Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1228

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Electronics and Communication Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

1228 Double Negative Differential Resistance Features in Series AIN/GaN Double-Barrier Resonant Tunneling Diodes Vertically Integrated by Plasma-Assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy

Authors: Jiajia Yao, Guanlin Wu, Fang Liu, Junshuai Xue, Yue Hao


This study reports on the epitaxial growth of a GaN-based resonant tunneling diode (RTD) structure with stable and repeatable double negative differential resistance (NDR) characteristics at room temperature on a c-plane GaN-on-sapphire template using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PA-MBE) technology. In this structure, two independent AlN/GaN RTDs are epitaxially connected in series in the vertical growth direction through a silicon-doped GaN layer. As the collector electrode bias voltage increases, the two RTDs respectively align the ground state energy level in the quantum well with the 2DEG energy level in the emitter accumulation well to achieve quantum resonant tunneling and then reach the negative differential resistance (NDR) region. The two NDR regions exhibit similar peak current densities and peak-to-valley current ratios, which are 230 kA/cm² and 249 kA/cm², 1.33 and 1.38, respectively, for a device with a collector electrode mesa diameter of 1 µm. The consistency of the NDR is much higher than the results of on-chip discrete RTD device interconnection, resulting from the smaller chip area, fewer interconnect parasitic parameters, and less process complexity. The methods and results presented in this paper show the brilliant prospects of GaN RTDs in the development of multi-value logic digital circuits.

Keywords: MBE, AlN/GaN, RTDs, double NDR

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1227 Investigation into the Homoepitaxy of AlGaN/GaN Heterostructure via Molecular Beam Epitaxy

Authors: Jiajia Yao, Guanlin Wu, Fang Liu, Junshuai Xue, Yue Hao


As the production process of self-standing GaN substrates evolves, the commercialization of low dislocation density, large-scale, semi-insulating self-standing GaN substrates is gradually becoming a reality. This advancement has given rise to increased interest in GaN materials' homoepitaxial technology. However, at the homoepitaxial interface, there are considerable concentrations of impurity elements, including C, Si, and O, which generate parasitic leakage channels at the re-growth junction. This phenomenon results in leaked HEMTs that prove difficult to switch off, rendering them effectively non-functional. The emergence of leakage channels can also degrade the high-frequency properties and lower the power devices' breakdown voltage. In this study, the uniform epitaxy of AlGaN/GaN heterojunction with high electron mobility was accomplished through the surface treatment of the GaN substrates prior to growth and the design of the AlN isolation layer structure. By employing a procedure combining gallium atom in-situ cleaning and plasma nitridation, the C and O impurity concentrations at the homoepitaxial interface were diminished to the scale of 10¹⁷ cm-³. Additionally, the 1.5 nm nitrogen-rich AlN isolation layer successfully prevented the diffusion of Si impurities into the GaN channel layer. The result was an AlGaN/GaN heterojunction with an electron mobility of 1552 cm²/Vs and an electron density of 1.1 × 10¹³ cm-² at room temperature, obtained on a Fe-doped semi-insulating GaN substrate.

Keywords: MBE, AlGaN/GaN, homogenerous epitaxy, HEMT

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1226 Bidirectional Long Short-Term Memory-Based Signal Detection for Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing With All Index Modulation

Authors: Mahmut Yildirim


This paper proposed the bidirectional long short-term memory (Bi-LSTM) network-aided deep learning (DL)-based signal detection for Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing with all index modulation (OFDM-AIM), namely Bi-DeepAIM. OFDM-AIM is developed to increase the spectral efficiency of OFDM with index modulation (OFDM-IM), a promising multi-carrier technique for communication systems beyond 5G. In this paper, due to its strong classification ability, Bi-LSTM is considered an alternative to the maximum likelihood (ML) algorithm, which is used for signal detection in the classical OFDM-AIM scheme. The performance of the Bi-DeepAIM is compared with LSTM network-aided DL-based OFDM-AIM (DeepAIM) and classic OFDM-AIM that uses (ML)-based signal detection via BER performance and computational time criteria. Simulation results show that Bi-DeepAIM obtains better bit error rate (BER) performance than DeepAIM and lower computation time in signal detection than ML-AIM.

Keywords: bidirectional long short-term memory, deep learning, maximum likelihood, OFDM with all index modulation, signal detection

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1225 Wafer Thickness Measurement by using Spectral Interferometry in Compound Semiconductor

