Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1033

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Electronics and Communication Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

1033 Attention-Aware Group-Wise Correlation-Interlaced Stereo Network

Authors: Darshan Iyer


We propose an end-to-end deep learning-based stereo network for disparity estimation called attention-aware group-wise correlation-interlaced network. Our contributions include an improved attention-aware feature extraction network, cost volume based on a combination of groupwise correlation and interlaced features, and a light residual dense network for disparity refinement. We performed extensive comparative analysis using SceneFlow, KITTI 2012, and KITTI 2015 datasets, and found significant improvement of up to 9.3% in end-point-error (EPE) with respect to state-of-the-art with values of 0.682 on SceneFlow, 0.561 on KITTI 2015, and 0.477 on KITTI 2012.

Keywords: attention mechanism, convolution neural networks, deep learning, stereo disparity estimation

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1032 Magnetic Fluctuations in the Terrestrial Magnetosheath

Authors: Alexandre Gurchumelia, Luca Sorriso-Valvo, David Burgess, Khatuna Elbakidze, Oleg Kharshiladze, Diana Kvaratskhelia


The terrestrial magnetosheath is a highly turbulent medium, with a high level of magnetic1field fluctuations throughout a broad range of scales. These often include an inertial range where a2magnetohydrodynamic turbulent cascade is observed. The multifractal properties of the turbulent3cascade, strictly related to intermittency, are observed here during the transition from quasi-parallel to4quasi-perpendicular magnetic field with respect to the bow-shock normal. The different multifractal5behavior in the two regions is analyzed. A standard coarse-graining technique has been used6to evaluate the generalized dimensions and the corresponding multifractal spectrumf(α). A7p-model fit provided a quantitative measure of multifractality and intermittency, to be compared with8standard indicators: the width of the multifractal spectrum, the peak of the kurtosis, and its scaling9exponent. Results show a clear transition and sharp differences in the intermittency properties for the two regions.

Keywords: magnetos heath, turbulence, multifractal, instabilities

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1031 EMI Radiation Prediction and Final Measurement Process Optimization by Neural Network

Authors: Hussam Elias, Ninovic Perez, Holger Hirsch


The completion of the EMC regulations worldwide is growing steadily as the usage of electronics in our daily lives is increasing more than ever. In this paper, we introduce a novel method to perform the final phase of Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) measurement and to reduce the required test time according to the norm EN 55032 by using a developed tool and the conventional neural network(CNN). The neural network was trained using real EMC measurements, which were performed in the Semi Anechoic Chamber (SAC) by CETECOM GmbH in Essen, Germany. To implement our proposed method, we wrote software to perform the radiated electromagnetic interference (EMI) measurements and use the CNN to predict and determine the position of the turntable that meets the maximum radiation value.

Keywords: conventional neural network, electromagnetic compatibility measurement, mean absolute error, position error

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1030 Combining an Optimized Closed Principal Curve-Based Method and Evolutionary Neural Network for Ultrasound Prostate Segmentation

Authors: Tao Peng, Jing Zhao, Yanqing Xu, Jing Cai


Due to missing/ambiguous boundaries between the prostate and neighboring structures, the presence of shadow artifacts, as well as the large variability in prostate shapes, ultrasound prostate segmentation is challenging. To handle these issues, this paper develops a hybrid method for ultrasound prostate segmentation by combining an optimized closed principal curve-based method and the evolutionary neural network; the former can fit curves with great curvature and generate a contour composed of line segments connected by sorted vertices, and the latter is used to express an appropriate map function (represented by parameters of evolutionary neural network) for generating the smooth prostate contour to match the ground truth contour. Both qualitative and quantitative experimental results showed that our proposed method obtains accurate and robust performances.

Keywords: ultrasound prostate segmentation, optimized closed polygonal segment method, evolutionary neural network, smooth mathematical model, principal curve

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1029 Environmental Assessment of Roll-to-Roll Printed Smart Label

