Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1099

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Electronics and Communication Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

1099 Circular Polarized and Surface Compatible Microstrip Array Antenna Design for Image and Telemetric Data Transfer in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle and Armed Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems

Authors: Kübra Taşkıran, Bahattin Türetken


In this paper, a microstrip array antenna with circular polarization at 2.4 GHz frequency has been designed using in order to provide image and telemetric data transmission in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle and Armed Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems. In addition to the antenna design, the power divider design was made, and the antennas were fed in phase. As a result of the analysis, it was observed that the antenna operates at a frequency of 2.4016 GHz with 12.2 dBi directing gain. In addition, this designed array antenna was transformed into a form compatible with the rocket surface used in A-UAV Systems, and analyzes were made. As a result of these analyzes, it has been observed that the antenna operates on the surface of the missile at a frequency of 2.372 GHz with a directivity gain of 10.2 dBi.

Keywords: microstrip array antenna, circular polarization, 2.4 GHz, image and telemetric data, transmission, surface compatible, UAV, armed UAV

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1098 Cyclic Etching Process Using Inductively Coupled Plasma for Polycrystalline Diamond on AlGaN/GaN Heterostructure

Authors: Haolun Sun, Ping Wang, Mei Wu, Meng Zhang, Bin Hou, Ling Yang, Xiaohua Ma, Yue Hao


Gallium nitride (GaN) is an attractive material for next-generation power devices. It is noted that the performance of GaN-based high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) is always limited by the self-heating effect. In response to the problem, integrating devices with polycrystalline diamond (PCD) has been demonstrated to be an efficient way to alleviate the self-heating issue of the GaN-based HEMTs. Among all the heat-spreading schemes, using PCD to cap the epitaxial layer before the HEMTs process is one of the most effective schemes. Now, the mainstream method of fabricating the PCD-capped HEMTs is to deposit the diamond heat-spreading layer on the AlGaN surface, which is covered by a thin nucleation dielectric/passivation layer. To achieve the pattern etching of the diamond heat spreader and device preparation, we selected SiN as the hard mask for diamond etching, which was deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The conventional diamond etching method first uses F-based etching to remove the SiN from the special window region, followed by using O₂/Ar plasma to etch the diamond. However, the results of the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and focused ion beam microscopy (FIB) show that there are lots of diamond pillars on the etched diamond surface. Through our study, we found that it was caused by the high roughness of the diamond surface and the existence of the overlap between the diamond grains, which makes the etching of the SiN hard mask insufficient and leaves micro-masks on the diamond surface. Thus, a cyclic etching method was proposed to solve the problem of the residual SiN, which was left in the F-based etching. We used F-based etching during the first step to remove the SiN hard mask in the specific region; then, the O₂/Ar plasma was introduced to etch the diamond in the corresponding region. These two etching steps were set as one cycle. After the first cycle, we further used cyclic etching to clear the pillars, in which the F-based etching was used to remove the residual SiN, and then the O₂/Ar plasma was used to etch the diamond. Whether to take the next cyclic etching depends on whether there are still SiN micro-masks left. By using this method, we eventually achieved the self-terminated etching of the diamond and the smooth surface after the etching. These results demonstrate that the cyclic etching method can be successfully applied to the integrated preparation of polycrystalline diamond thin films and GaN HEMTs.

Keywords: AlGaN/GaN heterojunction, O₂/Ar plasma, cyclic etching, polycrystalline diamond

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1097 Improved Performance of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs Using N₂/NH₃ Pretreatment before Passivation

Authors: Yifan Gao


Owing to the high breakdown field, high saturation drift velocity, 2DEG with high density and mobility and so on, AlGaN/GaN HEMTs have been widely used in high-frequency and high-power applications. To acquire a higher power often means higher breakdown voltage and higher drain current. Surface leakage current is usually the key issue affecting the breakdown voltage and power performance. In this work, we have performed in-situ N₂/NH₃ pretreatment before the passivation to suppress the surface leakage and achieve device performance enhancement. The AlGaN/GaN HEMT used in this work was grown on a 3-in. SiC substrate, whose epitaxial structure consists of a 3.5-nm GaN cap layer, a 25-nm Al₀.₂₅GaN barrier layer, a 1-nm AlN layer, a 400-nm i-GaN layer and a buffer layer. In order to analyze the mechanism for the N-based pretreatment, the details are measured by XPS analysis. It is found that the intensity of Ga-O bonds is decreasing and the intensity of Ga-N bonds is increasing, which means with the supplement of N, the dangling bonds on the surface are indeed reduced with the forming of Ga-N bonds, reducing the surface states. The surface states have a great influence on the leakage current, and improved surface states represent a better off-state of the device. After the N-based pretreatment, the breakdown voltage of the device with Lₛ𝒹=6 μm increased from 93V to 170V, which increased by 82.8%. Moreover, for HEMTs with Lₛ𝒹 of 6-μm, we can obtain a peak output power (Pout) of 12.79W/mm, power added efficiency (PAE) of 49.84% and a linear gain of 20.2 dB at 60V under 3.6GHz. Comparing the result with the reference 6-μm device, Pout is increased by 16.5%. Meanwhile, PAE and the linear gain also have a slight increase. The experimental results indicate that using N₂/NH₃ pretreatment before passivation is an attractive approach to achieving power performance enhancement.

