Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 86

Search results for: tactics

86 Follower Upward Influence Tactics: A Review of Quantitative Studies

Authors: Najla Alshenaifi, Nicholas Clarke


Interest in how followers may influence their leaders in order to achieve their goals can be traced to studies in the late 1970s. The last major review of the literature was published over a decade ago in 2002. It would seem timely then to take stock of the literature and consider what we have learned since then. In so doing, our aim is to derive an empirically-based framework for understanding the effects of upward influence tactics to underpin future research in the field. Many factors are identified as having a major effect on upward influence processes including goals of influence, culture, gender, leadership style and the outcome of influence. A key conclusion from our review is that although upward influence tactics can result in positive outcomes for followers, the results from many studies are more often than inconclusive.

Keywords: upward influence tactics, influence tactics, influence strategies, followership

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85 The Effect of Socialization Tactics on Job Satisfaction of Employees, Regarding to Personality Types in Tehran University of Medical Science’s Employees

Authors: Maryam Hoorzad, Narges Shokry, Mandan Momeni


According to importance of socialization in effectiveness of organizations and on the other hand assessing the impact of individual differences on socialization tactics by measuring employees satisfaction, can be assessed for each of the personality types which socialization tactics is the more effective. The aim of this paper is to investigate how organizational socialization tactics affect job satisfaction of employees according to personality types. A survey was conducted using a measurement tool based on Van Maanen and Schein’s theory on organizational socialization tactics and Myers Briggs’ measurement tools of personality types. The respondents were employees with more than 3 years backward in Tehran University of Medical Science. Data collection was performed using both library and field, the data collection instrument was questionnaires and data were analysed using the Spss and Lisrel programs. It was found that investiture and serial tactics has a significant effect on employees satisfaction, any increase in investiture and serial tactics led to increase in job satisfaction and any increase in divestiture and disjunctive tactics led to reduction of job satisfaction. Investiture tactic has the most effect on employees satisfaction. Also based on the results, personality types affect the relationship between socialization tactics and job satisfaction. In the ESFJ personality type the effect of investiture tactic on employee satisfaction is the most.

Keywords: organizational socialization, organizational socialization tactics, personality types, job satisfaction

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84 Detecting Heartbeat Architectural Tactic in Source Code Using Program Analysis

Authors: Ananta Kumar Das, Sujit Kumar Chakrabarti


Architectural tactics such as heartbeat, ping-echo, encapsulate, encrypt data are techniques that are used to achieve quality attributes of a system. Detecting architectural tactics has several benefits: it can aid system comprehension (e.g., legacy systems) and in the estimation of quality attributes such as safety, security, maintainability, etc. Architectural tactics are typically spread over the source code and are implicit. For large codebases, manual detection is often not feasible. Therefore, there is a need for automated methods of detection of architectural tactics. This paper presents a formalization of the heartbeat architectural tactic and a program analytic approach to detect this tactic in source code. The experiment of the proposed method is done on a set of Java applications. The outcome of the experiment strongly suggests that the method compares well with a manual approach in terms of its sensitivity and specificity, and far supersedes a manual exercise in terms of its scalability.

Keywords: software architecture, architectural tactics, detecting architectural tactics, program analysis, AST, alias analysis

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83 The Influence of Online Marketing Tactics in Tourist Destination Reputation: Egypt as a Case Study

Authors: Alyaa Darwish, Peter Burns, Sofia Reino


Online marketing has been the key focus of attention for the majority of destinations since the Internet became the primarily information tool for travel marketing. Tourism is a reputation-dependent industry; potential travelers who do not have previous experience with the destination face numerous risks during the process of decision-making. An accurate perception of the destination’s reputation helps to minimize risk against unsatisfying travel experiences. However, there has been limited investigation with regards to the reputation of tourist destination. Taking the importance of reputation to the tourism industry, this research aims to: 1) Develop a destination reputation model; 2) Assess the tourist destination approach towards online marketing tactics; 3) Evaluate the impact of differentiated online marketing tactics on reputation; and 4) Measure the potential for using online marketing tactics to manage the destination’s online reputation. This research follows an interpretivism epistemological research approach through using four research methods; interviews, questionnaire, content analysis, and experiment to achieve the research goals.

Keywords: destination reputation, online marketing, reputation, tactics

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82 Social Movements and the Diffusion of Tactics and Repertoires: Activists' Network in Anti-Globalism Movement

Authors: Kyoko Tominaga


Non-Government Organizations (NGOs), Non-Profit Organizations (NPOs), Social Enterprises and other actors play an important role in political decisions in governments at the international levels. Especially, such organizations’ and activists’ network in civil society is quite important to effect to the global politics. To solve the complex social problems in global era, diverse actors should corporate each other. Moreover, network of protesters is also contributes to diffuse tactics, information and other resources of social movements. Based on the findings from the study of International Trade Fairs (ITFs), the author analyzes the network of activists in anti-globalism movement. This research focuses the transition of 54 activists’ whole network in the “protest event” against 2008 G8 summit in Japan. Their network is examined at the three periods: Before protest event phase, during protest event phase and after event phase. A mixed method is used in this study: the author shows the hypothesis from social network analysis and evaluates that with interview data analysis. This analysis gives the two results. Firstly, the more protesters participate to the various events during the protest event, the more they build the network. After that, active protesters keep their network as well. From interview data, we can understand that the active protesters can build their network and diffuse the information because they communicate with other participants and understand that diverse issues are related. This paper comes to same conclusion with previous researches: protest events activate the network among the political activists. However, some participants succeed to build their network, others do not. “Networked” activists are participated in the various events for short period of time and encourage the diffusion of information and tactics of social movements.

