Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 341

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Energy and Environmental Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

341 Strategic Interventions to Combat Socio-economic Impacts of Drought in Thar - A Case Study of Nagarparkar

Authors: Anila Hayat


Pakistan is one of those developing countries that are least involved in emissions but has the most vulnerable environmental conditions. Pakistan is ranked 8th in most affected countries by climate change on the climate risk index 1992-2011. Pakistan is facing severe water shortages and flooding as a result of changes in rainfall patterns, specifically in the least developed areas such as Tharparkar. Nagarparkar, once an attractive tourist spot located in Tharparkar because of its tropical desert climate, is now facing severe drought conditions for the last few decades. This study investigates the present socio-economic situation of local communities, major impacts of droughts and their underlying causes and current mitigation strategies adopted by local communities. The study uses both secondary (quantitative in nature) and primary (qualitative in nature) methods to understand the impacts and explore causes on the socio-economic life of local communities of the study area. The relevant data has been collected through household surveys using structured questionnaires, focus groups and in-depth interviews of key personnel from local and international NGOs to explore the sensitivity of impacts and adaptation to droughts in the study area. This investigation is limited to four rural communities of union council Pilu of Nagarparkar district, including Bheel, BhojaBhoon, Mohd Rahan Ji Dhani and Yaqub Ji Dhani villages. The results indicate that drought has caused significant economic and social hardships for the local communities as more than 60% of the overall population is dependent on rainfall which has been disturbed by irregular rainfall patterns. The decline in Crop yields has forced the local community to migrate to nearby areas in search of livelihood opportunities. Communities have not undertaken any appropriate adaptive actions to counteract the adverse effect of drought; they are completely dependent on support from the government and external aid for survival. Respondents also reported that poverty is a major cause of their vulnerability to drought. An increase in population, limited livelihood opportunities, caste system, lack of interest from the government sector, unawareness shaped their vulnerability to drought and other social issues. Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended that the local authorities shall create awareness about drought hazards and improve the resilience of communities against drought. It is further suggested to develop, introduce and implement water harvesting practices at the community level to promote drought-resistant crops.

Keywords: migration, vulnerability, awareness, Drought

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340 Iron Oxide Reduction Using Solar Concentration and Carbon-Free Reducers

Authors: Bastien Sanglard, Simon Cayez, Guillaume Viau, Thomas Blon, Julian Carrey, Sébastien Lachaize


The need to develop clean production processes is a key challenge of any industry. Steel and iron industries are particularly concerned since they emit 6.8% of global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. One key step of the process is the high-temperature reduction of iron ore using coke, leading to large amounts of CO2 emissions. One route to decrease impacts is to get rid of fossil fuels by changing both the heat source and the reducer. The present work aims at investigating experimentally the possibility to use concentrated solar energy and carbon-free reducing agents. Two sets of experimentations were realized. First, in situ X-ray diffraction on pure and industrial powder of hematite was realized to study the phase evolution as a function of temperature during reduction under hydrogen and ammonia. Secondly, experiments were performed on industrial iron ore pellets, which were reduced by NH3 or H2 into a “solar furnace” composed of a controllable 1600W Xenon lamp to simulate and control the solar concentrated irradiation of a glass reactor and of a diaphragm to control light flux. Temperature and pressure were recorded during each experiment via thermocouples and pressure sensors. The percentage of iron oxide converted to iron (called thereafter “reduction ratio”) was found through Rietveld refinement. The power of the light source and the reduction time were varied. Results obtained in the diffractometer reaction chamber show that iron begins to form at 300°C with pure Fe2O3 powder and 400°C with industrial iron ore when maintained at this temperature for 60 minutes and 80 minutes, respectively. Magnetite and wuestite are detected on both powders during the reduction under hydrogen; under ammonia, iron nitride is also detected for temperatures between400°C and 600°C. All the iron oxide was converted to iron for a reaction of 60 min at 500°C, whereas a conversion ratio of 96% was reached with industrial powder for a reaction of 240 min at 600°C under hydrogen. Under ammonia, full conversion was also reached after 240 min of reduction at 600 °C. For experimentations into the solar furnace with iron ore pellets, the lamp power and the shutter opening were varied. An 83.2% conversion ratio was obtained with a light power of 67 W/cm2 without turning over the pellets. Nevertheless, under the same conditions, turning over the pellets in the middle of the experiment permits to reach a conversion ratio of 86.4%. A reduction ratio of 95% was reached with an exposure of 16 min by turning over pellets at half time with a flux of 169W/cm2. Similar or slightly better results were obtained under an ammonia reducing atmosphere. Under the same flux, the highest reduction yield of 97.3% was obtained under ammonia after 28 minutes of exposure. The chemical reaction itself, including the solar heat source, does not produce any greenhouse gases, so solar metallurgy represents a serious way to reduce greenhouse gas emission of metallurgy industry. Nevertheless, the ecological impact of the reducers must be investigated, which will be done in future work.

Keywords: solar concentration, metallurgy, ammonia, hydrogen, sustainability

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339 Life Cycle Assessment of a Parabolic Solar Cooker

Authors: Bastien Sanglard, Lou Magnat, Ligia Barna, Julian Carrey, Sébastien Lachaize