Keywords: AlGaN/GaN HEMT, N-based pretreatment, output power, passivation

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1096 Electrical Degradation of GaN-based p-channel HFETs Under Dynamic Electrical Stress

Authors: Xuerui Niu, Bolin Wang, Xinchuang Zhang, Xiaohua Ma, Bin Hou, Ling Yang


The application of discrete GaN-based power switches requires the collaboration of silicon-based peripheral circuit structures. However, the packages and interconnection between the Si and GaN devices can introduce parasitic effects to the circuit, which has great impacts on GaN power transistors. GaN-based monolithic power integration technology is an emerging solution which can improve the stability of circuits and allow the GaN-based devices to achieve more functions. Complementary logic circuits consisting of GaN-based E-mode p-channel heterostructure field-effect transistors (p-HFETs) and E-mode n-channel HEMTs can be served as the gate drivers. E-mode p-HFETs with recessed gate have attracted increasing interest because of the low leakage current and large gate swing. However, they suffer from a poor interface between the gate dielectric and polarized nitride layers. The reliability of p-HFETs is analyzed and discussed in this work. In circuit applications, the inverter is always operated with dynamic gate voltage (VGS) rather than a constant VGS. Therefore, dynamic electrical stress has been simulated to resemble the operation conditions for E-mode p-HFETs. The dynamic electrical stress condition is as follows. VGS is a square waveform switching from -5 V to 0 V, VDS is fixed, and the source grounded. The frequency of the square waveform is 100kHz with the rising/falling time of 100 ns and duty ratio of 50%. The effective stress time is 1000s. A number of stress tests are carried out. The stress was briefly interrupted to measure the linear IDS-VGS, saturation IDS-VGS, As VGS switches from -5 V to 0 V and VDS = 0 V, devices are under negative-bias-instability (NBI) condition. Holes are trapped at the interface of oxide layer and GaN channel layer, which results in the reduction of VTH. The negative shift of VTH is serious at the first 10s and then changes slightly with the following stress time. However, different phenomenon is observed when VDS reduces to -5V. VTH shifts negatively during stress condition, and the variation in VTH increases with time, which is different from that when VDS is 0V. Two mechanisms exists in this condition. On the one hand, the electric field in the gate region is influenced by the drain voltage, so that the trapping behavior of holes in the gate region changes. The impact of the gate voltage is weakened. On the other hand, large drain voltage can induce the hot holes generation and lead to serious hot carrier stress (HCS) degradation with time. The poor-quality interface between the oxide layer and GaN channel layer at the gate region makes a major contribution to the high-density interface traps, which will greatly influence the reliability of devices. These results emphasize that the improved etching and pretreatment processes needs to be developed so that high-performance GaN complementary logics with enhanced stability can be achieved.

Keywords: GaN-based E-mode p-HFETs, dynamic electric stress, threshold voltage, monolithic power integration technology

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1095 Millimeter Wave Antenna for 5G Mobile Communications Systems

Authors: Hind Mestouri


The study and simulation of a millimeter wave antenna for 5G mobile communication systems is the topic of this paper. We present at the beginning the general aspects of the 5G technology. We recall the objectives of the 5G standard, its architecture, and the parameters that characterize it. The proposed antenna model is designed using the CST Microwave Studio simulation software. Numerous methods are used at all steps of the design procedures, such as theoretical calculation of parameters, declaration of parameter values, and evaluation of the antenna through the obtained results. Initially, we were interested in the design of an antenna array at the 10 GHz frequency. Afterward, we also simulated and presented an antenna array at 2.5 GHz. For each antenna designed, a parametric study was conducted to understand and highlight the role and effects of the various parameters in order to optimize them and achieve a final efficient structure. The obtained results using CST Microwave Studio showed that the characteristics of the designed antennas (bandwidth, gain, radiation pattern) satisfy the specifications of 5G mobile communications.

Keywords: 5G, antenna array, millimeter wave, 10 GHz, CST Microwave Studio

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1094 Nanowire Sensor Based on Novel Impedance Spectroscopy Approach

Authors: Valeriy M. Kondratev, Ekaterina A. Vyacheslavova, Talgat Shugabaev, Alexander S. Gudovskikh, Alexey D. Bolshakov


Modern sensorics imposes strict requirements on the biosensors characteristics, especially technological feasibility, and selectivity. There is a growing interest in the analysis of human health biological markers, which indirectly testifying the pathological processes in the body. Such markers are acids and alkalis produced by the human, in particular - ammonia and hydrochloric acid, which are found in human sweat, blood, and urine, as well as in gastric juice. Biosensors based on modern nanomaterials, especially low dimensional, can be used for this markers detection. Most classical adsorption sensors based on metal and silicon oxides are considered non-selective, because they identically change their electrical resistance (or impedance) under the action of adsorption of different target analytes. This work demonstrates a feasible frequency-resistive method of electrical impedance spectroscopy data analysis. The approach allows to obtain of selectivity in adsorption sensors of a resistive type. The method potential is demonstrated with analyzis of impedance spectra of silicon nanowires in the presence of NH3 and HCl vapors with concentrations of about 125 mmol/L (2 ppm) and water vapor. We demonstrate the possibility of unambiguous distinction of the sensory signal from NH3 and HCl adsorption. Moreover, the method is found applicable for analysis of the composition of ammonia and hydrochloric acid vapors mixture without water cross-sensitivity. Presented silicon sensor can be used to find diseases of the gastrointestinal tract by the qualitative and quantitative detection of ammonia and hydrochloric acid content in biological samples. The method of data analysis can be directly translated to other nanomaterials to analyze their applicability in the field of biosensory.