Authors: M. Torres, A. Moulay, M. Zhuldybina, M. Rozel, N. D. Trinh, C. Bois


Printed electronics are a fast-growing market as their applications cover a large range of industrial needs, their production cost is low, and the additive printing techniques consume less materials than subtractive manufacturing methods used in traditional electronics. With the growing demand for printed electronics, there are concerns about their harmful and irreversible contribution to the environment. Indeed, it is estimated that 80% of the environmental load of a product is determined by the choices made at the conception stage. Therefore, examination through a life cycle approach at the developing stage of a novel product is the best way to identify potential environmental issues and make proactive decisions. Life cycle analysis (LCA) is a comprehensive scientific method to assess the environmental impacts of a product in its different stages of life: extraction of raw materials, manufacture and distribution, use, and end-of-life. Impacts and major hotspots are identified and evaluated through a broad range of environmental impact categories of the ReCiPe (H) middle point method. At the conception stage, the LCA is a tool that provides an environmental point of view on the choice of materials and processes and weights-in on the balance between performance materials and eco-friendly materials. Using the life cycle approach, the current work aims to provide a cradle-to-grave life cycle assessment of a roll-to-roll hybrid printed smart label designed for the food cold chain. Furthermore, this presentation will present the environmental impact of metallic conductive inks, a comparison with promising conductive polymers, evaluation of energy vs. performance of industrial printing processes, a full assessment of the impact from the smart label applied on a cellulosic-based substrate during the recycling process and the possible recovery of precious metals and rare earth elements.

Keywords: Eco-design, label, life cycle assessment, printed electronics

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1028 Integration from Laboratory to Industrialization for Hybrid Printed Electronics

Authors: Ahmed Moulay, Mariia Zhuldybina, Mirko Torres, Mike Rozel, Ngoc Duc Trinh, Chloé Bois


Hybrid printed electronics technology (HPE) provides innovative opportunities to enhance conventional electronics applications, which are often based on printed circuit boards (PCB). By combining the best of both performance from conventional electronic components and the flexibility from printed circuits makes it possible to manufacture HPE at high volumes using roll-to-roll printing processes. However, several challenges must be overcome in order to accurately integrate an electronic component on a printed circuit. In this presentation, we will demonstrate the integration process of electronic components from the lab scale to the industrialization. Both the printing quality and the integration technique must be studied to define the optimal conditions. To cover the parameters that influence the print quality of the printed circuit, different printing processes, flexible substrates, and conductive inks will be used to determine the optimized printing process/ink/substrate system. After the systems is selected, an electronic component of 2.5 mm2 chip size will be integrated to validate the functionality of the printed, electronic circuit. Critical information such as the conductive adhesive, the curing conditions, and the chip encapsulation will be determined. Thanks to these preliminary results, we are able to demonstrate the chip integration on a printed circuit using industrial equipment, showing the potential of industrialization, compatible using roll-to-roll printing and integrating processes.

Keywords: flat bed screen-printing, hybrid printed electronics, integration, large-scale production, roll-to-roll printing, rotary screen printing

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1027 Towards Printed Green Time-Temperature Indicator

Authors: Mariia Zhuldybina, Ahmed Moulay, Mirko Torres, Mike Rozel, Ngoc-Duc Trinh, Chloé Bois


To reduce the global waste of perishable goods, a solution for monitoring and traceability of their environmental conditions is needed. Temperature is the most controllable environmental parameter determining the kinetics of physical, chemical, and microbial spoilage in food products. To store the time-temperature information, time-temperature indicator (TTI) is a promising solution. Printed electronics (PE) has shown a great potential to produce customized electronic devices using flexible substrates and inks with different functionalities. We propose to fabricate a hybrid printed TTI using environmentally friendly materials. The real-time TTI profile can be stored and transmitted to the smartphone via Near Field Communication (NFC). To ensure environmental performance, Canadian Green Electronics NSERC Network is developing green materials for the ink formulation with different functionalities. In terms of substrate, paper-based electronics has gained the great interest for utilization in a wide area of electronic systems because of their low costs in setup and methodology, as well as their eco-friendly fabrication technologies. The main objective is to deliver a prototype of TTI using small-scale printed techniques under typical printing conditions. All sub-components of the smart labels, including a memristor, a battery, an antenna compatible with NFC protocol, and a circuit compatible with integration performed by an offsite supplier will be fully printed with flexography or flat-bed screen printing.

Keywords: NFC, printed electronics, time-temperature indicator, hybrid electronics

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1026 3D Simulation and Modeling of Magnetic-Sensitive on n-type Double-Gate Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor (DGMOSFET)

Authors: M. Kessi


We investigated the effect of the magnetic field on carrier transport phenomena in the transistor channel region of Double-Gate Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor (MOSFET). This explores the Lorentz force and basic physical properties of solids exposed to a constant external magnetic field. The magnetic field modulates the electrons and potential distribution in the case of silicon Tunnel FETs. This modulation shows up in the device's external electrical characteristics such as ON current (ION), subthreshold leakage current (IOF), the threshold voltage (VTH), the magneto-transconductance (gm) and the output magneto-conductance (gDS) of Tunnel FET. Moreover, the channel doping concentration and potential distribution are obtained using the numerical method by solving Poisson’s transport equation in 3D modules semiconductor magnetic sensors available in Silvaco TCAD tools. The numerical simulations of the magnetic nano-sensors are relatively new. In this work, we present the results of numerical simulations based on 3D magnetic sensors. The results show excellent accuracy comportment and good agreement compared with that obtained in the experimental study of MOSFETs technology.

