Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4553

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Humanities and Social Sciences]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

4553 The Learning Experience of Two Students with Visual Impairments in the EFL Courses: A Case Study

Authors: May Ling González-Ruiz, Ana Cristina Solís-Solís


Everyday more people can thrive towards the dream of pursuing a university diploma. This can be more attainable for some than for others who may face different types of limitations. Even though not all limitations come from within the individual but most of the times they come from without it may include the environment, the support of the person’s family, the school – its infrastructure, administrative procedures, and attitudes. This is a qualitative type of research that is developed through a case study. It is based on the experiences of two students who are visually impaired and who have attended a public university in Costa Rica. We enquire about the experiences of these two students in the English as a Foreign Language courses at the university scenario. An in-depth analysis of their lived experiences is presented. Their values, attitudes, and expectations serve as the guiding elements for this research. Findings are presented in light of the Social Justice Approach to inclusive education. Some of the most salient aspects found have to do with the attitudes the students used to face challenges; others point at those elements that may have hindered the learning experience of the persons observed and to those that encouraged them to continue their journey and successfully achieve a diploma.

Keywords: inclusion, case study, visually impaired student, learning experience, social justice approach

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4552 Chinese “Wolf Warrior” Diplomacy And Foreign Public Opinion

Authors: Chaohong Pan


Through public diplomacy on social media, governments have attempted to influence foreign public opinion. What is the impact of digital public diplomacy? Public diplomacy research often relies on content analysis to study the strategies employed by communicators but has rarely examined its actual impact on the audience. In addition, we do not know if giving a communicator an explicit label, as Twitter does with “government account”, would change the effects of the messages. Can the government label reduce the percussiveness of public diplomacy messages by sending a warning signal? Using a 2 × 2 survey experiment, the present paper contributes to the study of public diplomacy by randomly exposing American participants to four types of tweets from Chinese diplomats. The stimulus materials vary in terms of the tweets’ content (“positive-china” vs. “negative-US) and Twitter government labels (with vs. without the labels). I found that positive tweets about China have a significant positive effect on Americans’ attitudes toward China, whereas negative tweets about the US have little effect on their opinions. Furthermore, positive-China tweets are effective only on China-related issues, which indicates that Chinese diplomats’ tweets have limited effects on shaping a foreign audience’s attitudes toward their own country. Lastly, I find that labels largely have no impact on a diplomatic tweet’s effect. These results contribute to our understanding of the effects of public diplomacy in the digital age.

Keywords: public diplomacy, china, foreign public opinion, twitter

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4551 Metamorphosis in Nature through Adéquation: An Ecocritical Reading of Charles Tomlinson's Poetry

Authors: Zahra Barzegar, Reza Deedari, Behzad Pourgharib


This study examines how metamorphosis in nature is depicted in Charles Tomlinson's poetry through Lawrence Buell's mimesis and referential strategy of adéquation. This study aims to answer the questions that what is the relationship between Tomlinson's selected poems and nature, and how does Tomlinson's poetry bring the reader close to the natural environment. Adéquation is a way that brings the reader close to nature, not by imitating nature but by referring to it imaginatively and creating a stylized image. Using figurative language, namely imagery, metaphor, and analogy, adéquation creates a stylized image of metamorphosis in a nature scene that acts as a middle way between the reader and nature. This paper proves that adéquation reinvents the metamorphosis in natural occurrences in Charles Tomlinson's selected poems. Thus, a reader whose imagination is addressed achieves closeness with nature and a caring outlook toward natural happenings. This article confirms that Tomlinson's poems are potential enough to represent metamorphosis in nature through adéquation. Therefore, the reader understands nature beyond the poem as the poem presents a gist of nature through adéquation.

Keywords: adéquation, metamorphosis, nature, referentiality

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4550 EFL Teachers' Views Towards Incorporating Intercultural Communicative Competence in English Major Programmes at a Hungarian University

Authors: Maroua Talbi


This exploratory case study investigates EFL teachers' views towards incorporating intercultural communicative competence in their courses in English major programmes at a Hungarian university. Byram's (1997) definition of intercultural communicative competence is used. Moreover, the intercultural competencemodel proposed by Barrett et al. (2014) wasapplied. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with nine tutors who teach courses at the BA, MA, and PhD level and in the teacher training programme. The interviews were carried out between December 2019 and July 2020. They were conducted face-to-face, and because of the pandemic, some of them were done on online platforms. The findings indicated that the tutors acknowledged the importance of learning about the different cultures and developingstudents'intercultural communicative competence. The results showed that they aimed to develop students' knowledge about English-speaking cultures (Australia, The United States of American, and Britain) and examine cultural differences between students' culture and the target cultures. Some tutors expressed that they also aimed to develop pre-service teachers' awareness about the possible ways to integrate intercultural communicative competence in English language teaching. To do so, they used different methods and activities to implementintercultural communicative competence in their courses, such as role-plays, debates, watch movies and TED talks, and use authentic materials from the culture in question. One teacher relied on an innovative activity which was making online collaboration with students from different cultures. These findingsshowed teachers' enthusiasm to incorporate aspects of intercultural communicative competence in their classrooms. Some good practices were found, such as peer teaching and literature from various cultures. The present study has several implications regarding the integration of intercultural communicative competence in EFL classrooms.

Keywords: intercultural communicative competence, intercultural awareness, EFL teachers, hungarian university

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4549 'Infection in the Sentence': The Castration of a Black Woman's Dream of Authorship as Manifested in Buchi Emecheta's Second Class Citizen

Authors: Aseel Hatif Jassam, Hadeel Hatif Jassam


The paper discusses the phallocentric discourse that is challenged by women in general and of women of color in particular in spite of the simultaneity of oppression due to race, class, and gender in the diaspora. Therefore, the paper gives a brief account of women's experience in the light of postcolonial feminist theory. The paper also cast light on the theories of Luce Irigaray and Helen Cixous, two Feminist theorists who support and advise women to have their own discourse to challenge the infectious patriarchal sentence advocated by Sigmund Freud and Harold Bloom's model of literary history. Black women authors like BuchiEmecheta as well as her alter ego Adah, a Nigerian-born girl and the protagonist of her semi-autobiographical novel, Second Class Citizen, suffer from this phallocentric and oppressive sentence and displacement as they migrate from Nigeria, a former British colony where they feel marginalized to North London with the hope of realizing their dreams. Yet, in the British diaspora, they get culturally shocked and continue to suffer from further marginalization due to class and race and are insulted and interiorized ironically by their patriarchal husbands who try to put an end to their dreams of authorship. With the phallocentric belief that women aren't capable of self-representation in the background of their mindsets, the violent Sylvester Onwordi and Francis Obi, the husbands of both Emecheta and Adah, respectively have practiced oppression on them by burning their own authoritative voice, represented by the novels they write while they are struggling with their economically atrocious living experience in the British diaspora.

