Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2515

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Computer and Information Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

2515 Controlling Drone Flight Missions through Natural Language Processors Using Artificial Intelligence

Authors: Sylvester Akpah, Selasi Vondee

Abstract:

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) as they are also known, drones have attracted increasing attention in recent years due to their ubiquitous nature and boundless applications in the areas of communication, surveying, aerial photography, weather forecasting, medical delivery, surveillance amongst others. Operated remotely in real-time or pre-programmed, drones can fly autonomously or on pre-defined routes. The application of these aerial vehicles has successfully penetrated the world due to technological evolution, thus a lot more businesses are utilizing their capabilities. Unfortunately, while drones are replete with the benefits stated supra, they are riddled with some problems, mainly attributed to the complexities in learning how to master drone flights, collision avoidance and enterprise security. Additional challenges, such as the analysis of flight data recorded by sensors attached to the drone may take time and require expert help to analyse and understand. This paper presents an autonomous drone control system using a chatbot. The system allows for easy control of drones using conversations with the aid of Natural Language Processing, thus to reduce the workload needed to set up, deploy, control, and monitor drone flight missions. The results obtained at the end of the study revealed that the drone connected to the chatbot was able to initiate flight missions with just text and voice commands, enable conversation and give real-time feedback from data and requests made to the chatbot. The results further revealed that the system was able to process natural language and produced human-like conversational abilities using Artificial Intelligence (Natural Language Understanding). It is recommended that radio signal adapters be used instead of wireless connections thus to increase the range of communication with the aerial vehicle.

Keywords: artificial ntelligence, chatbot, natural language processing, unmanned aerial vehicle

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2514 Government Big Data Ecosystem: A Systematic Literature Review

Authors: Syed Iftikhar Hussain Shah, Vasilis Peristeras, Ioannis Magnisalis

Abstract:

Data that is high in volume, velocity, veracity and comes from a variety of sources is usually generated in all sectors including the government sector. Globally public administrations are pursuing (big) data as new technology and trying to adopt a data-centric architecture for hosting and sharing data. Properly executed, big data and data analytics in the government (big) data ecosystem can be led to data-driven government and have a direct impact on the way policymakers work and citizens interact with governments. In this research paper, we conduct a systematic literature review. The main aims of this paper are to highlight essential aspects of the government (big) data ecosystem and to explore the most critical socio-technical factors that contribute to the successful implementation of government (big) data ecosystem. The essential aspects of government (big) data ecosystem include definition, data types, data lifecycle models, and actors and their roles. We also discuss the potential impact of (big) data in public administration and gaps in the government data ecosystems literature. As this is a new topic, we did not find specific articles on government (big) data ecosystem and therefore focused our research on various relevant areas like humanitarian data, open government data, scientific research data, industry data, etc.

Keywords: applications of big data, big data, big data types. big data ecosystem, critical success factors, data-driven government, egovernment, gaps in data ecosystems, government (big) data, literature review, public administration, systematic review

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2513 Exploring Factors Affecting User’s Cybersecurity Behaviour by Using Mobile Augmented Reality App (CybAR)

Authors: Hamed Alqahtani, Manolya Kavakli-Thorne

Abstract:

In the field of cybersecurity, human behaviour is considered as the weakest link. Augmented reality (AR) is one of the top technologies that enhances users’ experience by overlaying computational information into their reality. In spite of the wide range of AR applications in different fields, there exists no AR application that helps to educate users and raise their awareness in cybersecurity aspects. In this work, the authors explore and apply gamification techniques to educate the users with the aim of raising overall cybersecurity awareness by developing a game based on AR techniques as an Android app called CybAR. This work contributes to the identification of the key elements that must be addressed in the AR game for helping the users to prevent cybersecurity attacks using the Technology Threat Avoidance Theory (TTAT). TTAT enables the explanation of the engagement of individual users in threat avoidance behaviours and provides a framework at the user level. The paper also highlights the individual differences that affect cybersecurity avoidance motivation and avoidance behaviour.

Keywords: cybersecurity, human factors, augmented reality, technology threat avoidance theory

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2512 A Unified Deep Framework for Joint 3d Pose Estimation and Action Recognition from a Single Color Camera

Authors: Huy Hieu Pham, Houssam Salmane, Louahdi Khoudour, Alain Crouzil, Pablo Zegers, Sergio Velastin

Abstract:

We present a deep learning-based multitask framework for joint 3D human pose estimation and action recognition from color video sequences. Our approach proceeds along two stages. In the first, we run a real-time 2D pose detector to determine the precise pixel location of important key points of the body. A two-stream neural network is then designed and trained to map detected 2D keypoints into 3D poses. In the second, we deploy the Efficient Neural Architecture Search (ENAS) algorithm to find an optimal network architecture that is used for modeling the Spatio-temporal evolution of the estimated 3D poses via an image-based intermediate representation and performing action recognition. Experiments on Human3.6M, Microsoft Research Redmond (MSR) Action3D, and Stony Brook University (SBU) Kinect Interaction datasets verify the effectiveness of the proposed method on the targeted tasks. Moreover, we show that our method requires a low computational budget for training and inference.

