Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 624

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Energy and Environmental Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

624 Designing Effective Strategies for Low Carbon Transitions in the Power Sector: An Archetype-based Approach

Authors: Abdullah Alotaiq

Abstract:

This study presents an archetype-based approach to designing effective strategies for low-carbon transitions in the power sector. To achieve global energy transition goals, a renewable energy transition is critical, and understanding diverse energy landscapes across different countries is essential to design effective renewable energy policies and strategies. Using a clustering approach, this study identifies 12 energy archetypes based on the electricity mix, socio-economic indicators, and renewable energy contribution potential of 187 UN countries. Each archetype is characterized by distinct challenges and opportunities, ranging from high dependence on fossil fuels to low electricity access, low economic growth, and insufficient contribution potential of renewables. Archetype A, for instance, consists of countries with low electricity access, high poverty rates, and limited power infrastructure, while Archetype J comprises developed countries with high electricity demand and installed renewables. The study findings have significant implications for renewable energy policymaking and investment decisions, with policymakers and investors able to use the archetype approach to identify suitable renewable energy policies and measures and assess renewable energy potential and risks. Overall, the archetype approach provides a comprehensive framework for understanding diverse energy landscapes and accelerating decarbonisation of the power sector.

Keywords: fossil fuels, power plants, energy transition, renewable energy, archetypes

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623 Sustainable Agriculture in Nigeria: Integrating Energy Efficiency and Renewables

Authors: Vicx Farm

Abstract:

This paper examines the critical role of energy efficiency management and renewable energy in fostering sustainable agricultural practices in Nigeria. With the growing concerns over energy security, environmental degradation, and climate change, there is an urgent need to transition towards more sustainable energy sources and practices in the agricultural sector. Nigeria, being a significant player in the global agricultural market, stands to benefit immensely from integrating energy efficiency measures and renewable energy solutions into its agricultural activities. This paper discusses the current energy challenges facing Nigerian agriculture, explores the potential benefits of energy efficiency and renewable energy adoption, and proposes strategies for effective implementation. The paper concludes with recommendations for policymakers, stakeholders, and practitioners to accelerate the adoption of energy-efficient and renewable energy technologies in Nigerian agriculture, thereby promoting sustainable development and resilience in the sector.

Keywords: energy, agriculture, sustainability, power

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622 An Experimental Machine Learning Analysis on Adaptive Thermal Comfort and Energy Management in Hospitals

Authors: Ibrahim Khan, Waqas Khalid

Abstract:

The Healthcare sector is known to consume a higher proportion of total energy consumption in the HVAC market owing to an excessive cooling and heating requirement in maintaining human thermal comfort in indoor conditions, catering to patients undergoing treatment in hospital wards, rooms, and intensive care units. The indoor thermal comfort conditions in selected hospitals of Islamabad, Pakistan, were measured on a real-time basis with the collection of first-hand experimental data using calibrated sensors measuring Ambient Temperature, Wet Bulb Globe Temperature, Relative Humidity, Air Velocity, Light Intensity and CO2 levels. The Experimental data recorded was analyzed in conjunction with the Thermal Comfort Questionnaire Surveys, where the participants, including patients, doctors, nurses, and hospital staff, were assessed based on their thermal sensation, acceptability, preference, and comfort responses. The Recorded Dataset, including experimental and survey-based responses, was further analyzed in the development of a correlation between operative temperature, operative relative humidity, and other measured operative parameters with the predicted mean vote and adaptive predicted mean vote, with the adaptive temperature and adaptive relative humidity estimated using the seasonal data set gathered for both summer – hot and dry, and hot and humid as well as winter – cold and dry, and cold and humid climate conditions. The Machine Learning Logistic Regression Algorithm was incorporated to train the operative experimental data parameters and develop a correlation between patient sensations and the thermal environmental parameters for which a new ML-based adaptive thermal comfort model was proposed and developed in our study. Finally, the accuracy of our model was determined using the K-fold cross-validation.

Keywords: predicted mean vote, thermal comfort, energy management, logistic regression, machine learning

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621 Study of the Influence of Refractory Nitride Additives on Hydrogen Storage Properties of Ti6Al4V-Based Materials Produced by Spark Plasma Sintering

Authors: John Olorunfemi Abe, Olawale Muhammed Popoola, Abimbola Patricia Idowu Popoola

Abstract:

Hydrogen is an appealing alternative to fossil fuels because of its abundance, low weight, high energy density, and relative lack of contaminants. However, its low density presents a number of storage challenges. Therefore, this work studies the influence of refractory nitride additives consisting of 5 wt. % each of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), titanium nitride (TiN), and aluminum nitride (AlN) on hydrogen storage and electrochemical characteristics of Ti6Al4V-based materials produced by spark plasma sintering. The microstructure and phase constituents of the sintered materials were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (in conjunction with energy-dispersive spectroscopy) and X-ray diffraction, respectively. Pressure-composition-temperature (PCT) measurements were used to assess the hydrogen absorption/desorption behavior, kinetics, and storage capacities of the sintered materials, respectively. The pure Ti6Al4V alloy displayed a two-phase (α+β) microstructure, while the modified composites exhibited apparent microstructural modifications with the appearance of nitride-rich secondary phases. It is found that the diffusion process controls the kinetics of the hydrogen absorption. Thus, a faster rate of hydrogen absorption at elevated temperatures ensued. The additives acted as catalysts, lowered the activation energy and accelerated the rate of hydrogen sorption in the composites relative to the monolithic alloy. Ti6Al4V-5 wt. % h-BN appears to be the most promising candidate for hydrogen storage (2.28 wt. %), followed by Ti6Al4V-5 wt. % TiN (2.09 wt. %), whereas Ti6Al4V-5 wt. % AlN shows the least hydrogen storage performance (1.35 wt. %). Accordingly, the developed hydride system (Ti6Al4V-5h-BN) may be competitive for use in applications involving short-range continuous vehicles (~50-100km) as well as stationary applications such as electrochemical devices, large-scale storage cylinders in hydrogen production locations, and hydrogen filling stations.

