the Ottoman women’s movement, also wrote historical works. Her historical works which titled as Tarih-i Osmaninin Bir Devre-i Mühimmesi Kosova Zaferi-Ankara Hezimeti (An Important Era of the Ottoman History: Kosova Victory-Ankara Defeat), and Ahmed Cevdet Paşa ve Zamanı (Ahmed Cevdet Pasha and His Time) have been generally ignored in the literature. However, Aliye’s works in history field are worth being studied in terms of her methodological approach to the Ottoman historiography. On the other hand, written by Ahmed Cevdet Pasha, such as Tarih-i Cevdet (History of Cevdet), Tezâkir (Memoir), Mâruzat (Reports, the events that took place between 1839-1876, 1890), Kısas-ı Enbiya ve Tevârîh-i Hulefa (Retaliation of the Prophets and the History of Calips), Kırım ve Kafkas Tarihçesi (Crimean and Caucasian History) are the most important works in terms of historiography in the 19th century. In contrast to the traditional methodology, Cevdet Pasha brought a new understanding to the Ottoman historiography by making a synthesis between the traditional and modern methods. In this research, the historical works of these two prominent figures of the Ottoman State will be analyzed in terms of their approaches to the Ottoman historiography while evaluating the following questions: to what extent that their use of local and foreign historical sources and their handling of the historical events differ, or if it is possible to talk about a methodological similarities in terms of historiography.

Keywords: Methodology, historiography, Ahmed Cevdet Pasha, Fatma Aliye

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4124 Sociological Analysis of Fulfillment Regarding Basic Needs of Females(Women) at Home with Special Reference of Balochistan (Pakistan)

Authors: Muhammad Irfan, Shabana Mohammad

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to bring out the facts regarding the effects of gender discrimination in fulfilling the basic needs of females at home. The purpose of the study was to observe whether gender discrimination affects the fulfillment of their basic needs in comparison to male siblings. Balochistan is the largest province of Pakistan geographically and has a tribal system. Due to having tribal systems, the women are not treated equally as men at home because males are considered the strength and privilege of tribes; males are more valuable because they support their families economically as well, and females are not allowed to work outside the home. That’s why females are deprived of their basic needs of life. The females (women) are neglected to have better nourishment, health facilities, easy access to get an education, safe house, and self-confidence. The type of research is quantitative, and data was collected from all government girls’ degree colleges of Quetta city (the capital of Balochistan province) under the age of 18. Two hundred (200) Students of all FA arts faculty (first year) were selected through simple random sampling (fishbowl draw). Data were analyzed by SPSS, and a coefficient test was applied to test the hypothesis. The regression of coefficient has a significant association between gender discrimination and basic needs (P-value =.000). The results showed that women are underprivileged from all basic needs (fundamental rights) of life, which are entitled to everyone by their birth because of male preference that creates gender disparity between men and women.

Keywords: Discrimination, basic needs, value of women at home, hurdles of women

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4123 Social Factors and Suicide Risk in Modern Russia

Authors: Maria Cherepanova, Svetlana Maximova

Abstract:

Background And Aims: Suicide is among ten most common causes of death of the working-age population in the world. According to the WHO forecasts, by 2025 suicide will be the third leading cause of death, after cardiovascular diseases and cancer. In 2019, the global suicide rate in the world was 10,5 per 100,000 people. In Russia, the average figure was 11.6. However, in some depressed regions of Russia, such as Buryatia and Altai, it reaches 35.3. The aim of this study was to develop models based on the regional factors of social well-being deprivation that provoke the suicidal risk of various age groups of Russian population. We also investigated suicidal risk prevention in modern Russia, analyzed its efficacy, and developed recommendations for suicidal risk prevention improvement. Methods: In this study, we analyzed the data from sociological surveys from six regions of Russia. Totally we interviewed 4200 people, the age of the respondents was from 16 to 70 years. The results were subjected to factorial and regression analyzes. Results: The results of our study indicate that young people are especially socially vulnerable, which result in ineffective patterns of self-preservation behavior and increase the risk of suicide. That is due to lack of anti-suicidal barriers formation; low importance of vital values; the difficulty or impossibility to achieve basic needs; low satisfaction with family and professional life; and decrease in personal unconditional significance. The suicidal risk of the middle-aged population is due to a decrease in social well-being in the main aspects of life, which determines low satisfaction, decrease in ontological security, and the prevalence of auto-aggressive deviations. The suicidal risk of the elderly population is due to increased factors of social exclusion which result in narrowing the social space and limiting the richness of life. Conclusions: The existing system for lowering suicide risk in modern Russia is predominantly oriented to a medical treatment, which provides only intervention to people who already committed suicide, that significantly limits its preventive effectiveness and social control of this deviation. The national strategy for suicide risk reduction in modern Russian society should combine medical and social activities, designed to minimize possible situations resulting to suicide. The strategy for elimination of suicidal risk should include a systematic and significant improvement of the social well-being of the population and aim at overcoming the basic aspects of social disadvantages such as poverty, unemployment as well as implementing innovative mental health improvement, developing life-saving behavior that will help to counter suicides in Russia.

Keywords: Prevention, Suicide, Russia, social factors

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4122 A Bibliometric Analysis of Ukrainian Research Articles on SARS-COV-2 (COVID-19) in Compliance with the Standards of Current Research Information Systems

Authors: Sabina Auhunas

Abstract:

These days in Ukraine, Open Science dramatically develops for the sake of scientists of all branches, providing an opportunity to take a more close look on the studies by foreign scientists, as well as to deliver their own scientific data to national and international journals. However, when it comes to the generalization of data on science activities by Ukrainian scientists, these data are often integrated into E-systems that operate inconsistent and barely related information sources. In order to resolve these issues, developed countries productively use E-systems, designed to store and manage research data, such as Current Research Information Systems that enable combining uncompiled data obtained from different sources. An algorithm for selecting SARS-CoV-2 research articles was designed, by means of which we collected the set of papers published by Ukrainian scientists and uploaded by August 1, 2020. Resulting metadata (document type, open access status, citation count, h-index, most cited documents, international research funding, author counts, the bibliographic relationship of journals) were taken from Scopus and Web of Science databases. The study also considered the info from COVID-19/SARS-CoV-2-related documents published from December 2019 to September 2020, directly from documents published by authors depending on territorial affiliation to Ukraine. These databases are enabled to get the necessary information for bibliometric analysis and necessary details: copyright, which may not be available in other databases (e.g., Science Direct). Search criteria and results for each online database were considered according to the WHO classification of the virus and the disease caused by this virus and represented (Table 1). First, we identified 89 research papers that provided us with the final data set after consolidation and removing duplication; however, only 56 papers were used for the analysis. The total number of documents by results from the WoS database came out at 21641 documents (48 affiliated to Ukraine among them) in the Scopus database came out at 32478 documents (41 affiliated to Ukraine among them). According to the publication activity of Ukrainian scientists, the following areas prevailed: Education, educational research (9 documents, 20.58%); Social Sciences, interdisciplinary (6 documents, 11.76%) and Economics (4 documents, 8.82%). The highest publication activity by institution types was reported in the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine (its percent of published scientific papers equals 36% or 7 documents), Danylo Halytsky Lviv National Medical University goes next (5 documents, 15%) and P. L. Shupyk National Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education (4 documents, 12%). Basically, research activities by Ukrainian scientists were funded by 5 entities: Belgian Development Cooperation, the National Institutes of Health (NIH, U.S.), The United States Department of Health & Human Services, grant from the Whitney and Betty MacMillan Center for International and Area Studies at Yale, a grant from the Yale Women Faculty Forum. Based on the results of the analysis, we obtained a set of published articles and preprints to be assessed on the variety of features in upcoming studies, including citation count, most cited documents, a bibliographic relationship of journals, reference linking. Further research on the development of the national scientific E-database continues using brand new analytical methods.