Cooking is a primary need for humans, several techniques being used around the globe based on different sources of energy: electricity, solid fuel (wood, coal...), fuel or liquefied petroleum gas. However, all of them leads to direct or indirect greenhouse gas emissions and sometimes health damage in household. Therefore, the solar concentrated power represent a great option to lower the damages because of a cleaner using phase. Nevertheless, the construction phase of the solar cooker still requires primary energy and materials, which leads to environmental impacts. The aims of this work is to analyse the ecological impacts of a commercialaluminium parabola and to compare it with other means of cooking, taking the boiling of 2 litres of water three times a day during 40 years as the functional unit. Life cycle assessment was performed using the software Umberto and the EcoInvent database. Calculations were realized over more than 13 criteria using two methods: the international panel on climate change method and the ReCiPe method. For the reflector itself, different aluminium provenances were compared, as well as the use of recycled aluminium. For the structure, aluminium was compared to iron (primary and recycled) and wood. Results show that climate impacts of the studied parabola was 0.0353 kgCO2eq/kWh when built with Chinese aluminium and can be reduced by 4 using aluminium from Canada. Assessment also showed that using 32% of recycled aluminium would reduce the impact by 1.33 and 1.43 compared to the use of primary Canadian aluminium and primary Chinese aluminium, respectively. The exclusive use of recycled aluminium lower the impact by 17. Besides, the use of iron (recycled or primary) or wood for the structure supporting the reflector significantly lowers the impact. The impact categories of the ReCiPe method show that the parabola made from Chinese aluminium has the heaviest impact - except for metal resource depletion - compared to aluminium from Canada, recycled aluminium or iron. Impact of solar cooking was then compared to gas stove and induction. The gas stove model was a cast iron tripod that supports the cooking pot, and the induction plate was as well a single spot plate. Results show the parabolic solar cooker has the lowest ecological impact over the 13 criteria of the ReCiPe method and over the global warming potential compared to the two other technologies. The climate impact of gas cooking is 0.628kgCO2/kWh when used with natural gas and 0.723 kgCO2/kWh when used with a bottle of gas. In each case, the main part of emissions came from gas burning. Induction cooking has a global warming potential of 0.12 kgCO2eq/kWh with the electricity mix of France, 96.3% of the impact being due to electricity production. Therefore, the electricity mix is a key factor for this impact: for instance, with the electricity mix of Germany and Poland, impacts are 0.81kgCO2eq/kWh and 1.39 kgCO2eq/kWh, respectively. Therefore, the parabolic solar cooker has a real ecological advantages compared to both gas stove and induction plate.

Keywords: life cycle assessement, solar concentration, cooking, sustainability

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338 Scientometrics Review of Embodied Carbon Benchmarks for Buildings

Authors: A. Rana, M. Badri, D. Lopez Behar, O. Yee, H. Al Bqaei


The building sector is one of the largest emitters of greenhouse gases. However, as operation energy demands of this sector decrease with more effective energy policies and strategies, there is an urgent need to parallel focus on the growing proportion of embodied carbons. In this regard, benchmarks on embodied carbon of buildings can provide a point of reference to compare and improve the environmental performance of buildings for the stakeholders. Therefore, embodied carbon benchmarks can serve as a useful tool to address climate change challenges. This research utilizes the method to provide a knowledge roadmap of embodied carbon benchmarks development and implementation trends. Two main databases, Web of Science and Engineering Village, are considered for the study. The mapping was conducted with the help of VosViewer tool to provide information regarding: the critical research areas; most cited authors and publications; and countries with the highest publications. It is revealed that the role of benchmarks in energy policies is an emerging trend. In addition, the research highlighted that in policies, embodied carbon benchmarks are gaining importance at the material, whole building, and building portfolio levels. This research reveals direction for improvement and future research and of relevance to building industry professionals, policymakers, and researchers.

Keywords: buildings embodied carbon benchmark, methods, policy

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337 Energy Self-Sufficiency Through Smart Micro-Grids and Decentralised Sector-Coupling

Authors: C.Trapp, A.Vijay, M.Khorasani


Decentralised micro-grids with sector coupling can combat the spatial and temporal intermittence of renewable energy by combining power, transportation and infrastructure sectors. Intelligent energy conversion concepts such as electrolysers, hydrogen engines and fuel cells combined with energy storage using intelligent batteries and hydrogen storage form the back-bone of such a system. This paper describes a micro-grid based on Photo-Voltaic cells, battery storage, innovative modular and scalable Anion Exchange Membrane (AEM) electrolyzer with an efficiency of up to 73%, high-pressure hydrogen storage as well as cutting-edge combustion-engine based Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plant with more than 85% efficiency at the university campus to address the challenges of decarbonization whilst eliminating the necessity for expensive high-voltage infrastructure.

Keywords: sector coupling, micro-grids, energy self-sufficiency, decarbonization, AEM electrolysis, hydrogen CHP

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336 Feasibility Study and Energy Conversion Evaluation of Agricultural Waste Gasification in the Pomelo Garden, Taiwan

Authors: Yi-Hao Pai, Wen-Feng Chen


The planting area of Pomelo in Hualien, Taiwan amounts to thousands of hectares. Especially in the blooming season of Pomelo, it is an important producing area for Pomelo honey, and it is also a good test field for promoting the "Under-forest Economy". However, in the current Pomelo garden planting and management operations, the large amount of agricultural waste generated by the pruning of the branches causes environmental sanitation concerns, which can lead to the hiding of pests or the infection of the Pomelo tree, and indirectly increase the health risks of bees. Therefore, how to deal with the pruning of the branches and avoid open burning is a topic of social concern in recent years. In this research, afeasibility study evaluating energy conversion efficiency through agricultural waste gasification from the Pomelo garden, Taiwan, is demonstrated. we used a high-temperature gasifier to convert the pruning of the branches into syngas and biochar. In terms of syngas composition and calorific value assessment, we use the biogas monitoring system for analysis. Then, we used Raman spectroscopy and electron microscopy (EM) to diagnose the microstructure and surface morphology of biochar. The results indicate that the 1 ton of pruning of the branches can produce 1797.03m3 of syngas, corresponding to a calorific value of 9.1MJ/m3. The main components of the gas include CH4, H2, CO, and CO2, and the corresponding gas composition ratio is 16.8%, 7.1%, 13.7%, and 24.5%. Through the biomass syngas generator with a conversion efficiency of 30% for power generation, a total of 1,358kWh can be obtained per ton of pruning of the branches. In the research of biochar, its main characteristics in Raman spectroscopy are G bands and D bands. The first-order G and D bands are at 1580 and 1350 cm⁻¹, respectively. The G bands originates from the in-plane tangential stretching of the C−C bonds in the graphitic structure, and theD band corresponds to scattering from local defects or disorders present in carbon. The area ratio of D and G peaks (D/G) increases with the decrease of reaction temperature. The larger the D/G, the higher the defect concentration and the higher the porosity. This result is consistent with the microstructure displayed by SEM. The study is expected to be able to reuse agricultural waste and promote the development of agricultural and green energy circular economy.