Keywords: hydrogen storage, Ti6Al4V hydride system, pressure-composition-temperature measurements, refractory nitride additives, spark plasma sintering, Ti6Al4V-based materials

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620 Ethical Implications of Gaps in the Implementation Process of the Circular Economy: Special Focus on Underdeveloped Countries

Authors: Sujith Gunawardhana

Abstract:

The circular economy is a system in which resources and energy are derived from renewable sources, utilized efficiently, recycled, and reused to reduce waste, reduce nonrenewable resource consumption, and mitigate negative environmental impacts. However, it poses moral questions about sustainability, the environment, and societal issues. Many societies face challenges when implementing the circular economy, as the concept is still young. The equitable distribution of the advantages and costs of circularity should be ensured during implementation, as some communities, particularly disadvantaged or marginalized ones, may suffer unfairly disproportionately from the harmful effects of production and recycling facilities. Prioritizing the health and safety of workers, communities, and the environment is essential, and strict rules must be implemented to guard against harm. However, most underdeveloped countries need a legal safeguard for this situation. The ultimate objective of the circular economy is to improve social, environmental, and economic performance, but its implementation also requires consideration of the ethics of care and non-epistemic values. Those are often hindered in underdeveloped countries, as the availability of infrastructure and technology, affordability, and legislative framework are poor. To achieve long-term success in the circular economy, evaluating implementation steps and considering health, safety, environmental, and social risks is crucial. To implement the circular economy, respect ethics of care and non-epistemic values. Adopt Kantian Ethics and control technology design to ensure equal benefits for all involved. Ethical gaps may lead underdeveloped countries to generate social pressure against the circular economy.

Keywords: circular economy, ethics, values, sustainability

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619 Assessment of Sustainability Initiatives at Applied Science University in Bahrain

Authors: Bayan Ahmed Alsaffar

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to assess the sustainability initiatives at Applied Sciences University (ASU) in Bahrain using a mixed-methods approach based on students, staff, and faculty perceptions. The study involves a literature review, interviews with faculty members and students, and a survey of ASU's level of sustainability in education, research, operations, administration, and finance that depended on the Sustainability Tracking, Assessment & Rating System (STARS). STARS is a tool used to evaluate the sustainability performance of higher education institutions. The study concludes that a mixed-methods approach can provide a powerful tool for assessing sustainability initiatives at ASU and ultimately lead to insights that can inform effective strategies for improving sustainability efforts. The current study contributes to the field of sustainability in universities and highlights the importance of user engagement and awareness for achieving sustainability goals.

Keywords: environment, initiatives, society, sustainability, STARS, university

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618 CeO₂-Decorated Graphene-coated Nickel Foam with NiCo Layered Double Hydroxide for Efficient Hydrogen Evolution Reaction

Authors: Renzhi Qi, Zhaoping Zhong

Abstract:

Under the dual pressure of the global energy crisis and environmental pollution, avoiding the consumption of non-renewable fossil fuels based on carbon as the energy carrier and developing and utilizing non-carbon energy carriers are the basic requirements for the future new energy economy. Electrocatalyst for water splitting plays an important role in building sustainable and environmentally friendly energy conversion. The oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is essentially limited by the slow kinetics of multi-step proton-electron transfer, which limits the efficiency and cost of water splitting. In this work, CeO₂@NiCo-NRGO/NF hybrid materials were prepared using nickel foam (NF) and nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (NRGO) as conductive substrates by multi-step hydrothermal method and were used as highly efficient catalysts for OER. The well-connected nanosheet array forms a three-dimensional (3D) network on the substrate, providing a large electrochemical surface area with abundant catalytic active sites. The doping of CeO₂ in NiCo-NRGO/NF electrocatalysts promotes the dispersion of substances and its synergistic effect in promoting the activation of reactants, which is crucial for improving its catalytic performance against OER. The results indicate that CeO₂@NiCo-NRGO/NF only requires a lower overpotential of 250 mV to drive the current density of 10 mA cm-2 for an OER reaction of 1 M KOH, and exhibits excellent stability at this current density for more than 10 hours. The double layer capacitance (Cdl) values show that CeO₂@NiCo-NRGO/NF significantly affects the interfacial conductivity and electrochemically active surface area. The hybrid structure could promote the catalytic performance of oxygen evolution reaction, such as low initial potential, high electrical activity, and excellent long-term durability. The strategy for improving the catalytic activity of NiCo-LDH can be used to develop a variety of other electrocatalysts for water splitting.

Keywords: CeO₂, reduced graphene oxide, NiCo-layered double hydroxide, oxygen evolution reaction

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617 Stabilization of Pb, Cr, Cd, Cu and Zn in Solid Waste and Sludge Pyrolysis by Modified Vermiculite

Authors: Yuxuan Yang, Zhaoping Zhong

Abstract:

Municipal solid waste and sludge are important sources of waste energy and their proper disposal is of great importance. Pyrolysis can fully decompose solid wastes and sludge, and the pyrolysis products (charcoal, oil and gas) have important recovery values. Due to the complex composition of solid wastes and sludge, the pyrolysis process at high temperatures is prone to heavy metal emissions, which are harmful to humans and the environment and reduce the safety of pyrolysis products. In this paper, heavy metal emissions during pyrolysis of municipal sewage sludge, paper mill sludge, municipal domestic waste, and aged refuse at 450-650°C were investigated and the emissions and hazards of heavy metals (Pb, Cr, Cd, Cu and Zn) were effectively reduced by adding modified vermiculite as an additive. The vermiculite was modified by intercalation with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, which resulted in more than twice the original layer spacing of the vermiculite. Afterward, the interpolated vermiculite was made into vermiculite flakes by exfoliation modification. After that, the expansion rate of vermiculite flakes was increased by Mg2+ modification and thermal activation. The expanded vermiculite flakes were acidified to improve the textural characteristics of the vermiculite. The modified vermiculite was analysed by XRD, FT-IR, BET and SEM to clarify the modification effect. The incorporation of modified vermiculite resulted in more than 80% retention of all heavy metals at 450°C. Cr, Cu and Zn were better retained than Pb and Cd. The incorporation of modified vermiculite effectively reduced the risk of heavy metals, and all risks were low for Pb, Cr, Cu and Zn. The toxicity of all heavy metals was greatly reduced by the incorporation of modified vermiculite and the morphology of heavy metals was transformed from Exchangeable and acid-soluble (F1) and Reducible (F2) to Oxidizable (F3) and Residual (F4). In addition, the increase in temperature favored the stabilization of heavy metal forms. This study provides a new insight into the cleaner use of energy and the safe management of solid waste.