Keywords: authorship, British diaspora, discourse, phallocentric, patriarchy

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4548 The Effect of Health Subsidies on Poverty Level in Indonesia

Authors: Ikhsan Fahmi, Hasti Amanda Ilmi Putri


The Covid-19 pandemic caused Large Scale Social Restrictions which have an impact on aspects of the nation’s life, such as the level of poverty. One of the causes of poverty is the lack level of public health. The calculation of poverty is seen as an inability from an economic side of basic food and non-food needs, which is measured from the expenditure side, one of which is health expenditure. The purpose of this study is to analyse the effect of health subsidies to the community on the level of poverty in 2020 in Indonesia. The main source used is the National Socio-Economic Survey of Consumption Expenditure and Cor, March 2020. From the result of the analysis, it was found that the percentage of poor people increased from the previous 9.78 percent to 9,92 percent, or there were 391,000 people who were previously not poor people who became poor when the health subsidies were revoked. There is a pattern of distribution of provinces in Indonesia between the average cost of health subsidies per capita per month if the government does not provide health subsidies and increasing of the percentage of poor people. This indicates that government intervention related to health subsidised is important in terms of poverty alleviation in Indonesia.

Keywords: poverty, health, subsidy, expenditure

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4547 The Power of Social Media Influencers: A Study of Public Perception of Credibility Among Kuwaitis

Authors: Fatima Alsalem


Objectives: This study aims to explore the perceived credibility of social media influencers and their effect on purchase intention. In addition, the study aims to investigate the relationship between satisfaction with content promoted via social media and its relation to purchasing intention. Methodology: This study uses an exploratory and quantitative methodology. It was implemented through a cross-sectional survey that asked respondents to identify the time they spend using social media, satisfaction with influencers’ content, types of influencers they prefer, motivations to use social media, purchase intention of products promoted by influencers, as well as three credibility dimensions. Sample: the sample included 1184 Kuwaiti nationals, of which 50.4% (N=593) were males and 49.6% (N=584) were females. Results: The analysis of the data indicated that comedy and entertainment influencers are the most preferred type of influencers, while fashion influencers “fashionistas” are the least preferred. Based on the results of the regression analysis, the perceived credibility of influencers and satisfaction with their content is positively related to higher purchase intention. While all dimensions of credibility are positively related to higher purchase intention, attractiveness is the strongest predictor. Conclusion: The significant value of this study is the examination of the perceived credibility of influencers and the type of influencer social media users prefer to follow. The current research proves that the attractiveness of influencers is the highest dimension of their perceived credibility, which was prevalent in the findings.

Keywords: influencers, social media, mass media, credibility

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4546 Agency Beyond Metaphysics of Subjectivity

Authors: Erik Kuravsky


One of the problems with a post-structuralist account of agency is that it appears to reject the freedom of an acting subject, thus seeming to deny the very phenomenon of agency. However, this is only a problem if we think that human beings can be agents exclusively in terms of being subjects, that is, if we think agency subjectively. Indeed, we tend to understand traditional theories of human freedom (e.g., Plato’s or Kant’s) in terms of a peculiar ability of the subject. The paper suggests to de-subjectivize agency with the help of Heidegger’s later thought. To do it, ir argues that classical theories of agency may indeed be interpreted as subject-oriented (sometimes even by their authors), but do not have to be read as such. Namely, the claim is that what makes agency what it is, what is essential in agency, is not its belonginess to a subject, but its ontological configuration. We may say that agency “happens,” and that there is a very specific ontological characteristics to this happening. The argument of the paper is that we can find these characteristic in the classical accounts of agency and that these characteristics are sufficient to distinguish human freedom from other natural phenomena. In particular, it offers to think agency not as one of human characteristics, but as an ontological event in which human beings take part. Namely, agency is a (non-human) characteristic of the different modes in which the experienceable existence of beings is determined by Being. To be an agent then is to participate in such ontological determination. What enables this participation is the ways human beings non-thematically understand the ontological difference. For example, for Plato, one acts freely only if one is led by an idea of the good, while for Kant the imperative for free action is categorial. The agency of an agent is thus dependent on the differentiation between ideas/categories and beings met in experience – one is “free” from contingent sensibility in terms of what is different from it ontologically. In this light, modern dependence on subjectivity is evident in the fact that the ontological difference is thought as belonging to one’s thinking, consciousness etc. That is, it is taken subjectively. A non-subjective account of agency, on the other hand, requires thinking this difference as belonging to Being itself, and thinking human beings as a medium within which occurs the non-human force of ontological differentiation.

Keywords: Heidegger, freedom, agency, poststructuralism

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4545 The Universal Cultural Associations in the Conceptual Metaphors Used in the Headlines of Arab News and Saudi Gazette Newspapers: A Critical Cognitive Study

Authors: Hind Hassan Arruwaite


Conceptual metaphor is a cognitive semantic tool that provides access to people's conceptual systems. The correlation in the human conceptual system surpasses limited time and specific cultures. The universal associations provide universal schemas that organize people's conceptualization of the world. The study aims to explore how the cultural associations used in conceptual metaphors create commonalities and harmony between people of the world. In the research methodology, the researcher implemented Critical Metaphor Analysis, Metaphor Candidate Identification and Metaphor Identification Procedure models to deliver qualitative and descriptive findings. The semantic tension was the key criterion in identifying metaphorically used words in the headlines. The research materials are the oil trade conceptual metaphors used in the headlines of Arab News and Saudi Gazette Newspapers. The data will be uploaded to the self-constructed corpus to examine electronic lists for identifying conceptual metaphors. The study investigates the types of conceptual metaphors used in the headlines of the newspapers, the cultural associations identified in the conceptual metaphors, and whether the identified cultural associations in conceptual metaphors create universal conceptual schemas. The study aligned with previous seminal works on conceptual metaphor theory in emphasizing the distinctive power of conceptual metaphors in exposing the cultural associations that unify people's perceptions. The correlation of people conceptualization provides universal schemas that involve elements of human sensorimotor experiences. The study contributes to exposing the shared cultural associations that ensure the commonality of all humankind's thinking mechanism.