Keywords: electrical impedance spectroscopy, spectroscopy data analysis, selective adsorption sensor, nanotechnology

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1093 Investigation of the Mechanical and Thermal Properties of a Silver Oxalate Nanoporous Structured Sintered Joint for Micro-joining in Relation to the Sintering Process Parameters

Authors: L. Vivet, L. Benabou, O. Simon


With highly demanding applications in the field of power electronics, there is an increasing need to have interconnection materials with properties that can ensure both good mechanical assembly and high thermal/electrical conductivities. So far, lead-free solders have been considered an attractive solution, but recently, sintered joints based on nano-silver paste have been used for die attach and have proved to be a promising solution offering increased performances in high-temperature applications. In this work, the main parameters of the bonding process using silver oxalates are studied, i.e., the heating rate and the bonding pressure mainly. Their effects on both the mechanical and thermal properties of the sintered layer are evaluated following an experimental design. Pairs of copper substrates with gold metallization are assembled through the sintering process to realize the samples that are tested using a micro-traction machine. In addition, the obtained joints are examined through microscopy to identify the important microstructural features in relation to the measured properties. The formation of an intermetallic compound at the junction between the sintered silver layer and the gold metallization deposited on copper is also analyzed. Microscopy analysis exhibits a nanoporous structure of the sintered material. It is found that higher temperature and bonding pressure result in higher densification of the sintered material, with higher thermal conductivity of the joint but less mechanical flexibility to accommodate the thermo-mechanical stresses arising during service. The experimental design allows hence the determination of the optimal process parameters to reach sufficient thermal/mechanical properties for a given application. It is also found that the interphase formed between silver and gold metallization is the location where the fracture occurred after the mechanical testing, suggesting that the inter-diffusion mechanism between the different elements of the assembly leads to the formation of a relatively brittle compound.

Keywords: nanoporous structure, silver oxalate, sintering, mechanical strength, thermal conductivity, microelectronic packaging

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1092 The Influence of Music Education and the Order of Sounds on the Grouping of Sounds into Sequences of Six Tones

Authors: Adam Rosiński


This paper discusses an experiment conducted with two groups of participants, composed of musicians and non-musicians, in order to investigate the impact of the speed of a sound sequence and the order of sounds on the grouping of sounds into sequences of six tones. Significant differences were observed between musicians and non-musicians with respect to the threshold sequence speed at which the sequence was split into two streams. The differences in the results for the two groups suggest that the musical education of the participating listeners may be a vital factor. The criterion of musical education should be taken into account during experiments so that the results obtained are reliable, uniform, and free from interpretive errors.

Keywords: auditory scene analysis, education, hearing, psychoacoustics

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1091 A Decentralized Application for Secure Data Handling of Wireless Networks Using Ethereum Smart Contracts

Authors: Midhun Xavier


This paper introduces a method to verify multi-agent systems in industrial control systems using blockchain technology. The proposed solution enables to record and verify each process that occurs while generating a customized product using Ethereum-based smart contracts. Node-Red software agents are developed with the help of semantic web technologies, and these software agents interact with IEC 61499 function blocks to execute the processes. The agent associated with each mechatronic component and its controller can communicate with the blockchain to record various events that occur during each process, and the latter smart contract helps to verify these process orders of the customized product.

Keywords: blockchain, Ethereum, node-red, IEC 61499, multi-agent system, MQTT

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1090 Using Hidden Markov Chain for Improving the Dependability of Safety-Critical Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Issam Alnader, Aboubaker Lasebae, Rand Raheem


Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are distributed network systems used in a wide range of applications, including safety-critical systems. The latter provide critical services, often concerned with human life or assets. Therefore, ensuring the dependability requirements of Safety critical systems is of paramount importance. The purpose of this paper is to utilize the Hidden Markov Model (HMM) to elongate the service availability of WSNs by increasing the time it takes a node to become obsolete via optimal load balancing. We propose an HMM algorithm that, given a WSN, analyses and predicts undesirable situations, notably, nodes dying unexpectedly or prematurely. We apply this technique to improve on C. Lius’ algorithm, a scheduling-based algorithm which has served to improve the lifetime of WSNs. Our experiments show that our HMM technique improves the lifetime of the network, achieved by detecting nodes that die early and rebalancing their load. Our technique can also be used for diagnosis and provide maintenance warnings to WSN system administrators. Finally, our technique can be used to improve algorithms other than C. Liu’s.

Keywords: wireless sensor networks, IoT, dependability of safety WSNs, energy conservation, sleep awake schedule

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1089 Improving Coverage in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

Authors: Ehsan Abdolzadeh, Sanaz Nouri, Siamak Khalaj


Today WSNs have many applications in different fields like the environment, military operations, discoveries, monitoring operations, and so on. Coverage size and energy consumption are the important challenges that these networks need to face. This paper tries to solve the problem of coverage with a requirement of k-coverage and minimum energy consumption. In order to minimize energy consumption, visual sensor networks have been used that observe and process just those targets that are located in their view direction. As a result, sensor rotations have decreased, and subsequently, energy consumption has been minimized. To solve the problem of coverage particle swarm optimization, coverage optimization has been able to ensure coverage requirement together with minimizing sensor rotations while meeting the problem requirement of k≤14. So energy consumption has decreased, and this could extend the sensors’ lifetime subsequently.

