Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 959

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Electronics and Communication Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

959 Embedded Hardware and Software Design of Omnidirectional Autonomous Robotic Platform Suitable for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems Testing with Focus on Modularity and Safety

Authors: Ondrej Lufinka, Jan Kaderabek, Juraj Prstek, Jiri Skala, Kamil Kosturik

Abstract:

This paper deals with the problem of using Autonomous Robotic Platforms (ARP) for the ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistance Systems) testing in automotive. There are different possibilities of the testing already in development, and lately, the autonomous robotic platforms are beginning to be used more and more widely. Autonomous Robotic Platform discussed in this paper explores the hardware and software design possibilities related to the field of embedded systems. The paper focuses on its chapters on the introduction of the problem in general; then, it describes the proposed prototype concept and its principles from the embedded HW and SW point of view. It talks about the key features that can be used for the innovation of these platforms (e.g., modularity, omnidirectional movement, common and non-traditional sensors used for localization, synchronization of more platforms and cars together, or safety mechanisms). In the end, the future possible development of the project is discussed as well.

Keywords: software, Embedded Systems, Localization, Hardware, Modularity, ADAS, advanced driver assistance systems, autonomous robotic platform, multiple robots synchronization, omnidirectional movement, safety mechanisms

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958 An Evolutionary Approach for Automated Optimization and Design of Vivaldi Antennas

Authors: Sahithi Yarlagadda

Abstract:

The design of antenna is constrained by mathematical and geometrical parameters. Though there are diverse antenna structures with wide range of feeds yet, there are many geometries to be tried, which cannot be customized into predefined computational methods. The antenna design and optimization qualify to apply evolutionary algorithmic approach since the antenna parameters weights dependent on geometric characteristics directly. The evolutionary algorithm can be explained simply for a given quality function to be maximized. We can randomly create a set of candidate solutions, elements of the function's domain, and apply the quality function as an abstract fitness measure. Based on this fitness, some of the better candidates are chosen to seed the next generation by applying recombination and permutation to them. In conventional approach, the quality function is unaltered for any iteration. But the antenna parameters and geometries are wide to fit into single function. So, the weight coefficients are obtained for all possible antenna electrical parameters and geometries; the variation is learnt by mining the data obtained for an optimized algorithm. The weight and covariant coefficients of corresponding parameters are logged for learning and future use as datasets. This paper drafts an approach to obtain the requirements to study and methodize the evolutionary approach to automated antenna design for our past work on Vivaldi antenna as test candidate. The antenna parameters like gain, directivity, etc. are directly caged by geometries, materials, and dimensions. The design equations are to be noted here and valuated for all possible conditions to get maxima and minima for given frequency band. The boundary conditions are thus obtained prior to implementation, easing the optimization. The implementation mainly aimed to study the practical computational, processing, and design complexities that incur while simulations. HFSS is chosen for simulations and results. MATLAB is used to generate the computations, combinations, and data logging. MATLAB is also used to apply machine learning algorithms and plotting the data to design the algorithm. The number of combinations is to be tested manually, so HFSS API is used to call HFSS functions from MATLAB itself. MATLAB parallel processing tool box is used to run multiple simulations in parallel. The aim is to develop an add-in to antenna design software like HFSS, CSTor, a standalone application to optimize pre-identified common parameters of wide range of antennas available. In this paper, we have used MATLAB to calculate Vivaldi antenna parameters like slot line characteristic impedance, impedance of stripline, slot line width, flare aperture size, dielectric and K means, and Hamming window are applied to obtain the best test parameters. HFSS API is used to calculate the radiation, bandwidth, directivity, and efficiency, and data is logged for applying the Evolutionary genetic algorithm in MATLAB. The paper demonstrates the computational weights and Machine Learning approach for automated antenna optimizing for Vivaldi antenna.

Keywords: Machine Learning, Genetic Algorithm, evolutionary algorithm, Vivaldi

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957 Continuous-Time Analysis And Performance Assessment For Digital Control Of High-Frequency Switching Synchronous Dc-Dc Converter

Authors: Rihab Hamdi, Amel Hadri Hamida, Sakina Zerouali, Ouafae Bennis

Abstract:

This paper features a performance analysis and robustness assessment of a digitally controlled DC-DC three-cell buck converter associated in parallel, operating in continuous conduction mode (CCM), facing feeding parameters variation and loads disturbance. The control strategy relies on the continuous-time with an averaged modeling technique for high-frequency switching converter. The methodology is to modulate the complete design procedure, in regard to the existence of an instantaneous current operating point for designing the digital closed-loop, to the same continuous-time domain. Moreover, the adopted approach is to include a digital voltage control (DVC) technique, taking an account for digital control delays and sampling effects, which aims at improving efficiency and dynamic response and preventing generally undesired phenomena. The results obtained under load change, input change, and reference change clearly demonstrates an excellent dynamic response of the proposed technique, also as provide stability in any operating conditions, the effectiveness is fast with a smooth tracking of the specified output voltage. Simulations studies in MATLAB/Simulink environment are performed to verify the concept.