Keywords: human action recognition, pose estimation, D-CNN, deep learning

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2511 Application of Heuristic Integration Ant Colony Optimization in Path Planning

Authors: Zeyu Zhang, Guisheng Yin, Ziying Zhang, Liguo Zhang

Abstract:

This paper mainly studies the path planning method based on ant colony optimization (ACO) and proposes heuristic integration ant colony optimization (HIACO). This paper not only analyzes and optimizes the principle but also simulates and analyzes the parameters related to the application of HIACO in path planning. Compared with the original algorithm, the improved algorithm optimizes probability formula, tabu table mechanism, and updating mechanism, and introduces more reasonable heuristic factors. The optimized HIACO not only draws on the excellent ideas of the original algorithm but also solves the problems of premature convergence, convergence to the sub-optimal solution, and improper exploration to some extent. HIACO can be used to achieve better simulation results and achieve the desired optimization. Combined with the new probability formula and update formula, several parameters of HIACO are tested. This paper proves the principle of the HIACO and gives the best parameter range in the research of path planning.

Keywords: ant colony optimization, heuristic integration, path planning, probability formula

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2510 Social Media Marketing Efforts and Hospital Brand Equity: An Empirical Investigation

Authors: Abrar R. Al-Hasan

Abstract:

Despite the widespread use of social media by consumers and marketers, empirical research investigating their economic value in the healthcare industry still lags. This study explores the impact of the use of social media marketing efforts on a hospital's brand equity and, ultimately, consumer response. Using social media data from Twitter and Facebook, along with an online and offline survey methodology, data is analyzed using logistic regression models. A random sample of (728) residents of the Kuwaiti population is used. The results of this study found that social media marketing efforts (SMME) in terms of use and validation lead to higher hospital brand equity and in turn, patient loyalty and patient visit. The study highlights the impact of SMME on hospital brand equity and patient response. Healthcare organizations should guide their marketing efforts to better manage this new way of marketing and communicating with patients to enhance their consumer loyalty and financial performance.

Keywords: brand equity, healthcare marketing, patient visit, social media, SMME

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2509 User Requirements Analysis for the Development of Assistive Navigation Mobile Apps for Blind and Visually Impaired People

Authors: Paraskevi Theodorou, Apostolos Meliones

Abstract:

In the context of the development process of two assistive navigation mobile apps for blind and visually impaired people (BVI), an extensive qualitative analysis of the requirements of potential users has been conducted. The analysis was based on interviews with BVIs and aimed to elicit not only their needs with respect to autonomous navigation but also their preferences on specific features of the apps under development. The elicited requirements were structured into six main categories, namely, requirements stemming from the particularities or special needs of a BVI, requirements concerning the capabilities, functionality, and ease of use of the apps, compatibility requirements with respect to other apps and services, and requirements concerning special preferences of the BVIs. The main categories were then further divided into fifteen sub-categories. This classification, along with its content, aims to become a useful tool for the researcher or the developer who is involved in the development of digital services for blind or visual impaired people.

Keywords: accessibility, assistive mobile apps, blind and visually impaired people, user requirements analysis

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2508 English-Urdu Speech Translation Using IBM Watson, Google Application Program Interface and Python

Authors: Ammar Nathad, Ammarah Shoaib, Hussam Aleem, Hamza Hafeez

Abstract:

Speech translation is a process which is of great importance, especially in today’s fast-moving world. It is a process through which a conversational phrase from one language is converted and then spoken loud into another language. The process involves the recording of voice speech, which is then converted into text. The text is then translated into the desired language, and from that, it is converted back into voice speech and spoken out loud through a speaker. In this period of digitization, speech to discourse interpretation is no longer of that domain, yet current systems do not procure word for word interpretation; rather, the whole content is deciphered at one single stage. Subsequently, it is very troublesome for the end-user to comprehend the correct interpretation. This paper emphasizes the translation of English dialect into Urdu dialect. This technology can be used in Speech therapy for Urdu speaking people utilizing the affective procedures and topologies.