Keywords: single-gate MOSFET, magnetic field, hall field, Lorentz force

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1025 Fabrication of Textile-Based Radio Frequency Metasurfaces

Authors: Adria Kajenski, Guinevere Strack, Edward Kingsley, Shahriar Khushrushahi, Alkim Akyurtlu


Radio Frequency (RF) metasurfaces are arrangements of subwavelength elements interacting with electromagnetic radiation. These arrangements affect polarization state, amplitude, and phase of impinged radio waves; for example, metasurface designs are used to produce functional passband and stopband filters. Recent advances in additive manufacturing techniques have enabled the low-cost, rapid fabrication of ultra-thin metasurface elements on flexible substrates such as plastic films, paper, and textiles. Furthermore, scalable manufacturing processes promote the integration of fabric-based RF metasurfaces into the market of sensors and devices within the Internet of Things (IoT). The design and fabrication of metasurfaces on textiles require a multidisciplinary team with expertise in i) textile and materials science, ii) metasurface design and simulation, and iii) metasurface fabrication and testing. In this presentation, we will discuss RF metasurfaces on fabric with an emphasis on how the materials, including fabric and inks, along with fabrication techniques, affect the RF performance. We printed metasurfaces using a direct-write approach onto various woven and non-woven fabrics, as well as on fabrics coated with either thermoplastic or thermoset coatings. Our team also performed a range of tests on the printed structures, including different inks and their curing parameters, wash durability, abrasion resistance, and RF performance over time.

Keywords: electronic textiles, metasurface, printed electronics, flexible

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1024 Spectral Efficiency Improvement in 5G Systems by Polyphase Decomposition

Authors: Wilson Enríquez, Daniel Cardenas


This article proposes a filter bank format combined with the mathematical tool called polyphase decomposition and the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) with the purpose of improving the performance of the fifth-generation communication systems (5G). We started with a review of the literature and the study of the filter bank theory and its combination with DFT in order to improve the performance of wireless communications since it reduces the computational complexity of these communication systems. With the proposed technique, several experiments were carried out in order to evaluate the structures in 5G systems. Finally, the results are presented in graphical form in terms of bit error rate against the ratio bit energy/noise power spectral density (BER vs. Eb / No).

Keywords: multi-carrier system (5G), filter bank, polyphase decomposition, FIR equalizer

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1023 Railway Process Automation to Ensure Human Safety with the Aid of IoT and Image Processing

Authors: K. S. Vedasingha, K. K. M. T. Perera, K. I. Hathurusinghe, H. W. I. Akalanka, Nelum Chathuranga Amarasena, Nalaka R. Dissanayake


Railways provide the most convenient and economically beneficial mode of transportation, and it has been the most popular transportation method among all. According to the past analyzed data, it reveals a considerable number of accidents which occurred at railways and caused damages to not only precious lives but also to the economy of the countries. There are some major issues which need to be addressed in railways of South Asian countries since they fall under the developing category. The goal of this research is to minimize the influencing aspect of railway level crossing accidents by developing the “railway process automation system”, as there are high-risk areas that are prone to accidents, and safety at these places is of utmost significance. This paper describes the implementation methodology and the success of the study. The main purpose of the system is to ensure human safety by using the Internet of Things (IoT) and image processing techniques. The system can detect the current location of the train and close the railway gate automatically. And it is possible to do the above-mentioned process through a decision-making system by using past data. The specialty is both processes working parallel. As usual, if the system fails to close the railway gate due to technical or a network failure, the proposed system can identify the current location and close the railway gate through a decision-making system, which is a revolutionary feature. The proposed system introduces further two features to reduce the causes of railway accidents. Railway track crack detection and motion detection are those features which play a significant role in reducing the risk of railway accidents. Moreover, the system is capable of detecting rule violations at a level crossing by using sensors. The proposed system is implemented through a prototype, and it is tested with real-world scenarios to gain the above 90% of accuracy.