Keywords: Text Mining, Content Analysis, Scientometrics, COVID-19

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4121 A Comparative-Analytic Study of the Treatises of "I'tiqāDāT" Written by Sheikh Saduq and Sheikh Mufid Concerning the Notions of Monotheism and Divine Justice

Authors: Forough Rahimpour

Abstract:

Following the beginning of the major occultation of Imam Zaman, the Shiite great thinkers and theologians started to identify and elaborate on the fundamental beliefs, the ones which were subject to more elaboration and criticism later throughout the history. Sheikh Saduq in his Treatise on fundamental beliefs selected the most basic Shiite beliefs and through his special method which was based on traditions and narrations, explained his specific views. Sheikh Mufid, on the other hand, dealing with the same topics, applied a method consisted of intellectual-narrative approach and expressed his own views and also evaluated the ideas expressed by Sheikh Saduq. The present study aims to compare and analyze the theological similarities and differences between the views expressed by Saduq and Mufid about the notions of monotheism and dive justice. The main focus in this study is on the two treatises called "I'tiqādāt” and "Tashih al I'tiqādāt "-written by Saduq and Mufid respectively. Although Sheikh Mufid was Saduq's disciple, he sometimes disagreed with Saduq's ideas and sometimes criticized his methodology. DespiteIn Saduq's high status in the science of Hadith, Sheikh Mufid sometimes discredited the Hadiths narrated by him and considered them Khabar-e Vahid (isolated tradition).

Keywords: monotheism, Saduq, Mufid, divine justice, treatise of "I'tiqādāt

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4120 A Goal-Driven Crime Scripting Framework

Authors: Hashem Dehghanniri

Abstract:

Crime scripting is a simple and effective crime modeling technique that aims to improve understanding of security analysts about security and crime incidents. Low-quality scripts provide a wrong, incomplete, or sophisticated understanding of the crime commission process, which oppose the purpose of their application, e.g., identifying effective and cost-efficient situational crime prevention (SCP) measures. One important and overlooked factor in generating quality scripts is the crime scripting method. This study investigates the problems within the existing crime scripting practices and proposes a crime scripting approach that contributes to generating quality crime scripts. It was validated by experienced crime scripters. This framework helps analysts develop better crime scripts and contributes to their effective application, e.g., SCP measures identification or policy-making.

Keywords: situational crime prevention, attack modelling, crime commission process, crime script

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4119 Health and Wellbeing: Measuring and Mapping Diversity in India

Authors: Swati Rajput

Abstract:

Wellbeing is a multifaceted concept. Its definition has evolved to become more holistic over the years. The paper attempts to build up the understanding of the concept of wellbeing and marks the trajectory of its conceptual evolution. The paper will also elaborate and analyse various indicators of socio-economic wellbeing in India at state level. Ranking method has been applied to assess the situation of each state in context to the variable selected and wellbeing as a whole. Maps have been used to depict and illustrate the same. The data shows that the socio-economic wellbeing level is higher in states of Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, Uttrakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Bihar, and Lakshadweep. The level of wellbeing is very lower in Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Telengana, Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, and Tripura. Environment plays an important role in maintaining health. Environment and health are important indicators of wellbeing. The paper would further analyse some indicators of environment and health and find the change in the result of wellbeing levels of different states.

Keywords: Health, Mapping, socio economic factors, wellbeing index

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4118 The Role of Twitter Bots in Political Discussion on 2019 European Elections