Keywords: speech translation, IBM Watson, speech synthesis, Google API, Python

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2507 The Use of Computers in Improving the Academic Performance of Students in Mathematics

Authors: Uwaruile Austin Obuh

Abstract:

This research work focuses on the use of computers in improving the academic performance of students in mathematics in Benin City, Edo State. To guide this study, two research questions were raised, and two corresponding hypotheses were formulated. A total of one hundred and twenty (120) respondents were randomly selected from four schools in the city (60 boys and 60 girls). The instrument employed for the collation of data for the study was the multiple-choice test items on geometry (MCTIOG), drawn from past senior school certificate examinations (SSCE) questions. The instrument was validated by an expert in mathematics and measurement and evaluation. The data obtained from the pre and post-test were analysed using the mean, standard deviation, and T-test. The study revealed a non-significant difference between the experimental and control group in the pre-test, and the two groups were found to be the same before treatment began. The study also revealed that the experimental group performed better than the control group. One can, therefore, conclude that the use of computers for mathematics instruction has improved the performance of students in Geometry. Therefore, the hypothesis was rejected. The study finally revealed that there was no significant difference between the boys and girls taught mathematics using a computer. Therefore, the hypothesis which states there will be no significant difference in the performance of boys and girls taught mathematics using the computer was not rejected. Consequent upon the findings of this study, a number of recommendations were postulated that would enhance the performance of teachers in the use of computer-aided instruction.

Keywords: computer, teaching, learning, mathematics

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2506 A Hybrid Feature Selection and Deep Learning Algorithm for Cancer Disease Classification

Authors: Niousha Bagheri Khulenjani, Mohammad Saniee Abadeh

Abstract:

Learning from very big datasets is a significant problem for most present data mining and machine learning algorithms. MicroRNA (miRNA) is one of the important big genomic and non-coding datasets presenting the genome sequences. In this paper, a hybrid method for the classification of the miRNA data is proposed. Due to the variety of cancers and high number of genes, analyzing the miRNA dataset has been a challenging problem for researchers. The number of features corresponding to the number of samples is high and the data suffer from being imbalanced. The feature selection method has been used to select features having more ability to distinguish classes and eliminating obscures features. Afterward, a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) classifier for classification of cancer types is utilized, which employs a Genetic Algorithm to highlight optimized hyper-parameters of CNN. In order to make the process of classification by CNN faster, Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) is recommended for calculating the mathematic equation in a parallel way. The proposed method is tested on a real-world dataset with 8,129 patients, 29 different types of tumors, and 1,046 miRNA biomarkers, taken from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database.

Keywords: cancer classification, feature selection, deep learning, genetic algorithm

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2505 Brain Age Prediction Based on Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging by 3D Convolutional Neural Network

Authors: Leila Keshavarz Afshar, Hedieh Sajedi

Abstract:

Estimation of biological brain age from MR images is a topic that has been much addressed in recent years due to the importance it attaches to early diagnosis of diseases such as Alzheimer's. In this paper, we use a 3D Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) to provide a method for estimating the biological age of the brain. The 3D-CNN model is trained by MRI data that has been normalized. In addition, to reduce computation while saving overall performance, some effectual slices are selected for age estimation. By this method, the biological age of individuals using selected normalized data was estimated with Mean Absolute Error (MAE) of 4.82 years.

Keywords: brain age estimation, biological age, 3D-CNN, deep learning, T1-weighted image, SPM, preprocessing, MRI, canny, gray matter

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2504 Exploring Biological Markers for Identifying Trust in Human Robot Interaction

Authors: Syed Moshfeq Salaken, Houshyar Asadi, Shady Mohammed, Parham M. Kebria, Seyed Mohammad Jafar Jalali, Ahmed Abobakr, Darius Nahavandi, Mohammed Hossny, Abbas Khosravi, Julie Iskander, Saeid Nahavandi

Abstract:

The main aim of this research is to examine and analyse the relationship between trust and human physiological data in human-robot interaction. The key research question of this study is to find out how the physiological data react while interacting with a robot that is controlled by a physically present operator and also remotely controlled by the operator from outside the room. The Haptically-Enabled Robotics (HER) remote ultrasound system, which is known as Hapti-Scan, is used for this study. The physiological data such as ECG, heart rate, respiratory rate, and skin temperature are recorded as well as fNIRS that uses near-infrared light to analyze the function of the living brain for different situations. The recorded physiological data and brain activities can show the level of discomfort, stress, and fear, which are usually affected by the level of trust. The result of this study shows that brain activations, heart rate, and breathing rate are good indicators to identify trust.

Keywords: trust, bio-markers, robot, physiological data

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2503 Internet of Health Things as a Win-Win Solution for Mitigating the Paradigm Shift inside Senior Patient-Physician Shared Health Management

Authors: Marilena Ianculescu, Adriana Alexandru

Abstract:

Internet of Health Things (IoHT) has already proved to be a persuasive means to support a proper assessment of the living conditions by collecting a huge variety of data. For a customized health management of a senior patient, IoHT provides the capacity to build a dynamic solution for sustaining the shift inside the patient-physician relationship by allowing a real-time and continuous remote monitoring of the health status, well-being, safety and activities of the senior, especially in a non-clinical environment. Thus, is created a win-win solution in which both the patient and the physician enhance their involvement and shared decision-making, with significant outcomes. Health monitoring systems in smart environments are becoming a viable alternative to traditional healthcare solutions. The ongoing “Non-invasive monitoring and health assessment of the elderly in a smart environment (RO-SmartAgeing)” project aims to demonstrate that the existence of complete and accurate information is critical for assessing the health condition of the seniors, improving wellbeing and quality of life in relation to health. The researches performed inside the project aim to highlight how the management of IoHT devices connected to the RO-SmartAgeing platform in a secure way by using a role-based access control system, can allow the physicians to provide health services at a high level of efficiency and accessibility, which were previously only available in hospitals. The project aims to identify deficient aspects in the provision of health services tailored to a senior patient’s specificity and to offer a more comprehensive perspective of proactive and preventive medical acts.

Keywords: health management, internet of health things, remote monitoring, senior patient

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2502 Sentiment Analysis of Ensemble-Based Classifiers for E-Mail Data

Authors: Muthukumarasamy Govindarajan

Abstract:

Detection of unwanted, unsolicited mails called spam from email is an interesting area of research. It is necessary to evaluate the performance of any new spam classifier using standard data sets. Recently, ensemble-based classifiers have gained popularity in this domain. In this research work, an efficient email filtering approach based on ensemble methods is addressed for developing an accurate and sensitive spam classifier. The proposed approach employs Naive Bayes (NB), Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Genetic Algorithm (GA) as base classifiers along with different ensemble methods. The experimental results show that the ensemble classifier was performing with accuracy greater than individual classifiers, and also hybrid model results are found to be better than the combined models for the e-mail dataset. The proposed ensemble-based classifiers turn out to be good in terms of classification accuracy, which is considered to be an important criterion for building a robust spam classifier.

Keywords: accuracy, arcing, bagging, genetic algorithm, Naive Bayes, sentiment mining, support vector machine

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2501 Ultra Reliable Communication: Availability Analysis in 5G Cellular Networks

Authors: Yosra Benchaabene, Noureddine Boujnah, Faouzi Zarai

Abstract:

To meet the growing demand of users, the fifth generation (5G) will continue to provide services to higher data rates with higher carrier frequencies and wider bandwidths. As part of the 5G communication paradigm, Ultra Reliable Communication (URC) is envisaged as an important technology pillar for providing anywhere and anytime services to end users. Ultra Reliable Communication (URC) is considered an important technology that why it has become an active research topic. In this work, we analyze the availability of a service in the space domain. We characterize spatially available areas consisting of all locations that meet a performance requirement with confidence, and we define cell availability and system availability, individual user availability, and user-oriented system availability. Poisson point process (PPP) and Voronoi tessellation are adopted to model the spatial characteristics of a cell deployment in heterogeneous networks. Numerical results are presented, also highlighting the effect of different system parameters on the achievable link availability.

Keywords: URC, dependability and availability, space domain analysis, Poisson point process, Voronoi Tessellation

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2500 Vehicle Timing Motion Detection Based on Multi-Dimensional Dynamic Detection Network

Authors: Jia Li, Xing Wei, Yuchen Hong, Yang Lu

Abstract:

Detecting vehicle behavior has always been the focus of intelligent transportation, but with the explosive growth of the number of vehicles and the complexity of the road environment, the vehicle behavior videos captured by traditional surveillance have been unable to satisfy the study of vehicle behavior. The traditional method of manually labeling vehicle behavior is too time-consuming and labor-intensive, but the existing object detection and tracking algorithms have poor practicability and low behavioral location detection rate. This paper proposes a vehicle behavior detection algorithm based on the dual-stream convolution network and the multi-dimensional video dynamic detection network. In the videos, the straight-line behavior of the vehicle will default to the background behavior. The Changing lanes, turning and turning around are set as target behaviors. The purpose of this model is to automatically mark the target behavior of the vehicle from the untrimmed videos. First, the target behavior proposals in the long video are extracted through the dual-stream convolution network. The model uses a dual-stream convolutional network to generate a one-dimensional action score waveform, and then extract segments with scores above a given threshold M into preliminary vehicle behavior proposals. Second, the preliminary proposals are pruned and identified using the multi-dimensional video dynamic detection network. Referring to the hierarchical reinforcement learning, the multi-dimensional network includes a Timer module and a Spacer module, where the Timer module mines time information in the video stream and the Spacer module extracts spatial information in the video frame. The Timer and Spacer module are implemented by Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) and start from an all-zero hidden state. The Timer module uses the Transformer mechanism to extract timing information from the video stream and extract features by linear mapping and other methods. Finally, the model fuses time information and spatial information and obtains the location and category of the behavior through the softmax layer. This paper uses recall and precision to measure the performance of the model. Extensive experiments show that based on the dataset of this paper, the proposed model has obvious advantages compared with the existing state-of-the-art behavior detection algorithms. When the Time Intersection over Union (TIoU) threshold is 0.5, the Average-Precision (MP) reaches 36.3% (the MP of baselines is 21.5%). In summary, this paper proposes a vehicle behavior detection model based on multi-dimensional dynamic detection network. This paper introduces spatial information and temporal information to extract vehicle behaviors in long videos. Experiments show that the proposed algorithm is advanced and accurate in-vehicle timing behavior detection. In the future, the focus will be on simultaneously detecting the timing behavior of multiple vehicles in complex traffic scenes (such as a busy street) while ensuring accuracy.

