Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 501

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Energy and Environmental Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

501 Unravelling Domestic Electricity Demand by Domestic Renewable Energy Supply: A Case Study in Yogyakarta and Central Java, Indonesia

Authors: Diyono Harun


Indonesia aims to reduce carbon emissions from energy generation by reaching 23% and 31% of the national energy supply from renewable energy sources (RES) in 2025 and 2030. The potential for RES in Indonesia is enormous, but not all province has the same potential for RES. Yogyakarta, one of the most travel-destinated provinces in Indonesia, has less potential than its neighbour, Central Java. Consequently, Yogyakarta must meet its electricity demand by importing electricity from Central Java if this province only wants to use electricity from RES. Thus, achieving the objective is balancing the electricity supply between an importer (Yogyakarta) and an exporter province (Central Java). This research aims to explore the RES potential and the current capacity of RES for electricity generation in both provinces. The results show that the present capacity of RES meets the annual domestic electricity demand in both provinces only with an extension of the RES potential. The renewable energy mixes in this research also can lower CO2 emissions compared to gas-fired power plants. This research eventually provides insights into exploring and using the domestic RES potentials between two areas with different RES capacities.

Keywords: energy mix, renewable energy sources, domestic electricity, electricity generation

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500 Erosion Modeling of Surface Water Systems for Long Term Simulations

Authors: Devika Nair, Dr. Sean Bellairs, Dr. Ken Evans


Flow and erosion modeling provides an avenue for simulating the fine suspended sediment in surface water systems like streams and creeks. Fine suspended sediment is highly mobile, and many contaminants that may have been released by any sort of catchment disturbance attach themselves to these sediments. Therefore, a knowledge of fine suspended sediment transport is important in assessing contaminant transport. The CAESAR-Lisflood Landform Evolution Model, which includes a hydrologic model (TOPMODEL) and a hydraulic model (Lisflood), is being used to assess the sediment movement in tropical streams on account of a disturbance in the catchment of the creek and to determine the dynamics of sediment quantity in the creek through the years by simulating the model for future years. The accuracy of future simulations depends on the calibration and validation of the model to the past and present events. Calibration and validation of the model involve finding a combination of parameters of the model, which, when applied and simulated, gives model outputs similar to those observed for the real site scenario for corresponding input data. Calibrating the sediment output of the CAESAR-Lisflood model at the catchment level and using it for studying the equilibrium conditions of the landform is an area yet to be explored. Therefore, the aim of the study was to calibrate the CAESAR-Lisflood model and then validate it so that it could be run for future simulations to study how the landform evolves over time. To achieve this, the model was run for a rainfall event with a set of parameters, plus discharge and sediment data for the input point of the catchment, to analyze how similar the model output would behave when compared with the discharge and sediment data for the output point of the catchment. The model parameters were then adjusted until the model closely approximated the real site values of the catchment. It was then validated by running the model for a different set of events and checking that the model gave similar results to the real site values. The outcomes demonstrated that while the model can be calibrated to a greater extent for hydrology (discharge output) throughout the year, the sediment output calibration may be slightly improved by having the ability to change parameters to take into account the seasonal vegetation growth during the start and end of the wet season. This study is important to assess hydrology and sediment movement in seasonal biomes. The understanding of sediment-associated metal dispersion processes in rivers can be used in a practical way to help river basin managers more effectively control and remediate catchments affected by present and historical metal mining.

Keywords: erosion modelling, fine suspended sediments, hydrology, surface water systems

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499 On the Added Value of Probabilistic Forecasts Applied to the Optimal Scheduling of a PV Power Plant with Batteries in French Guiana

Authors: Rafael Alvarenga, Hubert Herbaux, Laurent Linguet


The uncertainty concerning the power production of intermittent renewable energy is one of the main barriers to the integration of such assets into the power grid. Efforts have thus been made to develop methods to quantify this uncertainty, allowing producers to ensure more reliable and profitable engagements related to their future power delivery. Even though a diversity of probabilistic approaches was proposed in the literature giving promising results, the added value of adopting such methods for scheduling intermittent power plants is still unclear. In this study, the profits obtained by a decision-making model used to optimally schedule an existing PV power plant connected to batteries are compared when the model is fed with deterministic and probabilistic forecasts generated with two of the most recent methods proposed in the literature. Moreover, deterministic forecasts with different accuracy levels were used in the experiments, testing the utility and the capability of probabilistic methods of modeling the progressively increasing uncertainty. Even though probabilistic approaches are unquestionably developed in the recent literature, the results obtained through a study case show that deterministic forecasts still provide the best performance if accurate, ensuring a gain of 14% on final profits compared to the average performance of probabilistic models conditioned to the same forecasts. When the accuracy of deterministic forecasts progressively decreases, probabilistic approaches start to become competitive options until they completely outperform deterministic forecasts when these are very inaccurate, generating 73% more profits in the case considered compared to the deterministic approach.

Keywords: PV power forecasting, uncertainty quantification, optimal scheduling, power systems

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498 Lithium-Ion Battery Anode Properties of Li₄Ti₅O₁₂ Nano Sized Powders Prepared by Hydrothermal Synthesis

Authors: Saloua Merazga, Fatima Boudeffar, Badis Rahal, Malika Berouken, Abdelhak Cheriet, Katia Ayouz, Moured Mebarki, Noureddine Gabouze


The spinel (LTO) is a prime alternative to replace the carbon anode in the commercialized Lithium-ion battery (LIBs). Nano-sized Li₄Ti₅O₁₂ powders with were synthesized by a Hydrothermal process and annealed at 800°C. The scanning electron microscopy(SEM) images show the morphology of LTO powder sizes in the range of 70nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern confirms the formation of Li₄Ti₅O₁₂ crystalline phase at 800 °C. The electrochemical properties of synthesizer nanopowders are investigated for use as an anode active material for lithium-ion batteries by galvanostatic techniques in Li-half cells, obtaining a reversible discharge capacity of 173.8 mAh/g at 0.1C even upon 100 cycles. This is suitable for use as a high-power anode material for lithium-ion batteries.