Authors: Chia-Hung Cho, Yi-Sha Ku, Cheng-Kang Lee, Chun-Wei Lo


In the recent years, the materials of the compound semiconductor, like silicon carbide(SiC) and gallium nitride(GaN), have been generally acknowledged in electric vehicles(EV) and 5th generation(5G) mobile communication systems applications. These materials are called the third-generation semiconductor not only as wide-bandgap but also as high heat resistance better than silicon. Their main advantages are lower power losses, higher thermal conductivity, higher operating switching frequencies, and higher junction temperatures to meet the requirements of current main applications for power conversion efficiency. In the compound semiconductor industry, inspection and metrology are becoming more critical to find problematic points in current SiC or GaN process, like thickness, surface defect, roughness and stress etc. Especially in the wafer thickness, the impact of the thickness uniformity on the optical and electrical properties of SiC/GaN device the advanced process is important. Thus, there is a demand for a high-precision non-contact optical measurement system to measure wafer thickness variation (TTV) to enable stricter monitoring of the quality of produced wafers. In this article, it has developed a wafer thickness measurement system based on spectral interferometry techniques, which can detect the thickness range from 5 to 500 µm and the repeatability less than 1 µm, to measure the optical interference signal between the wafer upper and lower surface. This optical metrology is developed due to its excellent advantages such as non-destructive, non-contact, high resolution and high speed, which can meet future advanced packaging market needs. In the optical system of the wafer thickness measurement, it combines the high-resolution industrial spectrometer, visible to near-infrared light sources, y-shaped optical fiber and collimating lens. First, the tungsten halogen source, which is available for measurements from 360-2500 nm, goes through fiber and collimating lens into the measured wafer. Then, there are two reflected beams from the wafer of the upper surface and the lower surface into the fiber. If the phase of the wavelength of the two reflected beams are in phase will be constructive interference, otherwise destructive interference. Last, the spectrometer can capture the spectral interference signal from the reflected beam. In the measurement algorithm, wafer thickness can be calculated by using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis. FFT analysis is one of the most used techniques, which quickly provides a method to get the thickness form the measured spectral interference signal less than 1 second. In the experimental results, four samples with different thicknesses were measured, which were 50, 70, 100 and 350 μm. The results show the measurement positive correlation between the tool precitec 2IT 500 and the spectral interferometry of this article in the wafer thickness from 30 to 350 μm, and the error is less than 0.4 μm. In the specifications aspect, the spot size of the system is 2 mm and the repeatability is 10-3 x maximum measurable range.

Keywords: fast fourier transform, optical metrology, spectral interferometry, wafer thickness

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1224 Ho-doped Lithium Niobate Thin Films: Raman Spectroscopy, Structure and Luminescence

Authors: Edvard Kokanyan, Narine Babajanyan, Ninel Kokanyan, Marco Bazzan


Lithium niobate (LN) crystals, renowned for their exceptional nonlinear optical, electro-optical, piezoelectric, and photorefractive properties, stand as foundational materials in diverse fields of study and application. While they have long been utilized in frequency converters of laser radiation, electro-optical modulators, and holographic information recording media, LN crystals doped with rare earth ions represent a compelling frontier for modern compact devices. These materials exhibit immense potential as key components in infrared lasers, optical sensors, self-cooling systems, and radiation-balanced laser setups. In this study, we present the successful synthesis of Ho-doped lithium niobate (LN:Ho) thin films on sapphire substrates employing the Sol-Gel technique. The films exhibit a strong crystallographic orientation along the perpendicular direction to the substrate surface, with X-ray diffraction analysis confirming the predominant alignment of the film's "c" axis, notably evidenced by the intense (006) reflection peak. Further characterization through Raman spectroscopy, employing a confocal Raman microscope (LabRAM HR Evolution) with exciting wavelengths of 532 nm and 785 nm, unraveled intriguing insights. Under excitation with a 785 nm laser, Raman scattering obeyed selection rules, while employing a 532 nm laser unveiled additional forbidden lines, reminiscent of behaviors observed in bulk LN:Ho crystals. These supplementary lines were attributed to luminescence induced by excitation at 532 nm. Leveraging data from anti-Stokes Raman lines facilitated the disentanglement of luminescence spectra from the investigated samples. Surface scanning affirmed the uniformity of both structure and luminescence across the thin films. Notably, despite the robust orientation of the "c" axis perpendicular to the substrate surface, Raman signals indicated a stochastic distribution of "a" and "b" axes, validating the mosaic structure of the films along the mentioned axis. This study offers valuable insights into the structural properties of Ho-doped lithium niobate thin films, with the observed luminescence behavior holding significant promise for potential applications in optoelectronic devices.

Keywords: lithium niobate, Sol-Gel, luminescence, Raman spectroscopy.

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1223 An Absolute Femtosecond Rangefinder for Metrological Support in Coordinate Measurements

Authors: Denis A. Sokolov, Andrey V. Mazurkevich


In the modern world, there is an increasing demand for high-precision measurement technology in the fields of aircraft engineering, shipbuilding, and rocket engineering. This is due to the need for accurate measurements of the coordinates of remote objects. In these industries, high-precision coordinate measurement systems are required to measure the coordinates of objects with micron-level accuracy. These systems can measure distances up to 100 meters. The calibration procedure for modern optoelectronic coordinate measurement instruments (trackers and total stations) involves comparing their measurement results with a reference instrument on a linear or spatial basis. The reference can be either the instrument itself or a reference rangefinder that can measure angle increments. This type of measurement system is essential for ensuring accurate measurement results in various industries. The prototype of an electronic distance measurement device being developed is based on an interferometer using a femtosecond laser. The unit of measurement is transferred from a high-precision interferometer, based on a femtosecond laser, to an electronic total station tracker on a continuous, 60-meter measuring line by measuring the same displacement and correcting the zero point. The basic structure of the interferometer is based on the Michelson design with an unequal arm, and a femtosecond laser serves as a coherent light source. The laser light travels to the corner reflectors, which act as spatial reference points with precisely known coordinates. The distance between the reference points created by the interference signals is measured in accordance with the recommendations of the International Bureau of Weights and Measures for indirect measurement of the light passage time in accordance with the meter definition. This article describes research conducted on reproducing units of length using two spaced-apart corner reflectors and a femtosecond laser frequency comb. The research was conducted using precise measurement of laser radiation in space with a repetition rate that was stabilized in accordance with an Rb standard for frequency and time. The uncertainty in the type A replication of a unit of length did not exceed 5 microns, whereas the uncertainty in the angular component was calculated theoretically. This is because high-precision ring encoders are planned to be used in the future, and the uncertainty in angular measurement is not of significant interest in this specific research. Overall, the results of the tests on the layout were highly accurate, and theoretical calculations and experiments on the prototype for an electronic distance meter (EDM) allowed us to expect a reduction in the uncertainty of measurements of distances to reflectors to no more than 1 micrometer. The results of this research project will be used to develop a high-precision absolute range finder designed for the calibration of high-precision laser systems, trackers, and total stations. The device will be tested on a 64-meter laboratory comparison table. The main goal of this work is to improve the accuracy of unit length and coordinate measurement within the range of 2.5 to 64 meters in order to ensure uniformity in measurements during the testing of metrological properties of optoelectronic length-measuring devices.