Keywords: vehicle behavior detection, convolutional neural network, long short-term memory, deep learning

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2499 Problems of Boolean Reasoning Based Biclustering Parallelization

Authors: Marcin Michalak

Abstract:

Biclustering is the way of two-dimensional data analysis. For several years, it became possible to express such issue in terms of Boolean reasoning, for processing continuous, discrete, and binary data. The mathematical backgrounds of such approach -proved ability of induction of exact and inclusion-maximal biclusters fulfilling assumed criteria- are strong advantages of the method. Unfortunately, the core of the method has quite high computational complexity. In the paper, the basics of Boolean reasoning approach for biclustering are presented. In such context, the problems of computation parallelization risen.

Keywords: Boolean reasoning, biclustering, parallelization, prime implicant

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2498 Logistic Model Tree and Expectation-Maximization for Pollen Recognition and Grouping

Authors: Endrick Barnacin, Jean-Luc Henry, Jack Molinie, Jimmy Nagau, Helene Delatte, , Gerard Lebreton

Abstract:

Palynology is a field of interest for many disciplines. It has multiple applications such as chronological dating, climatology, allergy treatment, and even honey characterization. Unfortunately, the analysis of a pollen slide is a complicated and time-consuming task that requires the intervention of experts in the field, which is becoming increasingly rare due to economic and social conditions. So, the automation of this task is a necessity. Pollen slides analysis is mainly a visual process as it is carried out with the naked eye. That is the reason why a primary method to automate palynology is the use of digital image processing. This method presents the lowest cost and has relatively good accuracy in pollen retrieval. In this work, we propose a system combining recognition and grouping of pollen. It consists of using a Logistic Model Tree to classify pollen already known by the proposed system while detecting any unknown species. Then, the unknown pollen species are divided using a cluster-based approach. Success rates for the recognition of known species have been achieved, and automated clustering seems to be a promising approach.

Keywords: pollen recognition, logistic model tree, expectation-maximization, local binary pattern

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2497 Coordinated Interference Canceling Algorithm for Uplink Massive Multiple Input Multiple Output Systems

Authors: Messaoud Eljamai, Sami Hidouri

Abstract:

Massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) is an emerging technology for new cellular networks such as 5G systems. Its principle is to use many antennas per cell in order to maximize the network's spectral efficiency. Inter-cellular interference remains a fundamental problem. The use of massive MIMO will not derogate from the rule. It improves performances only when the number of antennas is significantly greater than the number of users. This, considerably, limits the networks spectral efficiency. In this paper, a coordinated detector for an uplink massive MIMO system is proposed in order to mitigate the inter-cellular interference. The proposed scheme combines the coordinated multipoint technique with an interference-cancelling algorithm. It requires the serving cell to send their received symbols, after processing, decision and error detection, to the interfered cells via a backhaul link. Each interfered cell is capable of eliminating intercellular interferences by generating and subtracting the user’s contribution from the received signal. The resulting signal is more reliable than the original received signal. This allows the uplink massive MIMO system to improve their performances dramatically. Simulation results show that the proposed detector improves system spectral efficiency compared to classical linear detectors.

Keywords: massive MIMO, COMP, interference canceling algorithm, spectral efficiency

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2496 Generative Adversarial Network for Bidirectional Mappings between Retinal Fundus Images and Vessel Segmented Images

Authors: Haoqi Gao, Koichi Ogawara

Abstract:

Retinal vascular segmentation of color fundus is the basis of ophthalmic computer-aided diagnosis and large-scale disease screening systems. Early screening of fundus diseases has great value for clinical medical diagnosis. The traditional methods depend on the experience of the doctor, which is time-consuming, labor-intensive, and inefficient. Furthermore, medical images are scarce and fraught with legal concerns regarding patient privacy. In this paper, we propose a new Generative Adversarial Network based on CycleGAN for retinal fundus images. This method can generate not only synthetic fundus images but also generate corresponding segmentation masks, which has certain application value and challenge in computer vision and computer graphics. In the results, we evaluate our proposed method from both quantitative and qualitative. For generated segmented images, our method achieves dice coefficient of 0.81 and PR of 0.89 on DRIVE dataset. For generated synthetic fundus images, we use ”Toy Experiment” to verify the state-of-the-art performance of our method.