Keywords: agricultural waste, gasification, energy conversion, pomelo garden

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335 Optical Simulation of HfO₂ Film - Black Silicon Structures for Solar Cells Applications

Authors: Gagik Ayvazyan, Levon Hakhoyan, Surik Khudaverdyan, Laura Lakhoyan


Black Si (b-Si) is a nano-structured Si surface formed by a self-organized, maskless process with needle-like surfaces discernible by their black color. The combination of low reflectivity and the semi-conductive properties of Si found in b-Si make it a prime candidate for application in solar cells as an antireflection surface. However, surface recombination losses significantly reduce the efficiency of b-Si solar cells. Surface passivation using suitable dielectric films can minimize these losses. Nowadays some works have demonstrated that excellent passivation of b-Si nanostructures can be reached using Al₂O₃ films. However, the negative fixed charge present in Al₂O₃ films should provide good field effect passivation only for p- and p+-type Si surfaces. HfO2 thin films have not been practically tested for passivation of b-Si. HfO₂ could provide an alternative for n- and n+- type Si surface passivation since it has been shown to exhibit positive fixed charge. Using optical simulation by Finite-Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method, the possibility of b-Si passivation by HfO2 films has been analyzed. The FDTD modeling revealed that b-Si layers with HfO₂ films effectively suppress reflection in the wavelength range 400–1000 nm and across a wide range of incidence angles. The light-trapping performance primarily depends on geometry of the needles and film thickness. With the decrease of periodicity and increase of height of the needles, the reflectance decrease significantly, and the absorption increases significantly. Increase in thickness results in an even greater decrease in the calculated reflection coefficient of model structures and, consequently, to an improvement in the antireflection characteristics in the visible range. The excellent surface passivation and low reflectance results prove the potential of using the combination of the b-Si surface and the HfO₂ film for solar cells applications.

Keywords: antireflection, black silicon, HfO₂, passivation, simulation, solar cell

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334 Assessing the Severity of Traffic Related Air Pollution in South-East London to School Pupils

Authors: Ho Yin Wickson Cheung, Liora Malki-Epshtein


Outdoor air pollution presents a significant challenge for public health globally, especially in urban areas, with road traffic acting as the primary contributor to air pollution. Several studies have documented the antagonistic relation between traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) and the impact on health, especially to the vulnerable group of population, particularly young pupils. Generally, TRAP could cause damage to their brain, restricting the ability of children to learn and, more importantly, causing detrimental respiratory issues in later life. Butlittle is known about the specific exposure of children at school during the school day and the impact this may have on their overall exposure to pollution at a crucial time in their development. This project has set out to examine the air quality across primary schools in South-East London and assesses the variability of data found based on their geographic location and surroundings. Nitrogen dioxide, PM contaminants, and carbon dioxide were collected with diffusion tubes and portable monitoring equipment for eight schools across three local areas, that are Greenwich, Lewisham, and Tower Hamlets. This study first examines the geographical features of the schools surrounding (E.g., coverage of urban road structure and green infrastructure), then utilize three different methods to capture pollutants data. Moreover, comparing the obtained results with existing data from monitoring stations to understand the differences in air quality before and during the pandemic. Furthermore, most studies in this field have unfortunately neglected human exposure to pollutants and calculated based on values from fixed monitoring stations. Therefore, this paper introduces an alternative approach by calculating human exposure to air pollution from real-time data obtained when commuting within related areas (Driving routes and field walking). It is found that schools located highly close to motorways are generally not suffering from the most air pollution contaminants. Instead, one with the worst traffic congested routes nearby might also result in poor air quality. Monitored results also indicate that the annual air pollution values have slightly decreased during the pandemic. However, the majority of the data is currently still exceeding the WHO guidelines. Finally, the total human exposures for NO2 during commuting in the two selected routes were calculated. Results illustrated the total exposure for route 1 were 21,730 μm/m3 and 28,378.32 μm/m3, and for route 2 were 30,672 μm/m3 and 16,473 μm/m3. The variance that occurred might be due to the difference in traffic volume that requires further research. Exposure for NO2 during commuting was plotted with detailed timesteps that have shown their peak usually occurred while commuting. These have consolidated the initial assumption to the extremeness of TRAP. To conclude, this paper has yielded significant benefits to understanding air quality across schools in London with the new approach of capturing human exposure (Driving routes). Confirming the severity of air pollution and promoting the necessity of considering environmental sustainability for policymakers during decision making to protect society's future pillars.

Keywords: air pollution, schools, pupils, congestion

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333 Predicting the Effect of Silicon Electrode Design Parameters on Thermal Performance of a Lithium-Ion Battery

Authors: Harika Dasari, Eric Eisenbraun


The present study models the role of electrode structural characteristics on the thermal behavior of lithium-ion batteries. Preliminary modeling runs have employed a 1D lithium-ion battery coupled to a two-dimensional axisymmetric model using silicon as the battery anode material. The two models are coupled by the heat generated and the average temperature. Our study is focused on the silicon anode particle sizes and it is observed that silicon anodes with nano-sized particles reduced the temperature of the battery in comparison to anodes with larger particles. These results are discussed in the context of the relationship between particle size and thermal transport properties in the electrode.

Keywords: particle size, NMC, silicon, heat generation, separator

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332 Compatibilization of Polymer Blends based on Recycled High-Density Polyethylene and Low-Density Polyethylene

Authors: Hniya Kharmoudi, Said Elkoun


In the literature, the elaboration of polymer blends based on recycled HDPE and LDPE is challenging because of the nonmiscibility of the molecules. Ensuring the compatibility and the miscibility of blends is a must to have the best mechanical properties, this article will discuss the different methods to be adopted to assess the compatibility of polymer blends. (a) The first one aims to act on the extrusion process while varying the speed, flow rate, and residence time. (b) This method consists of incorporating additives such as Kevlar and graphene, (c) The last method has as its purpose the use of grafted anhydride maleic elastomer chains as a compatibilizer. The results of the formulations will be characterized via dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), Differential Scanning Calorimetric (DSC) as well as mechanical tensile and bending tests to assess whether pipes made from recycled polyethylene meet the standards.