Keywords: femtosecond laser, pulse correlation, interferometer, laser absolute range finder, coordinate measurement

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1222 Crosssampler: A Digital Convolution Cross Synthesis Instrument

Authors: Jimmy Eadie


Convolutional Cross Synthesis (CCS) has emerged as a powerful technique for blending input signals to create hybrid sounds. It has significantly expanded the horizons of digital signal processing, enabling artists to explore audio effects. However, the conventional applications of CCS primarily revolve around reverberation and room simulation rather than being utilized as a creative synthesis method. In this paper, we present the design of a digital instrument called CrossSampler that harnesses a parametric approach to convolution cross-synthesis, which involves using adjustable parameters to control the blending of audio signals through convolution. These parameters allow for customization of the resulting sound, offering greater creative control and flexibility. It enables users to shape the output by manipulating factors such as duration, intensity, and spectral characteristics. This approach facilitates experimentation and exploration in sound design and opens new sonic possibilities.

Keywords: convolution, synthesis, sampling, virtual instrument

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1221 Comprehensive Review of Ultralightweight Security Protocols

Authors: Prashansa Singh, Manjot Kaur, Rohit Bajaj


The proliferation of wireless sensor networks and Internet of Things (IoT) devices in the quickly changing digital landscape has highlighted the urgent need for strong security solutions that can handle these systems’ limited resources. A key solution to this problem is the emergence of ultralightweight security protocols, which provide strong security features while respecting the strict computational, energy, and memory constraints imposed on these kinds of devices. This in-depth analysis explores the field of ultralightweight security protocols, offering a thorough examination of their evolution, salient features, and the particular security issues they resolve. We carefully examine and contrast different protocols, pointing out their advantages and disadvantages as well as the compromises between resource limitations and security resilience. We also study these protocols’ application domains, including the Internet of Things, RFID systems, and wireless sensor networks, to name a few. In addition, the review highlights recent developments and advancements in the field, pointing out new trends and possible avenues for future research. This paper aims to be a useful resource for researchers, practitioners, and developers, guiding the design and implementation of safe, effective, and scalable systems in the Internet of Things era by providing a comprehensive overview of ultralightweight security protocols.

Keywords: wireless sensor network, machine-to-machine, MQTT broker, server, ultralightweight, TCP/IP

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1220 Machine learning Assisted Selective Emitter design for Solar Thermophotovoltaic System

Authors: Ambali Alade Odebowale, Andargachew Mekonnen Berhe, Haroldo T. Hattori, Andrey E. Miroshnichenko


Solar thermophotovoltaic systems (STPV) have emerged as a promising solution to overcome the Shockley-Queisser limit, a significant impediment in the direct conversion of solar radiation into electricity using conventional solar cells. The STPV system comprises essential components such as an optical concentrator, selective emitter, and a thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cell. The pivotal element in achieving high efficiency in an STPV system lies in the design of a spectrally selective emitter or absorber. Traditional methods for designing and optimizing selective emitters are often time-consuming and may not yield highly selective emitters, posing a challenge to the overall system performance. In recent years, the application of machine learning techniques in various scientific disciplines has demonstrated significant advantages. This paper proposes a novel nanostructure composed of four-layered materials (SiC/W/SiO2/W) to function as a selective emitter in the energy conversion process of an STPV system. Unlike conventional approaches widely adopted by researchers, this study employs a machine learning-based approach for the design and optimization of the selective emitter. Specifically, a random forest algorithm (RFA) is employed for the design of the selective emitter, while the optimization process is executed using genetic algorithms. This innovative methodology holds promise in addressing the challenges posed by traditional methods, offering a more efficient and streamlined approach to selective emitter design. The utilization of a machine learning approach brings several advantages to the design and optimization of a selective emitter within the STPV system. Machine learning algorithms, such as the random forest algorithm, have the capability to analyze complex datasets and identify intricate patterns that may not be apparent through traditional methods. This allows for a more comprehensive exploration of the design space, potentially leading to highly efficient emitter configurations. Moreover, the application of genetic algorithms in the optimization process enhances the adaptability and efficiency of the overall system. Genetic algorithms mimic the principles of natural selection, enabling the exploration of a diverse range of emitter configurations and facilitating the identification of optimal solutions. This not only accelerates the design and optimization process but also increases the likelihood of discovering configurations that exhibit superior performance compared to traditional methods. In conclusion, the integration of machine learning techniques in the design and optimization of a selective emitter for solar thermophotovoltaic systems represents a groundbreaking approach. This innovative methodology not only addresses the limitations of traditional methods but also holds the potential to significantly improve the overall performance of STPV systems, paving the way for enhanced solar energy conversion efficiency.