Authors: Thomai Voulgari, Vasilis Vasilopoulos, Antonis Skamnakis

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the European election campaigns (May 23-26, 2019) on Twitter achieving with artificial intelligence tools such as troll factories and automated inauthentic accounts. Our research focuses on the last European Parliamentary elections that took place between 23 and 26 May 2019 specifically in Italy, Greece, Germany and France. It is difficult to estimate how many Twitter users are actually bots (Echeverría, 2017). Detection for fake accounts is becoming even more complicated as AI bots are made more advanced. A political bot can be programmed to post comments on a Twitter account for a political candidate, target journalists with manipulated content or engage with politicians and artificially increase their impact and popularity. We analyze variables related to 1) the scope of activity of automated bots accounts and 2) degree of coherence and 3) degree of interaction taking into account different factors, such as the type of content of Twitter messages and their intentions, as well as the spreading to the general public. For this purpose, we collected large volumes of Twitter accounts of party leaders and MEP candidates between 10th of May and 26th of July based on content analysis of tweets based on hashtags while using an innovative network analysis tool known as MediaWatch.io (https://mediawatch.io/). According to our findings, one of the highest percentage (64.6%) of automated “bot” accounts during 2019 European election campaigns was in Greece. In general terms, political bots aim to proliferation of misinformation on social media. Targeting voters is a way that it can be achieved contribute to social media manipulation. We found that political parties and individual politicians create and promote purposeful content on Twitter using algorithmic tools. Based on this analysis, online political advertising play an important role to the process of spreading misinformation during elections campaigns. Overall, inauthentic accounts and social media algorithms are being used to manipulate political behavior and public opinion.

Keywords: Social Networking, artificial intelligence tools, human-bot interactions, political manipulation, troll factories

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4117 The Evolving Changes of Religious Behavior: an Exploratory Study on Guanyin Worship of Contemporary Chinese Societies

Authors: Judith Sue Hwa Joo

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Guanyin (Avalokiteśvara in Sanskrit), the Bodhisattva of Mercy and Compassion, is the most widely worshipped Buddhist Divinity in Chinese societies and is also believed by more than half of Asian populations across various countries. The most overwhelming reason for the popularity of Guanyin in Chinese societies is, according to the Lotus Sutra, that Guanyin would apperceive voices of those suffering from immense afflictions and troubles, and liberate them upon crying for his/her holy name with wholeheartedness. Its pervasive social influence has spanned more than two thousand years and is still deeply affecting the lives of most Chinese people. This study aimed to investigate whether Guanyin Worship has evolved and changed in modern Chinese societies across the Taiwan Strait. Taiwan and China, albeit having the same language and culture, have been territorially divided and governed by two different political regimes for over 70 years. It would be scientifically intriguing to unveil any substantial changes in religious behaviors in the context of Guanyin Worship. A comprehensive anonymous questionnaire survey in Chinese communities was conducted from October 2017 to May 2019 across various countries, mostly in China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong areas. Since the religious survey is officially prohibited in China, the study was difficult and could only be exercised by means of snowball sampling. Demographic data (age, sex, education, religious belief) were registered and Guanyin’s salvation functions under various confronting situations were investigated. Psychological dimensions of religious belief in Guanyin were probed in terms of the worship experience, the willingness of veneration, and egoistic or altruistic ideations. A literature review on documented functional attributes was carried out in parallel for comparison analyses with traditional roles. Effective 1123 out of 1139 samples were obtained. Statistical analysis revealed that Guanyin Worship is still commonly practiced and deeply rooted in the hearts of all Chinese people regardless of gender, age, education, and residential area, even though they may not enshrine Guanyin at home nowadays. The conventional roles of Guanyin Bodhisattva are still valid and best satisfy the real interests of lifestyles in modern times. When comparing the traditional Buddhist Sutra and the documented literature, the divine power of modern Guanyin has notably empowered to recover, protect and transform fetal and infant spirits due to the sexual liberation, increased abortion rate, gender awakening and enhanced female autonomy in the reproductive decision. However, the One-Child policy may have critically impacted the trajectory of Guanyin Worship so that people in China prevail over those in Taiwan praying for aborted lives or premature deaths. Furthermore, particularly in Hong Kong and Macao, Guanyin not only serves as the sea guardian for the fishermen but also additional services a new function as the God of Wealth. The divine powers and salvation functions of Guanyin are indeed evolving and expanding to comply with the modern psychosocial, cultural and societal needs. This study sheds light on the modernization process of the two-thousand-year-old Guanyin Worship of contemporary Chinese societies.

Keywords: Buddhism, Religious Behavior, Guanyin, salvation function

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