Keywords: LTO, battery, LITHUIM, capacity

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497 Life Cycle Assessment of Almond Processing: Off-ground Harvesting Scenarios

Authors: Jessica Bain, Greg Thoma, Marty Matlock, Jeyam Subbiah, Ebenezer Kwofie


The environmental impact and particulate matter emissions (PM) associated with the production and packaging of 1 kg of almonds were evaluated using life cycle assessment (LCA). The assessment began at the point of ready to harvest with a system boundary was a cradle-to-gate assessment of almond packaging in California. The assessment included three scenarios of off-ground harvesting of almonds. The three general off-ground harvesting scenarios with variations include the harvested almonds solar dried on a paper tarp in the orchard, the harvested almonds solar dried on the floor in a separate lot, and the harvested almonds dried mechanically. The life cycle inventory (LCI) data for almond production were based on previously published literature and data provided by Almond Board of California (ABC). The ReCiPe 2016 method was used to calculate the midpoint impacts. Using consequential LCA model, the global warming potential (GWP) for the three harvesting scenarios are 2.90, 2.86, and 3.09 kg CO2 eq/ kg of packaged almond for scenarios 1, 2a, and 3a, respectively. The global warming potential for conventional harvesting method was 2.89 kg CO2 eq/ kg of packaged almond. The particulate matter emissions for each scenario per hectare for each off-ground harvesting scenario is 77.14, 9.56, 66.86, and 8.75 for conventional harvesting and scenarios 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The most significant contributions to the overall emissions were from almond production. The farm gate almond production had a global warming potential of 2.12 kg CO2 eq/ kg of packaged almond, approximately 73% of the overall emissions. Based on comparisons between the GWP and PM emissions, scenario 2a was the best tradeoff between GHG and PM production.

Keywords: life cycle assessment, low moisture foods, sustainability, LCA

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496 A Digital Twin Approach to Support Real-time Situational Awareness and Intelligent Cyber-physical Control in Energy Smart Buildings

Authors: Haowen Xu, Xiaobing Liu, Jin Dong, Jianming Lian


Emerging smart buildings often employ cyberinfrastructure, cyber-physical systems, and Internet of Things (IoT) technologies to increase the automation and responsiveness of building operations for better energy efficiency and lower carbon emission. These operations include the control of Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) and lighting systems, which are often considered a major source of energy consumption in both commercial and residential buildings. Developing energy-saving control models for optimizing HVAC operations usually requires the collection of high-quality instrumental data from iterations of in-situ building experiments, which can be time-consuming and labor-intensive. This abstract describes a digital twin approach to automate building energy experiments for optimizing HVAC operations through the design and development of an adaptive web-based platform. The platform is created to enable (a) automated data acquisition from a variety of IoT-connected HVAC instruments, (b) real-time situational awareness through domain-based visualizations, (c) adaption of HVAC optimization algorithms based on experimental data, (d) sharing of experimental data and model predictive controls through web services, and (e) cyber-physical control of individual instruments in the HVAC system using outputs from different optimization algorithms. Through the digital twin approach, we aim to replicate a real-world building and its HVAC systems in an online computing environment to automate the development of building-specific model predictive controls and collaborative experiments in buildings located in different climate zones in the United States. We present two case studies to demonstrate our platform’s capability for real-time situational awareness and cyber-physical control of the HVAC in the flexible research platforms within the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) main campus. Our platform is developed using adaptive and flexible architecture design, rendering the platform generalizable and extendable to support HVAC optimization experiments in different types of buildings across the nation.

Keywords: energy-saving buildings, digital twins, HVAC, cyber-physical system, BIM

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495 Solar-Powered Water Purification Using Ozone and Sand Filtration

Authors: Kayla Youhanaie, Kenneth Dott, Greg Gillis-Smith


Access to clean water is a global challenge that affects nearly one-third of the world’s population. A lack of safe drinking water negatively affects a person’s health, safety, and economic status. However, many regions of the world that face this clean water challenge also have high solar energy potential. To address this worldwide issue and utilize available resources, a solar-powered water purification device was developed that could be implemented in communities around the world that lack access to potable water. The device uses ozone to destroy water-borne pathogens and sand filtration to filter out particulates from the water. To select the best method for this application, a quantitative energy efficiency comparison of three water purification methods was conducted: heat, UV light, and ozone. After constructing an initial prototype, the efficacy of the device was tested using agar petri dishes to test for bacteria growth in treated water samples at various time intervals after applying the device to contaminated water. The results demonstrated that the water purification device successfully removed all bacteria and particulates from the water within three minutes, making it safe for human consumption. These results, as well as the proposed design that utilizes widely available resources in target communities, suggest that the device is a sustainable solution to address the global water crisis and could improve the quality of life for millions of people worldwide.

Keywords: clean water, solar powered water purification, ozonation, sand filtration, global water crisis

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494 Intraspecific Response of the Ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila to Copper and Thermal Stress

Authors: Doufoungognon Carine Kone


Heavy metals present in large quantities in ecosystems can alter biological and cellular functions and disrupt trophic functions. However, their toxicity can change according to thermal conditions, as toxicity depends on their bioavailability and thermal optimum of organisms. Organisms can develop different tolerance strategies to maintain themselves in a stressful environment, but these strategies are often studied in a single-stressor context. This study evaluates the responses of the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila to copper, high temperature, and their interaction. Six genotypes were exposed to a gradient of copper concentrations ranging from 0 to 350mg/L in synthetic media at three temperatures: 15°C, 23°C, and 31°C. Cell density, cell shape and size (and their variance), swimming speed and trajectory, and copper uptake rate were measured. Depending on the genotype, swimming speed, trajectory, and cell size were highly affected by stress gradients. One gets bigger, while two genotypes get smaller and the other remain unchanged. Some genotypes swam less rapidly, while others speed up as copper and temperature increased. Concerning copper uptake, the two genotypes accumulating the best and the worst, whatever the copper concentration or temperature, were also those that had the highest densities. Finally, very few temperature x copper interactions were observed on phenotypic parameters. The diversity of phenotypic responses revealed in this study reflects the existence of divergent strategies adopted by Tetrahymena thermophila to resist to copper and thermal stress, which suggests an important role of intraspecific variability in biodiversity response to environmental stress. One general and the surprising pattern was a global absence of interactive effects between copper and high temperature exposure on the observed phenotypic responses.