Keywords: K coverage, particle union optimization algorithm, wireless sensor networks, visual sensor networks

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1088 Field-Programmable Gate Arrays Based High-Efficiency Oriented Fast and Rotated Binary Robust Independent Elementary Feature Extraction Method Using Feature Zone Strategy

Authors: Huang Bai-Cheng


When deploying the Oriented Fast and Rotated Binary Robust Independent Elementary Feature (BRIEF) (ORB) extraction algorithm on field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA), the access of global storage for 31×31 pixel patches of the features has become the bottleneck of the system efficiency. Therefore, a feature zone strategy has been proposed. Zones are searched as features are detected. Pixels around the feature zones are extracted from global memory and distributed into patches corresponding to feature coordinates. The proposed FPGA structure is targeted on a Xilinx FPGA development board of Zynq UltraScale+ series, and multiple datasets are tested. Compared with the streaming pixel patch extraction method, the proposed architecture obtains at least two times acceleration consuming extra 3.82% Flip-Flops (FFs) and 7.78% Look-Up Tables (LUTs). Compared with the non-streaming one, the proposed architecture saves 22.3% LUT and 1.82% FF, causing a latency of only 0.2ms and a drop in frame rate for 1. Compared with the related works, the proposed strategy and hardware architecture have the superiority of keeping a balance between FPGA resources and performance.

Keywords: feature extraction, real-time, ORB, FPGA implementation

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1087 Monolithic Integrated GaN Resonant Tunneling Diode Pair with Picosecond Switching Time for High-speed Multiple-valued Logic System

Authors: Fang Liu, JiaJia Yao, GuanLin Wu, ZuMaoLi, XueYan Yang, HePeng Zhang, ZhiPeng Sun, JunShuai Xue


The explosive increasing needs of data processing and information storage strongly drive the advancement of the binary logic system to multiple-valued logic system. Inherent negative differential resistance characteristic, ultra-high-speed switching time, and robust anti-irradiation capability make III-nitride resonant tunneling diode one of the most promising candidates for multi-valued logic devices. Here we report the monolithic integration of GaN resonant tunneling diodes in series to realize multiple negative differential resistance regions, obtaining at least three stable operating states. A multiply-by-three circuit is achieved by this combination, increasing the frequency of the input triangular wave from f0 to 3f0. The resonant tunneling diodes are grown by plasma-assistedmolecular beam epitaxy on free-standing c-plane GaN substrates, comprising double barriers and a single quantum well both at the atomic level. Device with a peak current density of 183kA/cm² in conjunction with a peak-to-valley current ratio (PVCR) of 2.07 is observed, which is the best result reported in nitride-based resonant tunneling diodes. Microwave oscillation event at room temperature was discovered with a fundamental frequency of 0.31GHz and an output power of 5.37μW, verifying the high repeatability and robustness of our device. The switching behavior measurement was successfully carried out, featuring rise and fall times in the order of picoseconds, which can be used in high-speed digital circuits. Limited by the measuring equipment and the layer structure, the switching time can be further improved. In general, this article presents a novel nitride device with multiple negative differential regions driven by the resonant tunneling mechanism, which can be used in high-speed multiple value logic field with reduced circuit complexity, demonstrating a new solution of nitride devices to break through the limitations of binary logic.

Keywords: GaN resonant tunneling diode, negative differential resistance, multiple-valued logic system, switching time, peak-to-valley current ratio

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1086 The Social Aspects of Code-Switching in Online Interaction: The Case of Saudi Bilinguals

Authors: Shirin Alabdulqader


This research aims to investigate the concept of code-switching (CS) between English, Arabic, and the CS practices of Saudi online users via a Translanguaging (TL) lens for more inclusive view towards the nature of the data from the study. It employs Digitally Mediated Communication (DMC), specifically the WhatsApp and Twitter platforms, in order to understand how the users employ online resources to communicate with others on a daily basis. This project looks beyond language and considers the multimodal affordances (visual and audio means) that interlocutors utilise in their online communicative practices to shape their online social existence. This exploratory study is based on a data-driven interpretivist epistemology as it aims to understand how meaning (reality) is created by individuals within different contexts. This project used a mixed-method approach, combining a qualitative and a quantitative approach. In the former, data were collected from online chats and interview responses, while in the latter a questionnaire was employed to understand the frequency and relations between the participants’ linguistic and non-linguistic practices and their social behaviours. The participants were eight bilingual Saudi nationals (both men and women, aged between 20 and 50 years old) who interacted with others online. These participants provided their online interactions, participated in an interview and responded to a questionnaire. The study data were gathered from 194 WhatsApp chats and 122 Tweets. These data were analysed and interpreted according to three levels: conversational turn taking and CS; the linguistic description of the data; and CS and persona. This project contributes to the emerging field of analysing online Arabic data systematically, and the field of multimodality and bilingual sociolinguistics. The findings are reported for each of the three levels. For conversational turn taking, the CS analysis revealed that it was used to accomplish negotiation and develop meaning in the conversation. With regard to the linguistic practices of the CS data, the majority of the code-switched words were content morphemes. The third level of data interpretation is CS and its relationship with identity; two types of identity were indexed; absolute identity and contextual identity. This study contributes to the DMC literature and bridges some of the existing gaps. The findings of this study are that CS by its nature, and most of the findings, if not all, support the notion of TL that multiliteracy is one’s ability to decode multimodal communication, and that this multimodality contributes to the meaning. Either this is applicable to the online affordances used by monolinguals or multilinguals and perceived not only by specific generations but also by any online multiliterates, the study provides the linguistic features of CS utilised by Saudi bilinguals and it determines the relationship between these features and the contexts in which they appear.