Keywords: heavy metal, pyrolysis, vermiculite, solid waste

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616 Iodine-Doped Carbon Dots as a Catalyst for Water Remediation Application

Authors: Anurag Kumar Pandey, Tapan Kumar Nath, Santanu Dhara

Abstract:

Polluted water by industrial effluents or dyes has become a major global concern, particularly in developing countries. Such environmental contaminants constitute a serious threat to biodiversity, ecosystems, and human health worldwide; thus, their treatment is critical. The usage of nanoparticles has been discovered to be a potential water treatment method with high efficiency, cheap manufacturing costs, and green synthesis. Carbon dots have attracted the interest of researchers due to their unique properties, such as high water solubility, ease of production, great electron-donating ability, and low toxicity. In this context, we synthesized iodine-doped clove buds-derived carbon dots (I-CCDs) for the Fenton-like degradation of environmental contaminants in water (such as methylene blue (MB) and rhodamine-B (Rh-B) dye). The formation of I-CCDs has been confirmed using various spectroscopy techniques. I-CCDs have demonstrated remarkable optical, cytocompatibility, and antibacterial capabilities. The C-dots that were synthesized were found to be an effective catalyst for the reduction of MB and Rh-B utilizing NaBH4 as a reducing agent. UV-visible spectroscopy was used to construct a detailed pathway for dye reduction step by step. As-prepared I-CCDs have the potential to be a promising solution for wastewater purification and treatment systems.

Keywords: iodine-doped carbon dots, wastewater treatment and purification, environmental friendly, antibacterial

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615 Design of the Ice Rink of the Future

Authors: Carine Muster, Prina Howald Erika

Abstract:

Today's ice rinks are important energy consumers for the production and maintenance of ice. At the same time, users demand that the other rooms should be tempered or heated. The building complex must equally provide cooled and heated zones, which does not translate as carbon-zero ice rinks. The study provides an analysis of how the civil engineering sector can significantly impact minimizing greenhouse gas emissions and optimizing synergies across an entire ice rink complex. The analysis focused on three distinct aspects: the layout, including the volumetric layout of the premises present in an ice rink; the materials chosen that can potentially use the most ecological structural approach; and the construction methods based on innovative solutions to reduce carbon footprint. The first aspect shows that the organization of the interior volumes and defining the shape of the rink play a significant role. Its layout makes the use and operation of the premises as efficient as possible, thanks to the differentiation between heated and cooled volumes while optimising heat loss between the different rooms. The sprayed concrete method, which is still little known, proves that it is possible to achieve the strength of traditional concrete for the structural aspect of the load-bearing and non-load-bearing walls of the ice rink by using materials excavated from the construction site and providing a more ecological and sustainable solution. The installation of an empty sanitary space underneath the ice floor, making it independent of the rest of the structure, provides a natural insulating layer, preventing the transfer of cold to the rest of the structure and reducing energy losses. The addition of active pipes as part of the foundation of the ice floor, coupled with a suitable system, gives warmth in the winter and storage in the summer; this is all possible thanks to the natural heat in the ground. In conclusion, this study provides construction recommendations for future ice rinks with a significantly reduced energy demand, using some simple preliminary design concepts. By optimizing the layout, materials, and construction methods of ice rinks, the civil engineering sector can play a key role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and promoting sustainability.

Keywords: climate change, energy optimization, green building, sustainability

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614 Development of a Decision-Making Method by Using Machine Learning Algorithms in the Early Stage of School Building Design

Authors: Pegah Eshraghi, Zahra Sadat Zomorodian, Mohammad Tahsildoost

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Over the past decade, energy consumption in educational buildings has steadily increased. The purpose of this research is to provide a method to quickly predict the energy consumption of buildings using separate evaluation of zones and decomposing the building to eliminate the complexity of geometry at the early design stage. To produce this framework, machine learning algorithms such as Support vector regression (SVR) and Artificial neural network (ANN) are used to predict energy consumption and thermal comfort metrics in a school as a case. The database consists of more than 55000 samples in three climates of Iran. Cross-validation evaluation and unseen data have been used for validation. In a specific label, cooling energy, it can be said the accuracy of prediction is at least 84% and 89% in SVR and ANN, respectively. The results show that the SVR performed much better than the ANN.

Keywords: early stage of design, energy, thermal comfort, validation, machine learning

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613 Mixed Tetravalent Cs₂RuₘPt₁-ₘX₆ (X = Cl-, Br-) Based Vacancy-Ordered Halide Double Perovskites for Enhanced Solar Water Oxidation

Authors: Jigar Shaileshumar Halpati, Aravind Kumar Chandiran

Abstract:

Vacancy ordered double perovskites (VOPs) have been significantly attracting researchers due to their chemical structure diversity and interesting optoelectronic properties. Some VOPs have been recently reported to be suitable photoelectrodes for photoelectrochemical water-splitting reactions due to their high stability and panchromatic absorption. In this work, we systematically synthesized mixed tetravalent VOPs based on Cs₂RuₘPt₁-ₘX₆ (X = Cl-, Br-) and reported their structural, optical, electrochemical and photoelectrochemical properties. The structural characterization confirms that the mixed tetravalent site intermediates formed their own phases. The parent materials, as well as their intermediates, were found to be stable in ambient conditions for over 1 year and also showed incredible stability in harsh pH media ranging from pH 1 to pH 11. Moreover, these materials showed panchromatic absorption with onset up to 1000 nm depending upon the mixture stoichiometry. The extraordinary stability and excellent absorption properties make them suitable materials for photoelectrochemical water-splitting applications. PEC studies of these series of materials showed a high water oxidation photocurrent of 0.56 mA cm-² for Cs₂Ru₀.₅Pt₀.₅Cl₆. Fundamental investigation from photoelectrochemical reactions revealed that the intrinsic ruthenium-based VOP showed enhanced hole transfer to the electrolyte, while the intrinsic platinum-based VOP showed higher photovoltage. The mix of these end members at the tetravalent site showed a synergic effect of reduced charge transfer resistance from the material to the electrolyte and increased photovoltage, which led to increased PEC performance of the intermediate materials.