Keywords: retinal vascular segmentations, generative ad-versarial network, cyclegan, fundus images

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2495 Monomial Form Approach to Rectangular Surface Modeling

Authors: Taweechai Nuntawisuttiwong, Natasha Dejdumrong

Abstract:

Geometric modeling plays an important role in the constructions and manufacturing of curve, surface and solid modeling. Their algorithms are critically important not only in the automobile, ship and aircraft manufacturing business, but are also absolutely necessary in a wide variety of modern applications, e.g., robotics, optimization, computer vision, data analytics and visualization. The calculation and display of geometric objects can be accomplished by these six techniques: Polynomial basis, Recursive, Iterative, Coefficient matrix, Polar form approach and Pyramidal algorithms. In this research, the coefficient matrix (simply called monomial form approach) will be used to model polynomial rectangular patches, i.e., Said-Ball, Wang-Ball, DP, Dejdumrong and NB1 surfaces. Some examples of the monomial forms for these surface modeling are illustrated in many aspects, e.g., construction, derivatives, model transformation, degree elevation and degress reduction.

Keywords: monomial forms, rectangular surfaces, CAGD curves, monomial matrix applications

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2494 Fast and Efficient Algorithms for Evaluating Uniform and Nonuniform Lagrange and Newton Curves

Authors: Taweechai Nuntawisuttiwong, Natasha Dejdumrong

Abstract:

Newton-Lagrange Interpolations are widely used in numerical analysis. However, it requires a quadratic computational time for their constructions. In computer aided geometric design (CAGD), there are some polynomial curves: Wang-Ball, DP and Dejdumrong curves, which have linear time complexity algorithms. Thus, the computational time for Newton-Lagrange Interpolations can be reduced by applying the algorithms of Wang-Ball, DP and Dejdumrong curves. In order to use Wang-Ball, DP and Dejdumrong algorithms, first, it is necessary to convert Newton-Lagrange polynomials into Wang-Ball, DP or Dejdumrong polynomials. In this work, the algorithms for converting from both uniform and non-uniform Newton-Lagrange polynomials into Wang-Ball, DP and Dejdumrong polynomials are investigated. Thus, the computational time for representing Newton-Lagrange polynomials can be reduced into linear complexity. In addition, the other utilizations of using CAGD curves to modify the Newton-Lagrange curves can be taken.

Keywords: Lagrange interpolation, linear complexity, monomial matrix, Newton interpolation

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2493 Applications of Internet of Things (IoTs) for Information Resources and Services: Survey of Academic Librarians

Authors: Sultan Aldaihani, Eiman Al-Fadhli

Abstract:

Internet of Things (IoTs) expected to change the future of academic libraries operations. It enables academic libraries to be smart libraries through, for example, the connection of the physical objects with the Internet. The implementation of IoTs will improve library resources and services. Therefore, this research aims to investigate the applications of Internet of Things (IoTs) for information resources and services. Understanding perceptions of academic librarians toward IoTs before adopting of such applications will assist decision-makers in academic libraries in their strategic planning. An online questionnaire was administered to academic librarians at Kuwait University. The findings of this study showed that academic librarians have awareness for the IoTs. They have strongly believed that the IoTs contributes to the development of information resources, services, and understanding of the user's information behavior. Identifying new applications of the IoTs in libraries was the highest possible reason for future adoption. Academic librarians indicated that lack of privacy and data penetration were the greatest problem in their future adoption of IoTs. Academic libraries need to implement the IoTs for enhancing their information resources and services. One important step in the success of future adoption is to conduct awareness and training programs for academic librarians. They also need to maintain higher security and privacy measurements in their implementation for the IoTs. This study will assist academic libraries in accommodating this technology.

Keywords: academic libraries, internet of things, information resources, information services

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2492 Residual Lifetime Estimation for Weibull Distribution by Fusing Expert Judgements and Censored Data

Authors: Xiang Jia, Zhijun Cheng

Abstract:

The residual lifetime of a product is the operation time between the current time and the time point when the failure happens. The residual lifetime estimation is rather important in reliability analysis. To predict the residual lifetime, it is necessary to assume or verify a particular distribution that the lifetime of the product follows. And the two-parameter Weibull distribution is frequently adopted to describe the lifetime in reliability engineering. Due to the time constraint and cost reduction, a life testing experiment is usually terminated before all the units have failed. Then the censored data is usually collected. In addition, other information could also be obtained for reliability analysis. The expert judgements are considered as it is common that the experts could present some useful information concerning the reliability. Therefore, the residual lifetime is estimated for Weibull distribution by fusing the censored data and expert judgements in this paper. First, the closed-forms concerning the point estimate and confidence interval for the residual lifetime under the Weibull distribution are both presented. Next, the expert judgements are regarded as the prior information and how to determine the prior distribution of Weibull parameters is developed. For completeness, the cases that there is only one, and there are more than two expert judgements are both focused on. Further, the posterior distribution of Weibull parameters is derived. Considering that it is difficult to derive the posterior distribution of residual lifetime, a sample-based method is proposed to generate the posterior samples of Weibull parameters based on the Monte Carlo Markov Chain (MCMC) method. And these samples are used to obtain the Bayes estimation and credible interval for the residual lifetime. Finally, an illustrative example is discussed to show the application. It demonstrates that the proposed method is rather simple, satisfactory, and robust.