Keywords: emitter, genetic algorithm, radiation, random forest, thermophotovoltaic

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1219 High Responsivity of Zirconium boride/Chromium Alloy Heterostructure for Deep and Near UV Photodetector

Authors: Sanjida Akter, Ambali Alade Odebowale, Andrey E. Miroshnichenko, Haroldo T. Hattori


Photodetectors (PDs) play a pivotal role in optoelectronics and optical devices, serving as fundamental components that convert light signals into electrical signals. As the field progresses, the integration of advanced materials with unique optical properties has become a focal point, paving the way for the innovation of novel PDs. This study delves into the exploration of a cutting-edge photodetector designed for deep and near ultraviolet (UV) applications. The photodetector is constructed with a composite of Zirconium Boride (ZrB2) and Chromium (Cr) alloy, deposited onto a 6H nitrogen-doped silicon carbide substrate. The determination of the optimal alloy thickness is achieved through Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) simulation, and the synthesis of the alloy is accomplished using radio frequency (RF) sputtering. Remarkably, the resulting photodetector exhibits an exceptional responsivity of 3.5 A/W under an applied voltage of -2 V, at wavelengths of 405 nm and 280 nm. This heterostructure not only exemplifies high performance but also provides a versatile platform for the development of near UV photodetectors capable of operating effectively in challenging conditions, such as environments characterized by high power and elevated temperatures. This study contributes to the expanding landscape of photodetector technology, offering a promising avenue for the advancement of optoelectronic devices in demanding applications.

Keywords: responsivity, silicon carbide, ultraviolet photodetector, zirconium boride

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1218 Integration of Polarization States and Color Multiplexing through a Singular Metasurface

Authors: Tarik Sipahi


Photonics research continues to push the boundaries of optical science, and the development of metasurface technology has emerged as a transformative force in this domain. The work presents the intricacies of a unified metasurface design tailored for efficient polarization and color control in optical systems. The proposed unified metasurface serves as a singular, nanoengineered optical element capable of simultaneous polarization modulation and color encoding. Leveraging principles from metamaterials and nanophotonics, this design allows for unprecedented control over the behavior of light at the subwavelength scale. The metasurface's spatially varying architecture enables seamless manipulation of both polarization states and color wavelengths, paving the way for a paradigm shift in optical system design. The advantages of this unified metasurface are diverse and impactful. By consolidating functions that traditionally require multiple optical components, the design streamlines optical systems, reducing complexity and enhancing overall efficiency. This approach is particularly promising for applications where compactness, weight considerations, and multifunctionality are crucial. Furthermore, the proposed unified metasurface design not only enhances multifunctionality but also addresses key challenges in optical system design, offering a versatile solution for applications demanding compactness and lightweight structures. The metasurface's capability to simultaneously manipulate polarization and color opens new possibilities in diverse technological fields. The research contributes to the evolution of optical science by showcasing the transformative potential of metasurface technology, emphasizing its role in reshaping the landscape of optical system architectures. This work represents a significant step forward in the ongoing pursuit of pushing the boundaries of photonics, providing a foundation for future innovations in compact and efficient optical devices.

Keywords: metasurface, nanophotonics, optical system design, polarization control

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1217 mm-Wave Wearable Edge Computing Module Hosted by PRGW Structures: A Physical Layer Study

Authors: Matthew Kostawich, Mohamemd Elmorsy, Mohamed Sayed Sifat, Shoukry Shams, Mahmoud Elsaadany


6G communication systems represent the nominal future extension for the current wireless technology, where its impact is extended to touch upon all human activities including medical, security, and entertainment applications. As a result, human needs are allocated among the highest priority aspects of the system design and requirements. 6G communications is expected to replace all the current video conferencing with interactive virtual reality meetings involving high data-rate transmission merged with massive distributed computing resources. In addition, the current expansion of IoT applications must be mitigated with significant network changes to provide a reasonable Quality of Service (QoS). This directly implies a high demand for Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) through mobile computing modules in future wireless communication systems. This article proposes the utilization of Printed Ridge Gap Waveguide (PRGW) to host the wearable nodes. For the first time, we propose a physical layer analysis within the context of a complete architecture. A thorough study is provided for the proposed guiding structure distortion impact on the overall system performance. The proposed structure shows small latency and small losses highlighting it compatibility with future applications.

Keywords: ridge gap waveguide, edge computing module, internet of things, quality of service

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1216 Impact of Surface Roughness on Light Absorption

Authors: V. Gareyan, Zh. Gevorkian


We study oblique incident light absorption in opaque media with rough surfaces. An analytical approach with modified boundary conditions taking into account the surface roughness in metallic or dielectric films has been discussed. Our approach reveals interference-linked terms that modify the absorption dependence on different characteristics. We have discussed the limits of our approach that hold valid from the visible to the microwave region. Polarization and angular dependences of roughness-induced absorption are revealed. The existence of an incident angle or a wavelength for which the absorptance of a rough surface becomes equal to that of a flat surface is predicted. Based on this phenomenon, a method of determining roughness correlation length is suggested.

Keywords: light, absorption, surface, roughness

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1215 Exploring Data Stewardship in Fog Networking Using Blockchain Algorithm

Authors: Ruvaitha Banu, Amaladhithyan Krishnamoorthy


IoT networks today solve various consumer problems, from home automation systems to aiding in driving autonomous vehicles with the exploration of multiple devices. For example, in an autonomous vehicle environment, multiple sensors are available on roads to monitor weather and road conditions and interact with each other to aid the vehicle in reaching its destination safely and timely. IoT systems are predominantly dependent on the cloud environment for data storage, and computing needs that result in latency problems. With the advent of Fog networks, some of this storage and computing is pushed to the edge/fog nodes, saving the network bandwidth and reducing the latency proportionally. Managing the data stored in these fog nodes becomes crucial as it might also store sensitive information required for a certain application. Data management in fog nodes is strenuous because Fog networks are dynamic in terms of their availability and hardware capability. It becomes more challenging when the nodes in the network also live a short span, detaching and joining frequently. When an end-user or Fog Node wants to access, read, or write data stored in another Fog Node, then a new protocol becomes necessary to access/manage the data stored in the fog devices as a conventional static way of managing the data doesn’t work in Fog Networks. The proposed solution discusses a protocol that acts by defining sensitivity levels for the data being written and read. Additionally, a distinct data distribution and replication model among the Fog nodes is established to decentralize the access mechanism. In this paper, the proposed model implements stewardship towards the data stored in the Fog node using the application of Reinforcement Learning so that access to the data is determined dynamically based on the requests.