Keywords: solar water splitting, photo electrochemistry, photo absorbers, material characterization, device characterization, green hydrogen

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612 An Overview of Onshore and Offshore Wind Turbines

Authors: Mohammad Borhani, Afshin Danehkar

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With the increase in population and the upward trend of energy demand, mankind has thought of using suppliers that guarantee a stable supply of energy, unlike fossil fuels, which, in addition to the widespread emission of greenhouse gases that one of the main factors in the destruction of the ozone layer and it will be finished in a short time in the not-so-distant future. In this regard, one of the sustainable ways of energy supply is the use of wind converters. That convert wind energy into electricity. For this reason, this research focused on wind turbines and their installation conditions. The main classification of wind turbines is based on the axis of rotation, which is divided into two groups: horizontal axis and vertical axis; each of these two types, with the advancement of technology in man-made environments such as cities, villages, airports, and other human environments can be installed and operated. The main difference between offshore and onshore wind turbines is their installation and foundation. Which are usually divided into five types; including of Monopile Wind Turbines, Jacket Wind Turbines, Tripile Wind Turbines, Gravity-Based Wind Turbines, and Floating Offshore Wind Turbines. For installation in a wind power plant requires an arrangement that produces electric power, the distance between the turbines is usually between 5 or 7 times the diameter of the rotor and if perpendicular to the wind direction be If they are 3 to 5 times the diameter of the rotor, they will be more efficient.

Keywords: wind farms, Savonius, Darrieus, offshore wind turbine, renewable energy

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611 Combined PV Cooling and Nighttime Power Generation through Smart Thermal Management of Photovoltaic–Thermoelectric Hybrid Systems

Authors: Abdulrahman M. Alajlan, Saichao Dang, Qiaoqiang Gan

Abstract:

Photovoltaic (PV) cells, while pivotal for solar energy harnessing, confront a challenge due to the presence of persistent residual heat. This thermal energy poses significant obstacles to the performance and longevity of PV cells. Mitigating this thermal issue is imperative, particularly in tropical regions where solar abundance coexists with elevated ambient temperatures. In response, a sustainable and economically viable solution has been devised, incorporating water-passive cooling within a Photovoltaic-Thermoelectric (PV-TEG) hybrid system to address PV cell overheating. The implemented system has significantly reduced the operating temperatures of PV cells, achieving a notable reduction of up to 15 °C below the temperature observed in standalone PV systems. In addition, a thermoelectric generator (TEG) integrated into the system significantly enhances power generation, particularly during nighttime operation. The developed hybrid system demonstrates its capability to generate power at a density of 0.5 Wm⁻² during nighttime, which is sufficient to concurrently power multiple light-emitting diodes, demonstrating practical applications for nighttime power generation. Key findings from this research include a consistent temperature reduction exceeding 10 °C for PV cells, translating to a 5% average enhancement in PV output power compared to standalone PV systems. Experimental demonstrations underscore nighttime power generation of 0.5 Wm⁻², with the potential to achieve 0.8 Wm⁻² through simple geometric optimizations. The optimal cooling of PV cells is determined by the volume of water in the heat storage unit, exhibiting an inverse relationship with the optimal performance for nighttime power generation. Furthermore, the TEG output effectively powers a lighting system with up to 5 LEDs during the night. This research not only proposes a practical solution for maximizing solar radiation utilization but also charts a course for future advancements in energy harvesting technologies.

Keywords: photovoltaic-thermoelectric systems, nighttime power generation, PV thermal management, PV cooling

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610 A New Design of Vacuum Membrane Distillation Module for Water Desalination

Authors: Adnan Alhathal Alanezi

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The performance of vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) process for water desalination was investigated utilizing a new design membrane module using two commercial polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) flat sheet hydrophobic membranes. The membrane module's design demonstrated its suitability for achieving a high heat transfer coefficient of the order of 103 (W/m2K) and a high Reynolds number (Re). The heat and mass transport coefficients within the membrane module were measured using VMD experiments. The permeate flux has been examined in relation to process parameters such as feed temperature, feed flow rate, vacuum degree, and feed concentration. Because the feed temperature, feed flow rate, and vacuum degree all play a role in improving the performance of the VMD process, optimizing all of these parameters is the best method to achieve a high permeate flux. In VMD desalination, the PTFE membrane outperformed the PVDF membrane. When compared to previous studies, the obtained water flux is relatively high, reaching 43.8 and 52.6 (kg/m2h) for PVDF and PTFE, respectively. For both membranes, the salt rejection of NaCl was greater than 99%.

Keywords: desalination, vacuum membrane distillation, PTFE and PVDF, hydrophobic membranes, O-ring membrane module

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609 Analysis of Fuel Adulteration Consequences in Bangladesh

Authors: Mahadehe Hassan

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In most countries manufacturing, trading and distribution of gasoline and diesel fuels belongs to the most important sectors of national economy. For Bangladesh, a robust, well-functioning, secure and smartly managed national fuel distribution chain is an essential precondition for achieving Government top priorities in development and modernization of transportation infrastructure, protection of national environment and population health as well as, very importantly, securing due tax revenue for the State Budget. Bangladesh is a developing country with complex fuel supply network, high fuel taxes incidence and – till now - limited possibilities in application of modern, automated technologies for Government national fuel market control. Such environment allows dishonest physical and legal persons and organized criminals to build and profit from illegal fuel distribution schemes and fuel illicit trade. As a result, the market transparency and the country attractiveness for foreign investments, law-abiding economic operators, national consumers, State Budget and the Government ability to finance development projects, and the country at large suffer significantly. Research shows that over 50% of retail petrol stations in major agglomerations of Bangladesh sell adulterated fuels and/or cheat customers on the real volume of the fuel pumped into their vehicles. Other forms of detected fuel illicit trade practices include misdeclaration of fuel quantitative and qualitative parameters during internal transit and selling of non-declared and smuggled fuels. The aim of the study is to recommend the implementation of a National Fuel Distribution Integrity Program (FDIP) in Bangladesh to address and resolve fuel adulteration and illicit trade problems. The program should be customized according to the specific needs of the country and implemented in partnership with providers of advanced technologies. FDIP should enable and further enhance capacity of respective Bangladesh Government authorities in identification and elimination of all forms of fuel illicit trade swiftly and resolutely. FDIP high-technology, IT and automation systems and secure infrastructures should be aimed at the following areas (1) fuel adulteration, misdeclaration and non-declaration; (2) fuel quality and; (3) fuel volume manipulation at retail level. Furthermore, overall concept of FDIP delivery and its interaction with the reporting and management systems used by the Government shall be aligned with and support objectives of the Vision 2041 and Smart Bangladesh Government programs.