Keywords: expert judgements, information fusion, residual lifetime, Weibull distribution

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2491 Performance Evaluation of Distributed Deep Learning Frameworks in Cloud Environment

Authors: Shuen-Tai Wang, Fang-An Kuo, Chau-Yi Chou, Yu-Bin Fang

Abstract:

2016 has become the year of the Artificial Intelligence explosion. AI technologies are getting more and more matured that most world well-known tech giants are making large investment to increase the capabilities in AI. Machine learning is the science of getting computers to act without being explicitly programmed, and deep learning is a subset of machine learning that uses deep neural network to train a machine to learn  features directly from data. Deep learning realizes many machine learning applications which expand the field of AI. At the present time, deep learning frameworks have been widely deployed on servers for deep learning applications in both academia and industry. In training deep neural networks, there are many standard processes or algorithms, but the performance of different frameworks might be different. In this paper we evaluate the running performance of two state-of-the-art distributed deep learning frameworks that are running training calculation in parallel over multi GPU and multi nodes in our cloud environment. We evaluate the training performance of the frameworks with ResNet-50 convolutional neural network, and we analyze what factors that result in the performance among both distributed frameworks as well. Through the experimental analysis, we identify the overheads which could be further optimized. The main contribution is that the evaluation results provide further optimization directions in both performance tuning and algorithmic design.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, machine learning, deep learning, convolutional neural networks

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2490 Design of an Ensemble Learning Behavior Anomaly Detection Framework

Authors: Abdoulaye Diop, Nahid Emad, Thierry Winter, Mohamed Hilia

Abstract:

Data assets protection is a crucial issue in the cybersecurity field. Companies use logical access control tools to vault their information assets and protect them against external threats, but they lack solutions to counter insider threats. Nowadays, insider threats are the most significant concern of security analysts. They are mainly individuals with legitimate access to companies information systems, which use their rights with malicious intents. In several fields, behavior anomaly detection is the method used by cyber specialists to counter the threats of user malicious activities effectively. In this paper, we present the step toward the construction of a user and entity behavior analysis framework by proposing a behavior anomaly detection model. This model combines machine learning classification techniques and graph-based methods, relying on linear algebra and parallel computing techniques. We show the utility of an ensemble learning approach in this context. We present some detection methods tests results on an representative access control dataset. The use of some explored classifiers gives results up to 99% of accuracy.

Keywords: cybersecurity, data protection, access control, insider threat, user behavior analysis, ensemble learning, high performance computing

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2489 Pressure-Detecting Method for Estimating Levitation Gap Height of Swirl Gripper

Authors: Kaige Shi, Chao Jiang, Xin Li

Abstract:

The swirl gripper is an electrically activated noncontact handling device that uses swirling airflow to generate a lifting force. This force can be used to pick up a workpiece placed underneath the swirl gripper without any contact. It is applicable, for example, in the semiconductor wafer production line, where contact must be avoided during the handling and moving of a workpiece to minimize damage. When a workpiece levitates underneath a swirl gripper, the gap height between them is crucial for safe handling. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a method to estimate the levitation gap height by detecting pressure at two points. The method is based on theoretical model of the swirl gripper, and has been experimentally verified. Furthermore, the force between the gripper and the workpiece can also be estimated using the detected pressure. As a result, the nonlinear relationship between the force and gap height can be linearized by adjusting the rotating speed of the fan in the swirl gripper according to the estimated force and gap height. The linearized relationship is expected to enhance handling stability of the workpiece.

Keywords: swirl gripper, noncontact handling, levitation, gap height estimation

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2488 Development of E-Tendering Models for Nigerian Public Procuring Entities

Authors: Bello Abdullahi, Kabir Bala, Yahaya M. Ibrahim, Ahmed D. Ibrahim

Abstract:

Public sector tendering has traditionally been conducted using manual paper-based processes which are known to be inefficient, less transparent, and more prone to manipulations and errors. However, the advent of the Internet and its associated technologies has led to the development of numerous e-Tendering systems that addressed many of the problems associated with the manual paper-based tendering system. Currently, in Nigeria, the public tendering processes are largely conducted based on manual paper-based system that is bedevilled by a number of problems such as inordinate delays, inefficiencies, manipulation of the tender evaluation process, corruption, lack of transparency and competition, among other problems. These problems can be addressed through the adoption of existing web-based e-Tendering systems which are known to address most of these problems. However, these existing e-Tendering systems that have been developed are not based on the Nigerian legal procurement processes and as such their suitability for local application is very limited. This paper is part of a larger study that attempt to address this problem through the development of an e-Tendering system that is based on the requirements of the Nigerian public procuring entities. In this paper, the identified tendering processes commonly used by Nigerian public procuring entities in the selection of construction sources are presented. A multi-methods research approach was used to identify those tendering processes. Specifically, 19 existing business use cases used by Nigerian public procuring entities were identified and 61 system use cases were prescribed based on the identified business use cases. The use cases were used as the basis for the development of domain and software conceptual models. The models were successfully used to guide the development of an e-Tendering system called NPS-eTender. Ripple and Unified Process were adopted as the software development methodologies.

Keywords: e-tendering, e-procurement, requirement model, conceptual model, public sector tendering, public procurement

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2487 Modeling of Glycine Transporters in Mammalian Using the Probability Approach

Authors: K. S. Zaytsev, Y. R. Nartsissov

Abstract:

Glycine is one of the key inhibitory neurotransmitters in Central nervous system (CNS) meanwhile glycinergic transmission is highly dependable on its appropriate reuptake from synaptic cleft. Glycine transporters (GlyT) of types 1 and 2 are the enzymes providing glycine transport back to neuronal and glial cells along with Na⁺ and Cl⁻ co-transport. The distribution and stoichiometry of GlyT1 and GlyT2 differ in details, and GlyT2 is more interesting for the research as it reuptakes glycine to neuron cells, whereas GlyT1 is located in glial cells. In the process of GlyT2 activity, the translocation of the amino acid is accompanied with binding of both one chloride and three sodium ions consequently (two sodium ions for GlyT1). In the present study, we developed a computer simulator of GlyT2 and GlyT1 activity based on known experimental data for quantitative estimation of membrane glycine transport. The trait of a single protein functioning was described using the probability approach where each enzyme state was considered separately. Created scheme of transporter functioning realized as a consequence of elemental steps allowed to take into account each event of substrate association and dissociation. Computer experiments using up-to-date kinetic parameters allowed receiving the number of translocated glycine molecules, Na⁺ and Cl⁻ ions per time period. Flexibility of developed software makes it possible to evaluate glycine reuptake pattern in time under different internal characteristics of enzyme conformational transitions. We investigated the behavior of the system in a wide range of equilibrium constant (from 0.2 to 100), which is not determined experimentally. The significant influence of equilibrium constant in the range from 0.2 to 10 on the glycine transfer process is shown. The environmental conditions such as ion and glycine concentrations are decisive if the values of the constant are outside the specified range.

Keywords: glycine, inhibitory neurotransmitters, probability approach, single protein functioning

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2486 Determination of the Phosphate Activated Glutaminase Localization in the Astrocyte Mitochondria Using Kinetic Approach

Authors: N. V. Kazmiruk, Y. R. Nartsissov

Abstract:

Phosphate activated glutaminase (GA, E.C. 3.5.1.2) plays a key role in glutamine/glutamate homeostasis in mammalian brain, catalyzing the hydrolytic deamidation of glutamine to glutamate and ammonium ions. GA is mainly localized in mitochondria, where it has the catalytically active form on the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) and the other soluble form, which is supposed to be dormant. At present time, the exact localization of the membrane glutaminase active site remains a controversial and an unresolved issue. The first hypothesis called c-side localization suggests that the catalytic site of GA faces the inter-membrane space and products of the deamidation reaction have immediate access to cytosolic metabolism. According to the alternative m-side localization hypothesis, GA orients to the matrix, making glutamate and ammonium available for the tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolism in mitochondria directly. In our study, we used a multi-compartment kinetic approach to simulate metabolism of glutamate and glutamine in the astrocytic cytosol and mitochondria. We used physiologically important ratio between the concentrations of glutamine inside the matrix of mitochondria [Glnₘᵢₜ] and glutamine in the cytosol [Glncyt] as a marker for precise functioning of the system. Since this ratio directly depends on the mitochondrial glutamine carrier (MGC) flow parameters, key observation was to investigate the dependence of the [Glnmit]/[Glncyt] ratio on the maximal velocity of MGC at different initial concentrations of mitochondrial glutamate. Another important task was to observe the similar dependence at different inhibition constants of the soluble GA. The simulation results confirmed the experimental c-side localization hypothesis, in which the glutaminase active site faces the outer surface of the IMM. Moreover, in the case of such localization of the enzyme, a 3-fold decrease in ammonium production was predicted.

Keywords: glutamate metabolism, glutaminase, kinetic approach, mitochondrial membrane, multi-compartment modeling

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