Keywords: ciliate, copper, intraspecific variability, phenotype, temperature, tolerance, multiple stressors

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493 Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems for Electricity and Hydrogen Production in an Urban Environment

Authors: Same Noel Ngando, Yakub Abdulfatai Olatunji


Renewable energy micro-grids, such as those powered by solar or wind energy, are often intermittent in nature. This means that the amount of energy generated by these systems can vary depending on weather conditions or other factors, which can make it difficult to ensure a steady supply of power. To address this issue, energy storage systems have been developed to increase the reliability of renewable energy micro-grids. Battery systems have been the dominant energy storage technology for renewable energy micro-grids. Batteries can store large amounts of energy in a relatively small and compact package, making them easy to install and maintain in a micro-grid setting. Additionally, batteries can be quickly charged and discharged, allowing them to respond quickly to changes in energy demand. However, the process involved in recycling batteries is quite costly and difficult. An alternative energy storage system that is gaining popularity is hydrogen storage. Hydrogen is a versatile energy carrier that can be produced from renewable energy sources such as solar or wind. It can be stored in large quantities at low cost, making it suitable for long-distance mass storage. Unlike batteries, hydrogen does not degrade over time, so it can be stored for extended periods without the need for frequent maintenance or replacement, allowing it to be used as a backup power source when the micro-grid is not generating enough energy to meet demand. When hydrogen is needed, it can be converted back into electricity through a fuel cell. Energy consumption data is got from a particular residential area in Daegu, South Korea, and the data is processed and analyzed. From the analysis, the total energy demand is calculated, and different hybrid energy system configurations are designed using HOMER Pro (Hybrid Optimization for Multiple Energy Resources) and MATLAB software. A techno-economic and environmental comparison and life cycle assessment (LCA) of the different configurations using battery and hydrogen as storage systems are carried out. The various scenarios included PV-hydrogen-grid system, PV-hydrogen-grid-wind, PV-hydrogen-grid-biomass, PV-hydrogen-wind, PV-hydrogen-biomass, biomass-hydrogen, wind-hydrogen, PV-battery-grid-wind, PV- battery -grid-biomass, PV- battery -wind, PV- battery -biomass, and biomass- battery. From the analysis, the least cost system for the location was the PV-hydrogen-grid system, with a net present cost of about USD 9,529,161. Even though all scenarios were environmentally friendly, taking into account the recycling cost and pollution involved in battery systems, all systems with hydrogen as a storage system produced better results. In conclusion, hydrogen is becoming a very prominent energy storage solution for renewable energy micro-grids. It is easier to store compared with electric power, so it is suitable for long-distance mass storage. Hydrogen storage systems have several advantages over battery systems, including flexibility, long-term stability, and low environmental impact. The cost of hydrogen storage is still relatively high, but it is expected to decrease as more hydrogen production, and storage infrastructure is built. With the growing focus on renewable energy and the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, hydrogen is expected to play an increasingly important role in the energy storage landscape.

Keywords: renewable energy systems, microgrid, hydrogen production, energy storage systems

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492 Physico-Chemical Characteristics and Possibilities of Utilization of Elbasan Thermal Waters

Authors: Elvin Çomo, Edlira Tako, Albana Hasimi, Rrapo Ormeni, Olger Gjuzi, Mirela Ndrita


In Albania, only low enthalpy geothermal springs and wells are known; the temperatures of some of them are almost at the upper limits of low enthalpy, reaching over 60°C. These resources can be used to improve the country's energy balance, as well as for profitable economic purposes. The region of Elbasan has the greatest geothermal energy potential in Albania. This basin is one of the most popular and used in our country. This area is a surface with a number of sources, located in the form of a chain, in the sector between Llixha and Hidrajt and constitutes a thermo-mineral basin with stable discharge and high temperature. The springs of Elbasan, with the average current flow of thermo mineral water of 12-18 l/s and its temperature of 55-65oC, have specific reserves of 39.6 GJ/m2 and the potential power to install 2760 kW. For the assessment of physic-chemical parameters and heavy metals, water samples were taken at 5 monitoring stations throughout the year 2022. The levels of basic parameters were analyzed using ISO, EU and APHA 23-th edition standard methods. This study presents the current state of the physic-chemical parameters of this thermal basin, the evaluation of these parameters for curative activities and for industrial processes, as well as the integrated utilization of geothermal energy. Possibilities for using thermo mineral waters for heating homes in the area around them or even further, depending on the flow from the source or geothermal well. Sensitization of Albanian investors, medical research and the community for the high economic and curative effectiveness, for the integral use of geothermal energy in this area and the development of the tourist sector. An analysis of the negative environmental impact of the use of thermal water is also provided.

Keywords: geothermal energy, Llixha, physic-chemical parameters, thermal water

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491 Carbon Skimming: Towards an Application to Summarise and Compare Embodied Carbon to Aid Early-Stage Decision Making

Authors: Rivindu Nethmin Bandara Menik Hitihamy Mudiyanselage, Matthias Hank Haeusler, Ben Doherty


Investors and clients in the Architectural, Engineering and Construction industry find it difficult to understand complex datasets and reports with little to no graphic representation. The stakeholders examined in this paper include designers, design clients and end-users. Communicating embodied carbon information graphically and concisely can aid with decision support early in a building's life cycle. It is essential to create a common visualisation approach as the level of knowledge about embodied carbon varies between stakeholders. The tool, designed in conjunction with Bates Smart, condenses Tally Life Cycle Assessment data to a carbon hot-spotting visualisation, highlighting the sections with the highest amounts of embodied carbon. This allows stakeholders at every stage of a given project to have a better understanding of the carbon implications with minimal effort. It further allows stakeholders to differentiate building elements by their carbon values, which enables the evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of the selected materials at an early stage. To examine and build a decision-support tool, an action-design research methodology of cycles of iterations was used along with precedents of embodied carbon visualising tools. Accordingly, the importance of visualisation and Building Information Modelling are also explored to understand the best format for relaying these results.