Keywords: social media, code-switching, translanguaging, online interaction, saudi bilinguals

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1085 Strained Channel Aluminum Nitride/Gallium Nitride Heterostructures Homoepitaxially Grown on Aluminum Nitride-On-Sapphire Template by Plasma-Assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy

Authors: Jiajia Yao, GuanLin Wu, Fang liu, JunShuai Xue, JinCheng Zhang, Yue Hao


Due to its outstanding material properties like high thermal conductivity and ultra-wide bandgap, Aluminum nitride (AlN) has the promising potential to provide high breakdown voltage and high output power among III-nitrides for various applications in electronics and optoelectronics. This work presents material growth and characterization of strained channel Aluminum nitride/Gallium nitride (AlN/GaN) heterostructures grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PA-MBE) on AlN-on-sapphire templates. To improve the crystal quality and manifest the ability of the PA-MBE approach, a thick AlN buffer with a thickness of 180 nm is first grown on AlN template, which acts as a back-barrier to enhance the breakdown characteristic and isolates the leakage path existing in the interface between AlN epilayer and AlN template, as well as improve the heat dissipation. The grown AlN buffer features a root-mean-square roughness of 0.2 nm over a scanned area of 2×2 µm2 measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM), and exhibits full-width at half-maximum of 95 and 407 arcsec for the (002) and (102) plane the X-ray rocking curve, respectively, tested by high resolution x-ray diffraction (HR-XRD). With a thin and strained GaN channel, the electron mobility of 294 cm2 /Vs. with a carrier concentration of 2.82×1013 cm-2 at room temperature is achieved in AlN/GaN double-channel heterostructures, and the depletion capacitance is as low as 14 pF resolved by the capacitance-voltage, which indicates the promising opportunities for future applications in next-generation high temperature, high-frequency and high-power electronics with a further increased electron mobility by optimization of heterointerface quality.

Keywords: AlN/GaN, HEMT, MBE, homoepitaxy

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1084 Multimodal Data Fusion Techniques in Audiovisual Speech Recognition

Authors: Hadeer M. Sayed, Hesham E. El Deeb, Shereen A. Taie


In the big data era, we are facing a diversity of datasets from different sources in different domains that describe a single life event. These datasets consist of multiple modalities, each of which has a different representation, distribution, scale, and density. Multimodal fusion is the concept of integrating information from multiple modalities in a joint representation with the goal of predicting an outcome through a classification task or regression task. In this paper, multimodal fusion techniques are classified into two main classes: model-agnostic techniques and model-based approaches. It provides a comprehensive study of recent research in each class and outlines the benefits and limitations of each of them. Furthermore, the audiovisual speech recognition task is expressed as a case study of multimodal data fusion approaches, and the open issues through the limitations of the current studies are presented. This paper can be considered a powerful guide for interested researchers in the field of multimodal data fusion and audiovisual speech recognition particularly.

Keywords: multimodal data, data fusion, audio-visual speech recognition, neural networks

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1083 Breakdown Voltage Measurement of High Voltage Transformers Oils Using an Active Microwave Resonator Sensor

Authors: Ahmed A. Al-Mudhafar, Ali A. Abduljabar, Hayder Jawad Albattat


This work suggests a new microwave resonator sensor (MRS) device for measuring the oil’s breakdown voltage of high voltage transformers. A precise high-sensitivity sensor is designed and manufactured based on a microstrip split ring resonator (SRR). To improve the sensor sensitivity, a RF amplifier of 30 dB gain is linked through a transmission line of 50Ω.The sensor operates at a microwave band (L) with a quality factor of 1.35x105 when it is loaded with an empty tube. In this work, the sensor has been tested with three samples of high voltage transformer oil of different ages (new, middle, and damaged) where the quality factor differs with each sample. A mathematical model was built to calculate the breakdown voltage of the transformer oils and the accuracy of the results was higher than 90%.

Keywords: active resonator sensor, oil breakdown voltage, transformers oils, quality factor

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1082 A Customize Battery Management Approach for Satellite

Authors: Muhammad Affan, Muhammad Ilyas Raza, Muhammad Harris Hashmi


This work is attributed to the battery management unit design of student Satellites under Pakistan National Student Satellite Program (PNSSP). The aim has been to design a customized, low-cost, efficient, reliable and less-complex battery management scheme for the Satellite. Nowadays, Lithium Ion (Li-ion) batteries have become the de-facto standard for remote applications, especially for satellites. Li-ion cells are selected for secondary storage. The design also addresses Li-ion safety requirements by monitoring, balancing and protecting cells for safe and prolonged operation. Accurate voltage measurement of individual cells was the main challenge because all the actions triggered were based on the digital voltage measurement. For this purpose, a resistive-divider network is used to maintain simplicity and cost-effectiveness. To cater the problem of insufficient i/o pins on microcontroller, fast multiplexers and de-multiplexers were used. The discrepancy inherited in the given design is the dissipation of heat due to the dissipative resistors. However, it is still considered to be the optimum adoption, considering the simple and cost-effective nature of the passive balancing technique. Furthermore, it is a completely unique solution, customized to meet specific requirements. However, there is still an option for a more advanced and expensive design.