Keywords: critical discourse analysis, critical metaphor analysis, conceptual metaphor theory, primary and specific metaphors, corpus-driven approach, universal associations, image schema, sensorimotor experience, oil trade

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4544 The Effect of Support Program Based on The Health Belief Model on Reproductive Health Behavior in Women with Orthopedic Disabled

Authors: Eda Yakit Ak, Ergül Aslan


The study was conducted using the quasi-experimental design to determine the influence of the nursing support program prepared according to the Health Belief Model on reproductive health behaviors of orthopedically disabled women in the physical therapy and rehabilitation clinic at a university hospital between August 2019-October, 2020. The research sample included 50 women (35 in the control group and 15 in the experimental group with orthopedic disability). A 3-week nursing support program was applied to the experimental group of women. To collect the data, Introductory Information Form and Scale for Determining the Protective Attitudes of Married Women towards Reproductive Health (SDPAMW) were applied. The evaluation was made with a follow-up form for four months. In the first evaluation, the total SDPAMW scores were 119.93±20.59 for the experimental group and 122.20±16.71 for the control group. In the final evaluation, the total SDPAMW scores were 144.27±11.95 for the experimental group and 118.00±16.43 for the control group. The difference between the groups regarding the first and final evaluations for the total SDPAMW scores was statistically significant (p<0.01). In the experimental group, between the first and final evaluations regarding the sub-dimensions of SDPAMW, an increase was found in the behavior of seeing the doctor on reproductive health issues, protection from reproductive organ and breast cancer, general health behaviors to protect reproductive health, and protection from genital tract infections (p<0.05). Consequently, the nursing support program based on the Health Belief Model applied to orthopedically disabled women positively affected reproductive health behaviors.

Keywords: orthopedically disabled, woman, reproductive health, nursing support program, health belief model

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4543 Societal Impacts of Algorithmic Recommendation System: Economy, International Relations, Political Ideologies, and Education

Authors: Maggie Shen


Ever since the late 20th century, business giants have been competing to provide better experiences for their users. One way they strive to do so is through more efficiently connecting users with their goals, with recommendation systems that filter out unnecessary or less relevant information. Today’s top online platforms such as Amazon, Netflix, Airbnb, Tiktok, Facebook, and Google all utilize algorithmic recommender systems for different purposes—Product recommendation, movie recommendation, travel recommendation, relationship recommendation, etc. However, while bringing unprecedented convenience and efficiency, the prevalence of algorithmic recommendation systems also influences society in many ways. In using a variety of primary, secondary, and social media sources, this paper explores the impacts of algorithms, particularly algorithmic recommender systems, on different sectors of society. Four fields of interest will be specifically addressed in this paper: economy, international relations, political ideologies, and education.

Keywords: algorithms, economy, international relations, political ideologies, education

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4542 An Investigation into the Decision-Making Process of Choosing Long-Term Care Services in Taiwan

Authors: Yu-Ching Liu


Background: Family numbers usually take responsibility for taking care of their elderly relatives, especially parents. Caring for a patient with chronic diseases is a stressful experience, which makes carers suffer physical and mental health stress, difficulties maintaining family relationships and issues in participating in the labor market, which may lower their quality of life (QoL). The issue of providing care to relatives with chronic illness has been widely explored in Taiwan, but most studies focus on the need for full-time caregivers. Objective: The main goal of this study was to examine the topic of working carers involved in the decision-making process of LTC services and to explore what affects working carers considering when they choose the care services for their disabled, elderly relatives. Method: A total of 7 working caregivers were enrolled in this study. A face-to-face and semi-structured in-depth qualitative interview study were conducted to explore the caregivers' perspectives. Results: Working carers have a positive experience of using LTC service because it allows them to kill two birds with one stone, continue employment, and care for an elderly disabled relative. However, working carers have still been struggling to find friendly community-based LTC services. There were no longer available community services that could be used with the illness condition of patients getting worse. As such, patients have to be cared for at home, which might increase the caregiver burden of carers. Conclusion: Working family caregivers suffer from heavy physical and psychological burdens as they not only have to maintain their employment but care for elderly disabled relatives; however, the current support provided is insufficient. The design of services should consider working carers' employment situation and need rather than the only caring situation of patients at home.

Keywords: family caregiver, Long-term care, work-life balance, decision-making

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4541 Unitary Federalism in Nigeria: Implications for Continued Corporate Existence of Nigeria

Authors: Chukwudi S. Osondu


Currently, the two most economically viable states in Nigeria, Lagos State and Rivers, are challenging the National Government over the legality of the latter’s continued collection and disbursement of the Value Added Tax (VAT) in their respective states. These states recently enacted laws empowering their respective states agencies to collect and administer the Value Added Tax (VAT) in their states. Before now, it was the Federal Inland Revenue Service (FIRS) that is mandated by the National Government to collect VAT throughout the Federation, and have same administered by the Federal Revenue Mobilization Allocation and Fiscal Commission, another Federal agency. Most states in the South-South and South-West geopolitical zones and a handful of states in the South-East are supportive of the actions taken by Lagos and Rivers states and are ready to follow suit. This action is seen as the beginning of resistance by the states over the continued strangulating over-centralized systems operating in the country. The Nigeria Federation has over the years operated a unitary system with grave consequences for development and possible implosion of the polity. The Quota System, the Federal Character policy, the control of the natural resources, and the security infrastructure by the National Government have been in place for decades with the attendant misgivings by some sections in the Nigeria Project. This paper evaluates the impact of the over-centralization power on the National Government with reference to fiscal policies, security, resource exploitation, infrastructural development, and national cohesion. It concludes that “unitary federalism” scuttles national development, inflames disunity, and stokes dissatisfaction among states in the federation. The paper concludes by suggesting a federation where power is devolved to the states, with the states as the federating units allowed to, each develop at its own pace.