Keywords: embodied carbon, visualisation, summarisation, data filtering, early-stage decision-making, materiality

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490 Flexible Pilot Lines in Battery Cell Production: An Exploratory Study to Identify Flexibilization Parameters for Agile Research and Development

Authors: Max Rettenmeier, Florian Degen


The demand for sustainable and economically viable batteries for electric cars continues to grow. Therefore, the production infrastructure for battery cells must be scaled rapidly but, at the same time, be engineered to be sustainable and efficient. In tandem with this, pilot lines support not only ramp-up but also optimization of production in terms of time, cost, quality, and sustainability. The accelerated implementation of new production technologies plays a crucial role in this. Pilot lines are currently being set up at both research institutes and battery cell manufacturers in order to drive forward the implementation of new production technologies as quickly, reliably, and efficiently as possible. The main difficulty here is the currently low changeability and flexibility of the pilot lines. For example, due to long procurement times for battery cell production equipment, pilot lines can only be modified for new research objects with a very long delay, which limits the agility of the research operation. This factor is to be seen as particularly critical since the battery sector currently exhibits a unique dynamic in research and development. One the product level, for example, material innovations such the solid-state technology or sodium ion batteries are being driven forward at a rapid pace. At the same time, manufacturing processes are being rethought through process innovations such as dry coating. This results in the need for flexible pilot lines for battery cell production to ensure agile, efficient, as well as cost-effective implementation and scaling of new production technologies in a fast, safe and efficient way. For this purpose, this paper will analyze with regard to which parameters pilot lines can be made flexible and which parameters are particularly critical. This is intended to simplify the planning process for pilot lines. In principle, all flexibility options can be designed into pilot lines, but maximum flexibility is also associated with a high level of effort, which is why a critical analysis should be carried out in advance to determine at which points which degree of flexibility is suitable for the planned application. As a first step, concepts of current pilot lines will be analyzed. The pilot lines are studied in particular with regard to their flexibility and the parameters specified in this context. In addition, further flexibilization parameters will be investigated based on systematic literature research. In this way, the paper helps to ensure that pilot lines can be designed with sufficient flexibility already in the planning phase so that the necessary agility and efficiency are maintained in operational research processes.

Keywords: flexible production, battery cell production, pilot line, scale-up

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489 Comparison Approach for Wind Resource Assessment to Determine Most Precise Approach

Authors: Tasir Khan, Ishfaq Ahmad, Yejuan Wang, Muhammad Salam


Distribution models of the wind speed data are essential to assess the potential wind speed energy because it decreases the uncertainty to estimate wind energy output. Therefore, before performing a detailed potential energy analysis, the precise distribution model for data relating to wind speed must be found. In this research, material from numerous criteria goodness-of-fits, such as Kolmogorov Simonov, Anderson Darling statistics, Chi-Square, root mean square error (RMSE), AIC and BIC were combined finally to determine the wind speed of the best-fitted distribution. The suggested method collectively makes each criterion. This method was useful in a circumstance to fitting 14 distribution models statistically with the data of wind speed together at four sites in Pakistan. The consequences show that this method provides the best source for selecting the most suitable wind speed statistical distribution. Also, the graphical representation is consistent with the analytical results. This research presents three estimation methods that can be used to calculate the different distributions used to estimate the wind. In the suggested MLM, MOM, and MLE the third-order moment used in the wind energy formula is a key function because it makes an important contribution to the precise estimate of wind energy. In order to prove the presence of the suggested MOM, it was compared with well-known estimation methods, such as the method of linear moment, and maximum likelihood estimate. In the relative analysis, given to several goodness-of-fit, the presentation of the considered techniques is estimated on the actual wind speed evaluated in different time periods. The results obtained show that MOM certainly provides a more precise estimation than other familiar approaches in terms of estimating wind energy based on the fourteen distributions. Therefore, MOM can be used as a better technique for assessing wind energy.

Keywords: wind-speed modeling, goodness of fit, maximum likelihood method, linear moment

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488 Effect of Intrinsic Point Defects on the Structural and Optical Properties of SnO₂ Thin Films Grown by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis Method

Authors: Fatiha Besahraoui, M'hamed Guezzoul, Kheira Chebbah, M'hamed Bouslama


SnO₂ thin film is characterized by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Photoluminescence Spectroscopies. AFM images show a dense surface of columnar grains with a roughness of 78.69 nm. The PL measurements at 7 K reveal the presence of PL peaks centered in IR and visible regions. They are attributed to radiative transitions via oxygen vacancies, Sn interstitials, and dangling bonds. A bands diagram model is presented with the approximate positions of intrinsic point defect levels in SnO₂ thin films. The integrated PL measurements demonstrate the good thermal stability of our sample, which makes it very useful in optoelectronic devices functioning at room temperature. The unusual behavior of the evolution of PL peaks and their full width at half maximum as a function of temperature indicates the thermal sensitivity of the point defects present in the band gap. The shallower energy levels due to dangling bonds and/or oxygen vacancies are more sensitive to the temperature. However, volume defects like Sn interstitials are thermally stable and constitute deep and stable energy levels for excited electrons. Small redshifting of PL peaks is observed with increasing temperature. This behavior is attributed to the reduction of oxygen vacancies.

Keywords: transparent conducting oxide, photoluminescence, intrinsic point defects, semiconductors, oxygen vacancies

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487 Energy Scenarios for Greater Kampala Metropolitan Area towards a Sustainable 2050: A TIMES-VEDA Analysis

Authors: Kimuli Ismail, Michael Lubwama, John Baptist Kirabira, Adam Sebbit


This study develops 4 energy scenarios for Greater Kampala Metropolitan Area (GKMA). GKMA is Uganda’s capital with a population of 4.1million and a GDP growth rate of 5.8 with a nonsustainable energy management system. The study uses TIMES-VEDA to examine the energy impacts of business as usual (BAU), Kabejja, Carbon-Tax, and Lutta scenarios in commercial, industrial, transportation, residential, agricultural, and electricity generation activities. BAU is the baseline scenario with limited CO2 emissions restrictions against which Kabejja with 20% CO2 emissions restriction, a carbon tax of $100/ton imposed in 2050 for Carbon-Tax scenario, and Lutta with 95% CO2 emissions restriction is made. The analysis suggests that if the current policy trends continue as BAU, consumption would increase from 139.6PJ to 497.42PJ and CO2 emissions will increase from 4.6mtns to 7mtns. However, consumption would decrease by 2.3% in Kabejja, 3.4% in Carbon-Tax, and 3.3 % in Lutta compared to BAU. The CO2 emissions would decrease by 8.57% in Kabejja, 55.14% in Carbon-Tax, and 60% in Lutta compared to BAU. Sustainability is achievable when low-carbon electricity is increased by 53.68% in the EMS, and setting up an electrified Kampala metro. The study recommends Lutta as the sustainable pathway to a lowcarbon 2050.