Keywords: IoT, fog networks, data stewardship, dynamic access policy

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1214 The Beam Expansion Method, A Simplified and Efficient Approach of Field Propagation and Resonators Modes Study

Authors: Zaia Derrar Kaddour


The study of a beam throughout an optical path is generally achieved by means of diffraction integral. Unfortunately, in some problems, this tool turns out to be not very friendly and hard to implement. Instead, the beam expansion method for computing field profiles appears to be an interesting alternative. The beam expansion method consists of expanding the field pattern as a series expansion in a set of orthogonal functions. Propagating each individual component through a circuit and adding up the derived elements leads easily to the result. The problem is then reduced to finding how the expansion coefficients change in a circuit. The beam expansion method requires a systematic study of each type of optical element that can be met in the considered optical path. In this work, we analyze the following fundamental elements: first order optical systems, hard apertures and waveguides. We show that the former element type is completely defined thanks to the Gouy phase shift expression we provide and the latters require a suitable mode conversion. For endorsing the usefulness and relevance of the beam expansion approach, we show here some of its applications such as the treatment of the thermal lens effect and the study of unstable resonators.

Keywords: gouy phase shift, modes, optical resonators, unstable resonators

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1213 Performance Improvement of Long-Reach Optical Access Systems Using Hybrid Optical Amplifiers

Authors: Shreyas Srinivas Rangan, Jurgis Porins


The internet traffic has increased exponentially due to the high demand for data rates by the users, and the constantly increasing metro networks and access networks are focused on improving the maximum transmit distance of the long-reach optical networks. One of the common methods to improve the maximum transmit distance of the long-reach optical networks at the component level is to use broadband optical amplifiers. The Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA) provides high amplification with low noise figure but due to the characteristics of EDFA, its operation is limited to C-band and L-band. In contrast, the Raman amplifier exhibits a wide amplification spectrum, and negative noise figure values can be achieved. To obtain such results, high powered pumping sources are required. Operating Raman amplifiers with such high-powered optical sources may cause fire hazards and it may damage the optical system. In this paper, we implement a hybrid optical amplifier configuration. EDFA and Raman amplifiers are used in this hybrid setup to combine the advantages of both EDFA and Raman amplifiers to improve the reach of the system. Using this setup, we analyze the maximum transmit distance of the network by obtaining a correlation diagram between the length of the single-mode fiber (SMF) and the Bit Error Rate (BER). This hybrid amplifier configuration is implemented in a Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) system with a BER of 10⁻⁹ by using NRZ modulation format, and the gain uniformity noise ratio (signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)), the efficiency of the pumping source, and the optical signal gain efficiency of the amplifier are studied experimentally in a mathematical modelling environment. Numerical simulations were implemented in RSoft OptSim simulation software based on the nonlinear Schrödinger equation using the Split-Step method, the Fourier transform, and the Monte Carlo method for estimating BER.

Keywords: Raman amplifier, erbium doped fibre amplifier, bit error rate, hybrid optical amplifiers

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1212 Clutter Suppression Based on Singular Value Decomposition and Fast Wavelet Algorithm

Authors: Ruomeng Xiao, Zhulin Zong, Longfa Yang


Aiming at the problem that the target signal is difficult to detect under the strong ground clutter environment, this paper proposes a clutter suppression algorithm based on the combination of singular value decomposition and the Mallat fast wavelet algorithm. The method first carries out singular value decomposition on the radar echo data matrix, realizes the initial separation of target and clutter through the threshold processing of singular value, and then carries out wavelet decomposition on the echo data to find out the target location, and adopts the discard method to select the appropriate decomposition layer to reconstruct the target signal, which ensures the minimum loss of target information while suppressing the clutter. After the verification of the measured data, the method has a significant effect on the target extraction under low SCR, and the target reconstruction can be realized without the prior position information of the target and the method also has a certain enhancement on the output SCR compared with the traditional single wavelet processing method.

Keywords: clutter suppression, singular value decomposition, wavelet transform, Mallat algorithm, low SCR

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1211 Cross-Dipole Right-Hand Circularly Polarized UHF/VHF Yagi-Uda Antenna for Satellite Applications

Authors: Shativel S., Chandana B. R., Kavya B. C., Obli B. Vikram, Suganthi J., Nagendra Rao G.


Satellite communication plays a pivotal role in modern global communication networks, serving as a vital link between terrestrial infrastructure and remote regions. The demand for reliable satellite reception systems, especially in UHF (Ultra High Frequency) and VHF (Very High Frequency) bands, has grown significantly over the years. This research paper presents the design and optimization of a high-gain, dual-band crossed Yagi-Uda antenna in CST Studio Suite, specifically tailored for satellite reception. The proposed antenna system incorporates a circularly polarized (Right-Hand Circular Polarization - RHCP) design to reduce Faraday loss. Our aim was to use fewer elements and achieve gain, so the antenna is constructed using 6x2 elements arranged in cross dipole and supported with a boom. We have achieved 10.67dBi at 146MHz and 9.28dBi at 437.5MHz.The process includes parameter optimization and fine-tuning of the Yagi-Uda array’s elements, such as the length and spacing of directors and reflectors, to achieve high gain and desirable radiation patterns. Furthermore, the optimization process considers the requirements for UHF and VHF frequency bands, ensuring broad frequency coverage for satellite reception. The results of this research are anticipated to significantly contribute to the advancement of satellite reception systems, enhancing their capabilities to reliably connect remote and underserved areas to the global communication network. Through innovative antenna design and simulation techniques, this study seeks to provide a foundation for the development of next-generation satellite communication infrastructure.