Keywords: crack detection, decision-making, image processing, Internet of Things, motion detection, prototype, sensors

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1022 Investigation of the Effects of Gamma Radiation on the Electrically Active Defects in InAs/InGaAs Quantum Dots Laser Structures Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy on GaAs Substrates Using Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy

Authors: M. Al Huwayz, A. Salhi, S. Alhassan, S. Alotaibi, A. Almalki, M.Almunyif, A. Alhassni, M. Henini


Recently, there has been much research carried out to investigate quantum dots (QDs) lasers with the aim to increase the gain of quantum well lasers. However, one of the difficulties with these structures is that electrically active defects can lead to serious issues in the performance of these devices. It is therefore essential to fully understand the types of defects introduced during the growth and/or the fabrication process. In this study, the effects of Gamma radiation on the electrically active defects in p-i-n InAs/InGaAsQDs laser structures grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) technique on GaAs substrates were investigated. Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS), current-voltage (I-V), and capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements were performed to explore these effects on the electrical properties of these QDs lasers. I-V measurements showed that as-grown sample had better electrical properties than the irradiated sample. However, DLTS and Laplace DLTS measurements at different reverse biases revealed that the defects in the-region of the p-i-n structures were decreased in the irradiated sample. In both samples, a trap with an activation energy of ~ 0.21 eV was assigned to the well-known defect M1 in GaAs layers

Keywords: quantum dots laser structures, gamma radiation, DLTS, defects, nAs/IngaAs

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1021 Emerging Research Trends in Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: Subhra Prosun Paul, Shruti Aggarwal


Now a days Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Network has become a promising technique in the different fields of the latest computer technology. Routing in Wireless Sensor Network is a demanding task due to the different design issues of all sensor nodes. Network architecture, no of nodes, traffic of routing, the capacity of each sensor node, network consistency, service value are the important factor for the design and analysis of Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Network. Additionally, internal energy, the distance between nodes, the load of sensor nodes play a significant role in the efficient routing protocol. In this paper, our intention is to analyze the research trends in different routing protocols of Wireless Sensor Network in terms of different parameters. In order to explain the research trends on Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Network, different data related to this research topic are analyzed with the help of Web of Science and Scopus databases. The data analysis is performed from global perspective-taking different parameters like author, source, document, country, organization, keyword, year, and a number of the publication. Different types of experiments are also performed, which help us to evaluate the recent research tendency in the Routing Protocol of Wireless Sensor Network. In order to do this, we have used Web of Science and Scopus databases separately for data analysis. We have observed that there has been a tremendous development of research on this topic in the last few years as it has become a very popular topic day by day.

Keywords: analysis, routing protocol, research trends, wireless sensor network

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1020 Effect of Rapid Thermal Annealing on the Optical Properties of InAs Quantum Dots Grown on (100) and (311)B GaAs Substrates by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

Authors: Amjad Almunyif, Amra Alhassni, Sultan Alhassan, Maryam Al Huwayz, Saud Alotaibi, Abdulaziz Almalki, Mohamed Henini


The effect of rapid thermal annealing (RTA) on the optical properties of InAs quantum dots (QDs) grown at an As overpressure of 2x 10⁻⁶ Torr by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on (100) and (311)B GaAs substrates was investigated using photoluminescence (PL) technique. PL results showed that for the as-grown samples, the QDs grown on the high index plane (311)B have lower PL intensity and lower full width at half maximum (FWHM) than those grown on the conventional (100) plane. The latter demonstrates that the (311)B QDs have better size uniformity than (100) QDs. Compared with as-grown samples, a blue-shift was observed for all samples with increasing annealing temperature from 600°C to 700°C. For (100) samples, a narrowing of the FWHM was observed with increasing annealing temperature from 600°C to 700°C. However, in (311)B samples, the FWHM showed a different behaviour; it slightly increased when the samples were annealed at 600°C and then decreased when the annealing temperature increased to 700°C. As expected, the PL peak intensity for all samples increased when the laser excitation power increased. The PL peak energy temperature dependence showed a strong redshift when the temperature was increased from 10 K to 120 K. The PL peak energy exhibited an abnormal S-shape behaviour as a function of temperature for all samples. Most samples exhibited a significant enhancement in their activation energies when annealed at 600°C and 700°C, suggesting that annealing annihilated defects created during sample growth.

Keywords: RTA, QDs, InAs, MBE

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1019 TMIF: Transformer-Based Multi-Modal Interactive Fusion for Rumor Detection

Authors: Jiandong Lv, Xingang Wang, Cuiling Shao


The rapid development of social media platforms has made it one of the important news sources. While it provides people with convenient real-time communication channels, fake news and rumors are also spread rapidly through social media platforms, misleading the public and even causing bad social impact in view of the slow speed and poor consistency of artificial rumor detection. We propose an end-to-end rumor detection model-TIMF, which captures the dependencies between multimodal data based on the interactive attention mechanism, uses a transformer for cross-modal feature sequence mapping and combines hybrid fusion strategies to obtain decision results. This paper verifies two multi-modal rumor detection datasets and proves the superior performance and early detection performance of the proposed model.