Keywords: Sustainability, Scenario Plannnig, Times-Veda Modelling, Energy Policy Development

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486 Experimental Study of Solar Drying of Verbena in Different Dryers

Authors: Ilham Ihoume, Rachid Tadili, Nora Arbaoui


One of the most crucial ways to combat food insecurity is to minimize crop losses; food drying is one of the most organic, efficient, low-cost, and energy-saving food preservation methods. In this regard, we undertake in this study an experimental evaluation and analysis of the thermal performance of different natural convection drying systems: a solar greenhouse dryer, an indirect solar dryer with a single compartment, and a solar dryer with two compartments. These systems have been implemented at the Solar Energy and Environment Laboratory of Mohammed V University (Morocco). The objective of this work is to study the feasibility of converting a solar greenhouse into a solar dryer for use during the summer. On the other hand, to study the thermal performances of this greenhouse dryer by comparing it with other solar dryers. The experimental study showed that the drying of verbena leaves took 6 hours in the indirect dryer 1, 3 hours in the indirect dryer, and 2 and 4 hours in the greenhouse dryer, but the amortization period of the solar greenhouse dryer is lower than the other two solar dryers. The results of this study provide key information on the implementation and performance of these systems for drying food of great global interest.

Keywords: indirect solar dryer, solar energy, agricultural greenhouse, green energy

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485 Blockchain-Based Hydrogen Market (BBH2) -A Paradigm-Shifting Innovative Solution for Climate-Friendly and Sustainable Structural Change

Authors: Dr. Volker Wannack


The regional, national and international hydrogen (H2) and blockchain strategies are helping hydrogen and blockchain technology to achieve a breakthrough at the state, federal, European and global levels, thus laying the political and social foundation for the bespoke "Blockchain-Based Hydrogen Market (BBH2)" project idea. The project idea is to develop a working Blockchain Minimum Viable Product (B-MVP), i.e., a suitable Blockchain as an enabling technology with a common database & platform (as well as the associated implementation of automatically transacting smart contracts), in the hydrogen market with the following essential benefits: First, the B-MVP improves for the first time the logistics, trading and transaction processes within the entire hydrogen market actor process chain (renewable energy producers, hydrogen producers using surplus energy, hydrogen transport and distribution grid operators and the hydrogen consumers) in such a way that they now grant common protected access, are more cost-efficient and can be processed transparently & traceably, flexibly standardized & automated, stored in an audit- & forgery-proof manner, shared and evaluated. Thus, the focus of the Blockchain is the flawless tamper-proof verification of climate-friendly "green" instead of, e.g., climate-damaging "grey" hydrogen and the thus possible tracing of the origin from the renewable energy producer to the end user so that the entire supply chain of green hydrogen is represented in terms of economic, ecological and social sustainability and mapped in a secure and transparent market. Second, the B-MVP could be valid across countries and thus does not require country-specific data storage. Third, the B-MVP creates long-term jobs via an associated possible establishment of a blockchain operating company and serves to attract skilled workers as well as qualification and training. Fourth, the B-MVP allows new viable business models to emerge, which are the basis for further company settlements or start-ups and, in turn, go hand in hand with additional long-term job creation. For example, producers and transport network operators can develop individual tariffs by evaluating data and providing demand-oriented network capacities. Redistributors and end customers would benefit from demand-based tariffs and tamper-proof proofs. Fifth, the B-MVP contributes to an increase in value creation through technological and economically usable advances and to an associated improved, national and international standard-setting visibility in the sense of a climate-friendly, sustainable, future-oriented and pioneering showcase region that will manifest itself as a trailblazer with the supraregional appeal. Sixth, the previous points mentioned create additional incentives for research and development and contribute to the improvement & bundling of the knowledge transfer of universities and companies, to the increase of scientific performance and thus to a correspondence of the understanding of strategic innovation management and innovation culture, because thus in a superordinate way two future-oriented technologies are bundled in the innovative mantle of sector coupling. The method of implementation is as follows: a.) Evaluation & mapping of a suitable blockchain technology and architecture, c.) Development & implementation of the blockchain, smart contracts and the deposit of certificates of origin, d.) Development of suitable interfaces to existing systems of the users, e.g., nomination, portfolio management, trading and billing systems, e.) Testing of the scaling of the B-MVP to other markets and user groups, f.) Development of suitable data formats for the exchange of process-relevant data, g.) Conducting field studies to test the B-MVP. BBH2 is being implemented as part of the funding call "Technology Offensive Hydrogen" within the research funding of the Federal Ministry of Economics and Climate Protection in the 7th Energy Research Programme of the Federal Government.

Keywords: hydrogen, blockchain, sustainability, innovation, structural change

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484 Antimicrobial Activity of Biosynthesized Silver Nanoparticles with Handroanthus Chrysanthus Flower Extract

Authors: Eduardo Padilla, Luis Daniel Rodriguez, Ivan Sanchez, Angelica Sofia Go


The synthesis and application of metallic nanoparticles have increased in recent years. Biological methods go beyond the chemical and physical synthesis that is expensive and not friendly to the environment. Therefore, in this study, silver nanoparticles were synthesized biologically in an environmentally friendly way by Handroanthus chrysanthus flower aqueous extract (AgNPs) that contains phytochemicals capable of reducing silver nitrate. AgNPs were characterized visually by UV-visible spectroscopy and TEM. The antimicrobial activity of the AgNPs was tested by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) in Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus strains AgNPs showed potent antimicrobial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. MIC and MBC values were as low as 41.6, and 83.2 ug/mL using AgNPs biosynthesized by H. chrysanthus flower extract. This nanoparticle could be the basis for the formulation of disinfectants for use in the food and pharmaceutical industry.