Keywords: satellite, battery module, passive balancing, dissipative

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1081 Bluetooth Communication Protocol Study for Multi-Sensor Applications

Authors: Joao Garretto, R. J. Yarwood, Vamsi Borra, Frank Li


Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) has emerged as one of the main wireless communication technologies used in low-power electronics, such as wearables, beacons, and Internet of Things (IoT) devices. BLE’s energy efficiency characteristic, smart mobiles interoperability, and Over the Air (OTA) capabilities are essential features for ultralow-power devices, which are usually designed with size and cost constraints. Most current research regarding the power analysis of BLE devices focuses on the theoretical aspects of the advertising and scanning cycles, with most results being presented in the form of mathematical models and computer software simulations. Such computer modeling and simulations are important for the comprehension of the technology, but hardware measurement is essential for the understanding of how BLE devices behave in real operation. In addition, recent literature focuses mostly on the BLE technology, leaving possible applications and its analysis out of scope. In this paper, a coin cell battery-powered BLE Data Acquisition Device, with a 4-in-1 sensor and one accelerometer, is proposed and evaluated with respect to its Power Consumption. First, evaluations of the device in advertising mode with the sensors turned off completely, followed by the power analysis when each of the sensors is individually turned on and data is being transmitted, and concluding with the power consumption evaluation when both sensors are on and respectively broadcasting the data to a mobile phone. The results presented in this paper are real-time measurements of the electrical current consumption of the BLE device, where the energy levels that are demonstrated are matched to the BLE behavior and sensor activity.

Keywords: bluetooth low energy, power analysis, BLE advertising cycle, wireless sensor node

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1080 An Investigation into the Isolation and Bandwidth Characteristics of X-Band Chireix Power Amplifier Combiners

Authors: Daniel P. Clayton, Edward A. Ball


This paper describes an investigation into the isolation characteristics and bandwidth performance of RF combiners that are used as part of Chireix PA architectures, designed for use in the X-Band range of frequencies. Combiner designs investigated are the typical Chireix and Wilkinson configurations which also include simulation of the Wilkinson using manufacturer’s data for the isolation resistor. Another simulation was the less common approach of using a Branchline coupler to form the combiner, as well as simulation results from adding an additional stage. This paper presents the findings of this investigation and compares the bandwidth performance and isolation characteristics to determine suitability.

Keywords: bandwidth, Chireix, couplers, outphasing, power amplifiers, Wilkinson, X-Band

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1079 Compact LWIR Borescope Sensor for Thermal Imaging of 2D Surface Temperature in Gas-Turbine Engines

Authors: Andy Zhang, Awnik Roy, Trevor B. Chen, Bibik Oleksandar, Subodh Adhikari, Paul S. Hsu


The durability of a combustor in gas-turbine engines is a strong function of its component temperatures and requires good control of these temperatures. Since the temperature of combustion gases frequently exceeds the melting point of the combustion liner walls, an efficient air-cooling system with optimized flow rates of cooling air is significantly important to elongate the lifetime of liner walls. To determine the effectiveness of the air-cooling system, accurate two-dimensional (2D) surface temperature measurement of combustor liner walls is crucial for advanced engine development. Traditional diagnostic techniques for temperature measurement in this application include the rmocouples, thermal wall paints, pyrometry, and phosphors. They have shown some disadvantages, including being intrusive and affecting local flame/flow dynamics, potential flame quenching, and physical damages to instrumentation due to harsh environments inside the combustor and strong optical interference from strong combustion emission in UV-Mid IR wavelength. To overcome these drawbacks, a compact and small borescope long-wave-infrared (LWIR) sensor is developed to achieve 2D high-spatial resolution, high-fidelity thermal imaging of 2D surface temperature in gas-turbine engines, providing the desired engine component temperature distribution. The compactLWIRborescope sensor makes it feasible to promote the durability of a combustor in gas-turbine engines and, furthermore, to develop more advanced gas-turbine engines.

Keywords: borescope, engine, low-wave-infrared, sensor

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1078 Evaluation of a Method for the Virtual Design of a Software-based Approach for Electronic Fuse Protection in Automotive Applications

Authors: Dominic Huschke, Rudolf Keil


New driving functionalities like highly automated driving have a major impact on the electrics/electronics architecture of future vehicles and inevitably lead to higher safety requirements. Partly due to these increased requirements, the vehicle industry is increasingly looking at semiconductor switches as an alternative to conventional melting fuses. The protective functionality of semiconductor switches can be implemented in hardware as well as in software. A current approach discussed in science and industry is the implementation of a model of the protected low voltage power cable on a microcontroller to calculate its temperature. Here, the information regarding the current is provided by the continuous current measurement of the semiconductor switch. The signal to open the semiconductor switch is provided by the microcontroller when a previously defined limit for the temperature of the low voltage power cable is exceeded. A setup for the testing of the described principle for electronic fuse protection of a low voltage power cable is built and successfullyvalidated with experiments afterwards. Here, the evaluation criterion is the deviation of the measured temperature of the low voltage power cable from the specified limit temperature when the semiconductor switch is opened. The analysis is carried out with an assumed ambient temperature as well as with a measured ambient temperature. Subsequently, the experimentally performed investigations are simulated in a virtual environment. The explicit focus is on the simulation of the behavior of the microcontroller with an implemented model of a low voltage power cable in a real-time environment. Subsequently, the generated results are compared with those of the experiments. Based on this, the completely virtual design of the described approach is assumed to be valid.