Keywords: hybrid fusion, multimodal fusion, rumor detection, social media, transformer

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1018 Simo-syl: A Computer-Based Tool to Identify Language Fragilities in Italian Pre-Schoolers

Authors: Marinella Majorano, Rachele Ferrari, Tamara Bastianello


The recent technological advance allows for applying innovative and multimedia screen-based assessment tools to test children's language and early literacy skills, monitor their growth over the preschool years, and test their readiness for primary school. Several are the advantages that a computer-based assessment tool offers with respect to paper-based tools. Firstly, computer-based tools which provide the use of games, videos, and audio may be more motivating and engaging for children, especially for those with language difficulties. Secondly, computer-based assessments are generally less time-consuming than traditional paper-based assessments: this makes them less demanding for children and provides clinicians and researchers, but also teachers, with the opportunity to test children multiple times over the same school year and, thus, to monitor their language growth more systematically. Finally, while paper-based tools require offline coding, computer-based tools sometimes allow obtaining automatically calculated scores, thus producing less subjective evaluations of the assessed skills and provide immediate feedback. Nonetheless, using computer-based assessment tools to test meta-phonological and language skills in children is not yet common practice in Italy. The present contribution aims to estimate the internal consistency of a computer-based assessment (i.e., the Simo-syl assessment). Sixty-three Italian pre-schoolers aged between 4;10 and 5;9 years were tested at the beginning of the last year of the preschool through paper-based standardised tools in their lexical (Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test), morpho-syntactical (Grammar Repetition Test for Children), meta-phonological (Meta-Phonological skills Evaluation test), and phono-articulatory skills (non-word repetition). The same children were tested through Simo-syl assessment on their phonological and meta-phonological skills (e.g., recognise syllables and vowels and read syllables and words). The internal consistency of the computer-based tool was acceptable (Cronbach's alpha = .799). Children's scores obtained in the paper-based assessment and scores obtained in each task of the computer-based assessment were correlated. Significant and positive correlations emerged between all the tasks of the computer-based assessment and the scores obtained in the CMF (r = .287 - .311, p < .05) and in the correct sentences in the RCGB (r = .360 - .481, p < .01); non-word repetition standardised test significantly correlates with the reading tasks only (r = .329 - .350, p < .05). Further tasks should be included in the current version of Simo-syl to have a comprehensive and multi-dimensional approach when assessing children. However, such a tool represents a good chance for the teachers to early identifying language-related problems even in the school environment.

Keywords: assessment, computer-based, early identification, language-related skills

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1017 Adaptive Auth - Adaptive Authentication Based on User Attributes for Web Application

Authors: Senthuran Manoharan, Rathesan Sivagananalingam


One of the main issues in system security is Authentication. Authentication can be defined as the process of recognizing the user's identity and it is the most important step in the access control process to safeguard data/resources from being accessed by unauthorized users. The static method of authentication cannot ensure the genuineness of the user. Due to this reason, more innovative authentication mechanisms came into play. At first two factor authentication was introduced and later, multi-factor authentication was introduced to enhance the security of the system. It also had some issues and later, adaptive authentication was introduced. In this research paper, the design of an adaptive authentication engine was put forward. The user risk profile was calculated based on the user parameters and then the user was challenged with a suitable authentication method.

Keywords: authentication, adaptive authentication, machine learning, security

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1016 Next Generation of Tunnel Field Effect Transistor: NCTFET

Authors: Naima Guenifi, Shiromani Balmukund Rahi, Amina Bechka


Tunnel FET is one of the most suitable alternatives FET devices for conventional CMOS technology for low-power electronics and applications. Due to its lower subthreshold swing (SS) value, it is a strong follower of low power applications. It is a quantum FET device that follows the band to band (B2B) tunneling transport phenomena of charge carriers. Due to band to band tunneling, tunnel FET is suffering from a lower switching current than conventional metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET). For improvement of device features and limitations, the newly invented negative capacitance concept of ferroelectric material is implemented in conventional Tunnel FET structure popularly known as NC TFET. The present research work has implemented the idea of high-k gate dielectric added with ferroelectric material on double gate Tunnel FET for implementation of negative capacitance. It has been observed that the idea of negative capacitance further improves device features like SS value. It helps to reduce power dissipation and switching energy. An extensive investigation for circularity uses for digital, analog/RF and linearity features of double gate NCTFET have been adopted here for research work. Several essential designs paraments for analog/RF and linearity parameters like transconductance(gm), transconductance generation factor (gm/IDS), its high-order derivatives (gm2, gm3), cut-off frequency (fT), gain-bandwidth product (GBW), transconductance generation factor (gm/IDS) has been investigated for low power RF applications. The VIP₂, VIP₃, IMD₃, IIP₃, distortion characteristics (HD2, HD3), 1-dB, the compression point, delay and power delay product performance have also been thoroughly studied.