Keywords: Power Electronics, Performance Analysis, Digital control, parallel multi-cells converter, continuous conduction mode

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956 Comparison of Interactive Performance of Clicking Tasks Using Cursor Control Devices under Different Feedback Modes

Authors: Ning Li, Chi Zhang, Jinshou Shi, Xiaozhou Zhou, Yingwei Zhou, Tuoyang Zhou, Zhanshuo Zhang, Ziang Chen

Abstract:

In order to select the optimal interaction method for common computer click tasks, the click experiment test adopts the ISO 9241-9 task paradigm, using four common operations: mouse, trackball, touch, and eye control under visual feedback, auditory feedback, and no feedback. Through data analysis of various parameters of movement time, throughput, and accuracy, it is found that the movement time of touch-control is the shortest, the operation accuracy and throughput are higher than others, and the overall operation performance is the best. In addition, the motion time of the click operation with auditory feedback is significantly lower than the other two feedback methods in each operation mode experiment. In terms of the size of the click target, it is found that when the target is too small (less than 14px), the click performance of all aspects is reduced, so it is proposed that the design of the interface button should not be less than 28px. In this article, we discussed in detail the advantages and disadvantages of the operation and feedback methods, and the results of the discussion of the click operation can be applied to the design of the buttons in the interactive interface.

Keywords: Human Computer Interaction, throughput, Feedback, cursor control performance

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955 Facial Expression Phoenix: An Annotated Sequenced Dataset for Facial and Emotion-Specified Expressions in Sign Language

Authors: Marie Alaghband, Niloofar Yousefi, Ivan Garibay

Abstract:

Facial expressions are important parts of both gesture and sign language recognition systems. Despite the recent advances in both fields, annotated facial expression datasets in the context of sign language are still scarce resources. In this manuscript, we introduce an annotated sequenced facial expression dataset in the context of sign language, comprising over 3000 facial images extracted from the daily news and weather forecast of the public tv-station PHOENIX. Unlike the majority of currently existing facial expression datasets, FePh provides sequenced semi-blurry facial images with different head poses, orientations, and movements. In addition, in the majority of images, identities are mouthing the words, which makes the data more challenging. To annotate this dataset, we consider primary, secondary, and tertiary dyads of seven basic emotions of 'sad', 'surprise', 'fear', 'angry', 'neutral', 'disgust', and 'happy'. We also considered the 'None' class if the image's facial expression could not be described by any of the aforementioned emotions. Although we provide FePh as a facial expression dataset of signers in sign language, it has a wider application in gesture recognition and Human Computer Interaction (HCI) systems.

Keywords: Gesture Recognition, sign language recognition, annotated facial expression dataset, sequenced facial expression dataset

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954 Hybrid Antenna Array with the Bowtie Elements for Super-Resolution and 3D Scanning Radars

Authors: Somayeh Komeylian

Abstract:

The antenna arrays for the entire 3D spherical coverage have been developing for their potential use in variety of applications such as radars and body-worn devices of the body area networks. In this study, we have rigorously revamped the hybrid antenna array using the optimum geometry of bowtie elements for achieving a significant improvement in the angular discrimination capability as well as in separating two adjacent targets. In this scenario, we have analogously investigated the effectiveness of increasing the virtual array length in fostering and enhancing the directivity and angular resolution in the 10 GHz frequency. The simulation results have extensively verified that the proposed antenna array represents a drastic enhancement in terms of size, directivity, SLL and, especially resolution compared with the other available geometries. We have also verified that the maximum directivities of the proposed hybrid antenna array represent the robustness to the all θ variations, which is accompanied by the uniform 3D scanning characteristic.

Keywords: Body Area Networks, array signal processing, Bowtie antenna, hybrid antenna array

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953 Implementation of Real-Time Multiple Sound Source Localization and Separation

Authors: Jeng-Shin Sheu, Qi-Xun Zheng

Abstract:

This paper mainly discusses a method of separating speech when using a microphone array without knowing the number and direction of sound sources. In recent years, there have been many studies on the method of separating signals by using masking, but most of the separation methods must be operated under the condition of a known number of sound sources. Such methods cannot be used for real-time applications. In our method, this paper uses Circular-Integrated-Cross-Spectrum to estimate the statistical histogram distribution of the direction of arrival (DOA) to obtain the number of sound sources and sound in the mixed-signal Source direction. In calculating the relevant parameters of the ring integrated cross-spectrum, the phase (Phase of the Cross-Power Spectrum) and phase rotation factors (Phase Rotation Factors) calculated by the cross power spectrum of each microphone pair are used. In the part of separating speech, it uses the DOA weighting and shielding separation method to calculate the sound source direction (DOA) according to each T-F unit (time-frequency point). The weight corresponding to each T-F unit can be used to strengthen the intensity of each sound source from the T-F unit and reduce the influence of the remaining sound sources, thereby achieving voice separation.