Keywords: compatibility, miscibility, extrusion, additives, compatibilizer, grafted anhydride maleic, DMA, DSC, mechanical properties, recycled polyethylene

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331 The Influence of Different Green Roof Vegetation on Indoor Temperature in Semi-Arid Climate Cyprus

Authors: Sinem Yıldırım, Çimen Özburak, Özge Özden


Cities are facing a growing environmental issue as a result of the combined effect of urbanization and climate change. Climate change is the most conspicuousimpact on environmental issues. Nowadays, energy conservation is a very important subject for planners. It is known that green roofs can provide environmental benefits, which include building insulation and mitigating urban heat island effect within the cities. Some of the studies shown that green roofs regulate roof temperature and they have an effect on indoor temperatures of buildings. This research looks at the experimental investigation of different type green roof vegetation with control of no vegetation and their effect on indoor temperatures. The research has been carried out at Near East University Campus with the duration of four months in Nicosia, Cyprus. The experiment was consisting of four green roof types; three of them covered with vegetation, and one of them was not vegetated for control of the experiment. Each hut had 2.7 m2 roof areas, and the soil depth was 8 cm. Mediterranean climate drought resistant ground covers and shrubs were planted on the roof of the three huts. Three different vegetation type was used: 1-Low growing ground cover succulents 2-Mixture of low growing succulents and low shrubs 3-Mixture of low growing succulents, low shrubs, and high growing foliage plantsElitech RC-5 temperature data loggers were used in order to measure indoor temperatures of the huts. Research results were shown that the hut with a highly vegetated roof had the lowest temperatures during hot summer period in Cyprus.

Keywords: green roofs, indoor temperature, vegetation, mediterranean, cyprus

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330 Integrating Circular Economy Framework into Life Cycle Analysis: An Exploratory Study Applied to Geothermal Power Generation Technologies

Authors: Jingyi Li, Laurence Stamford, Alejandro Gallego-Schmid


Renewable electricity has become an indispensable contributor to achieving net-zero by the mid-century to tackle climate change. Unlike solar, wind, or hydro, geothermal was stagnant in its electricity production development for decades. However, with the significant breakthrough made in recent years, especially the implementation of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) in various regions globally, geothermal electricity could play a pivotal role in alleviating greenhouse gas emissions. Life cycle assessment has been applied to analyze specific geothermal power generation technologies, which proposed suggestions to optimize its environmental performance. For instance, selecting a high heat gradient region enables a higher flow rate from the production well and extends the technical lifespan. Although such process-level improvements have been made, the significance of geothermal power generation technologies so far has not explicitly displayed its competitiveness on a broader horizon. Therefore, this review-based study integrates a circular economy framework into life cycle assessment, clarifying the underlying added values for geothermal power plants to complete the sustainability profile. The derived results have provided an enlarged platform to discuss geothermal power generation technologies: (i) recover the heat and electricity from the process to reduce the fossil fuel requirements; (ii) recycle the construction materials, such as copper, steel, and aluminum for future projects; (iii) extract the lithium ions from geothermal brine and make geothermal reservoir become a potential supplier of the lithium battery industry; (iv) repurpose the abandoned oil and gas wells to build geothermal power plants; (v) integrate geothermal energy with other available renewable energies (e.g., solar and wind) to provide heat and electricity as a hybrid system at different weather; (vi) rethink the fluids used in stimulation process (EGS only), replace water with CO2 to achieve negative emissions from the system. These results provided a new perspective to the researchers, investors, and policymakers to rethink the role of geothermal in the energy supply network.

Keywords: climate, renewable energy, R strategies, sustainability

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329 Biodegradation of Triclosan and Tetracycline in Sewage Sludge by Pleurotus Ostreatus Fungal Pellets

Authors: Ayda Maadani Mallak, Amir lakzian, Elham Khodaverdi, Gholam Hossein Haghnia


The use of pharmaceuticals and personal care products such as antibiotics and antibacterials has been increased in recent years. Since the major part of consumed compounds remains unchanged in the wastewater treatment plant, they will easily find their way into the human food chain following the land use of sewage sludge (SS). Biological treatment of SS is one the most effective methods for expunging contaminants. White rot fungi, due to their ligninolytic enzymes, are extensively used to degrade organic compounds. Among all three different morphological forms and growth patterns of filamentous fungi (mycelia, clumps, and pellets), fungal pellet formation has been the subject of interest in industrial bioprocesses. Therefore this study was aimed to investigate the uptake of tetracycline (TC) and triclosan (TCS) by radish plant (Raphanus sativus) from soil amended with untreated and pretreated SS by P. ostreatus fungal pellets under greenhouse conditions. The experimental soil was amended with 1) Contaminated SS with TC at a concentration of 100 mgkg-1 and pretreated by fungal pellets, 2) Contaminated SS with TC at 100 mgkg-1 and untreated with fungal pellets, 3) Contaminated SS with TCS at a concentration of 50 mgkg-1 and pretreated by fungal pellets, 4) contaminated SS with TCS at 50 mgkg-1 and untreated with fungal pellets. An uncontaminated and untreated SS-amended soil also was considered as control treatment. An AB SCIEX 3200 QTRAP LC-MS/MS system was used in order to analyze the concentration of TC and TCS in plant tissues and soil medium. Results of this study revealed that the presence of TC and TCS in SS-amended soil decreased the radish biomass significantly. The reduction effect of TCS on dry biomass of shoot and root was 39 and 45% compared to controls, whereas for TC, the reduction percentage for shoot and root was 27 and 40.6%, respectively. However, fungal treatment of SS by P. ostreatus pellets reduced the negative effect of both compounds on plant biomass remarkably, as no significant difference was observed compared to control treatments. Pretreatment of SS with P. ostreatus also caused a significant reduction in translocation factor (concentration in shoot/root), especially for TC compound up to 32.3%, whereas this reduction for TCS was less (8%) compared to untreated SS. Generally, the results of this study confirmed the positive effect of using fungal pellets in SS amendment to decrease TC and TCS uptake by radish plants. In conclusion, P. ostreatus fungal pellets might provide future insights into bioaugmentation to remove antibiotics from environmental matrices.