Keywords: analog/digital, ferroelectric, linearity, negative capacitance, Tunnel FET, transconductance

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1015 Modeling and Design of E-mode GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors

Authors: Samson Mil'shtein, Dhawal Asthana, Benjamin Sullivan


The wide energy gap of GaN is the major parameter justifying the design and fabrication of high-power electronic components made of this material. However, the existence of a piezo-electrics in nature sheet charge at the AlGaN/GaN interface complicates the control of carrier injection into the intrinsic channel of GaN HEMTs (High Electron Mobility Transistors). As a result, most of the transistors created as R&D prototypes and all of the designs used for mass production are D-mode devices which introduce challenges in the design of integrated circuits. This research presents the design and modeling of an E-mode GaN HEMT with a very low turn-on voltage. The proposed device includes two critical elements allowing the transistor to achieve zero conductance across the channel when Vg = 0V. This is accomplished through the inclusion of an extremely thin, 2.5nm intrinsic Ga₀.₇₄Al₀.₂₆N spacer layer. The added spacer layer does not create piezoelectric strain but rather elastically follows the variations of the crystal structure of the adjacent GaN channel. The second important factor is the design of a gate metal with a high work function. The use of a metal gate with a work function (Ni in this research) greater than 5.3eV positioned on top of n-type doped (Nd=10¹⁷cm⁻³) Ga₀.₇₄Al₀.₂₆N creates the necessary built-in potential, which controls the injection of electrons into the intrinsic channel as the gate voltage is increased. The 5µm long transistor with a 0.18µm long gate and a channel width of 30µm operate at Vd=10V. At Vg =1V, the device reaches the maximum drain current of 0.6mA, which indicates a high current density. The presented device is operational at frequencies greater than 10GHz and exhibits a stable transconductance over the full range of operational gate voltages.

Keywords: compound semiconductors, device modeling, enhancement mode HEMT, gallium nitride

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1014 Development of Non-Intrusive Speech Evaluation Measure Using S-Transform and Light-Gbm

Authors: Tusar Kanti Dash, Ganapati Panda


The evaluation of speech quality and intelligence is critical to the overall effectiveness of the Speech Enhancement Algorithms. Several intrusive and non-intrusive measures are employed to calculate these parameters. Non-Intrusive Evaluation is most challenging as, very often, the reference clean speech data is not available. In this paper, a novel non-intrusive speech evaluation measure is proposed using audio features derived from the Stockwell transform. These features are used with the Light Gradient Boosting Machine for the effective prediction of speech quality and intelligibility. The proposed model is analyzed using noisy and reverberant speech from four databases, and the results are compared with the standard Intrusive Evaluation Measures. It is observed from the comparative analysis that the proposed model is performing better than the standard Non-Intrusive models.

Keywords: non-Intrusive speech evaluation, S-transform, light GBM, speech quality, and intelligibility

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1013 Design and Modelling of Ge/GaAs Hetero-structure Bipolar Transistor

Authors: Samson Mil'shtein, Dhawal N. Asthana


The presented heterostructure n-p-n bipolar transistor is comprised of Ge/GaAs heterojunctions consisting of 0.15µm thick emitter and 0.65µm collector junctions. High diffusivity of carriers in GaAs base was major motivation of current design. We avoided grading of the base which is common in heterojunction bipolar transistors, in order to keep the electron diffusivity as high as possible. The electrons injected into the 0.25µm thick p-type GaAs base with not very high doping (1017cm-3). The designed HBT enables cut off frequency on the order of 150GHz. The Ge/GaAs heterojunctions presented in our paper have proved to work better than comparable HBTs having GaAs bases and emitter/collector junctions made, for example, of AlGaAs/GaAs or other III-V compound semiconductors. The difference in lattice constants between Ge and GaAs is less than 2%. Therefore, there is no need of transition layers between Ge emitter and GaAs base. Significant difference in energy gap of these two materials presents new scope for improving performance of the emitter. With the complete structure being modelled and simulated using TCAD SILVACO, the collector/ emitter offset voltage of the device has been limited to a reasonable value of 63 millivolts by the dint of low energy band gap value associated with Ge emitter. The efficiency of the emitter in our HBT is 86%. Use of Germanium in the emitter and collector regions presents new opportunities for integration of this vertical device structure into silicon substrate.

Keywords: Germanium, Gallium Arsenide, heterojunction bipolar transistor, high cut-off frequency

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1012 Identification of Soft Faults in Branched Wire Networks by Distributed Reflectometry and Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Soumaya Sallem, Marc Olivas


This contribution presents a method for detecting, locating, and characterizing soft faults in a complex wired network. The proposed method is based on multi-carrier reflectometry MCTDR (Multi-Carrier Time Domain Reflectometry) combined with a multi-objective genetic algorithm. In order to ensure complete network coverage and eliminate diagnosis ambiguities, the MCTDR test signal is injected at several points on the network, and the data is merged between different reflectometers (sensors) distributed on the network. An adapted multi-objective genetic algorithm is used to merge data in order to obtain more accurate faults location and characterization. The proposed method performances are evaluated from numerical and experimental results.