Keywords: automotive wire harness, electronic fuse protection, low voltage power cable, semiconductor-based fuses, software-based validation

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1077 Comparative Study of Al₂O₃ and HfO₂ as Gate Dielectric on AlGaN/GaN Metal Oxide Semiconductor High-Electron Mobility Transistors

Authors: Kaivan Karami, Sahalu Hassan, Sanna Taking, Afesome Ofiare, Aniket Dhongde, Abdullah Al-Khalidi, Edward Wasige


We have made a comparative study on the influence of Al₂O₃ and HfO₂ grown using atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique as dielectric in the AlGaN/GaN metal oxide semiconductor high electron mobility transistor (MOS-HEMT) structure. Five samples consisting of 20 nm and 10 nm each of Al₂O₃ and HfO₂ respectively and a Schottky gate HEMT, were fabricated and measured. The threshold voltage shifts towards negative by 0.1 V and 1.8 V for 10 nm thick HfO2 and 10 nm thick Al₂O₃ gate dielectric layers respectively. The negative shift for the 20 nm HfO2 and 20 nm Al₂O₃ were 1.2 V and 4.9 V respectively. Higher gm/IDS (transconductance to drain current) ratio was also obtained in HfO₂ than Al₂O₃. With both materials as dielectric, a significant reduction in the gate leakage current in the order of 10^4 was obtained compared to the sample without the dielectric material.

Keywords: AlGaN/GaN HEMTs, Al2O3, HfO2, MOSHEMTs.

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1076 Compact LWIR Borescope Sensor for Surface Temperature of Engine Components

Authors: Andy Zhang, Awnik Roy, Trevor B. Chen, Bibik Oleksandr, Subodh Adhikari, Paul S. Hsu


The durability of a combustor in gas-turbine enginesrequiresa good control of its component temperatures. Since the temperature of combustion gases frequently exceeds the melting point of the combustion liner walls, an efficient air-cooling system is significantly important to elongatethe lifetime of liner walls. To determine the effectiveness of the air-cooling system, accurate 2D surface temperature measurement of combustor liner walls is crucial for advanced engine development. Traditional diagnostic techniques for temperature measurement, such as thermocouples, thermal wall paints, pyrometry, and phosphors, have shown disadvantages, including being intrusive and affecting local flame/flow dynamics, potential flame quenching, and physical damages to instrumentation due to harsh environments inside the combustor and strong optical interference from strong combustion emission in UV-Mid IR wavelength. To overcome these drawbacks, a compact and small borescope long-wave-infrared (LWIR) sensor is developed to achieve two-dimensional high-spatial resolution, high-fidelity thermal imaging of 2D surface temperature in gas-turbine engines, providing the desired engine component temperature distribution. The compactLWIRborescope sensor makes it feasible to promote the durability of combustor in gas-turbine engines.

Keywords: borescope, engine, long-wave-infrared, sensor

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1075 Overview of Multi-Chip Alternatives for 2.5 and 3D Integrated Circuit Packagings

Authors: Ching-Feng Chen


With the size of the transistor gradually approaching the physical limit, it challenges the persistence of Moore’s Law due to the development of the high numerical aperture (high-NA) lithography equipment and other issues such as short channel effects. In the context of the ever-increasing technical requirements of portable devices and high-performance computing, relying on the law continuation to enhance the chip density will no longer support the prospects of the electronics industry. Weighing the chip’s power consumption-performance-area-cost-cycle time to market (PPACC) is an updated benchmark to drive the evolution of the advanced wafer nanometer (nm). The advent of two and half- and three-dimensional (2.5 and 3D)- Very-Large-Scale Integration (VLSI) packaging based on Through Silicon Via (TSV) technology has updated the traditional die assembly methods and provided the solution. This overview investigates the up-to-date and cutting-edge packaging technologies for 2.5D and 3D integrated circuits (ICs) based on the updated transistor structure and technology nodes. The author concludes that multi-chip solutions for 2.5D and 3D IC packagings are feasible to prolong Moore’s Law.

Keywords: moore’s law, high numerical aperture, power consumption-performance-area-cost-cycle time to market, 2.5 and 3D- very-large-scale integration, packaging, through silicon via

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1074 A Wideband Low-Profile Circularly-Polarized Slotted Patch Antenna

Authors: Sai Radavaram


A wideband low-profile circularly-polarized antenna, consisting of 2×2 sequentially-rotated, differentially-fed, slotted rectangular patch elements, is proposed. To realize the right-hand circular polarization, an anti-clockwise phase rotation of 0o, -90o, -180o and -270o is applied between the antenna elements. The proposed antenna, with a height of only 0.02lambda (where lambda is the wavelength of the antenna at the center frequency of the antenna), exhibits a 68% impedance bandwidth from 2 to 4.05 GHz with a 3dB axial ratio bandwidth in the order of 56% from 2.25 to 4.05 GHz. Moreover, a wide 3dB axial ratio beamwidth of 140o is obtained at the center frequency of 3 GHz, along with symmetrical radiation patterns over the operating frequency band.