Keywords: antimicrobial, silver nanoparticles, flower extract, Handroanthus

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483 Sustainable Ionized Gas Thermoelectric Generator: Comparative Theoretical Evaluation and Efficiency Estimation

Authors: Mohammad Bqoor, Mohammad Hamdan, Isam Janajreh, Sufian Abedrabbo


Extensive and comparative theoretical studies on novel ionized gas thermoelectric generator (IG-TEG) system have shown the ability of continuous energy extracting from the thermal energy of ambient air around standard room temperature and even below. This system does not need a temperature gradient in order to work, unlike the other TEGs that use the Seebeck effect, and therefore this new system can be utilized in sustainable energy systems, as well as in green cooling solutions, by extracting energy instead of wasting energy in compressing the gas for cooling. This novel system was designed based on Static Ratchet Potential (SRP), which is known as a spatially asymmetric electric potential produced by an array of positive and negative electrodes. The ratchet potential produces an electrical current from the random Brownian Motion of charged particles that are driven by thermal energy. The key parameter of the system is particle transportation, and it was studied under the condition of flashing ratchet potentials utilizing several methods, and compared to previous studies used different methods ensuring redundancy. In this study, a different approach is pursued to estimate particle transportation by evaluating the charged particle distribution and applying the other conditions of the SRP and showed agreement in the results compared to the previous study. Ultimately, power levels of 100 watts proved to be achievable from a 1m long system tube of a 10 cm radius.

Keywords: thermoelectric generator, ratchet potential, Brownian ratchet, energy harvesting, sustainable energy, green technology

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482 Biomass Energy In Improving Sustainable Economic Development

Authors: Dahiru Muhammad, Muhammad Danladi, Adamu Garba, Muhammad Yahaya


This paper put forward the potentialities of biomass for energy as divers means of sustainable economic development. The paper explains in brief the ways or methods that are used to generate energy from biomass, such as combustion, pyrolysis, anaerobic, and gasification, and also how biomass for energy can enhance the sustainable economic development of a Nation. Currently, the nation depends on fossil fuels as a sources of generating its energy which is finite and deflectable with time, while on the other hand, biomass is an alternative and endless product which consists of a forest biomass, agricultural residues, and energy crops. Finally, recommendations and conclusion were made on the role of biomass for energy in improving sustainable economic development.

Keywords: biomass, energy, sustainable, economic, development

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481 Design of Residential Geothermal Cooling System in Kuwait

Authors: Tebah KH A AlFouzan, Meznah Dahlous Ali Alkreebani, Fatemah Salem Dekheel Alrasheedi, Hanadi Bandar Rughayan AlNomas, Muneerah Mohammad Sulaiman ALOjairi


Article spotlights the heat transfer process based beneath the earth’s surface. The process starts by exchanging the heat found in the building as fluid in the pipes absorbs it, then transports it down the soil consuming cool temperature exchange, recirculating, and rebounding to deliver cool air. This system is a renewable energy that is reliable and sustainable. The analysis showed the disposal of fossil fuels, energy preservation, 400% efficiency, long lifespan, and lower maintenance. Investigation displays the system’s types of design, whether open or closed loop and piping layout. Finally, the geothermal cooling study presents the challenges of creating a prototype in Kuwait, as constraints are applicable due to geography.

Keywords: cooling system, engineering, geothermal cooling, natural ventilation, renewable energy

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480 Role of Yeast-Based Bioadditive on Controlling Lignin Inhibition in Anaerobic Digestion Process

Authors: Ogemdi Chinwendu Anika, Anna Strzelecka, Yadira Bajón-Fernández, Raffaella Villa


Anaerobic digestion (AD) has been used since time in memorial to take care of organic wastes in the environment, especially for sewage and wastewater treatments. Recently, the rising demand/need to increase renewable energy from organic matter has caused the AD substrates spectrum to expand and include a wider variety of organic materials such as agricultural residues and farm manure which is annually generated at around 140 billion metric tons globally. The problem, however, is that agricultural wastes are composed of materials that are heterogeneous and too difficult to degrade -particularly lignin, that make up about 0–40% of the total lignocellulose content. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of varying concentrations of lignin on biogas yields and their subsequent response to a commercial yeast-based bioadditive in batch anaerobic digesters. The experiments were carried out in batches for a retention time of 56 days with different lignin concentrations (200 mg, 300 mg, 400 mg, 500 mg, and 600 mg) treated to different conditions to first determine the concentration of the bioadditive that was most optimal for overall process improvement and yields increase. The batch experiments were set up using 130 mL bottles with a working volume of 60mL, maintained at 38°C in an incubator shaker (150rpm). Digestate obtained from a local plant operating at mesophilic conditions was used as the starting inoculum, and commercial kraft lignin was used as feedstock. Biogas measurements were carried out using the displacement method and were corrected to standard temperature and pressure using standard gas equations. Furthermore, the modified Gompertz equation model was used to non-linearly regress the resulting data to estimate gas production potential, production rates, and the duration of lag phases as indicatives of degrees of lignin inhibition. The results showed that lignin had a strong inhibitory effect on the AD process, and the higher the lignin concentration, the more the inhibition. Also, the modelling showed that the rates of gas production were influenced by the concentrations of the lignin substrate added to the system – the higher the lignin concentrations in mg (0, 200, 300, 400, 500, and 600) the lower the respective rate of gas production in ml/ (3.3, 2.2, 2.3, 1.6, 1.3, and 1.1), although the 300 mg increased by 0.1 ml/ over that of the 200 mg. The impact of the yeast-based bioaddition on the rate of production was most significant in the 400 mg and 500 mg as the rate was improved by 0.1 ml/ and 0.2 ml/ respectively. This indicates that agricultural residues with higher lignin content may be more responsive to inhibition alleviation by yeast-based bioadditive; therefore, further study on its application to the AD of agricultural residues of high lignin content will be the next step in this research.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, renewable energy, lignin valorisation, biogas