Keywords: fuel adulteration, octane, kerosene, diesel, petrol, pollution, carbon emissions

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608 Techno Commercial Aspects of Using LPG as an Alternative Energy Solution for Transport and Industrial Sector in Bangladesh: Case Studies in Industrial Sector

Authors: Mahadehe Hassan

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Transport system and industries which are the main basis of industrial and socio-economic development of any country. It is mainly dependent on fossil fuels. Bangladesh has fossil fuel reserves of 9.51 TCF as of July 2023, and if no new gas fields are discovered in the next 7-9 years and if the existing gas consumption rate continues, the fossil fuel reserves will be exhausted. The demand for petroleum products in Bangladesh is increasing steadily, with 63% imported by BPC and 37% imported by private companies. 61.61% of BPC imported products are used in the transport sector and 5.49% in the industrial sector, which is expensive and harmful to the environment. Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) should be considered as an alternative energy for Bangladesh based on Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) criteria for sustainable, clean and affordable energy. This will not only lead to the much desired mitigation of energy famine in the country but also contribute favorably to the macroeconomic indicators. Considering the environmental and economic issues, the government has referred to CNG (compressed natural gas) as the fuel carrier since 2000, but currently due to the decline mode of gas reserves, the government of Bangladesh is thinking of new energy sources for transport and industrial sectors which will be sustainable, environmentally friendly and economically viable. Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) is the best choice for fueling transport and industrial sectors in Bangladesh. At present, a total of 1.54 million metric tons of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is marketed in Bangladesh by the public and private sectors. 83% of it is used by households, 12% by industry and commerce and 5% by transportation. Industrial and transport sector consumption is negligible compared to household consumption. So the purpose of the research is to find out the challenges of LPG market development in transport and industrial sectors in Bangladesh and make recommendations to reduce the challenges. Secure supply chain, inadequate infrastructure, insufficient investment, lack of government monitoring and consumer awareness in the transport sector and industrial sector are major challenges for LPG market development in Bangladesh. Bangladesh government as well as private owners should come forward in the development of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) industry to reduce the challenges of secure energy sector for sustainable development. Furthermore, ensuring adequate Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) supply in Bangladesh requires government regulations, infrastructure improvements in port areas, awareness raising and most importantly proper pricing of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) to address the energy crisis in Bangladesh.

Keywords: transportand industries fuel, LPG consumption, challenges, economical sustainability

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607 Global Solar Irradiance: Data Imputation to Analyze Complementarity Studies of Energy in Colombia

Authors: Jeisson A. Estrella, Laura C. Herrera, Cristian A. Arenas

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The Colombian electricity sector has been transforming through the insertion of new energy sources to generate electricity, one of them being solar energy, which is being promoted by companies interested in photovoltaic technology. The study of this technology is important for electricity generation in general and for the planning of the sector from the perspective of energy complementarity. Precisely in this last approach is where the project is located; we are interested in answering the concerns about the reliability of the electrical system when climatic phenomena such as El Niño occur or in defining whether it is viable to replace or expand thermoelectric plants. Reliability of the electrical system when climatic phenomena such as El Niño occur, or to define whether it is viable to replace or expand thermoelectric plants with renewable electricity generation systems. In this regard, some difficulties related to the basic information on renewable energy sources from measured data must first be solved, as these come from automatic weather stations. Basic information on renewable energy sources from measured data, since these come from automatic weather stations administered by the Institute of Hydrology, Meteorology and Environmental Studies (IDEAM) and, in the range of study (2005-2019), have significant amounts of missing data. For this reason, the overall objective of the project is to complete the global solar irradiance datasets to obtain time series to develop energy complementarity analyses in a subsequent project. Global solar irradiance data sets to obtain time series that will allow the elaboration of energy complementarity analyses in the following project. The filling of the databases will be done through numerical and statistical methods, which are basic techniques for undergraduate students in technical areas who are starting out as researchers technical areas who are starting out as researchers.

Keywords: time series, global solar irradiance, imputed data, energy complementarity

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606 The Influence of Thomson Effect on the Performance of N-Type Skutterudite Thermoelement

Authors: Anbang Liu, Huaqing Xie, Zihua Wu, Xiaoxiao Yu, Yuanyuan Wang

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Due to the temperature-dependence and mutual coupling of thermoelectric parameters, the Thomson effect always exists, which is derived from temperature gradients during thermoelectric conversion. The synergistic effect between the Thomson effect and non-equilibrium heat transport of charge carriers leads to local heat absorption or release in thermoelements, thereby affecting its power generation performance and conversion efficiency. This study verified and analyzed the influence and mechanism of the Thomson effect on N-type skutterudite thermoelement through quasi-steady state testing under approximate vacuum conditions. The results indicate the temperature rise/fall of N-type thermoelement at any position is affected by Thomson heat release/absorption. Correspondingly, the Thomson effect also contributes advantageously/disadvantageously to the output power of N-type skutterudite thermoelement when the Thomson coefficients are positive/negative. In this work, the output power can be promoted or decreased maximally by more than 27% due to the presence of Thomson heat when the absolute value of the Thomson coefficient is around 36 μV/℃.

Keywords: Thomson effect, heat transport, thermoelectric conversion, numerical simulation

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605 Investigation on Solar Thermoelectric Generator Using D-Mannitol/Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Composite Phase Change Materials

Authors: Zihua Wu, Yueming He, Xiaoxiao Yu, Yuanyuan Wang, Huaqing Xie

Abstract:

The match of Solar thermoelectric generator (STEG) and phase change materials (PCM) can enhance the solar energy storage and reduce environmental impact from the day-and-night transformation and weather changes. This work utilizes D-mannitol (DM) matrix as the suitable PCM for coupling with thermoelectric generator to achieve the middle-temperature solar energy storage performance at 165℃-167℃. DM/MWCNT composite phase change materials prepared by ball milling not only can keep a high phase change enthalpy of DM material but also have great photo-thermal conversion efficiency of 82%. Based on the self-made storage device container, the effect of PCM thickness on the solar energy storage performance is further discussed and analyzed. The experimental results prove that PCM-STEG coupling system can output more electric energy than pure STEG system because PCM can decline the heat transfer and storage thermal energy to further generate the electric energy through thermal-to-electric conversion when the light is removed. The increase of PCM thickness can reduce the heat transfer and enhance thermal storage, and then the power generation performance of PCM-STEG coupling system can be improved. As the increase of light intensity, the output electric energy of the coupling system rises accordingly, and the maximum amount of electrical energy can reach by 113.85 J at 1.6 W/cm2. The study of the PCM-STEG coupling system has certain reference for the development of solar energy storage and application.