Keywords: peace, conflict, insecurity, corporate existence, sustainable development, peaceful coexistence

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4540 Intervention with Families in Extreme Distress - The Perspective the Social Workers and the Clients

Authors: Ahuva Even-Zohar


Background: Multi-problem families have always been at the core of the social worker's profession. These families are among the most difficult populations to work with and continue to be a challenge for social workers' intervention as well as for social policy. Multi-problem families defined as "Families in Extreme Distress", and a set of factors characterized these families: Poverty (e.g.debts); housing (e.g. physical neglect); health problems (e.g. chronic diseases); couple functioning (e.g. violence); parental functioning (e.g. lack of boundaries); children (e.g. learning difficulties); substance abuse (e.g. drugs); anti-social behavior (e.g. arrests); support systems (e.g. no family system). The purpose of the study was to learn about the two points of view: (a) of the clients of welfare departments who are characterized as Families in Extreme Distress, according to a scale for assessing such families, and (b) of the social workers who treat them. Method: After receiving ethics approval, we asked social workers of the welfare departments in Israel who agreed to participate in the study to choose their clients that meet the criteria of Families in Extreme Distress. Then, 13 pairs (dyads) of the clients and their social workers were interviewed using identical questions based on a semi-structured interview. The questions related to the client's difficulties and the needs of the family, the strengths and resources of the family, kinds of help given to the family. Findings: Several common themes were found in the interviews: Difficult economic situation; coping with illness; receiving help; the strengths of the clients; the therapeutic relationship; improvement suggestions. The comparison between the answers of the clients and the social workers shows three patterns: (1) The same phraseology usedby the client and by the social worker. (2) Different wording of the client vs. the social worker. (3) Differences in the perceptions in assessing the situation. For example, the theme: Difficult economic situation. The same words - The client: "We needed baby's food, clothing, diapers." The social worker: "They had no money even to buy food for the child." Different wording - The client: "Sometimes we get stuck without bread, without shopping for Saturday." The social worker: "Lack of resources." The difference in perceptions -The client: "The economic situation is difficult."The social worker: "Problematic parental functioning." Conclusions: It is necessary to create a dialogue which means providing an equal place for social workers and clients to express their ideas and feelings. It is always important to listen to the point of view of the clients, how they phrase their problems and what is important to them. The practical conclusion is to recommend that social workers enable clients to express themselves about what kind of services they wish to receive and to evaluate the treatment given to them throughout the process. Evaluation ofintervention programs can improve social services.

Keywords: social workers, welfare departments, families in extreme distress, difficult economic situation

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4539 Professional Working Conditions, Mental Health And Mobility In The Hungarian Social Sector Preliminary Findings From A Multi-method Study

Authors: Ágnes Győri, Éva Perpék, Zsófia Bauer, Zsuzsanna Elek


The aim of the research (funded by Hungarian national grant, NFKI- FK 138315) is to examine the professional mobility, mental health and work environment of social workers with a complex approach. Previous international and Hungarian research has pointed out that those working in the helping professions are strongly exposed to the risk of emotional-mental-physical exhaustion due to stress. Mental and physical strain, as well as lack of coping (can) cause health problems, but its role in career change and high labor turnover has also been proven. Even though satisfaction with working conditions of those employed in the human service sector in the context of the stress burden has been researched extensively, there is a lack of large-sample international and Hungarian domestic studies exploring the effects of profession-specific conditions. Nor has it been examined how the specific features of the social profession and mental health affect the career mobility of the professionals concerned. In our research, these factors and their correlations are analyzed by means of mixed methodology, utilizing the benefits of netnographic big data analysis and a sector-specific quantitative survey. The netnographic analysis of open web content generated inside and outside the social profession offers a holistic overview of the influencing factors related to mental health and the work environment of social workers. On the one hand, the topics and topoi emerging in the external discourse concerning the sector are examined, and on the other hand, focus on mentions and streams of comments regarding the profession, burnout, stress, coping, as well as labor turnover and career changes among social professionals. The analysis focuses on new trends and changes in discourse that have emerged during and after the pandemic. In addition to the online conversation analysis, a survey of social professionals with a specific focus has been conducted. The questionnaire is based on input from the first two research phases. The applied approach underlines that the mobility paths of social professionals can only be understood if, apart from the general working conditions, the specific features of social work and the effects of certain aspects of mental health (emotional-mental-physical strain, resilience) are taken into account as well. In this paper, the preliminary results from this innovative methodological mix are presented, with the aim of highlighting new opportunities and dimensions in the research on social work. A gap in existing research is aimed to be filled both on a methodological and empirical level, and the Hungarian domestic findings can create a feasible and relevant framework for a further international investigation and cross-cultural comparative analysis. Said results can contribute to the foundation of organizational and policy-level interventions, targeted programs whereby the risk of burnout and the rate of career abandonment can be reduced. Exploring different aspects of resilience and mapping personality strengths can be a starting point for stress-management, motivation-building, and personality-development training for social professionals.

Keywords: burnout, mixed methods, netnography, professional mobility, social work

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4538 Tagging a corpus of Media Interviews with Diplomats: Challenges and Solutions

Authors: Roberta Facchinetti, Sara Corrizzato, Silvia Cavalieri


Increasing interconnection between data digitalization and linguistic investigation has given rise to unprecedented potentialities and challenges for corpus linguists, who need to master IT tools for data analysis and text processing, as well as to develop techniques for efficient and reliable annotation in specific mark-up languages that encode documents in a format that is both human and machine-readable. In the present paper, the challenges emerging from the compilation of a linguistic corpus will be taken into consideration, focusing on the English language in particular. To do so, the case study of the InterDiplo corpus will be illustrated. The corpus, currently under development at the University of Verona (Italy), represents a novelty in terms both of the data included and of the tag set used for its annotation. The corpus covers media interviews and debates with diplomats and international operators conversing in English with journalists who do not share the same lingua-cultural background as their interviewees. To date, this appears to be the first tagged corpus of international institutional spoken discourse and will be an important database not only for linguists interested in corpus analysis but also for experts operating in international relations. In the present paper, special attention will be dedicated to the structural mark-up, parts of speech annotation, and tagging of discursive traits, that are the innovational parts of the project being the result of a thorough study to find the best solution to suit the analytical needs of the data. Several aspects will be addressed, with special attention to the tagging of the speakers’ identity, the communicative events, and anthropophagic. Prominence will be given to the annotation of question/answer exchanges to investigate the interlocutors’ choices and how such choices impact communication. Indeed, the automated identification of questions, in relation to the expected answers, is functional to understand how interviewers elicit information as well as how interviewees provide their answers to fulfill their respective communicative aims. A detailed description of the aforementioned elements will be given using the InterDiplo-Covid19 pilot corpus. The data yielded by our preliminary analysis of the data will highlight the viable solutions found in the construction of the corpus in terms of XML conversion, metadata definition, tagging system, and discursive-pragmatic annotation to be included via Oxygen.