Keywords: wired network, reflectometry, network distributed diagnosis, multi-objective genetic algorithm

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1011 Advances in Design of Wireless Sensor Network for Temperature and Humidity Monitoring

Authors: Shathya Duobiene


Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are an emerging technology that enables a path to engage with the new technologies and opens up a new field of research. The great advance in WSN leads to an increasing prevalence of various monitoring applications and real-time services, including laboratory and industrial applications. Selective surface activation induces by Laser (SSAIL) is a promising technology that adapts the WSN design freedom of shape, dimensions, and material. The main goal of this paper is to propose and implement a WSN-based design and implementation of temperature and humidity monitoring in university campus laboratories to detect the temperature even the lab is unoccupied, which helps notify lab staff if something goes wrong. The used physical temperature and humidity monitoring is described. Secondly, monitoring task’s deployed architectures are discussed. Then, the various tools, the simulation environment, and, therefore, the implementation results obtained through monitoring scenarios are displayed. At last, a solution to keep the WSN alive and functional as long as possible is proposed. Unlike other existing models, on success, the node can utilize minimal power consumption for sense and send data to the base station without an external power source.

Keywords: internet of things, network formation, sensor nodes, SSAIL technology

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1010 Skew Planar Wheel Antenna for First Person View of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

Authors: Raymond Yudhi Purba, Levy Olivia Nur, Radial Anwar


This research presents the design and measurement of a skew planar wheel antenna that is used to visualize the first person view perspective of unmanned aerial vehicles. The antenna has been designed using CST Studio Suite 2019 to have voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) ≤ 2, return loss ≤ -10 dB, bandwidth ≥ 100 MHz to covering outdoor access point band from 5.725 to 5.825 GHz, omnidirectional radiation pattern, and elliptical polarization. Dimensions of skew planar wheel antenna have been modified using parameter sweep technique to provide good performances. The simulation results provide VSWR 1.231, return loss -19.693 dB, bandwidth 828.8 MHz, gain 3.292 dB, and axial ratio 9.229 dB. Meanwhile, the measurement results provide VSWR 1.237, return loss -19.476 dB, bandwidth 790.5 MHz, gain 3.2034 dB, and axial ratio 4.12 dB.

Keywords: skew planar wheel, cloverleaf, first-person view, unmanned aerial vehicle, parameter sweep

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1009 Performance Evaluation of a Millimeter-Wave Phased Array Antenna Using Circularly Polarized Elements

Authors: Rawad Asfour, Salam Khamas, Edward A. Ball


This paper is focused on the design of an mm-wave phased array. To date, linear polarization is adapted in the reported designs of phased arrays. However, linear polarization faces several well-known challenges. As such, an advanced design for phased array antennas is required that offers circularly polarized (CP) radiation. A feasible solution for achieving CP phased array antennas is proposed using open-circular loop antennas. To this end, a 3-element circular loop phased array antenna is designed to operate at 28GHz. In addition, the array ability to control the direction of the main lobe is investigated. The results show that the highest achievable field of view (FOV) is 100°, i.e., 50° to the left and 50° to the right-hand side directions. The results are achieved with a CP bandwidth of 15%. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that a high broadside gain of circa 11 dBi can be achieved for the steered beam. Besides, a radiation efficiency of 97 % can also be achieved based on the proposed design.

Keywords: loop antenna, phased array, beam steering, wide bandwidth, circular polarization, CST

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1008 Compact Microstrip Ultra Wideband Bandstop Filter with Quasi Elliptic Function Response

Authors: Faris H. Almansour, Hussein N. Shaman


This paper proposes a modified optimum bandstop filter with ultra-wideband stopband. The filter consists of three shunt open-circuited stubs and two non-redundant unit elements. The proposed bandstop filter is designed with unequal electrical lengths of the open-circuited stubs at the mid-stopband. Therefore, the filter can exhibit a quasi-elliptic function response that improves the selectivity and enhances the rejection bandwidth. The filter is designed to exhibit a fractional bandwidth of about 114% at a mid-stopband frequency of 3.0 GHz. The filter is successfully realized in theory, simulated, fabricated and measured. An excellent agreement is obtained between calculated, simulated and measured. The fabricated filter has a compact size with a low insertion loss in the passbands, high selectivity and good attenuation level inside the desired stopband.