Keywords: solar energy, solar thermoelectric generator, phase change materials, solar-to-electric energy, DM/MWCNT

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604 Full-Spectrum Photo-thermal Conversion of Point-mode Cu₂O/TiN Plasmonic Nanofluids

Authors: Xiaoxiao Yu, Guodu He, Zihua Wu, Yuanyuan Wang, Huaqing Xie

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Core-shell composite structure is a common method to regulate the spectral absorption of nanofluids, but there occur complex preparation processes, which limit the applications in some fields, such as photothermal utilization and catalysis. This work proposed point-mode Cu₂O/TiN plasmonic nanofluids to regulate the spectral capturing ability and simplify the preparation process. Non-noble TiN nanoparticles with the localized surface plasmon resonance effect are dispersed in Cu₂O nanoparticles for forming a multi-point resonance source to enhance the spectral absorption performance. The experimental results indicate that the multiple resonance effect of TiN effectively improves the optical absorption and expands the absorption region. When the radius of Cu₂O nanoparticles is equal to 150nm, the optical absorption of point-mode Cu₂O/TiN plasmonic nanoparticles is best. Moreover, the photothermal conversion efficiency of Cu₂O/TiN plasmonic nanofluid can reach 97.5% at a volume fraction of 0.015% and an optical depth of 10mm. The point-mode nanostructure effectively enhances the optical absorption properties and greatly simplifies the preparation process of the composite nanoparticles, which can promote the application of multi-component photonic nanoparticles in the field of solar energy.

Keywords: solar energy, nanofluid, point-mode structure, Cu₂O/TiN, localized surface plasmon resonance effect

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603 The Green Behind the Cloud- How Cloud Computing and Data Centers Are Becoming More Sustainable

Authors: Devanshi Bagri

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In our ever-evolving digital landscape, cloud computing has emerged as a revolutionary force, reshaping the way individuals and organizations access, store, and process data. The rapid adoption of cloud services, driven by the need for flexibility, scalability, and cost-efficiency, has transformed the way we conduct business, communicate, and interact with the world. However, with this digital transformation, there is a growing concern about the repercussions on the environment. The concept of "cloud sustainability" has emerged as a growing requirement in the digital age, where we need to balance its use with respect to its effects on the environment. Cloud sustainability refers to the responsible and environmentally conscious use of cloud computing technologies and services. This technology aims to reduce the carbon footprint and resource consumption resulting from society's rapid digitalization. Its goal is to lower greenhouse gas emissions and conserve our finite natural resources. The origination of cloud sustainability can be traced to the exponential growth of data and the consequential expansion of data centers worldwide. As organizations and individuals rely on the cloud for everything from storage and computation to software delivery and collaborative work, data centers have multiplied to meet the escalating demand. However, these data centers consume vast amounts of energy, contributing significantly to carbon emissions and straining local power grids. The urgency of cloud sustainability becomes evident when considering the environmental consequences. Data centers, often located in regions where access to affordable, renewable energy is limited, tend to rely on fossil fuels for power. Consequently, they become major contributors to global greenhouse gas emissions. To address this, cloud sustainability advocates for more efficient data center designs, the use of renewable energy sources, and the adoption of energy-efficient technologies to reduce the carbon footprint. In this case study, we delve into the sustainability aspects of cloud computing, examining its environmental impact, challenges, and the efforts made by industry leaders to ensure an eco-friendlier digital future.

Keywords: sustanability, cloud computing, data centres, emerging technologies

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602 Study of Skid-Mounted Natural Gas Treatment Process

Authors: Di Han, Lingfeng Li

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Selection of low-temperature separation dehydration and dehydrochlorination process applicable to skid design, using Hysys software to simulate the low-temperature separation dehydration and dehydrochlorination process under different refrigeration modes, focusing on comparing the refrigeration effect of different refrigeration modes, the condensation amount of hydrocarbon liquids and alcoholic wastewater, as well as the adaptability of the process, and determining the low-temperature separation process applicable to the natural gas dehydration and dehydrochlorination skid into the design of skid; and finally, to carry out the CNG recycling process calculations of the processed qualified natural gas and to determine the dehydration scheme and the key parameters of the compression process.

Keywords: skidding, dehydration and dehydrochlorination, cryogenic separation process, CNG recovery process calculations

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601 Optimizing Oil Production through 30-Inch Pipeline in Abu-Attifel Field

Authors: Ahmed Belgasem, Walid Ben Hussin, Emad Krekshi, Jamal Hashad

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Waxy crude oil, characterized by its high paraffin wax content, poses significant challenges in the oil & gas industry due to its increased viscosity and semi-solid state at reduced temperatures. The wax formation process, which includes precipitation, crystallization, and deposition, becomes problematic when crude oil temperatures fall below the wax appearance temperature (WAT) or cloud point. Addressing these issues, this paper introduces a technical solution designed to mitigate the wax appearance and enhance the oil production process in Abu-Attifil Field via a 30-inch crude oil pipeline. A comprehensive flow assurance study validates the feasibility and performance of this solution across various production rates, temperatures, and operational scenarios. The study's findings indicate that maintaining the crude oil's temperature above a minimum threshold of 63°C is achievable through the strategic placement of two heating stations along the pipeline route. This approach effectively prevents wax deposition, gelling, and subsequent mobility complications, thereby bolstering the overall efficiency, reliability, safety, and economic viability of the production process. Moreover, this solution significantly curtails the environmental repercussions traditionally associated with wax deposition, which can accumulate up to 7,500kg. The research methodology involves a comprehensive flow assurance study to validate the feasibility and performance of the proposed solution. The study considers various production rates, temperatures, and operational scenarios. It includes crude oil analysis to determine the wax appearance temperature (WAT), as well as the evaluation and comparison of operating options for the heating stations. The study's findings indicate that the proposed solution effectively prevents wax deposition, gelling, and subsequent mobility complications. By maintaining the crude oil's temperature above the specified threshold, the solution improves the overall efficiency, reliability, safety, and economic viability of the oil production process. Additionally, the solution contributes to reducing environmental repercussions associated with wax deposition. The research conclusion presents a technical solution that optimizes oil production in the Abu-Attifil Field by addressing wax formation problems through the strategic placement of two heating stations. The solution effectively prevents wax deposition, improves overall operational efficiency, and contributes to environmental sustainability. Further research is suggested for field data validation and cost-benefit analysis exploration.