Keywords: antibiotic, fungal pellet, sewage sludge, white-rot fungi

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328 Development of PVA/polypyrrole Scaffolds by Supercritical CO₂ for Its Application in Biomedicine

Authors: Antonio Montes, Antonio Cozar, Clara Pereyra, Diego Valor, Enrique Martinez de la Ossa


Tissues and organs can be damaged because of traumatism, congenital illnesses, or cancer and the traditional therapeutic alternatives, such as surgery, cannot usually completely repair the damaged tissues. Tissue engineering allows regeneration of the patient's tissues, reducing the problems caused by the traditional methods. Scaffolds, polymeric structures with interconnected porosity, can be promoted the proliferation and adhesion of the patient’s cells in the damaged area. Furthermore, by means of impregnation of the scaffold with beneficial active substances, tissue regeneration can be induced through a drug delivery process. The objective of the work is the fabrication of a PVA scaffold coated with Gallic Acid and polypyrrole through a one-step foaming and impregnation process using the SSI technique (Supercritical Solvent Impregnation). In this technique, supercritical CO₂ penetrates into the polymer chains producing the plasticization of the polymer. In the depressurization step a CO₂ cellular nucleation and growing to take place to an interconnected porous structure of the polymer. The foaming process using supercritical CO₂ as solvent and expansion agent presents advantages compared to the traditional scaffolds’ fabrication methods, such as the polymer’s high solubility in the solvent or the possibility of carrying out the process at a low temperature, avoiding the inactivation of the active substance. In this sense, the supercritical CO₂ avoids the use of organic solvents and reduces the solvent residues in the final product. Moreover, this process does not require long processing time that could cause the stratification of substance inside the scaffold reducing the therapeutic efficiency of the formulation. An experimental design has been carried out to optimize the SSI technique operating conditions, as well as a study of the morphological characteristics of the scaffold for its use in tissue engineerings, such as porosity, conductivity or the release profiles of the active substance. It has been proved that the obtained scaffolds are partially porous, conductors of electricity and are able to release Gallic Acid in the long term.

Keywords: scaffold, foaming, supercritical, PVA, polypyrrole, gallic acid

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327 Anaerobic Co-digestion in Two-Phase TPAD System of Sewage Sludge and Fish Waste

Authors: Rocio López, Miriam Tena, Montserrat Pérez, Rosario Solera


Biotransformation of organic waste into biogas is considered an interesting alternative for the production of clean energy from renewable sources by reducing the volume and organic content of waste Anaerobic digestion is considered one of the most efficient technologies to transform waste into fertilizer and biogas in order to obtain electrical energy or biofuel within the concept of the circular economy. Currently, three types of anaerobic processes have been developed on a commercial scale: (1) single-stage process where sludge bioconversion is completed in a single chamber, (2) two-stage process where the acidogenic and methanogenic stages are separated into two chambers and, finally, (3) temperature-phase sequencing (TPAD) process that combines a thermophilic pretreatment unit prior to mesophilic anaerobic digestion. Two-stage processes can provide hydrogen and methane with easier control of the first and second stage conditions producing higher total energy recovery and substrate degradation than single-stage processes. On the other hand, co-digestion is the simultaneous anaerobic digestion of a mixture of two or more substrates. The technology is similar to anaerobic digestion but is a more attractive option as it produces increased methane yields due to the positive synergism of the mixtures in the digestion medium thus increasing the economic viability of biogas plants. The present study focuses on the energy recovery by anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and waste from the aquaculture-fishing sector. The valorization is approached through the application of a temperature sequential phase process or TPAD technology (Temperature - Phased Anaerobic Digestion). Moreover, two-phase of microorganisms is considered. Thus, the selected process allows the development of a thermophilic acidogenic phase followed by a mesophilic methanogenic phase to obtain hydrogen (H₂) in the first stage and methane (CH₄) in the second stage. The combination of these technologies makes it possible to unify all the advantages of these anaerobic digestion processes individually. To achieve these objectives, a sequential study has been carried out in which the biochemical potential of hydrogen (BHP) is tested followed by a BMP test, which will allow checking the feasibility of the two-stage process. The best results obtained were high total and soluble COD yields (59.8% and 82.67%, respectively) as well as H₂ production rates of 12LH₂/kg SVadded and methane of 28.76 L CH₄/kg SVadded for TPAD.

Keywords: anaerobic co-digestion, TPAD, two-phase, BHP, BMP, sewage sludge, fish waste

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326 Thermal Effects on Wellbore Stability and Fluid Loss in High-Temperature Geothermal Drilling

Authors: Mubarek Alpkiray, Tan Nguyen, Arild Saasen


Geothermal drilling operations contain numerous challenges that are encountered to increase the well cost and nonproductive time. Fluid loss is one of the most undesirable troublesome that can cause well abandonment in geothermal drilling. Lost circulation can be seen due to natural fractures, high mud weight, and extremely high formation temperatures. This challenge may cause wellbore stability problems and lead to expensive drilling operations. Wellbore stability is the main domain that should be considered to mitigate or prevent fluid loss into the formation. This paper describes the causes of fluid loss in the Pamukoren geothermal field in Turkey. A geomechanics approach integration and assessment is applied to help the understanding of fluid loss problems. In geothermal drillings, geomechanics is primarily based on rock properties, in-situ stress characterization, the temperature of the rock, determination of stresses around the wellbore, and rock failure criteria. Since a high-temperature difference between the wellbore wall and drilling fluid is presented, temperature distribution through the wellbore is estimated and implemented to the wellbore stability approach. This study reviewed geothermal drilling data to analyze temperature estimation along the wellbore, the cause of fluid loss and stored electric capacity of the reservoir. Our observation demonstrates the geomechanical approach's significant role in understanding safe drilling operations on high-temperature wells. Fluid loss is encountered due to thermal stress effects around the borehole. This paper provides a wellbore stability analysis for a geothermal drilling operation to discuss the causes of lost circulation resulting in nonproductive time and cost.