Keywords: spoken corpus, diplomats’ interviews, tagging system, discursive-pragmatic annotation, english linguistics

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4537 The Stage as Pulpit; Contemporary Practice of Theatre for Religion in Kenya

Authors: Shikuku Emmanuel Tsikhungu


Theatre and religion have enjoyed a symbiotic relationship from time immemorial, each transforming in different epochs and into different forms of practice but gaining from each other’s growth. Despite the fact that religion has more or less looked at the theatre and its dramatic rituals with distaste, the two human engagements have had dynamic and reciprocal relationships. In Kenya, there is an emerging innovation and transformation of theatre for religion in which churches and sects are consciously developing a youth wing that is vibrant in theatre practice. The imagination that youth and children derive pleasure and vibrancy in theatre has led to a lively competition among churches that is now creating a new form of theatre in Kenya. This has given rise to a practice in which art engages the religious not at the spiritual level but at the social-cultural level. Thus theatre is finding itself in sanctums that it had been banished; not for its own sake but as a tool for keeping the youth nearer the church if not the church This article analyses findings of a study carried out in December of 2017 among theatre festivals for the Catholic Church held in Kitui School, KituiCounty, and the Methodist Church of Kenya festival held in Ntemwene Church, Nkubu, Meru County, Kenya. One of the findings of interest was that while they were not theatres of religion nor religious theatres since they did not fuse the religious rituals with the dramatic rituals, the festivals never the less qualify as theatres for religion for they link the former to the latter. Secondly, while they claimed to be youth or children theatre festivals, they lacked youth-centredness nor child-centredness associated with such. Thirdly and most importantly the style of dramatic execution ranged from bibliodramatic to secular drama with Christian messages. Fourthly, by this stroke of acceptance in formerly forbidden sanctums, theatre is re-inventing itself back to its ‘old’ nature and function. It may be argued conclusively that this sprouting movement of theatre for religion may be comparable to the Jesuit Theatre fronted by Ignatius Loyola but clothed in modern African theatre practice.

Keywords: theatre, religion, theatre for religion, social constructs, socio-cultural

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4536 Identifying Textual Traits via Corpus Linguistics: Compiling and Analyzing a Corpus of Travel Vlogs to China

Authors: Valeria Franceschi


The increasing presence of user-generated content (UGC) online has changed how customers and professionals approach products and think about marketing. The internet has indeed become a crucial marketing channel for many industries, where professionally-created promotional material competes with a range of user-produced information (e.g., reviews, written or video blogs, microblogs) that acts as virtual word-of-mouth and has the power to influence customer buying behavior. This is true for many industries, including the tourism industry, where UGC has indeed become an increasingly common source of data in tourism research. Among the various types of UGC in tourism, a thriving genre has been that of the video blog or vlog. Vlogs are a relatively young monologic genre that is currently under-researched, with studies relying predominantly on written material as a source of data also collected through text mining, probably because of easier access. This paper will illustrate results from an ongoing project aiming to fill an existing gap and explore tourist vlogs both as a textual genre and as a source of information for prospective travelers. As part of a wider project studying the relationship between East and West, the corpus under construction includes travel accounts and travel guides to Greater China as available on YouTube under a Creative Commons license. The chosen videos are transcribed following pre-defined transcription conventions and annotated to mark selected prosodic features (e.g., pauses, overlapping speech, false starts, or truncated words) and other paras- and extra-linguistic aspects relevant to comprehension (emblematic gestures, written text, foreign language use, anthropophonics, speaker information and role). In a second stage, the files are tagged using XML language through the XML software in order to make them searchable by text analysis software such as Sketch Engine and the KonText tool under development by department technicians. Linguistic analysis of the transcriptions will be carried out through a mixed quantitative-qualitative approach combining corpus linguistics techniques with textual genre analysis, using collocation analysis and n-gram analysis as a starting point to identify distinctive expressions and patterns that typify vlogs in general and tourist vlogs in particular. The main aim of this analysis would be to determine whether such patterns are identifiable across tourist vlogs and how they are employed by creators in the videos to address their audience and guide them through the travel experience through specific contextualizing moves. Preliminary studies carried out on a pilot corpus of 50 vlogs show promise in terms of identification of distinctive characteristics of the tourist blog as a textual genre, with a number of recurring expressions appearing to perform a transitional purpose, contextualizing individual scenes in the video and marking temporal and spatial movement within and across destinations.

Keywords: corpus design, corpus linguistics, textual genre, travel discourse

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4535 Performance Practices in Classic Piano Music

Authors: Mahdi Kazemi


Today's performances on Piano Forte or Fortepiano are cheerful, musical, expressive, and at the same time informative. AlterMuskie is an exciting and richly drawn magazine that is unmatched in its field. First published in 1973, it is a magazine for anyone interested in early music and its contemporary interpretation. Alexander Scriabin's (1871_1915) work has traditionally focused on his music in the mid and late 1902s. The discussion of his personal philosophy and his influence on music also focuses on these two periods. Over the last few decades, the repertoire of British classical solo pianos has received increasing interest from researchers. From the piano rolls of the early 20th century, much can be inferred about the practice of romantic piano playing. Summary Haydn's most important piano works are the sonatas, which generally represent Haydn's development as a composer from the early to the last three sonata dates, 1794.