Keywords: Sound source separation, Real-time, spectrum analysis, sound source localization

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952 Integrated Grey Rational Analysis-Standard Deviation Method for Handover in Heterogeneous Networks

Authors: Mohanad Alhabo, Naveed Nawaz, Mahmoud Al-Faris

Abstract:

The dense deployment of small cells is a promising solution to enhance the coverage and capacity of the heterogeneous networks (HetNets). However, the unplanned deployment could bring new challenges to the network ranging from interference, unnecessary handovers and handover failures. This will cause a degradation in the quality of service (QoS) delivered to the end user. In this paper, we propose an integrated Grey Rational Analysis Standard Deviation based handover method (GRA-SD) for HetNet. The proposed method integrates the Standard Deviation (SD) technique to acquire the weight of the handover metrics and the GRA method to select the best handover base station. The performance of the GRA-SD method is evaluated and compared with the traditional Multiple Attribute Decision Making (MADM) methods including Simple Additive Weighting (SAW) and VIKOR methods. Results reveal that the proposed method has outperformed the other methods in terms of minimizing the number of frequent unnecessary handovers and handover failures, in addition to improving the energy efficiency.

Keywords: Energy Efficiency, handover, small cells, MADM, HetNets

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951 Film Sensors for the Harsh Environment Application

Authors: Wenmin Qu

Abstract:

A capacitance level sensor with a segmented film electrode and a thin-film volume flow sensor with an innovative by-pass sleeve are presented as industrial products for the application in a harsh environment. The working principle of such sensors is well known; however, the traditional sensors show some limitations for certain industrial measurements. The two new sensors presented in this paper overcome this limitation and enlarge the application spectrum. The problem is analyzed, and the solution is given. The emphasis of the paper is on developing the problem-solving concepts and the realization of the corresponding measuring circuits. These should give advice and encouragement, how we can still develop new electronic measuring products in an almost saturated market.

Keywords: Industrial Application, harsh environment, by-pass sleeve, charge transfer circuit, fixed ΔT circuit, segmented electrode

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950 Indoor Visible Light Communication Channel Characterization for User Mobility: A Use-Case Study

Authors: Pooja Sanathkumar, Srinidhi Murali, Sethuraman TV, Saravanan M, Paventhan Arumugam, Ashwin Ashok

Abstract:

The last decade has witnessed a significant interest in visible light communication (VLC) technology, as VLC can potentially achieve high data rate links and secure communication channels. However, the use of VLC under mobile settings is fundamentally limited as its a line-of-sight (LOS) technology and there has been limited breakthroughs in realizing VLC for mobile settings. In this regard, this work targets to study the VLC channel under mobility. Through a use-case study analysis with experiment data traces this paper presents an empirical VLC channel study considering the application of VLC for smart lighting in an indoor room environment. This paper contributes a calibration study of a prototype VLC smart lighting system in an indoor environment and through the inferences gained from the calibration, and considering a user is carrying a mobile device fit with a VLC receiver, this work presents recommendations for user's position adjustments, with the goal to ensure maximum connectivity across the room.

Keywords: Mobility, Visible Light Communication, empirical study, channel characterization

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949 Uplink Throughput Prediction in Cellular Mobile Networks

Authors: Engin Eyceyurt, Josko Zec

Abstract:

The current and future cellular mobile communication networks generate enormous amounts of data. Networks have become extremely complex with extensive space of parameters, features and counters. These networks are unmanageable with legacy methods and an enhanced design and optimization approach is necessary that is increasingly reliant on machine learning. This paper proposes that machine learning as a viable approach for uplink throughput prediction. LTE radio metric, such as Reference Signal Received Power (RSRP), Reference Signal Received Quality (RSRQ), and Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) are used to train models to estimate expected uplink throughput. The prediction accuracy with high determination coefficient of 91.2% is obtained from measurements collected with a simple smartphone application.

Keywords: Machine Learning, LTE, drive test, uplink throughput prediction

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948 Optical Signal-To-Noise Ratio Monitoring Based on Delay Tap Sampling Using Artificial Neural Network

Authors: Feng Wang, Shencheng Ni, Shuying Han, Shanhong You

Abstract:

With the development of optical communication, optical performance monitoring (OPM) has received more and more attentions. Since optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) is directly related to bit error rate (BER), it is one of the important parameters in optical networks. Recently, artificial neural network (ANN) has been greatly developed. ANN has strong learning and generalization ability. In this paper, a method of OSNR monitoring based on delay-tap sampling (DTS) and ANN has been proposed. DTS technique is used to extract the eigenvalues of the signal. Then, the eigenvalues are input into the ANN to realize the OSNR monitoring. The experiments of 10 Gb/s non-return-to-zero (NRZ) on–off keying (OOK), 20 Gb/s pulse amplitude modulation (PAM4) and 20 Gb/s return-to-zero (RZ) differential phase-shift keying (DPSK) systems are demonstrated for the OSNR monitoring based on the proposed method. The experimental results show that the range of OSNR monitoring is from 15 to 30 dB and the root-mean-square errors (RMSEs) for 10 Gb/s NRZ-OOK, 20 Gb/s PAM4 and 20 Gb/s RZ-DPSK systems are 0.36 dB, 0.45 dB and 0.48 dB respectively. The impact of chromatic dispersion (CD) on the accuracy of OSNR monitoring is also investigated in the three experimental systems mentioned above.