Keywords: geothermal wells, drilling, wellbore stresses, drilling fluid loss, thermal stress

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325 The Use of Water Resources Yield Model at Kleinfontein Dam

Authors: Lungile Maliba, O. I. Nkwonta, E Onyari


Water resources development and management are regarded as crucial for poverty reduction in many developing countries and sustainable economic growth such as South Africa. The contribution of large hydraulic infrastructure and management of it, particularly reservoirs, to development remains controversial. This controversy stems from the fact that from a historical point of view construction of reservoirs has brought fewer benefits than envisaged and has resulted in significant environmental and social costs. A further complexity in reservoir management is the variety of stakeholders involved, all with different objectives, including domestic and industrial water use, flood control, irrigation and hydropower generation. The objective was to evaluate technical adaptation options for kleinfontein Dam’s current operating rule curves. To achieve this objective, the current operating rules curves being used in the sub-basin were analysed. An objective methodology was implemented in other to get the operating rules with regards to the target storage curves. These were derived using the Water Resources Yield/Planning Model (WRY/PM), with the aim of maximising of releases to demand zones. The result showed that the system is over allocated and in addition the demands exceed the long-term yield that is available for the system. It was concluded that the current operating rules in the system do not produce the optimum operation such as target storage curves to avoid supply failures in the system.

Keywords: infrastructure, Kleinfontein dam, operating rule curve, water resources yield and planning model

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324 Simulations to Predict Solar Energy Potential by ERA5 Application at North Africa

Authors: U. Ali Rahoma, Nabil Esawy, Fawzia Ibrahim Moursy, A. H. Hassan, Samy A. Khalil, Ashraf S. Khamees


The design of any solar energy conversion system requires the knowledge of solar radiation data obtained over a long period. Satellite data has been widely used to estimate solar energy where no ground observation of solar radiation is available, yet there are limitations on the temporal coverage of satellite data. Reanalysis is a “retrospective analysis” of the atmosphere parameters generated by assimilating observation data from various sources, including ground observation, satellites, ships, and aircraft observation with the output of NWP (Numerical Weather Prediction) models, to develop an exhaustive record of weather and climate parameters. The evaluation of the performance of reanalysis datasets (ERA-5) for North Africa against high-quality surface measured data was performed using statistical analysis. The estimation of global solar radiation (GSR) distribution over six different selected locations in North Africa during ten years from the period time 2011 to 2020. The root means square error (RMSE), mean bias error (MBE) and mean absolute error (MAE) of reanalysis data of solar radiation range from 0.079 to 0.222, 0.0145 to 0.198, and 0.055 to 0.178, respectively. The seasonal statistical analysis was performed to study seasonal variation of performance of datasets, which reveals the significant variation of errors in different seasons—the performance of the dataset changes by changing the temporal resolution of the data used for comparison. The monthly mean values of data show better performance, but the accuracy of data is compromised. The solar radiation data of ERA-5 is used for preliminary solar resource assessment and power estimation. The correlation coefficient (R2) varies from 0.93 to 99% for the different selected sites in North Africa in the present research. The goal of this research is to give a good representation for global solar radiation to help in solar energy application in all fields, and this can be done by using gridded data from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts ECMWF and producing a new model to give a good result.

Keywords: solar energy, solar radiation, ERA-5, potential energy

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323 The Impact of an Ionic Liquid on Hydrogen Generation from a Redox Process Involving Magnesium and Acidic Oilfield Water

Authors: Mohamed A. Deyab, Ahmed E. Awadallah


Under various conditions, we present a promising method for producing pure hydrogen energy from the electrochemical reaction of Mg metal in waste oilfield water (WOW). Mg metal and WOW are primarily consumed in this process. The results show that the hydrogen gas output is highly dependent on temperature and solution pH. The best conditions for hydrogen production were found to be a low pH (2.5) and a high temperature (338 K). For the first time, the Allyl methylimidazolium bis-trifluoromethyl sulfonyl imide) (IL) ionic liquid is used to regulate the rate of hydrogen generation. It has been confirmed that increasing the solution temperature and decreasing the solution pH accelerates Mg dissolution and produces more hydrogen per unit of time. The adsorption of IL on the active sites of the Mg surface is unrestricted by mixing physical and chemical orientation. Inspections using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), and FT-IR spectroscopy were used to identify and characterise surface corrosion of Mg in WOW. This process is also completely safe and can create energy on demand.

Keywords: hydrogen production, Mg, wastewater, ionic liquid

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322 Vehicle to Grid Potential for Solar Powered Electric Vehicle

Authors: Marcin Kowalski, Tomasz Wiktor, Piotr Ladonski, Krzysztof Bortnowski, Szymon Przybyl, Mateusz Grzesiak


This paper provides a detailed overview of the so-called smart grid or vehicle-to-grid idea, including a description of our way of implementation. The primary targets of this paper are technical students, young constructors, visionaries, however more experienced designers may find useful ideas for developing their vehicles. The publication will also be useful for home-grown builders who want to save on electricity. This article as well summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of V2G solution and might be helpful for students teams planning to participate in Bridgestone World Solar Challenge.

Keywords: solar powered vehicle, vehicle to grid, electric car, v2g, bridgestone world solar challenge

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321 A System For A Sustainable Electronic Waste Marketplace

Authors: Arya Sarukkai


Due to increased technological advances and the high use of phones, tablets, computers, and other electronics, we continue to see rapid growth in the volume of e-waste. There are millions just throwing out their old devices, millions who have many devices and don’t know what to do with them, and there are millions who would benefit from receiving those devices. The thesis of this paper is that by creating an ecosystem of donors and recipients and providing the right incentives, we can reduce e-waste. We discuss a system for sustainable e-waste by building a marketplace between donors and recipients. We also summarize experimental results comparing different incentives and present a live web service that allows for e-waste supplies to reach schools and nonprofit institutions.

Keywords: E-waste ecosystems, marketplaces, e-waste web app, online services

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320 Modelling of Cavity Growth in Underground Coal Gasification

Authors: Preeti Aghalayam, Jay Shah


Underground coal gasification (UCG) is the in-situ gasification of unmineable coals to produce syngas. In UCG, gasifying agents are injected into the coal seam, and a reactive cavity is formed due to coal consumption. The cavity formed is typically hemispherical, and this report consists of the MATLAB model of the UCG cavity to predict the composition of the output gases. There are seven radial and two time-variant ODEs. A MATLAB solver (ode15s) is used to solve the radial ODEs from the above equations. Two for-loops are implemented in the model, i.e., one for time variations and another for radial variation. In the time loop, the radial odes are solved using the MATLAB solver. The radial loop is nested inside the time loop, and the density odes are numerically solved using the Euler method. The model is validated by comparing it with the literature results of laboratory-scale experiments. The model predicts the radial and time variation of the product gases inside the cavity.