Keywords: piano, classic piano, performance, music

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4534 Non-fungible Token (NFT) - Used in the Music Industry for Independent Artists without a Music Recording Label

Authors: Bartholomew Badar


An NFT is a digital certificate with rights to own an asset, including various valuable digital goods such as art pieces, music items, collectibles, etc. The market for NFTs started developing in 2017 and has lately seen increased growth as crypto-currencies and the blockchain market continue to gain popularity. This study aims to understand potential uses for NFTs concerning the music industry and record labels. Independent artists struggle to distribute and sell their music without the help of a record label. The NFT marketplace could be a great tool to eliminate this problem. The research objective is to identify possibilities for independent artists to own their music rights and share value with an audience. We see a trend of new-school music artists trying to enter the music NFT market by creating visualizers, beats, cover art, etc. To analyze various existing music NFT assets and determine whether or not independent artists could monetize their music without a record label is the main focus of this scholarly paper.

Keywords: blockchain, crypto-currency, music, artist, NFT

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4533 Investigation of Buddhology Reflected from Wall Paintings in Sri Lanka

Authors: R. G. D Jayawardena


The Buddha was known by great wise men from 6th century B.C up to date as a superhuman being born in the world beyond the omnipotent. The Buddha’s doctrinal descriptions reflect his deep enlightenment about imperial and metaphysical knowledge. Buddhology undertaken for this study is an unexposed subject in metaphysical points. The Buddhist wall painting in Sri Lanka depicts deep metaphysical meaning than its simple perspective of estheticism. Buddhology, in some perspectives, has been interpreted as a complete natural science discovered by the Buddha to teach the way of honorable living in perfect happiness and peace of mind till death. Such interpretations which emphasized are based on textual studies. The Buddhology conducted through literal tradition is depicted in wall paintings in Sri Lanka are in visual art with specific techniques rules. The Buddhology, which is investigated on wall paintings, portrays the Buddha in the form of a superhuman being and as an unparalleled person among the Devas, Brahmas, Yakshas, Maras, and humans. The Buddha concept is known to Sri Lankan Buddhists as a person attained to full awakening of wisdom. In personality, the Buddha is depicted as a supernormal person in the world and a rare birth. In brief, the paper will discuss and illustrate the Buddha’s transcendental position and the reality of what he experienced and its authenticity.

Keywords: Buddhology, Metaphysic, Sri Lanka, paintings

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4532 Stakeholder Perception In The Role Of Short-term Accommodations On The Place Brand And Real Estate Development Of Urban Areas: A Case Study Of Malate, Manila

Authors: Virgilio Angelo Gelera Gener


This study investigates the role of short-term accommodations on the place brand and real estate development of urban areas. It aims to know the perceptions of the general public, real estate developers, as well as city and barangay-level local government units (LGUs) on how these lodgings affect the place brand and land value of a community. It likewise attempts to identify the personal and institutional variables having a great influence on said perceptions in order to provide a better understanding of these establishments and their relevance within urban localities. Using certain sources, Malate, Manila was identified to be the ideal study area of the thesis. This prompted the employment of mixed methods research as the study’s fundamental data gathering and analytical tool. Here, a survey with 350 locals was done, asking them questions that would answer the aforementioned queries. Thereafter, a Pearson Chi-square Test and Multinomial Logistic Regression (MLR) were utilized to determine the variables affecting their perceptions. There were also Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) with the three (3) most populated Malate barangays, as well as Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) with selected city officials and fifteen (15) real estate company representatives. With that, survey results showed that although a 1992 Department of Tourism (DOT) Circular regards short-term accommodations as lodgings mainly for travelers, most people actually use it for their private/intimate moments. Because of this, the survey further revealed that short-term accommodations exhibit a negative place brand among the respondents though they also believe that it’s still one of society’s most important economic players. Statistics from the Pearson Chi-square Test, on the other hand, indicate that there are fourteen (14) out of seventeen (17) variables exhibiting great influence on respondents’ perceptions. Whereas MLR findings show that being born in Malate and being part of a family household was the most significant regardless of socio-economic level and monthly household income. For the city officials, it was revealed that said lodgings are actually the second-highest earners in the City’s lodging industry. It was further stated that their zoning ordinance treats short-term accommodations just like any other lodging enterprise. So it’s perfectly legal for these establishments to situate themselves near residential areas and/or institutional structures. A sit down with barangays, on the other hand, recognized the economic benefits of short-term accommodations but likewise admitted that it contributes a negative place brand to the community. Lastly, real estate developers are amenable to having their projects built near short-term accommodations, for they do not have any bad views against it. They explained that their projects sites have always been motivated by suitability, liability, and marketability factors only. Overall, these findings merit a recalibration of the zoning ordinance and DOT Circular, as well as the imposition of regulations on their sexually suggestive roadside advertisements. Then, once relevant measures are refined for proper implementation, it can also pave the way for spatial interventions (like visual buffer corridors) to better address the needs of the locals, private groups, and government.

Keywords: estate planning, place brand, real estate development, short-term accommodations

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4531 Mainland China and Taiwan’s Strategies for Overcoming the Middle/High Income Trap: Domestic Consensus-Building and the Foundations of Cross-Strait Interactions

Authors: Mingke Ma


The recent discovery of the High-Income Trap phenomena and the established Middle-Income Trap literature have identified the similarity of the structural challenges that both Mainland China and Taiwan have been facing since the simultaneous growth slowdown from the 2000s. Mainland China and Taiwan’s ineffectiveness in productivity growth weakened their overall competitiveness in Global Value Chains. With the subsequent decline of industrial profitability, social compression from late development persists and jeopardises the social cohesion. From Ma Ying-jeou’s ‘633’ promise and Tsai Ing-wen’s ‘5+2’ industrial framework to Mainland China’s 11th to 14th Five-Year Plans, leaderships across the Strait have been striving to constitute new models for inclusive and sustainable development through policy responses. This study argues that social consensuses that have been constructed by the domestic political processes define the feasibility of the reform strategies, which further construct the conditions for Cross-Strait interactions. Based on the existing literature of New Institutional Economics, Middle/High Income Trap, and Compressed Development, this study adopts a Historical Institutionalist analytical framework to identify how the historical path-dependency contributes to the contemporary growth constraints in both economies and the political difficulty on navigating the institutional and Organisational change. It continues by tracing the political process of economic reform to examine the sustainability and resilience of the manifested social consensus that had empowered the proposed policy frameworks. Afterwards, it examines how the political outcomes in such a simultaneous process shared by both Mainland China and Taiwan construct the social, economic, institutional, and political foundations of contemporary Cross-Strait engagement.