Keywords: artificial neural network (ANN), chromatic dispersion (CD), delay-tap sampling (DTS), optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR)

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947 Performance Analysis of 5G for Low Latency Transmission Based on Universal Filtered Multi-Carrier Technique and Interleave Division Multiple Access

Authors: A. Asgharzadeh, M. Maroufi

Abstract:

5G mobile communication system has drawn more and more attention. The 5G system needs to provide three different types of services, including enhanced MBB (eMBB), massive machine-type communication (mMTC), and ultra-reliable and low-latency communication (URLLC). New waveforms with new features, such as Universal Filtered Multi-Carrier (UFMC), Filter Bank Multicarrier (FBMC), and f-OFDM (Filtered Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) are studied and proposed to be the candidate waveform for the coming 5G system. The machine-to-machine (M2M) communications are one of the essential applications in 5G, and it involves exchanging of concise messages with a very short latency. However, in UFMC systems, the subcarriers are grouped into subbands but f-OFDM only one subband covering the entire band. Furthermore, in FBMC, a subband includes only one subcarrier, and the number of subbands is the same as the number of subcarriers. This paper mainly discusses the performance of UFMC with different parameters for the UFMC system. Also, paper shows UFMC is the best choice outperforming OFDM in any case and FBMC in case of very short packets while performing similarly for long sequences with channel estimation techniques for Interleave Division Multiple Access (IDMA) systems.

Keywords: subband, IDMA, UFMC, universal filtered multi-carrier technique, interleave division multiple access, fifth-generation

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946 A Low-Cost Memristor Based on Hybrid Structures of Metal-Oxide Quantum Dots and Thin Films

Authors: Amir Shariffar, Haider Salman, Tanveer Siddique, Omar Manasreh

Abstract:

According to the recent studies on metal-oxide memristors, researchers tend to improve the stability, endurance, and uniformity of resistive switching (RS) behavior in memristors. Specifically, the main challenge is to prevent abrupt ruptures in the memristor’s filament during the RS process. To address this problem, we are proposing a low-cost hybrid structure of metal oxide quantum dots (QDs) and thin films to control the formation of filaments in memristors. We aim to use metal oxide quantum dots because of their unique electronic properties and quantum confinement, which may improve the resistive switching behavior. QDs have discrete energy spectra due to electron confinement in three-dimensional space. Because of Coulomb repulsion between electrons, only a few free electrons are contained in a quantum dot. This fact might guide the growth direction for the conducting filaments in the metal oxide memristor. As a result, it is expected that QDs can improve the endurance and uniformity of RS behavior in memristors. Moreover, we use a hybrid structure of intrinsic n-type quantum dots and p-type thin films to introduce a potential barrier at the junction that can smooth the transition between high and low resistance states. A bottom-up approach is used for fabricating the proposed memristor using different types of metal-oxide QDs and thin films. We synthesize QDs including, zinc oxide, molybdenum trioxide, and nickel oxide combined with spin-coated thin films of titanium dioxide, copper oxide, and hafnium dioxide. We employ fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass as the substrate for deposition and bottom electrode. Then, the active layer composed of one type of quantum dots, and the opposite type of thin films is spin-coated onto the FTO. Lastly, circular gold electrodes are deposited with a shadow mask by using electron-beam (e-beam) evaporation at room temperature. The fabricated devices are characterized using a probe station with a semiconductor parameter analyzer. The current-voltage (I-V) characterization is analyzed for each device to determine the conduction mechanism. We evaluate the memristor’s performance in terms of stability, endurance, and retention time to identify the optimal memristive structure. Finally, we assess the proposed hypothesis before we proceed to the optimization process for fabricating the memristor.

Keywords: Quantum Dot, thin film, memristor, resistive switching

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945 Polarization Insensitive Absorber with Increased Bandwidth Using Multilayer Metamaterial

Authors: Srilaxmi Gangula, Mahalakshmi Vinukonda, Neeraj Rao

Abstract:

A wide band polarization insensitive metamaterial absorber with bandwidth enhancement in X and C band is proposed. The structure proposed here consists of a periodic unit cell of resonator arrangements in double layer. The proposed structure shows near unity absorption at frequencies of 6.21 GHz and 10.372 GHz spreading over a bandwidth of 1 GHz and 6.21 GHz respectively in X and C bands. The proposed metamaterial absorber is designed so as to increase the bandwidth. The proposed structure is also independent for TE and TM polarization. Because of its simple implementation, near unity absorption and wide bandwidth this dual band polarization insensitive metamaterial absorber can be used for EMI/EMC applications.