Keywords: gasification agent, MATLAB model, syngas, underground coal gasification (UCG)

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319 Reconnaissance Investigation of Thermal Springs in the Middle Benue Trough, Nigeria by Remote Sensing

Authors: N. Tochukwu, M. Mukhopadhyay, A. Mohamed


It is no new that Nigeria faces a continual power shortage problem due to its vast population power demand and heavy reliance on nonrenewable forms of energy such as thermal power or fossil fuel. Many researchers have recommended using geothermal energy as an alternative; however, Past studies focus on the geophysical & geochemical investigation of this energy in the sedimentary and basement complex; only a few studies incorporated the remote sensing methods. Therefore, in this study, the preliminary examination of geothermal resources in the Middle Benue was carried out using satellite imagery in ArcMap. Landsat 8 scene (TIR, NIR, Red spectral bands) was used to estimate the Land Surface Temperature (LST). The Maximum Likelihood Classification (MLC) technique was used to classify sites with very low, low, moderate, and high LST. The intermediate and high classification happens to be possible geothermal zones, and they occupy 49% of the study area (38077km2). Riverline were superimposed on the LST layer, and the identification tool was used to locate high temperate sites. Streams that overlap on the selected sites were regarded as geothermal springs as. Surprisingly, the LST results show lower temperatures (<36°C) at the famous thermal springs (Awe & Wukari) than some unknown rivers/streams found in Kwande (38°C), Ussa, (38°C), Gwer East (37°C), Yola Cross & Ogoja (36°C). Studies have revealed that temperature increases with depth. However, this result shows excellent geothermal resources potential as it is expected to exceed the minimum geothermal gradient of 25.47 with an increase in depth. Therefore, further investigation is required to estimate the depth of the causative body, geothermal gradients, and the sustainability of the reservoirs by geophysical and field exploration. This method has proven to be cost-effective in locating geothermal resources in the study area. Consequently, the same procedure is recommended to be applied in other regions of the Precambrian basement complex and the sedimentary basins in Nigeria to save a preliminary field survey cost.

Keywords: ArcMap, geothermal resources, Landsat 8, LST, thermal springs, MLC

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318 Design, Development and Analysis of Combined Darrieus and Savonius Wind Turbine

Authors: Ashish Bhattarai, Bishnu Bhatta, Hem Raj Joshi, Nabin Neupane, Pankaj Yadav


This report concerns the design, development, and analysis of the combined Darrieus and Savonius wind turbine. Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWT's) are of two type's viz. Darrieus (lift type) and Savonius (drag type). The problem associated with Darrieus is the lack of self-starting while Savonius has low efficiency. There are 3 straight Darrieus blades having the cross-section of NACA(National Advisory Committee of Aeronautics) 0018 placed circumferentially and a helically twisted Savonius blade to get even torque distribution. This unique design allows the use of Savonius as a method of self-starting the wind turbine, which the Darrieus cannot achieve on its own. All the parts of the wind turbine are designed in CAD software, and simulation data were obtained via CFD(Computational Fluid Dynamics) approach. Also, the design was imported to FlashForge Finder to 3D print the wind turbine profile and finally, testing was carried out. The plastic material used for Savonius was ABS(Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene) and that for Darrieus was PLA(Polylactic Acid). From the data obtained experimentally, the hybrid VAWT so fabricated has been found to operate at the low cut-in speed of 3 m/s and maximum power output has been found to be 7.5537 watts at the wind speed of 6 m/s. The maximum rpm of the rotor blade is recorded to be 431 rpm(rotation per minute) at the wind velocity of 6 m/s, signifying its potentiality of wind power production. Besides, the data so obtained from both the process when analyzed through graph plots has shown the similar nature slope wise. Also, the difference between the experimental and theoretical data obtained has shown mechanical losses. The objective is to eliminate the need for external motors for self-starting purposes and study the performance of the model. The testing of the model was carried out for different wind velocities.

Keywords: VAWT, Darrieus, Savonius, helical blades, CFD, flash forge finder, ABS, PLA

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317 Torrefaction of Spelt Husks to Increase Its Fuel Properties

Authors: Abubakar Halidu, Paul E. Bilsborrow, Anh N. Phan


Torrefaction is a term that refers to the moderate pyrolysis of biomass at temperatures between 200 and 300oC in an oxygen-free environment to boost its heating value, grindability, and storability. This process can also be used as a pre-treatment for other thermochemical processes. The torrefaction of spelt husks was carried out at temperatures of 200, 250, and 300oC in an inert nitrogen environment with a heating rate of 20oC.min-1 and a residence time of 15–60 min, respectively. We examined the influence of torrefaction temperatures and residence time. The results indicated that increasing the torrefaction temperature increased the higher heating values (HHV) and improved grindability. Torrefied spelt husks at 300oC for 15 minutes exhibited the highest increase in HHV at 30.88 MJ kg-1, compared to non-torrefied spelt husks at 17.56 MJ kg-1.

Keywords: grindability, higher heating value, residence time, temperature, torrefaction

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316 Vulnerability of Groundwater to Pollution in Akwa Ibom State, Southern Nigeria, using the DRASTIC Model and Geographic Information System (GIS)

Authors: Aniedi A. Udo, Magnus U. Igboekwe, Rasaaq Bello, Francis D. Eyenaka, Michael C. Ohakwere-Eze


Groundwater vulnerability to pollution was assessed in Akwa Ibom State, Southern Nigeria, with the aim of locating areas with high potentials for resource contamination, especially due to anthropogenic influence. The electrical resistivity method was utilized in the collection of the initial field data. Additional data input, which included depth to static water level, drilled well log data, aquifer recharge data, percentage slope, as well as soil information, were sourced from secondary sources. The initial field data were interpreted both manually and with computer modeling to provide information on the geoelectric properties of the subsurface. Interpreted results together with the secondary data were used to develop the DRASTIC thematic maps. A vulnerability assessment was performed using the DRASTIC model in a GIS environment and areas with high vulnerability which needed immediate attention was clearly mapped out and presented using an aquifer vulnerability map. The model was subjected to validation and the rate of validity was 73% within the area of study.