Keywords: circular polarization, sequentially rotated, slotted patch antennas, wideband

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1073 Genetic Algorithm and Multi Criteria Decision Making Approach for Compressive Sensing Based Direction of Arrival Estimation

Authors: Ekin Nurbaş


One of the essential challenges in array signal processing, which has drawn enormous research interest over the past several decades, is estimating the direction of arrival (DOA) of plane waves impinging on an array of sensors. In recent years, the Compressive Sensing based DoA estimation methods have been proposed by researchers, and it has been discovered that the Compressive Sensing (CS)-based algorithms achieved significant performances for DoA estimation even in scenarios where there are multiple coherent sources. On the other hand, the Genetic Algorithm, which is a method that provides a solution strategy inspired by natural selection, has been used in sparse representation problems in recent years and provides significant improvements in performance. With all of those in consideration, in this paper, a method that combines the Genetic Algorithm (GA) and the Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) approaches for Direction of Arrival (DoA) estimation in the Compressive Sensing (CS) framework is proposed. In this method, we generate a multi-objective optimization problem by splitting the norm minimization and reconstruction loss minimization parts of the Compressive Sensing algorithm. With the help of the Genetic Algorithm, multiple non-dominated solutions are achieved for the defined multi-objective optimization problem. Among the pareto-frontier solutions, the final solution is obtained with the multiple MCDM methods. Moreover, the performance of the proposed method is compared with the CS-based methods in the literature.

Keywords: genetic algorithm, direction of arrival esitmation, multi criteria decision making, compressive sensing

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1072 Cellular Traffic Prediction through Multi-Layer Hybrid Network

Authors: Supriya H. S., Chandrakala B. M.


Deep learning based models have been recently successful adoption for network traffic prediction. However, training a deep learning model for various prediction tasks is considered one of the critical tasks due to various reasons. This research work develops Multi-Layer Hybrid Network (MLHN) for network traffic prediction and analysis; MLHN comprises the three distinctive networks for handling the different inputs for custom feature extraction. Furthermore, an optimized and efficient parameter-tuning algorithm is introduced to enhance parameter learning. MLHN is evaluated considering the “Big Data Challenge” dataset considering the Mean Absolute Error, Root Mean Square Error and R^2as metrics; furthermore, MLHN efficiency is proved through comparison with a state-of-art approach.

Keywords: MLHN, network traffic prediction

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1071 Elastodynamic Response of Shear Wave Dispersion in a Multi-Layered Concentric Cylinders Composed of Reinforced and Piezo-Materials

Authors: Sunita Kumawat, Sumit Kumar Vishwakarma


The present study fundamentally focuses on analyzing the limitations and transference of horizontally polarized Shear waves(SH waves) in a four-layered compounded cylinder. The geometrical structure comprises of concentric cylinders of infinite length composed of self-reinforced (SR), fibre-reinforced (FR), piezo-magnetic (PM), and piezo-electric(PE) materials. The entire structure is assumed to be pre stressed along the azimuthal direction. In order to make the structure sensitive to the application pertaining to sensors and actuators, the PM and PE cylinders have been categorically placed in the outer part of the geometry. Whereas in order to provide stiffness and stability to the structure, the inner part consists of self-reinforced and fibre-reinforced media. The common boundary between each of the cylinders has been essentially considered as imperfectly bounded. At the interface of PE and PM media, mechanical, electrical, magnetic, and inter-coupled types of imperfections have been exhibited. The closed-form of dispersion relation has been deduced for two contrast cases i.e. electrically open magnetically short(EOMS) and electrically short and magnetically open ESMO circuit conditions. Dispersion curves have been plotted to illustrate the salient features of parameters like normalized imperfect interface parameters, initial stresses, and radii of the concentric cylinders. The comparative effect of each one of these parameters on the phase velocity of the wave has been enlisted and marked individually. Every graph has been presented with two consecutive modes in succession for a comprehensive understanding. This theoretical study may be implemented to improvise the performance of surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors and actuators consisting of piezo-electric quartz and piezo-composite concentric cylinders.

Keywords: self-reinforced, fibre-reinforced, piezo-electric, piezo-magnetic, interfacial imperfection

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1070 An Autopilot System for Static Zone Detection

Authors: Yanchun Zuo, Yingao Liu, Wei Liu, Le Yu, Run Huang, Lixin Guo


Electric field detection is important in many application scenarios. The traditional strategy is measuring the electric field with a man walking around in the area under test. This strategy cannot provide a satisfactory measurement accuracy. To solve the mentioned problem, an autopilot measurement system is divided. A mini-car is produced, which can travel in the area under test according to respect to the program within the CPU. The electric field measurement platform (EFMP) carries a central computer, two horn antennas, and a vector network analyzer. The mini-car stop at the sampling points according to the preset. When the car stops, the EFMP probes the electric field and stores data on the hard disk. After all the sampling points are traversed, an electric field map can be plotted. The proposed system can give an accurate field distribution description of the chamber.

Keywords: autopilot mini-car measurement system, electric field detection, field map, static zone measurement

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