Keywords: Multilayer, Metamaterial, X-Band, C-band, absorber

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944 Experimental Demonstration of an Ultra-Low Power Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser for Optical Power Generation

Authors: S. Nazhan, Hassan K. Al-Musawi, Khalid A. Humood

Abstract:

This paper reports on an experimental investigation into the influence of current modulation on the properties of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) with a direct square wave modulation. The optical output power response, as a function of the pumping current, modulation frequency, and amplitude, is measured for an 850 nm VCSEL. We demonstrate that modulation frequency and amplitude play important roles in reducing the VCSEL's power consumption for optical generation. Indeed, even when the biasing current is below the static threshold, the VCSEL emits optical power under the square wave modulation. The power consumed by the device to generate light is significantly reduced to > 50%, which is below the threshold current, in response to both the modulation frequency and amplitude. An operating VCSEL device at low power is very desirable for less thermal effects, which are essential for a high-speed modulation bandwidth.

Keywords: Power Consumption, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, VCSELs, optical power generation, square wave modulation

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943 Benefits of Hybrid Mix in Renewable Energy and Integration with E-Efficient Compositions

Authors: Ahmed Khalil

Abstract:

Increased energy demands around the world have led to the raise in power production which has resulted with more greenhouse gas emissions through fossil sources. These fossil sources and emissions cause deterioration in echo-system. Therefore, renewable energy sources come to the scene as echo-friendly and clean energy sourcing, whereas the electrical devices and energy needs decrease in the timeline. Each of these renewable energy sources contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gases and mitigate environmental deterioration. However, there are also some general and source-specific challenges, which influence the choice of the investors. The most prominent general challenge that effects end-users’ comfort and reliability is usually determined as the intermittence which derives from the diversions of source conditions, due to nature dynamics and uncontrolled periodic changes. Research and development professionals strive to mitigate intermittence challenge through material improvement for each renewable source whereas hybrid source mix stand as a solution. This solution prevails well, when single renewable technologies are upgraded further. On the other hand, integration of energy efficient devices and systems, raise the affirmative effect of such solution in means of less energy requirement in sustainability composition or scenario. This paper provides a glimpse on the advantages of composing renewable source mix versus single usage, with contribution of sampled e-efficient systems and devices. Accordingly it demonstrates the extended benefits, through planning and predictive estimation stages of Ahmadi Town Projects in Kuwait.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, e-efficient systems, hybrid source, intermittence challenge

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942 Jitter Based Reconstruction of Transmission Line Pulse Using On-Chip Sensor

Authors: Bhuvnesh Narayanan, Bernhard Weiss, Tvrtko Mandic, Adrijan Baric

Abstract:

This paper discusses a method to reconstruct internal high-frequency signals through subsampling techniques in an IC using an on-chip sensor. Though there are existing methods to internally probe and reconstruct high frequency signals through subsampling techniques; these methods have been applicable mainly for synchronized systems. This paper demonstrates a method for making such non-intrusive on-chip reconstructions possible also in non-synchronized systems. The TLP pulse is used to demonstrate the experimental validation of the concept. The on-chip sensor measures the voltage in an internal node. The jitter in the input pulse causes a varying pulse delay with respect to the on-chip sampling command. By measuring this pulse delay and by correlating it with the measured on-chip voltage, time domain waveforms can be reconstructed, and the influence of the pulse on the internal nodes can be better understood.

Keywords: jitter, on-chip sensor, transmission line pulse, subsampling

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941 Efficiency Improvement of REV-Method for Calibration of Phased Array Antennas

Authors: Daniel Hristov

Abstract:

The paper describes the principle of operation, simulation and physical validation of method for simultaneous acquisition of gain and phase states of multiple antenna elements and the corresponding feed lines across a Phased Array Antenna (PAA). The derived values for gain and phase are used for PAA-calibration. The method utilizes the Rotating-Element Electric- Field Vector (REV) principle currently used for gain and phase state estimation of single antenna element across an active antenna aperture. A significant reduction of procedure execution time is achieved with simultaneous setting of different phase delays to multiple phase shifters, followed by a single power measurement. The initial gain and phase states are calculated using spectral and correlation analysis of the measured power series.

Keywords: Antenna arrays, Antenna, Calibration, Power Measurement, phase measurement

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940 Comparative Analysis of Universal Filtered Multi Carrier and Filtered Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Systems for Wireless Communications

Authors: Raja Rajeswari K

Abstract:

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM), a multi Carrier transmission technique that has been used in implementing the majority of wireless applications like Wireless Network Protocol Standards (like IEEE 802.11a, IEEE 802.11n), in telecommunications (like LTE, LTE-Advanced) and also in Digital Audio & Video Broadcast standards. The latest research and development in the area of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing, Universal Filtered Multi Carrier (UFMC) & Filtered OFDM (F-OFDM) has attracted lots of attention for wideband wireless communications. In this paper UFMC & F-OFDM system are implemented and comparative analysis are carried out in terms of M-ary QAM modulation scheme over Dolph-chebyshev filter & rectangular window filter and to estimate Bit Error Rate (BER) over Rayleigh fading channel.