Keywords: groundwater, vulnerability, DRASTIC model, pollution

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315 Peak Shaving in Microgrids Using Hybrid Storage

Authors: Juraj Londák, Radoslav Vargic, Pavol Podhradský


In this contribution, we focus on the technical and economic aspects of using hybrid storage in microgrids for peak shaving. We perform a feasibility analysis of hybrid storage consisting of conventional supercapacitors and chemical batteries. We use multiple real-life consumption profiles from various industry-oriented microgrids. The primary purpose is to construct a digital twin model for reserved capacity simulation and prediction. The main objective is to find the equilibrium between technical innovations, acquisition costs and energy cost savings

Keywords: microgrid, peak shaving, energy storage, digital twin

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314 Implementing Biogas Technology in Rural Areas of Limpopo: Analysis of Gawula, Mopani District in South Africa

Authors: Thilivhali E. Rasimphi, David Tinarwo


Access to energy is crucial in poverty alleviation, economic growth, education, and agricultural improvement. The best renewable energy source is one which is locally available, affordable, and can easily be used and managed by local communities. The usage of renewable energy technology has the potential to alleviate many of the current problems facing rural areas. To address energy poverty, biogas technology has become an important part of resolving such. This study, therefore, examines the performance of digesters in Gawula village; it also identifies the contributing factors to the adoption and use of the technology. Data was collected using an open-ended questionnaire from biogas users. To evaluate the performance of the digesters, a data envelopment analysis (DEA) non-parametric technique was used, and to identify key factors affecting adoption, a logit model was applied. The reviewed critical barriers to biogas development in the area seem to be a poor institutional framework, poor infrastructure, a lack of technical support, user training on maintenance and operation, and as such, the implemented plants have failed to make the desired impact. Thus most digesters were abandoned. To create awareness amongst rural communities, government involvement is key, and there is a need for national programs. Biogas technology does what few other renewable energy technologies do, which is to integrate waste management and energy. This creates a substantial opportunity for biogas generation and penetration. That is, a promising pathway towards achieving sustainable development through biogas technology.

Keywords: domestic biogas technology, economic, sustainable, social, rural development

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313 Drug Residues Disposal from Wastewater Using Carbon Nanomaterials

Authors: Stefan Nicolae, Cristina Cirtoaje, Emil Petrescu, Florin-Razvan Duca


In the context of the accelerated expansion of urban agglomerations and the exponential development of industry, a huge amount of water is used, and a crisis of drinking water may occur any time. Classic wastewater treatment removes most pollutants but, for some chemical residues, special methods are needed. Carbon nanotubes and other carbon materials might be used in many cases [1-2], especially for heavy metals removal but also on pharmaceutical products such as paracetamol [3]. Our research has confirmed the better efficiency of nanotubes compared to graphene on paracetamol removal from water, but even better results were obtained on single-walled nanotubes (SWCNTs) and graphene nanoplatelets. This can be due to their better dispersion in water which leads to an increased contact surface, so we propose a filtration system of membranes and carbon materials that can be used for paracetamol removal from wastewater but also for other drugs that affect the aquatic life as well as terrestrial animals and people who use this contaminated water.

Keywords: applied physics, wastewater, nanomaterials, enviromental science

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312 Industrial Waste to Energy Technology: Engineering Biowaste as High Potential Anode Electrode for Application in Lithium-Ion Batteries

Authors: Pejman Salimi, Sebastiano Tieuli, Somayeh Taghavi, Michela Signoretto, Remo Proietti Zaccaria


Increasing the growth of Industrial waste due to the large quantities of production leads to numerous environmental and economic challenges such as climate change, soil and water contamination, human disease, etc. Energy recovery of waste can be applied to produce heat or electricity. This strategy allows reducing energy produced using coal or other fuels and directly reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Among different factories, leather manufacturing plays a very important role in the whole world from the socio-economic point of view. The leather industry plays a very important role in our society from a socio-economic point of view. There are approximately 10,000 tanneries in the world producing leather for more than 6.5 million tons per year. Even though the leather industry uses a by-product from the meat industry as raw material, it is considered as an activity demanding for integrated prevention and control of pollution. Along the entire process, from raw skins/hides to finished leather, a huge amount of solid and water waste is generated. The solid wastes include fleshings, raw trimmings, shavings, buffing dust, etc. One of the most abundant solid wastes (ca. 25% in weight of leather) generated throughout the leather tanning is the shaving waste. Leather shaving is a mechanical process that aims at reducing the tanned skin to a specific thickness before tanning and finishing. This product consists mainly of collagen and tanning agent. At present, over 85 % of the world's leather processing is chrome-tanned based. Consequently, large amounts of chromium-containing shaving wastes need to be treated. The major concern about the management of this kind of solid waste is ascribed to chrome content, which makes the conventional disposal methods, such as landfilling and incineration, not practicable. Therefore, many efforts have been developed in recent decades for promoting eco-friendly/alternative leather production and more effective waste management. Herein, shaving waste resulting from metal-free tanning technology is proposed as low-cost precursors for the preparation of carbon material as anodes for Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). In line with the philosophy of a reduced environmental impact, for preparing fully sustainable and environmentally friendly LIBs anodes, deionized water and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) have been used as alternatives to toxic/teratogen N-methyl-2- pyrrolidone (NMP) and to biologically hazardous Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), respectively. Furthermore, going towards the reduced cost, we had employed water solvent and Fluoride-free bio-derived CMC binder (as an alternative to NMP and PVdF, respectively) together with LiFePO4 (LFP) when a full cell was considered. These actions make closer to the 2030 goal of having green LIBs at 100 $ kW h-1. Besides, preparation of the water-based electrodes does not need a controlled environment and, due to the higher vapor pressure of water in comparison with NMP, the water-based electrode drying is much faster. This aspect determines an important consequence, namely a reduced energy consumption for the electrode preparation. The electrode derived from leather waste demonstrated the discharge capacity of 735 mAh g-1 after 1000 charge and discharge cycles at 0.5 A g-1. This promising performance is ascribed to the synergistic effect of defects, interlayer spacing, heteroatoms-doped (N, O, and S), high specific surface area and hierarchical micro/mesopore structure of the biochar. Interestingly, these features of activated biochars derived from the leather industry open the way for possible applications in other EESDs as well.

Keywords: biowaste, lithium-ion batteries, physical activation, waste management, leather industry

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