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479 Uses for Closed Coal Mines: Construction of Underground Pumped Storage Hydropower Plants

Authors: Javier Menéndez, Jorge Loredo


Large scale energy storage systems (LSESS) such as pumped-storage hydro-power (PSH) are required in the current energy transition towards a low carbon economy by using green energies that produce low levels of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Coal mines are currently being closed in the European Union and their underground facilities may be used to build PSH plants. However, the development of this projects requires the excavation of a network of tunnels and a large cavern that would be used as a powerhouse to install the Francis turbine and motor-generator. The technical feasibility to excavate the powerhouse cavern has been analyzed in the North of Spain. Three-dimensional numerical models have been conducted to analyze the stability considering shale and sandstone rock mass. Total displacements and thickness of plastic zones were examined considering different support systems. Systematic grouted rock bolts and fibre reinforced shotcrete were applied at the cavern walls and roof. The results obtained show that the construction of the powerhouse is feasible applying proper support systems.

Keywords: closed mines, mine water, numerical model, pumped-storage, renewable energies

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478 Wellbore Stability Evaluation of Ratawi Shale Formation

Authors: Raed Hameed Allawi


Wellbore instability problems are considered the majority challenge for several wells in the Ratawi shale formation. However, it results in non-productive (NPT) time and increased well-drilling expenditures. This work aims to construct an integrated mechanical earth model (MEM) to predict the wellbore failure and design optimum mud weight to improve the drilling efficiency of future wells. The MEM was based on field data, including open-hole wireline logging and measurement data. Several failure criteria were applied in this work, including Modified Lade, Mogi-Coulomb, and Mohr-Coulomb that utilized to calculate the proper mud weight and practical drilling paths and orientations. Results showed that the leading cause of wellbore instability problems was inadequate mud weight. Moreover, some improper drilling practices and heterogeneity of Ratawi formation were additional causes of the increased risk of wellbore instability. Therefore, the suitable mud weight for safe drilling in the Ratawi shale formation should be 11.5-13.5 ppg. Furthermore, the mud weight should be increased as required depending on the trajectory of the planned well. The outcome of this study is as practical tools to reduce non-productive time and well costs and design future neighboring deviated wells to get high drilling efficiency. In addition, the current results serve as a reference for similar fields in that region because of the lacking of published studies regarding wellbore instability problems of the Ratawi Formation in southern Iraqi oilfields.

Keywords: wellbore stability, hole collapse, horizontal stress, MEM, mud window

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477 Energy Communities from Municipality Level to Province Level: A Comparison Using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average Model

Authors: Amro Issam Hamed Attia Ramadan, Marco Zappatore, Pasquale Balena, Antonella Longo


Considering the energetic crisis that is hitting Europe, it becomes more and more necessary to change the energy policies to depend less on fossil fuels and replace them with energy from renewable sources. This has triggered the urge to use clean energy not only to satisfy energy needs and fulfill the required consumption but also to decrease the danger of climatic changes due to harmful emissions. Many countries have already started creating energetic communities based on renewable energy sources. The first step to understanding energy needs in any place is to perfectly know the consumption. In this work, we aim to estimate electricity consumption for a municipality that makes up part of a rural area located in southern Italy using forecast models that allow for the estimation of electricity consumption for the next ten years, and we then apply the same model to the province where the municipality is located and estimate the future consumption for the same period to examine whether it is possible to start from the municipality level to reach the province level when creating energy communities.

Keywords: ARIMA, electricity consumption, forecasting models, time series

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476 Remote Building: An Integrated Approach to Domestic Rainwater Harvesting System Implementation in a Rural Village in Himachal Pradesh, India

Authors: Medha Iyer, Anshul Paul, Aunnesha Bhowmick, Anahita Banerjee, Sana Prasad, Anoushka Singal, Lauren Sinopoli, Pooja Bapat, Shivi Jain


In Himachal Pradesh, India, a majority of the population lives in rural villages spread throughout its hilly regions; many of these households rely on subsistence farming as their main source of livelihood. The student-run non-profit organization affiliated with this study, Project RISHI (Rural India Social and Health Improvement), works to promote sustainable development practices in Bharog Baneri, a gram panchayat, or union, of villages in Himachal Pradesh. In 2017, an established rainwater harvesting (RWH) project group within Project RISHI had surveyed many families, finding that the most common issue regarding food and water access was a lack of accessible water sources for agricultural use in the dry season. After a prototype build in 2018, the group built 6 systems for eligible residents that demonstrated need in 2019. Subsequently, the project went through an evaluation period, including self-evaluation of project goals and post-impact surveying of system recipients. The group used the social impact assessment model to optimize the implementation of domestic RWH systems in Bharog Baneri. Assessing implementation after in-person builds produced three pillars of focus — system design, equitable recipient selection, and community involvement. After two years of remote involvement during COVID-19, the group prepared to visit Bharog Baneri to build 10 new systems in the Summer 2022. First, the group created a more durable and cost-effective design that could withstand debris and heavy rains to prevent gutter failure. The domestic system design is a rooftop RWH catchment system with two tanks attached, an overflow pipe, debris filtration, and a spigot for accessibility. The group also developed a needs-based eligibility methodology with assistance from village leaders and surveying in Bharog Baneri and set up the groundwork for a future community board. COVID-19 has strengthened remote work, telecommunications, and other organizational support systems. As sustainable development evolves to encompass these practices in a post-pandemic world, the potential for new RWH system design and implementation processes has emerged as well. This raises the question: how can a social impact assessment of rural RWH projects inform an integrated approach to post-pandemic RWH system practices? The objective of this exploratory study is to investigate and evaluate a novel remote build infrastructure that brings access to reliable and sustainable sources of water for agricultural use. To construct the remote build approach, the group identified and assigned a point of contact who was experienced with previous RWH system builds. The recipients were selected based on demonstrated need and ease of building. The contact visited each of the houses and coordinated supplier relations and transportation of the materials in accordance with the participatory approach to sustainable development. Over the course of two months, the group completed four system builds with the resulting infrastructure. The infrastructure adhered to the social impact assessment model by centering supplier relations, material transportation, and construction logistics within the community. The conclusion of this exploration is that post-pandemic rural RWH practices should be rooted in strengthening villager communication and utilizing local assets. Through this, non-profit organizations can incorporate remote build strategies into their long-term goals.