Keywords: oil production, wax depositions, solar cells, heating stations

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600 Potential for Massive Use of Biodiesel for Automotive in Italy

Authors: Domenico Carmelo Mongelli

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The context of this research is that of the Italian reality, which, in order to adapt to the EU Directives that prohibit the production of internal combustion engines in favor of electric mobility from 2035, is extremely concerned about the significant loss of jobs resulting from the difficulty of the automotive industry in converting in such a short time and due to the reticence of potential buyers in the face of such an epochal change. The aim of the research is to evaluate for Italy the potential of the most valid alternative to this transition to electric: leaving the current production of diesel engines unchanged, no longer powered by gasoil, imported and responsible for greenhouse gas emissions, but powered entirely by a nationally produced and eco-sustainable fuel such as biodiesel. Today in Italy, the percentage of biodiesel mixed with gasoil for diesel engines is too low (around 10%); for this reason, this research aims to evaluate the functioning of current diesel engines powered 100% by biodiesel and the ability of the Italian production system to cope to this hypothesis. The research geographically identifies those abandoned lands in Italy, now out of the food market, which is best suited to an energy crop for the final production of biodiesel. The cultivation of oilseeds is identified, which for the Italian agro-industrial reality allows maximizing the agricultural and industrial yields of the transformation of the agricultural product into a final energy product and minimizing the production costs of the entire agro-industrial chain. To achieve this objective, specific databases are used, and energy and economic balances are prepared for the different agricultural product alternatives. Solutions are proposed and tested that allow the optimization of all production phases in both the agronomic and industrial phases. The biodiesel obtained from the most feasible of the alternatives examined is analyzed, and its compatibility with current diesel engines is identified, and from the evaluation of its thermo-fluid-dynamic properties, the engineering measures that allow the perfect functioning of current internal combustion engines are examined. The results deriving from experimental tests on the engine bench are evaluated to evaluate the performance of different engines fueled with biodiesel alone in terms of power, torque, specific consumption and useful thermal efficiency and compared with the performance of engines fueled with the current mixture of fuel on the market. The results deriving from experimental tests on the engine bench are evaluated to evaluate the polluting emissions of engines powered only by biodiesel and compared with current emissions. At this point, we proceed with the simulation of the total replacement of gasoil with biodiesel as a fuel for the current fleet of diesel vehicles in Italy, drawing the necessary conclusions in technological, energy, economic, and environmental terms and in terms of social and employment implications. The results allow us to evaluate the potential advantage of a total replacement of diesel fuel with biodiesel for powering road vehicles with diesel cycle internal combustion engines without significant changes to the current vehicle fleet and without requiring future changes to the automotive industry.

Keywords: biodiesel, economy, engines, environment

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599 Optimum Irrigation System Management for Climate Resilient and Improved Productivity of Flood-based Livelihood Systems

Authors: Mara Getachew Zenebe, Luuk Fleskens, Abdu Obieda Ahmed

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This paper seeks to advance our scientific understanding of optimizing flood utilization in regions impacted by climate change, with a focus on enhancing agricultural productivity through effective irrigation management. The study was conducted as part of a three-year (2021 to 2023) USAID-supported initiative aimed at promoting Economic Growth and Peace in the Gash Agricultural Scheme (GAS), situated in Sudan's water-stressed Eastern region. GAS is the country's largest flood-irrigated scheme, covering 100,800 hectares of cultivable land, with a potential to provide the food security needs of over a quarter of a million agro-pastoral community members. GAS relies on the Gash River, which sources its water from high-intensity rainfall events in the highlands of Ethiopia and Eritrea. However, climate change and variations in these highlands have led to increased variability in the Gash River's flow. The study conducted water balance analyses based on a ten-year dataset of the annual Gash River flow, irrigated area; as well as the evapotranspiration demand of the major sorghum crop. Data collection methods included field measurements, surveys, remote sensing, and CropWat modelling. The water balance assessment revealed that the existing three-year rotation-based irrigation system management, capping cultivated land at 33,000 hectares annually, is excessively risk-averse. While this system reduced conflicts among the agro-pastoral communities by consistently delivering on the land promised to be annually cultivated, it also increased GAS's vulnerability to flood damage due to several reasons. The irrigation efficiency over the past decade was approximately 30%, leaving significant unharnessed floodwater that caused damage to infrastructure and agricultural land. The three-year rotation resulted in inadequate infrastructural maintenance, given the destructive nature of floods. Additionally, it led to infrequent land tillage, allowing the encroachment of mesquite trees hindering major sorghum crop growth. Remote sensing data confirmed that mesquite trees have overtaken 70,000 hectares in the past two decades, rendering them unavailable for agriculture. The water balance analyses suggest shifting to a two-year rotation, covering approximately 50,000 hectares annually while maintaining risk aversion. This shift could boost GAS's annual sorghum production by two-thirds, exceeding 850,000 tons. The scheme's efficiency can be further enhanced through low-cost on-farm interventions. Currently, large irrigation plots that range from 420 to 756 hectares are irrigated with limited water distribution guidance, leading to uneven irrigation. As demonstrated through field trials, implementing internal longitudinal bunds and horizontal deflector bunds can increase adequately irrigated parts of the irrigation plots from 50% to 80% and thus nearly double the sorghum yield to 2 tons per hectare while reducing the irrigation duration from 30 days to a maximum of 17 days. Flow measurements in 2021 and 2022 confirmed that these changes sufficiently meet the sorghum crop's water requirements, even with a conservative 60% field application efficiency assumption. These insights and lessons from the GAS on enhancing agricultural resilience and sustainability in the face of climate change are relevant to flood-based livelihood systems globally.