Keywords: historical institutionalism, political economy, cross-strait relations, high/middle income trap

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4530 India’s Strategy toward Afghanistan since 9\11

Authors: Saifurahman Fayiz


overall, India had friendly relation with different governments in Afghanistan except for the Taliban regime amongst the years 1996 to 2001. The terrorist attack in the United States provided India a chance to follow its strategy in Afghanistan. India support Afghanistan since 9\11. The objectives of this study to study India’s strategy towards Afghanistan and its implication to neighbor countries. The research method conducted based on qualitative research method with descriptive. The research findings propose that; India has chosen a soft power policy to implement its strategy in Afghanistan.

Keywords: strategy, policy, soft power, Afghanistan

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4529 From Connected Family to Disconnection for Teens

Authors: Jocelyn Lachance, Francis Jauréguiberry


In a few years, the exceptionality of the situation of an individual who could be reached at any time and at any time was replaced by the normality of instantly hearing the voice or immediately seeing the face of the person. This participates in the transformation of our representations of time and space, which gives rise to new expectations. Expectations that parents formulate more or less clearly to their children. The obligation to remain reachable seems to be asserting itself as a general norm which, having imposed itself on adults, now extends to the youngest. In the case of parents and their children, the rationale for this ongoing connection is not always based on actual and imminent dangers. It is the potential for dangerous events that underpins the indisputable argument for the importance of remaining reachable. It is the contingent nature of the risks that imposes itself on these young people as an argument of authority. By entering this connected world, the younger generations also end up adhering in many cases to this reassuring standard of connection. Many teenagers in ours researches nonetheless firmly believe that their freedom of movement is subject to the obligation to carry their smartphone with them. In this way, a connection "pact" is generally established, concluded under pressure, which implies first and foremost that contact be possible at any time, hence the importance of keeping it within reach, and often of '' be attentive to calls and texts sent by parents, at the risk of losing a recently acquired freedom. In this context, if adolescents are growing up in a connected world today, it is also because of the connection the parents are expecting from them. In our conference, by evoking situations reported by teenagers and parents of teenagers during our surveys, we propose to think about the role of the parents in making their child connected and about the desire of the disconnection of the teens.

Keywords: connection, disconnection, smartphone, parents, ritual

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4528 Exploring a Cross-Sectional Analysis Defining Social Work Leadership Competencies in Social Work Education and Practice

Authors: Trevor Stephen, Joshua D. Aceves, David Guyer, Jona Jacobson


As a profession, social work has much to offer individuals, groups, and organizations. A multidisciplinary approach to understanding and solving complex challenges and a commitment to developing and training ethical practitioners outlines characteristics of a profession embedded with leadership skills. This presentation will take an overview of the historical context of social work leadership, examine social work as a unique leadership model composed of its qualities and theories that inform effective leadership capability as it relates to our code of ethics. Reflect critically on leadership theories and their foundational comparison. Finally, a look at recommendations and implementation to social work education and practice. Similar to defining leadership, there is no universally accepted definition of social work leadership. However, some distinct traits and characteristics are essential. Recent studies help set the stage for this research proposal because they measure views on effective social work leadership among social work and non-social leaders and followers. However, this research is interested in working backward from that approach and examining social workers' leadership preparedness perspectives based solely on social work training, competencies, values, and ethics. Social workers understand how to change complex structures and challenge resistance to change to improve the well-being of organizations and those they serve. Furthermore, previous studies align with the idea of practitioners assessing their skill and capacity to engage in leadership but not to lead. In addition, this research is significant because it explores aspiring social work leaders' competence to translate social work practice into direct leadership skills. The research question seeks to answer whether social work training and competencies are sufficient to determine whether social workers believe they possess the capacity and skill to engage in leadership practice. Aim 1: Assess whether social workers have the capacity and skills to assume leadership roles. Aim 2: Evaluate how the development of social workers is sufficient in defining leadership. This research intends to reframe the misconception that social workers do not possess the capacity and skills to be effective leaders. On the contrary, social work encompasses a framework dedicated to lifelong development and growth. Social workers must be skilled, competent, ethical, supportive, and empathic. These are all qualities and traits of effective leadership, whereas leaders are in relation with others and embody partnership and collaboration with followers and stakeholders. The proposed study is a cross-sectional quasi-experimental survey design that will include the distribution of a multi-level social work leadership model and assessment tool. The assessment tool aims to help define leadership in social work using a Likert scale model. A cross-sectional research design is appropriate for answering the research questions because the measurement survey will help gather data using a structured tool. Other than the proposed social work leadership measurement tool, there is no other mechanism based on social work theory and designed to measure the capacity and skill of social work leadership.

Keywords: leadership competencies, leadership education, multi-level social work leadership model, social work core values, social work leadership, social work leadership education, social work leadership measurement tool

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4527 Need for Shariah Screening of Companies in Nigeria: Lessons from Other Jurisdictions