Keywords: Yagi-Uda antenna, RHCP, gain, UHF antenna, VHF antenna, CST, radiation pattern.

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1210 Quantitative Analysis of Caffeine in Pharmaceutical Formulations Using a Cost-Effective Electrochemical Sensor

Authors: Y. T. Gebreslassie, Abrha Tadesse, R. C. Saini, Rishi Pal


Caffeine, known chemically as 3,7-dihydro-1,3,7-trimethyl-1H-purine-2,6-dione, is a naturally occurring alkaloid classified as an N-methyl derivative of xanthine. Given its widespread use in coffee and other caffeine-containing products, it is the most commonly consumed psychoactive substance in everyday human life. This research aimed to develop a cost-effective, sensitive, and easily manufacturable sensor for the detection of caffeine. Antraquinone-modified carbon paste electrode (AQMCPE) was fabricated, and the electrochemical behavior of caffeine on this electrode was investigated using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV) in a solution of 0.1M perchloric acid at pH 0.56. The modified electrode displayed enhanced electrocatalytic activity towards caffeine oxidation, exhibiting a two-fold increase in peak current and an 82 mV shift of the peak potential in the negative direction compared to an unmodified carbon paste electrode (UMCPE). Exploiting the electrocatalytic properties of the modified electrode, SWV was employed for the quantitative determination of caffeine. Under optimized experimental conditions, a linear relationship between peak current and concentration was observed within the range of 2.0 x 10⁻⁶ to 1.0× 10⁻⁴ M, with a correlation coefficient of 0.998 and a detection limit of 1.47× 10⁻⁷ M (signal-to-noise ratio = 3). Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied to the quantitative analysis of caffeine in pharmaceutical formulations, yielding recovery percentages ranging from 95.27% to 106.75%.

Keywords: antraquinone-modified carbon paste electrode, caffeine, detection, electrochemical sensor, quantitative analysis

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1209 A Wearable Fluorescence Imaging Device for Intraoperative Identification of Human Brain Tumors

Authors: Guoqiang Yu, Mehrana Mohtasebi, Jinghong Sun, Thomas Pittman


Malignant glioma (MG) is the most common type of primary malignant brain tumor. Surgical resection of MG remains the cornerstone of therapy, and the extent of resection correlates with patient survival. A limiting factor for resection, however, is the difficulty in differentiating the tumor from normal tissue during surgery. Fluorescence imaging is an emerging technique for real-time intraoperative visualization of MGs and their boundaries. However, most clinical-grade neurosurgical operative microscopes with fluorescence imaging ability are hampered by low adoption rates due to high cost, limited portability, limited operation flexibility, and lack of skilled professionals with technical knowledge. To overcome the limitations, we innovatively integrated miniaturized light sources, flippable filters, and a recording camera to the surgical eye loupes to generate a wearable fluorescence eye loupe (FLoupe) device for intraoperative imaging of fluorescent MGs. Two FLoupe prototypes were constructed for imaging of Fluorescein and 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA), respectively. The wearable FLoupe devices were tested on tumor-simulating phantoms and patients with MGs. Comparable results were observed against the standard neurosurgical operative microscope (PENTERO® 900) with fluorescence kits. The affordable and wearable FLoupe devices enable visualization of both color and fluorescence images with the same quality as the large and expensive stationary operative microscopes. The wearable FLoupe device allows for a greater range of movement, less obstruction, and faster/easier operation. Thus, it reduces surgery time and is more easily adapted to the surgical environment than unwieldy neurosurgical operative microscopes.

Keywords: fluorescence guided surgery, malignant glioma, neurosurgical operative microscope, wearable fluorescence imaging device

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1208 Design and Implementation of a Bluetooth-Based Misplaced Object Finder Using DFRobot Arduino Interfaced with Led and Buzzer

Authors: Bright Emeni


The project is a system that allows users to locate their misplaced or lost devices by using Bluetooth technology. It utilizes the DFRobot Bettle BLE Arduino microcontroller as its main component for communication and control. By interfacing it with an LED and a buzzer, the system provides visual and auditory signals to assist in locating the target device. The search process can be initiated through an Android application, by which the system creates a Bluetooth connection between the microcontroller and the target device, permitting the exchange of signals for tracking purposes. When the device is within range, the LED indicator illuminates, and the buzzer produces audible alerts, guiding the user to the device's location. The application also provides an estimated distance of the object using Bluetooth signal strength. The project’s goal is to offer a practical and efficient solution for finding misplaced devices, leveraging the capabilities of Bluetooth technology and microcontroller-based control systems.

Keywords: Bluetooth finder, object finder, Bluetooth tracking, tracker

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1207 Electrical Transport through a Large-Area Self-Assembled Monolayer of Molecules Coupled with Graphene for Scalable Electronic Applications