Keywords: capturing run-off from rooftops, domestic rainwater harvesting, Implementation approaches and strategies, rainwater harvesting and management in rural sectors

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475 Applying Systems Thinking and a System of Systems Approach to Facilitate Sustainable Grid Integration of Variable Renewable Energy

Authors: Edward B. Ssekulima, Amir Etemadi


This paper presents a Systems Thinking and System of Systems (SoS) viewpoint for managing requirements complexity in the grid integration of Variable Renewable Energy (VRE). To achieve a SoS approach, it is often necessary to inculcate a Systems Thinking (ST) perspective in the planning and design of the attendant system. We show how this approach can support the enhanced integration of VRE (wind, solar small hydro) for which intermittency is a key inhibiting factor to their sustainable grid integration. The results indicate that a ST and SoS approach are a critical tool for decision makers in the planning, design and deployment of VRE Sources for their sustainable grid-integration in accordance with relevant techno-economic, social and environmental requirements.

Keywords: sustainable grid-integration, system of systems, systems thinking, variable energy resources

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474 Characterization of Fine Particles Emitted by the Inland and Maritime Shipping

Authors: Malika Souada, Juanita Rausch, Benjamin Guinot, Christine Bugajny


The increase of global commerce and tourism makes the shipping sector an important contributor of atmospheric pollution. Both, airborne particles and gaseous pollutants have negative impact on health and climate. This is especially the case in port cities, due to the proximity of the exposed population to the shipping emissions in addition to other multiple sources of pollution linked to the surrounding urban activity. The objective of this study is to determine the concentrations of fine particles (immission), specifically PM2.5, PM1, PM0.3, BC and sulphates, in a context where maritime passenger traffic plays an important role (port area of Bordeaux centre). The methodology is based on high temporal resolution measurements of pollutants, correlated with meteorological and ship movements data. Particles and gaseous pollutants from seven maritime passenger ships were sampled and analysed during the docking, manoeuvring and berthing phases. The particle mass measurements were supplemented by measurements of the number concentration of ultrafine particles (<300 nm diameter). The different measurement points were chosen by taking into account the local meteorological conditions and by pre-modelling the dispersion of the smoke plumes. The results of the measurement campaign carried out during the summer of 2021 in the port of Bordeaux show that the detection of concentrations of particles emitted by ships proved to be punctual and stealthy. Punctual peaks of ultrafine particle concentration in number (P#/m3) and BC (ng/m3) were measured during the docking phases of the ships, but the concentrations returned to their background level within minutes. However, it appears that the influence of the docking phases does not significantly affect the air quality of Bordeaux centre in terms of mass concentration. Additionally, no clear differences in PM2.5 concentrations between the periods with and without ships at berth were observed. The urban background pollution seems to be mainly dominated by exhaust and non-exhaust road traffic emissions. However, temporal high-resolution measurements suggest a probable emission of gaseous precursors responsible for the formation of secondary aerosols related to the ship activities. This was evidenced by the high values of the PM1/BC and PN/BC ratios, tracers of non-primary particle formation, during periods of ship berthing vs. periods without ships at berth. The research findings from this study provide robust support for port area air quality assessment and source apportionment.

Keywords: characterization, fine particulate matter, harbour air quality, shipping impacts

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473 An Innovative High Energy Density Power Pack for Portable and Off-Grid Power Applications

Authors: Idit Avrahami, Alex Schechter, Lev Zakhvatkin


This research focuses on developing a compact and light Hydrogen Generator (HG), coupled with fuel cells (FC) to provide a High-Energy-Density Power-Pack (HEDPP) solution, which is 10 times Li-Ion batteries. The HEDPP is designed for portable & off-grid power applications such as Drones, UAVs, stationary off-grid power sources, unmanned marine vehicles, and more. Hydrogen gas provided by this device is delivered in the safest way as a chemical powder at room temperature and ambient pressure is activated only when the power is on. Hydrogen generation is based on a stabilized chemical reaction of Sodium Borohydride (SBH) and water. The proposed solution enables a ‘No Storage’ Hydrogen-based Power Pack. Hydrogen is produced and consumed on-the-spot, during operation; therefore, there’s no need for high-pressure hydrogen tanks, which are large, heavy, and unsafe. In addition to its high energy density, ease of use, and safety, the presented power pack has a significant advantage of versatility and deployment in numerous applications and scales. This patented HG was demonstrated using several prototypes in our lab and was proved to be feasible and highly efficient for several applications. For example, in applications where water is available (such as marine vehicles, water and sewage infrastructure, and stationary applications), the Energy Density of the suggested power pack may reach 2700-3000 Wh/kg, which is again more than 10 times higher than conventional lithium-ion batteries. In other applications (e.g., UAV or small vehicles) the energy density may exceed 1000 Wh/kg.

Keywords: hydrogen energy, sodium borohydride, fixed-wing UAV, energy pack

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472 A Quantitative Plan for Drawing Down Emissions to Attenuate Climate Change

Authors: Terry Lucas


Calculations are performed to quantify the potential contribution of each greenhouse gas emission reduction strategy. This approach facilitates the visualisation of the relative benefits of each, and it provides a potential baseline for the development of a plan of action that is rooted in quantitative evaluation. Emissions reductions are converted to potential de-escalation of global average temperature. A comprehensive plan is then presented which shows the potential benefits all the way out to year 2100. A target temperature de-escalation of 2oC was selected, but the plan shows a benefit of only 1.225oC. This latter disappointing result is in spite of new and powerful technologies introduced into the equation. These include nuclear fusion and alternative nuclear fission processes. Current technologies such as wind, solar and electric vehicles show surprisingly small constributions to the whole.

Keywords: climate change, emissions, drawdown, energy

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