Authors: Aishat Abdul-Qadir Zubair


Background: The absence of Shari’ah screening methodology for companies in Nigeria has further engineered the uncertainty surrounding the acceptability of investing in certain companies by people professing the religion of Islam due to the nature of the activities carried out by these companies. There are some existing shariah screening indices in other jurisdictions whose criteria can be used to check if a company or business is shariah-compliant or not. Examples such as FTSE, DJIM, Standard and Poor to mention just a few. What these indices have tried to do is to ensure that there are benchmarks to check with before investing in companies that carry out mixed activities in their business, wherein some are halal and others may be haram. Purpose: There have been numerous studies on the need to adopt certain screening methodologies as well as call for new methods in screening companies for shariah compliance in order to suit the investments needs of Muslims in other jurisdictions. It is, however, unclear how suitable these methodologies will be to Nigeria. This paper, therefore, seeks to address this gap to consider an appropriate screening methodology to be employed in Nigeria, drawing from the experience of other jurisdictions. Methods: This study employs a triangulation of both quantitative and qualitative methods to analyze the need for Shari’ah screening of companies in Nigeria. The qualitative method is used by way of ijtihad, and this study tries to apply some Islamic Principles of Maqasid al-shari’ah as well as Qawaid al-Fiqiyyah to analyze activities of companies in order to ensure that they are indeed Shari’ah compliant. In addition, using the quantitative data gathered from the interview survey, the perspective of the investors with regards to the need for Shari’ah screening of companies in Nigeria is further analyzed. Results: The result of the study shows that there is a lack of awareness from the teeming Muslim population in Nigeria on the need for Shari’ah screening of companies in Nigeria. The result further shows that there is the need to take into cognizance the peculiar nature of company activities in Nigeria before any particular Shari’ah screening methodology is adopted and setting the necessary benchmarks. Conclusion and Implications: The study concludes that there is the need to ensure that the conscious Muslims in Nigeria screen companies for Shari’ah compliance so that they can easily identify the companies to invest in. The paper, therefore, recommends that the Nigerian government need to come up with a screening methodology that will suit the peculiar nature of companies in Nigeria. The study thus has a direct implication on the Investment regulatory bodies in Nigeria such as the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) as well as the investor Muslims.

Keywords: Shari'ah screening, Muslims, investors, companies

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4526 Adaptive Programming for Indigenous Early Learning: The Early Years Model

Authors: Rachel Buchanan, Rebecca LaRiviere


Context: The ongoing effects of colonialism continue to be experienced through paternalistic policies and funding processes that cause disjuncture between and across Indigenous early childhood programming on-reserve and in urban and Northern settings in Canada. While various educational organizations and social service providers have risen to address these challenges in the short, medium and long term, there continues to be a lack in nation-wide cohesive, culturally grounded, and meaningful early learning programming for Indigenous children in Canada. Indigenous-centered early learning programs tend to face one of two scaling dilemmas: their program goals are too prescriptive to enable the program to be meaningfully replicated in different cultural/ community settings, or their program goals are too broad to be meaningfully adapted to the unique cultural and contextual needs and desires of Indigenous communities (the “franchise approach”). There are over 600 First Nations communities in Canada representing more than 50 Nations and languages. Consequently, Indigenous early learning programming cannot be applied with a universal or “one size fits all” approach. Sustainable and comprehensive programming must be responsive to each community context, building upon existing strengths and assets to avoid program duplication and irrelevance. Thesis: Community-driven and culturally adapted early childhood programming is critical but cannot be achieved on a large scale within traditional program models that are constrained by prescriptive overarching program goals. Principles, rather than goals, are an effective way to navigate and evaluate complex and dynamic systems. Principles guide an intervention to be adaptable, flexible and scalable. The Martin Family Initiative (MFI) ’s Early Years program engages a principles-based approach to programming. As will be discussed in this paper, this approach enables the program to catalyze existing community-based strengths and organizational assets toward bridging gaps across and disjuncture between Indigenous early learning programs, as well as to scale programming in sustainable, context-responsive and dynamic ways. This paper argues that using a principles-driven and adaptive scaling approach, the Early Years model establishes important learnings for culturally adapted Indigenous early learning programming in Canada. Methodology: The Early Years has leveraged this approach to develop an array of programming with partner organizations and communities across the country. The Early Years began as a singular pilot project in one First Nation. In just three years, it has expanded to five different regions and community organizations. In each context, the program supports the partner organization through different means and to different ends, the extent to which is determined in partnership with each community-based organization: in some cases, this means supporting the organization to build home visiting programming from the ground-up; in others, it means offering organization-specific culturally adapted early learning resources to support the programming that already exists in communities. Principles underpin but do not define the practices of the program in each of these relationships. This paper will explore numerous examples of principles-based adaptability with the context of the Early Years, concluding that the program model offers theadaptability and dynamism necessary to respond to unique and ever-evolving community contexts and needs of Indigenous children today.

Keywords: culturally adapted programming, indigenous early learning, principles-based approach, program scaling

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4525 Exploring Barriers and Pathways to Wellbeing and Sources of Resilience of Refugee Mothers in Calgary during the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Role of Home Instruction for Parents of Preschool Youngsters (HIPPY)

Authors: Chloe Zivot, Natasha Vattikonda, Debbie Bell


We conducted interviews with refugee mothers (n=28) participating in the Home Instruction for Parents of Preschool Youngsters (HIPPY) program in Calgary to explore experiences of wellbeing and resilience during the COVID-19 pandemic. Disruptions to education and increased isolation, and parental duties contributed to decreased wellbeing. Mothers identified tangible protective factors at the micro, meso, and macro levels. HIPPY played a substantial role in pandemic resilience, speaking to the potential of home-based intervention models in mitigating household adversity.

Keywords: refugee resettlement, family wellbeing, COVID-19, motherhood, resilience, gender, health

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4524 Looking At Labor Trafficking In Poland

Authors: Ashlyn Smith, Chloe Zampelli, Vincent Manna, Vernon Murray


According to Polaris (a UN affiliate), there are currently 44 million human trafficking victims globally. Using a sample of 137 labor trafficking victims in Poland, we found that all were Ukrainian citizens. We categorized victims according to the “Victim Intervention Marketing” (Murray) social marketing framework. The largest victim type consisted of “Willing Assimilators” (57%). This means they entered their particular trafficking situations without coercion and were left at will. Such victims are typically driven by financial desperation. Twenty percent (20%) of Willing Assimilators were men, and 80% were women. Victims who were not Willing Assimilators were forced as either “Enlightened Apostates” (37%) or “Tricked and Trapped” (7%). All of the forced victims were women. Crosstabs with Chi-square test (Pearson Chi-Square test significance = .002) results indicated that the male victims were all between 30 and 38 years old, while female victim ages ranged from 24 to 47. Accordingly, labor trafficking victim interventions in Poland should be age-sensitive and focus on three areas: 1) economic development for the Willing Assimilators, 2) training to identify fraudulent job postings, etc. for the Tricked and Trapped segment, and 3) training to equip potential victims to distrust certain close “loved ones” for the Enlightened Apostates.

Keywords: Poland, labor trafficking, social marketing, victim intervention marketing

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