Authors: Chunyang Miao, Bingxin Li, Shanglong Ning, Christopher J. B. Ford


While it is challenging to fabricate electronic devices close to atomic dimensions in conventional top-down lithography, molecular electronics is promising to help maintain the exponential increase in component densities via using molecular building blocks to fabricate electronic components from the bottom up. It offers smaller, faster, and more energy-efficient electronic and photonic systems. A self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of molecules is a layer of molecules that self-assembles on a substrate. They are mechanically flexible, optically transparent, low-cost, and easy to fabricate. A large-area multi-layer structure has been designed and investigated by the team, where a SAM of designed molecules is sandwiched between graphene and gold electrodes. Each molecule can act as a quantum dot, with all molecules conducting in parallel. When a source-drain bias is applied, significant current flows only if a molecular orbital (HOMO or LUMO) lies within the source-drain energy window. If electrons tunnel sequentially on and off the molecule, the charge on the molecule is well-defined and the finite charging energy causes Coulomb blockade of transport until the molecular orbital comes within the energy window. This produces ‘Coulomb diamonds’ in the conductance vs source-drain and gate voltages. For different tunnel barriers at either end of the molecule, it is harder for electrons to tunnel out of the dot than in (or vice versa), resulting in the accumulation of two or more charges and a ‘Coulomb staircase’ in the current vs voltage. This nanostructure exhibits highly reproducible Coulomb-staircase patterns, together with additional oscillations, which are believed to be attributed to molecular vibrations. Molecules are more isolated than semiconductor dots, and so have a discrete phonon spectrum. When tunnelling into or out of a molecule, one or more vibronic states can be excited in the molecule, providing additional transport channels and resulting in additional peaks in the conductance. For useful molecular electronic devices, achieving the optimum orbital alignment of molecules to the Fermi energy in the leads is essential. To explore it, a drop of ionic liquid is employed on top of the graphene to establish an electric field at the graphene, which screens poorly, gating the molecules underneath. Results for various molecules with different alignments of Fermi energy to HOMO have shown highly reproducible Coulomb-diamond patterns, which agree reasonably with DFT calculations. In summary, this large-area SAM molecular junction is a promising candidate for future electronic circuits. (1) The small size (1-10nm) of the molecules and good flexibility of the SAM lead to the scalable assembly of ultra-high densities of functional molecules, with advantages in cost, efficiency, and power dissipation. (2) The contacting technique using graphene enables mass fabrication. (3) Its well-observed Coulomb blockade behaviour, narrow molecular resonances, and well-resolved vibronic states offer good tuneability for various functionalities, such as switches, thermoelectric generators, and memristors, etc.

Keywords: molecular electronics, Coulomb blokade, electron-phonon coupling, self-assembled monolayer

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1206 Data-Centric Anomaly Detection with Diffusion Models

Authors: Sheldon Liu, Gordon Wang, Lei Liu, Xuefeng Liu


Anomaly detection, also referred to as one-class classification, plays a crucial role in identifying product images that deviate from the expected distribution. This study introduces Data-centric Anomaly Detection with Diffusion Models (DCADDM), presenting a systematic strategy for data collection and further diversifying the data with image generation via diffusion models. The algorithm addresses data collection challenges in real-world scenarios and points toward data augmentation with the integration of generative AI capabilities. The paper explores the generation of normal images using diffusion models. The experiments demonstrate that with 30% of the original normal image size, modeling in an unsupervised setting with state-of-the-art approaches can achieve equivalent performances. With the addition of generated images via diffusion models (10% equivalence of the original dataset size), the proposed algorithm achieves better or equivalent anomaly localization performance.

Keywords: diffusion models, anomaly detection, data-centric, generative AI

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1205 MIMO UWB Antenna for Exploring Body Centric Communication

Authors: Osama Aziz, Hamza Ahmad, Muhibur Rahman


The performance of wireless communication systems has been suggested to be improved by UWB MIMO antenna systems. However, creating a successful UWB MIMO antenna is a difficult undertaking that calls for resolving a number of design issues, including radiation efficiency, size, and frequency range. This study's primary objective is to create a novel, highly effective, small-sized, ultra-wideband (UWB) multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) antenna and investigate its potential applications in body-centric communication. Two radiating elements, shared ground plane, circular stubs, and t-shaped isolation elements are used to achieve the MIMO antenna. Outstanding multiplexing efficiency, significant peak gain across the entire UWB frequency spectrum, extremely low mutual coupling (S21=-16 dB), high diversity gain (DG>9), and low envelop correlation are achieved. The proposed antenna will be one of the promising candidates for body centric communication.

Keywords: UWB communication, UWB MIMO antennas, body-centric communication, diversity gain

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1204 ISAR Imaging and Tracking Algorithm for Maneuvering Non-ellipsoidal Extended Objects Using Jump Markov Systems

Authors: Mohamed Barbary, Mohamed H. Abd El-azeem


Maneuvering non-ellipsoidal extended object tracking (M-NEOT) using high-resolution inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) observations is gaining momentum recently. This work presents a new robust implementation of the Jump Markov (JM) multi-Bernoulli (MB) filter for M-NEOT, where the M-NEOT’s ISAR observations are characterized using a skewed (SK) non-symmetrically normal distribution. To cope with the possible abrupt change of kinematic state, extension, and observation distribution over an extended object when a target maneuvers, a multiple model technique is represented based on an MB-track-before-detect (TBD) filter supported by SK-sub-random matrix model (RMM) or sub-ellipses framework. Simulation results demonstrate this remarkable impact.

Keywords: maneuvering extended objects, ISAR, skewed normal distribution, sub-RMM, JM-MB-TBD filter

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1203 3D Object Detection for Autonomous Driving: A Comprehensive Review

Authors: Ahmed Soliman Nagiub, Mahmoud Fayez, Heba Khaled, Said Ghoniemy


Accurate perception is a critical component in enabling autonomous vehicles to understand their driving environment. The acquisition of 3D information about objects, including their location and pose, is essential for achieving this understanding. This survey paper presents a comprehensive review of 3D object detection techniques specifically tailored for autonomous vehicles. The survey begins with an introduction to 3D object detection, elucidating the significance of the third dimension in perceiving the driving environment. It explores the types of sensors utilized in this context and the corresponding data extracted from these sensors. Additionally, the survey investigates the different types of datasets employed, including their formats, sizes, and provides a comparative analysis. Furthermore, the paper categorizes and thoroughly examines the perception methods employed for 3D object detection based on the diverse range of sensors utilized. Each method is evaluated based on its effectiveness in accurately detecting objects in a three-dimensional space. Additionally, the evaluation metrics used to assess the performance of these methods are discussed. By offering a comprehensive overview of 3D object detection techniques for autonomous vehicles, this survey aims to advance the field of perception systems. It serves as a valuable resource for researchers and practitioners, providing insights into the techniques, sensors, and evaluation metrics employed in 3D object detection for autonomous vehicles.