Keywords: ultra-wideband bandstop filters, microstrip filters, transmission line filters

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1007 Permanent Reduction of Arc Flash Energy to Safe Limit on Line Side of 480 Volt Switchgear Incomer Breaker

Authors: Abid Khan


A recognized engineering challenge is related to personnel protection from fatal arc flash incident energy in the line side of the 480-volt switchgear incomer breakers during maintenance activities. The incident energy is typically high due to slow fault clearance, and it can be higher than the available personnel protective equipment (PPE) ratings. A fault in this section of the switchgear is cleared by breakers or fuses in the upstream higher voltage system (4160 Volt or higher). The current reflection in the higher voltage upstream system for a fault in the 480-volt switchgear is low, the clearance time is slower, and the inversely proportional incident energy is hence higher. The installation of overcurrent protection at a 480-volt system upstream of the incomer breaker will operate fast enough and trips the upstream higher voltage breaker when a fault develops at the incomer breaker. Therefore, fault current reduction as reflected in the upstream higher voltage system is eliminated. Since the fast overcurrent protection is permanently installed, it is always functional, does not require human interventions, and eliminates exposure to human errors. It is installed at the maintenance activities location, and its operations can be locally monitored by craftsmen during maintenance activities.

Keywords: arc flash, mitigation, maintenance switch, energy level

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1006 A 1.8 GHz to 43 GHz Low Noise Amplifier with 4 dB Noise Figure in 0.1 µm Galium Arsenide Technology

Authors: Mantas Sakalas, Paulius Sakalas


This paper presents an analysis and design of a ultrawideband 1.8GHz to 43GHz Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) in 0.1 μm Galium Arsenide (GaAs) pseudomorphic High Electron Mobility Transistor (pHEMT) technology. The feedback based bandwidth extension techniques is analyzed and based on the outcome, a two stage LNA is designed. The impedance fine tuning is implemented by using Transmission Line (TL) structures. The measured performance shows a good agreement with simulation results and an outstanding wideband noise matching. The measured small signal gain was 12 dB, whereas a 3 dB gain flatness in range from 1.8 - 43 GHz was reached. The noise figure was below 4 dB almost all over the entire frequency band of 1.8GHz to 43GHz, the output power at 1 dB compression point was 6 dBm and the DC power consumption was 95 mW. To the best knowledge of the authors the designed LNA outperforms the State of the Art (SotA) reported LNA designs in terms of combined parameters of noise figure within the addressed ultra-wide 3 dB bandwidth, linearity and DC power consumption.

Keywords: feedback amplifiers, GaAs pHEMT, monolithic microwave integrated circuit, LNA, noise matching

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1005 Error Correction Method for 2D Ultra-Wideband Indoor Wireless Positioning System Using Logarithmic Error Model

Authors: Phornpat Chewasoonthorn, Surat Kwanmuang


Indoor positioning technologies have been evolved rapidly. They augment the Global Positioning System (GPS) which requires line-of-sight to the sky to track the location of people or objects. This study developed an error correction method for an indoor real-time location system (RTLS) based on an ultra-wideband (UWB) sensor from Decawave. Multiple stationary nodes (anchor) were installed throughout the workspace. The distance between stationary and moving nodes (tag) can be measured using a two-way-ranging (TWR) scheme. The result has shown that the uncorrected ranging error from the sensor system can be as large as 1 m. To reduce ranging error and thus increase positioning accuracy, This study purposes an online correction algorithm using the Kalman filter. The results from experiments have shown that the system can reduce ranging error down to 5 cm.

Keywords: indoor positioning, ultra-wideband, error correction, Kalman filter

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1004 Spatial Correlation of Channel State Information in Real Long Range Measurement

Authors: Ahmed Abdelghany, Bernard Uguen, Christophe Moy, Dominique Lemur


The Internet of Things (IoT) is developed to ensure monitoring and connectivity within different applications. Thus, it is critical to study the channel propagation characteristics in Low Power Wide Area Network (LPWAN), especially Long Range Wide Area Network (LoRaWAN). In this paper, an in-depth investigation of the reciprocity between the uplink and downlink Channel State Information (CSI) is done by performing an outdoor measurement campaign in the area of Campus Beaulieu in Rennes. At each different location, the CSI reciprocity is quantified using the Pearson Correlation Coefficient (PCC) which shows a very high linear correlation between the uplink and downlink CSI. This reciprocity feature could be utilized for the physical layer security between the node and the gateway. On the other hand, most of the CSI shapes from different locations are highly uncorrelated from each other. Hence, it can be anticipated that this could achieve significant localization gain by utilizing the frequency hopping in the LoRa systems by getting access to a wider band.

Keywords: IoT, LPWAN, LoRa, effective signal power, onsite measurement

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