Keywords: BER, UFMC, F-OFDM, M-ary QAM

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939 Temperature Dependence of the Optoelectronic Properties of InAs(Sb)-Based LED Heterostructures

Authors: Antonina Semakova, Nikolai Bazhenov, Anton Chernyaev, Sergei Kizhaev, Nikolai Stoyanov, Karim Mynbaev

Abstract:

At present, heterostructures are used for fabrication of almost all types of optoelectronic devices. Our research focuses on the optoelectronic properties of InAs(Sb) solid solutions that are widely used in fabrication of light emitting diodes (LEDs) operating in middle wavelength infrared range (MWIR). This spectral range (2-6 μm) is relevant for laser diode spectroscopy of gases and molecules, for systems for the detection of explosive substances, medical applications, and for environmental monitoring. The fabrication of MWIR LEDs that operate efficiently at room temperature is mainly hindered by the predominance of non-radiative Auger recombination of charge carriers over the process of radiative recombination, which makes practical application of LEDs difficult. However, non-radiative recombination can be partly suppressed in quantum-well structures. In this regard, studies of such structures are quite topical. In this work, electroluminescence (EL) of LED heterostructures based on InAs(Sb) epitaxial films with the molar fraction of InSb ranging from 0 to 0.09 and multi quantum-well (MQW) structures was studied in the temperature range 4.2-300 K. The growth of the heterostructures was performed by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition on InAs substrates. On top of the active layer, a wide-bandgap InAsSb(Ga,P) barrier was formed. At low temperatures (4.2-100 K) stimulated emission was observed. As the temperature increased, the emission became spontaneous. The transition from stimulated emission to spontaneous one occurred at different temperatures for structures with different InSb contents in the active region. The temperature-dependent carrier lifetime, limited by radiative recombination and the most probable Auger processes (for the materials under consideration, CHHS and CHCC), were calculated within the framework of the Kane model. The effect of various recombination processes on the carrier lifetime was studied, and the dominant role of Auger processes was established. For MQW structures quantization energies for electrons, light and heavy holes were calculated. A characteristic feature of the experimental EL spectra of these structures was the presence of peaks with energy different from that of calculated optical transitions between the first quantization levels for electrons and heavy holes. The obtained results showed strong effect of the specific electronic structure of InAsSb on the energy and intensity of optical transitions in nanostructures based on this material. For the structure with MQWs in the active layer, a very weak temperature dependence of EL peak was observed at high temperatures (>150 K), which makes it attractive for fabricating temperature-resistant gas sensors operating in the middle-infrared range.

Keywords: Quantum Wells, electroluminescence, light emitting diode, InAsSb

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938 Error Detection and Correction for Onboard Satellite Computers Using Hamming Code

Authors: Rafsan Al Mamun, Md. Motaharul Islam, Rabana Tajrin, Nabiha Noor, Shafinaz Qader

Abstract:

In an attempt to enrich the lives of billions of people by providing proper information, security and a way of communicating with others, the need for efficient and improved satellites is constantly growing. Thus, there is an increasing demand for better error detection and correction (EDAC) schemes, which are capable of protecting the data onboard the satellites. The paper is aimed towards detecting and correcting such errors using a special algorithm called the Hamming Code, which uses the concept of parity and parity bits to prevent single-bit errors onboard a satellite in Low Earth Orbit. This paper focuses on the study of Low Earth Orbit satellites and the process of generating the Hamming Code matrix to be used for EDAC using computer programs. The most effective version of Hamming Code generated was the Hamming (16, 11, 4) version using MATLAB, and the paper compares this particular scheme with other EDAC mechanisms, including other versions of Hamming Codes and Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC), and the limitations of this scheme. This particular version of the Hamming Code guarantees single-bit error corrections as well as double-bit error detections. Furthermore, this version of Hamming Code has proved to be fast with a checking time of 5.669 nanoseconds, that has a relatively higher code rate and lower bit overhead compared to the other versions and can detect a greater percentage of errors per length of code than other EDAC schemes with similar capabilities. In conclusion, with the proper implementation of the system, it is quite possible to ensure a relatively uncorrupted satellite storage system.

Keywords: Satellite, Hamming code, parity bits, low earth orbit, bit-flips, single error upset

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937 Graphene-Based Reconfigurable Lens Antenna for 5G/6G and Satellite Networks

Authors: André Lages, Victor Dmitriev, Juliano Bazzo, Gianni Portela

Abstract:

This work evaluates the feasibility of the graphene application to perform as a wideband reconfigurable material for lens antennas in 5G/6G and satellite applications. Based on transformation optics principles, the electromagnetic waves can be efficiently guided by modifying the effective refractive index. Graphene behavior can range between a lossy dielectric and a good conductor due to the variation of its chemical potential bias, thus arising as a promising solution for electromagnetic devices. The graphene properties and a lens antenna comprising multiples layers and periodic arrangements of graphene patches were analyzed using full-wave simulations. A dipole directivity was improved from 7 to 18.5 dBi at 29 GHz. In addition, the realized gain was enhanced 7 dB across a 14 GHz bandwidth within the Ka/5G band.