Keywords: computer vision, 3D object detection, autonomous vehicles, deep learning

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1202 Design of CNFET Based Approximate Full Adder for Motion Detector Application

Authors: Jagpal Singh Ubhi, Jai Kumar Yadav, Candy Goyal


The demand for portable electronics is increasing at an exponential rate. The speed of the circuit is another challenge to keep the power dissipation at an acceptable range. Full adder (FA) is the essential and critical part of the system; any circuit optimization in FA can optimize the whole system. As the technology is shrinking towards the nano-scale regime, leakage power is increasing at an exponential rate. The designing of the inexact FA circuit utilizing a carbon nanotube field-effect transistor (CNFET) is proposed in this paper, which improves the figure of merits such as delay, leakage power, and energy consumption of the FA circuit. Inexact circuits are an effective way for the improvement of efficiency of the courses. The aim is to design the approximate FA circuit for low-power image processing applications. Simulation is done at two levels, such as application and circuit levels, At the circuit level, matrices, the average power, propagation delay, power-delay product (PDP), energy-delay product, and leakage power dissipation are measured and compared to reported data and the design/circuit given in this paper has best results. In this paper, the peak-signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) is also calculated to at the application level to show the superiority of the design.

Keywords: full adder, carbon nanotube field-effect transistor, peak-signal-to-noise ratio, power-delay product

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1201 Mobile Network Users Amidst Ultra-Dense Networks in 5G Using an Improved Coordinated Multipoint (CoMP) Technology

Authors: Johnson O. Adeogo, Ayodele S. Oluwole, O. Akinsanmi, Olawale J. Olaluyi


In this 5G network, very high traffic density in densely populated areas, most especially in densely populated areas, is one of the key requirements. Radiation reduction becomes one of the major concerns to secure the future life of mobile network users in ultra-dense network areas using an improved coordinated multipoint technology. Coordinated Multi-Point (CoMP) is based on transmission and/or reception at multiple separated points with improved coordination among them to actively manage the interference for the users. Small cells have two major objectives: one, they provide good coverage and/or performance. Network users can maintain a good quality signal network by directly connecting to the cell. Two is using CoMP, which involves the use of multiple base stations (MBS) to cooperate by transmitting and/or receiving at the same time in order to reduce the possibility of electromagnetic radiation increase. Therefore, the influence of the screen guard with rubber condom on the mobile transceivers as one major piece of equipment radiating electromagnetic radiation was investigated by mobile network users amidst ultra-dense networks in 5g. The results were compared with the same mobile transceivers without screen guards and rubber condoms under the same network conditions. The 5 cm distance from the mobile transceivers was measured with the help of a ruler, and the intensity of Radio Frequency (RF) radiation was measured using an RF meter. The results show that the intensity of radiation from various mobile transceivers without screen guides and condoms was higher than the mobile transceivers with screen guides and condoms when call conversation was on at both ends.

Keywords: ultra-dense networks, mobile network users, 5g, coordinated multi-point.

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1200 Evaluation and Analysis of Light Emitting Diode Distribution in an Indoor Visible Light Communication

Authors: Olawale J. Olaluyi, Ayodele S. Oluwole, O. Akinsanmi, Johnson O. Adeogo


Communication using visible light VLC is considered a cutting-edge technology used for data transmission and illumination since it uses less energy than radio frequency (RF) technology and has a large bandwidth, extended lifespan, and high security. The room's irregular distribution of small base stations, or LED array distribution, is the cause of the obscured area, minimum signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and received power. In order to maximize the received power distribution and SNR at the center of the room for an indoor VLC system, the researchers offer an innovative model for the placement of eight LED array distributions in this work. We have investigated the arrangement of the LED array distribution with regard to receiving power to fill the open space in the center of the room. The suggested LED array distribution saved 36.2% of the transmitted power, according to the simulation findings. Aside from that, the entire room was equally covered. This leads to an increase in both received power and SNR.

Keywords: visible light communication (VLC), light emitted diodes (LED), optical power distribution, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR).

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1199 Performance Estimation of Two Port Multiple-Input and Multiple-Output Antenna for Wireless Local Area Network Applications

Authors: Radha Tomar, Satish K. Jain, Manish Panchal, P. S. Rathore


In the presented work, inset fed microstrip patch antenna (IFMPA) based two port MIMO Antenna system has been proposed, which is suitable for wireless local area network (WLAN) applications. IFMPA has been designed, optimized for 2.4 GHz and applied for MIMO formation. The optimized parameters of the proposed IFMPA have been used for fabrication of antenna and two port MIMO in a laboratory. Fabrication of the designed MIMO antenna has been done and tested experimentally for performance parameters like Envelope Correlation Coefficient (ECC), Mean Effective Gain (MEG), Directive Gain (DG), Channel Capacity Loss (CCL), Multiplexing Efficiency (ME) etc and results are compared with simulated parameters extracted with simulated S parameters to validate the results. The simulated and experimentally measured plots and numerical values of these MIMO performance parameters resembles very much with each other. This shows the success of MIMO antenna design methodology.

Keywords: multiple-input and multiple-output, wireless local area network, vector network analyzer, envelope correlation coefficient

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