Keywords: climate change, irrigation management and productivity, variable flood flows, water balance analysis

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598 Solar-Plasma Reactors for a Zero-Emission Economy

Authors: Dassou Nagassou

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Recent increase in frequency and severity of climatic impacts throughout the world has put a particular emphasis on the urgency to address the anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. The latter, mainly composed of carbon dioxide are responsible for the global warming of planet earth. Despite efforts to transition towards a zero-emission economy, manufacturing industries, electricity generation power plants, and transportation sectors continue to encounter challenges which hinder their progress towards a full decarbonization. The growing energy demand from both developed and under-developed economies exacerbates the situation and as a result, more carbon dioxide is discharged into the atmosphere. This situation imposes a lot of constraints on industries which are involved i.e., manufacturing industries, transportation, and electricity generation which must navigate the stringent environmental regulations in order to remain profitable. Existing solutions such as energy efficiencies, green materials (life cycle analysis), and many more have fallen short to address the problem due to their inadaptation to existing infrastructures, low efficiencies, and prohibitive costs. The proposed technology exploits the synergistic interaction between solar radiation and plasma to boost a direct decomposition of the molecules of carbon dioxide while producing alternative fuels which can be used to sustain on-site high-temperature processes via 100% solar energy harvesting in the form of photons and electricity. The advantages of this technology and its ability to be easily integrated into existing systems make it appealing for the industry which can now afford to fast track on the path towards full decarbonization, thanks to the solar plasma reactor. Despite the promising experimental results which proved the viability of this concept, solar-plasma reactors require further investigations to understand the synergistic interactions between plasma and solar radiation for a potential technology scale-up.

Keywords: solar, non-equilibrium, plasma, reactor, greenhouse-gases, solar-fuels

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597 Enhancing Sewage Sludge Management through Integrated Hydrothermal Liquefaction and Anaerobic Digestion: A Comparative Study

Authors: Harveen Kaur Tatla, Parisa Niknejad, Rajender Gupta, Bipro Ranjan Dhar, Mohd. Adana Khan

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Sewage sludge management presents a pressing challenge in the realm of wastewater treatment, calling for sustainable and efficient solutions. This study explores the integration of Hydrothermal Liquefaction (HTL) and Anaerobic Digestion (AD) as a promising approach to address the complexities associated with sewage sludge treatment. The integration of these two processes offers a complementary and synergistic framework, allowing for the mitigation of inherent limitations, thereby enhancing overall efficiency, product quality, and the comprehensive utilization of sewage sludge. In this research, we investigate the optimal sequencing of HTL and AD within the treatment framework, aiming to discern which sequence, whether HTL followed by AD or AD followed by HTL, yields superior results. We explore a range of HTL working temperatures, including 250°C, 300°C, and 350°C, coupled with residence times of 30 and 60 minutes. To evaluate the effectiveness of each sequence, a battery of tests is conducted on the resultant products, encompassing Total Ammonia Nitrogen (TAN), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), and Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA). Additionally, elemental analysis is employed to determine which sequence maximizes energy recovery. Our findings illuminate the intricate dynamics of HTL and AD integration for sewage sludge management, shedding light on the temperature-residence time interplay and its impact on treatment efficiency. This study not only contributes to the optimization of sewage sludge treatment but also underscores the potential of integrated processes in sustainable waste management strategies. The insights gleaned from this research hold promise for advancing the field of wastewater treatment and resource recovery, addressing critical environmental and energy challenges.

Keywords: Anaerobic Digestion (AD), aqueous phase, energy recovery, Hydrothermal Liquefaction (HTL), sewage sludge management, sustainability.

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596 Designing Nickel Coated Activated Carbon (Ni/AC) Based Electrode Material for Supercapacitor Applications

Authors: Zahid Ali Ghazi

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Supercapacitors (SCs) have emerged as auspicious energy storage devices because of their fast charge-discharge characteristics and high power densities. In the current study, a simple approach is used to coat activated carbon (AC) with a thin layer of nickel (Ni) by an electroless deposition process to enhance the electrochemical performance of the SC. The synergistic combination of large surface area and high electrical conductivity of the AC, as well as the pseudocapacitive behavior of the metallic Ni, has shown great potential to overcome the limitations of traditional SC materials. First, the materials were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) for crystallography, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for surface morphology and energy dispersion X-ray (EDX) for elemental analysis. The electrochemical performance of the nickel-coated activated carbon (Ni-AC) is systematically evaluated through various techniques, including galvanostatic charge-discharge (GCD), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The GCD results revealed that Ni/AC has a higher specific capacitance (1559 F/g) than bare AC (222 F/g) at 1 A/g current density in a 2 M KOH electrolyte. Even at a higher current density of 20 A/g, the Ni/AC showed a high capacitance of 944 F/g as compared to 77 F/g by AC. The specific capacitance (1318 F/g) calculated from CV measurements for Ni-AC at 10mV/sec was in close agreement with GCD data. Furthermore, the bare AC exhibited a low energy of 15 Wh/kg at a power density of 356 W/kg whereas, an energy density of 111 Wh/kg at a power density of 360 W/kg was achieved by Ni/AC-850 electrode and demonstrated a long life cycle with 94% capacitance retention over 50000 charge/discharge cycles at 10 A/g. In addition, the EIS study disclosed that the Rs and Rct values of Ni/AC electrodes were much lower than those of bare AC. The superior performance of Ni/AC is mainly attributed to the presence of excessive redox active sites, large electroactive surface area and corrosive resistance properties of Ni. We believe that this study will provide new insights into the controlled coating of ACs and other porous materials with metals for developing high-performance SCs and other energy storage devices.

Keywords: supercapacitor, cyclic voltammetry, coating, energy density, activated carbon

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595 Air Pollutants Assessment across the UAE Using Repeated Measures

Authors: Karam Al-Assaf, Israa Al Khaffaf, Ryan Al Tayeb, Ayman Alzaatreh

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A significant, manageable hazard to public health, happiness, and the achievement of sustainable development is air pollution. Outdoor air pollution has increased globally over the previous years, exposing billions of people worldwide to hazardous air. With UAE being no different, there are a variety of pollution-related problems that need to be addressed. Therefore, to gain insights from the government and decision makers, this study aims to analyze the annual trends of the five major air pollutants (NO2, SO2, O3, CO, and PM10) across five emirates in the UAE (Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah, Ajman, and Ras AL Khaimah) from 2013 to 2020. The results of the analysis revealed that air pollutants NO2, SO2, and PM10 were significantly different across the years and states. Moreover, it was found that the levels of NO2 are significantly different in Dubai across the years. Moreover, the levels of SO2 are significantly different in Sharjah across the years. Furthermore, it was found that PM10 was significantly different in Ajman across the years. Moreover, the analysis of the significant difference in the pollutants in the three areas (Downtown, Residential, Industrial) revealed that there is no significant difference in the pollutant levels across the years in the three different areas. This tool has shown its effectiveness in monitoring pollutant trends, providing valuable data for government investigations and control measures across the UAE. Additionally, it serves as a valuable resource for decision-makers to develop and implement policies aimed at improving pollutant levels.

Keywords: air pollution, air pollutant, repeated measures, MANOVA, UAE

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