Keywords: Satellite, Graphene, Reconfigurable, lens

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936 Inverse Problem Method for Microwave Intrabody Medical Imaging

Authors: J. Chamorro-Servent, S. Tassani, J. Romeu, O. Camara, M. A. Gonzalez-Ballester, L. J. Roca

Abstract:

Electromagnetic and microwave imaging (MWI) have been used in medical imaging in the last years, being the most common applications of breast cancer and stroke detection or monitoring. In those applications, the subject or zone to observe is surrounded by a number of antennas, and the Nyquist criterium can be satisfied. Additionally, the space between the antennas (transmitting and receiving the electromagnetic fields) and the zone to study can be prepared in a homogeneous scenario. However, this may differ in other cases as could be intracardiac catheters, stomach monitoring devices, pelvic organ systems, liver ablation monitoring devices, or uterine fibroids’ ablation systems. In this work, we analyzed different MWI algorithms to find the most suitable method for dealing with an intrabody scenario. Due to the space limitations usually confronted on those applications, the device would have a cylindrical configuration of a maximum of eight transmitters and eight receiver antennas. This together with the positioning of the supposed device inside a body tract impose additional constraints in order to choose a reconstruction method; for instance, it inhabitants the use of well-known algorithms such as filtered backpropagation for diffraction tomography (due to the unusual configuration with probes enclosed by the imaging region). Finally, the difficulty of simulating a realistic non-homogeneous background inside the body (due to the incomplete knowledge of the dielectric properties of other tissues between the antennas’ position and the zone to observe), also prevents the use of Born and Rytov algorithms due to their limitations with a heterogeneous background. Instead, we decided to use a time-reversed algorithm (mostly used in geophysics) due to its characteristics of ignoring heterogeneities in the background medium, and of focusing its generated field onto the scatters. Therefore, a 2D time-reversed finite difference time domain was developed based on the time-reversed approach for microwave breast cancer detection. Simultaneously an in-silico testbed was also developed to compare ground-truth dielectric properties with corresponding microwave imaging reconstruction. Forward and inverse problems were computed varying: the frequency used related to a small zone to observe (7, 7.5 and 8 GHz); a small polyp diameter (5, 7 and 10 mm); two polyp positions with respect to the closest antenna (aligned or disaligned); and the (transmitters-to-receivers) antenna combination used for the reconstruction (1-1, 8-1, 8-8 or 8-3). Results indicate that when using the existent time-reversed method for breast cancer here for the different combinations of transmitters and receivers, we found false positives due to the high degrees of freedom and unusual configuration (and the possible violation of Nyquist criterium). Those false positives founded in 8-1 and 8-8 combinations, highly reduced with the 1-1 and 8-3 combination, being the 8-3 configuration de most suitable (three neighboring receivers at each time). The 8-3 configuration creates a region-of-interest reduced problem, decreasing the ill-posedness of the inverse problem. To conclude, the proposed algorithm solves the main limitations of the described intrabody application, successfully detecting the angular position of targets inside the body tract.

Keywords: Medical Imaging, Microwave Imaging, FDTD, time-reversed

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935 Progress and Challenges of Smart Cities in India: An Exploratory Study

Authors: Sushil K. Sharma, Jeff Zhang, Saeed Tabar

Abstract:

Worldwide, several governments are utilizing the Internet of Things (IoT) and other information and communication technologies (ICTs) to create smart city infrastructures to improve both the quality of government services and citizen welfare. Over 700 cities from around the world have already started implementing their smart city projects. Smart City utilizes the network of connected things, or the Internet of Things (IoT), that interconnects devices and various components across city infrastructure, making them work together seamlessly to enhance the quality, performance, and interactivity of urban services, optimize resources, and reduce costs. Without developing smart cities, the accelerating growth of cities, and their disproportionate consumption of physical and social resources are unsustainable. In 2016, the Indian Government released a list of 100 cities with the intention of kick-starting the process of developing them into 'smart cities’ as part of the Smart Cities Mission. This study reports the progress and challenges of Smart City projects in India. The data were collected through the city/state government websites, media reports, and focus group discussions/interviews. The preliminary results indicate that smart city projects are not only behind in their implementation and scope but also lacks the sincerity for its implementation.

Keywords: Internet of Things, Digital government, Smart City, smart government

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934 Study and Design of Novel Structure of Circularly Polarized Dual Band Microstrip Antenna Fed by Hybrid Coupler for RFID Applications

Authors: A. Sardi, Ahmed Mouhsen, M. Taouzari, J. El Aoufi

Abstract:

The purpose of this work is to design a reader antenna fed by 90° hybrid coupler that would ensure a tag which is detected regardless of its orientation for the radio frequency identification system covering the UHF and ISM bands frequencies. Based on this idea, the proposed work is dividing in two parts, first part is about study and design hybrid coupler using the resonators planar called T-and Pi networks operating in commercial bands. In the second part, the proposed antenna fed by the hybrid coupler is designed on FR4 substrate with dielectric permittivity 4.4, thickness dielectric 1.6mm and loss tangent 0.025. The T-slot is inserted in patch of the proposed antenna fed by the hybrid coupler is first designed, optimized and simulated using electromagnetic simulator ADS and then simulated in a full wave simulation software CST Microwave Studio. The simulated antenna by the both softwares achieves the expected performances in terms of matching, pattern radiation, phase shifting, gain and size.

Keywords: RFID, Polarization, radiation pattern, dual band antenna, hybrid coupler

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933 Improving the Frequency Response of a Circular Dual-Mode Resonator with a Reconfigurable Bandwidth

Authors: Muhammad Haitham Albahnassi, Adnan Malki, Shokri Almekdad

Abstract:

In this paper, a method for reconfiguring bandwidth in a circular dual-mode resonator is presented. The method concerns the optimized geometry of a structure that may be used to host the tuning elements, which are typically RF (Radio Frequency) switches. The tuning elements themselves, and their performance during tuning, are not the focus of this paper. The designed resonator is able to reconfigure its fractional bandwidth by adjusting the inter-coupling level between the degenerate modes, while at the same time improving its response by adjusting the external-coupling level and keeping the center frequency fixed. The inter-coupling level has been adjusted by changing the dimensions of the perturbation element, while the external-coupling level has been adjusted by changing one of the feeder dimensions. The design was arrived at via optimization. Agreeing simulation and measurement results of the designed and implemented filters showed good improvements in return loss values and the stability of the center frequency.

Keywords: software defined radio, Perturbation Theory, dual-mode resonators, reconfigurable filters, cognitine radio

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932 A Quantitative Model for Replacement of Medical Equipment Based on Technical and Environmental Factors

Authors: Ghadeer Mohammad Said El-Sheikh, Samer Mohamad Shalhoob

Abstract:

Medical equipment operation state is a valid reflection of health care organizations' performance, where such equipment highly contributes to the quality of healthcare services on several levels in which quality improvement has become an intrinsic part of the discourse and activities of health care services. In healthcare organizations, clinical and biomedical engineering departments play an essential role in maintaining the safety and efficiency of such equipment. One of the most challenging topics when it comes to such sophisticated equipment is the lifespan of medical equipment, where many factors will impact such characteristics of medical equipment through its life cycle. So far, many attempts have been made in order to address this issue where most of the approaches are kind of arbitrary approaches and one of the criticisms of existing approaches trying to estimate and understand the lifetime of a medical equipment lies under the inquiry of what are the environmental factors that can play into such a critical characteristic of a medical equipment. In an attempt to address this shortcoming, the purpose of our study rises where in addition to the standard technical factors taken into consideration through the decision-making process by a clinical engineer in case of medical equipment failure, the dimension of environmental factors shall be added. The investigations, researches and studies applied for the purpose of supporting the decision making process by a clinical engineers and assessing the lifespan of healthcare equipment’s in the Lebanese society was highly dependent on the identification of technical criteria’s that impacts the lifespan of a medical equipment where the affecting environmental factors didn’t receive the proper attention. The objective of our study is based on the need for introducing a new well-designed plan for evaluating medical equipment depending on two dimensions. According to this approach, the equipment that should be replaced or repaired will be classified based on a systematic method taking into account two essential criteria; the standard identified technical criteria and the added environmental criteria.

Keywords: Healthcare, Environmental, technical, characteristic of medical equipment

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931 Impairments Correction of Six-Port Based Millimeter-Wave Radar

Authors: Dan Ohev Zion, Alon Cohen

Abstract:

In recent years, the presence of short range millimeter-wave radar in civil application has increased significantly. Autonomous driving, security, 3D imaging and high data rate communication systems are a few examples. The next challenge is the integration inside small form-factor devices, such as smartphones (e.g. gesture recognition). The main challenge is implementation of a truly low-power, low-complexity high resolution Radar. The most popular approach is the Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) Radar, with an analog multiplication front-end. In this paper we present a novel approach for adaptive estimation and correction of impairments of such front-end, specifically implemented using the Six-Port Device (SPD) as the multiplier element. The proposed algorithm was simulated and implemented on a 60-GHz Radar lab prototype

Keywords: Radar, FMCW Radar, IQ mismatch, six port

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930 Smart Brain Wave Sensor for Paralyzed- a Real Time Implementation

Authors: U.B Mahadevswamy UBM, Siraj Ahmed Siraj

Abstract:

As the title of the paper indicates about brainwaves and its uses for various applications based on their frequencies and different parameters which can be implemented as real time application with the title a smart brain wave sensor system for paralyzed patients. Brain wave sensing is to detect a person's mental status. The purpose of brain wave sensing is to give exact treatment to paralyzed patients. The data or signal is obtained from the brainwaves sensing band. This data are converted as object files using Visual Basics. The processed data is further sent to Arduino which has the human's behavioral aspects like emotions, sensations, feelings, and desires. The proposed device can sense human brainwaves and detect the percentage of paralysis that the person is suffering. The advantage of this paper is to give a real-time smart sensor device for paralyzed patients with paralysis percentage for their exact treatment. Keywords:-Brainwave sensor, BMI, Brain scan, EEG, MCH.

Keywords: eeg, BMI, Keywords:-Brainwave sensor, Brain scan, MCH

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