Keywords: social movement, global justice movement, tactics, diffusion

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81 Ethics and Military Defections in Nonviolent Resistance Campaigns

Authors: Adi Levy


Military and security personnel defections during nonviolent resistance (NVR) campaigns are recognized as an effective way of undermining the regime’s power, but they also may generate moral dilemmas that contradict the moral standing of NVR tactics. NVR campaigns have been primarily praised for their adherence to moral and legal norms, yet some of NVR tactics raise serious ethical concerns. This paper focuses on NVR tactics that seek to promote defections and disobedience within military and security personnel to sustain their campaign. Academic literature regarding NVR tactics indicates that compared to violent forms of resistance, defections are more likely to occur when security forces confront nonviolent activists. Indeed, defections play a strategically fundamental role in nonviolent campaigns, particularly against authoritarian regimes, as it enables activists to undermine the regime’s central pillars of support. This study examines the events of the Arab Spring and discusses the ethical problems that arise in nonviolent activists’ promotion of defections and disobedience. The cases of Syria and Egypt suggest that the strategic promotion of defections and disobedience was significantly effective in sustaining the campaign. Yet, while such defections enhance nonviolent activists’ resilience, how they are promoted can be morally contentious and the consequences can be dire. Defections are encouraged by social, moral and emotional appeals that use the power disparities between unarmed civilians and powerful regimes to affect soldiers and security personnel’s process of decision-making. In what is commonly referred to as dilemma action, nonviolent activists deliberately entangle security forces in a moral dilemma that compels them to follow a moral code to protect unarmed civilians. In this way, activists sustain their struggle and even gain protection. Nonviolent activists are likely to be completely defeated when confronted with armed forces. Therefore they rely on the military and security personnel’s moral conscious of convincing them to refrain from using force against them. While this is effective, it also leaves soldiers and security forces exposed to the implications and punishments that might follow their disobedience or defection. As long as they remain nonviolent, activists enjoy civilian immunity despite using morally contentious tactics. But the severe implications brought upon defectors. As a result, demand a deep examination of this tactic’s moral permissibility and a discussion that assesses culpability for the moral implications of its application.

Keywords: culpability, defections, nonviolence, permissibility

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80 Engaging the Terrorism Problematique in Africa: Discursive and Non-Discursive Approaches to Counter Terrorism

Authors: Cecil Blake, Tolu Kayode-Adedeji, Innocent Chiluwa, Charles Iruonagbe


National, regional and international security threats have dominated the twenty-first century thus far. Insurgencies that utilize “terrorism” as their primary strategy pose the most serious threat to global security. States in turn adopt terrorist strategies to resist and even defeat insurgents who invoke the legitimacy of statehood to justify their action. In short, the era is dominated by the use of terror tactics by state and non-state actors. Globally, there is a powerful network of groups involved in insurgencies using Islam as the bastion for their cause. In Africa, there are Boko Haram, Al Shabaab and Al Qaeda in the Maghreb representing Islamic groups utilizing terror strategies and tactics to prosecute their wars. The task at hand is to discover and to use multiple ways of handling the present security threats, including novel approaches to policy formulation, implementation, monitoring and evaluation that would pay significant attention to the important role of culture and communication strategies germane for discursive means of conflict resolution. In other to achieve this, the proposed research would address inter alia, root causes of insurgences that predicate their mission on Islamic tenets particularly in Africa; discursive and non-discursive counter-terrorism approaches fashioned by African governments, continental supra-national and regional organizations, recruitment strategies by major non-sate actors in Africa that rely solely on terrorist strategies and tactics and sources of finances for the groups under study. A major anticipated outcome of this research is a contribution to answers that would lead to the much needed stability required for development in African countries experiencing insurgencies carried out by the use of patterned terror strategies and tactics. The nature of the research requires the use of triangulation as the methodological tool.

Keywords: counter-terrorism, discourse, Nigeria, security, terrorism

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79 Variability of the Speaker's Verbal and Non-Verbal Behaviour in the Process of Changing Social Roles in the English Marketing Discourse

Authors: Yuliia Skrynnik


This research focuses on the interaction of verbal, non-verbal, and super-verbal communicative components used by the speaker changing social roles in the marketing discourse. The changing/performing of social roles is implemented through communicative strategies and tactics, the structural, semantic, and linguo-pragmatic means of which are characterized by specific features and differ for the performance of either a role of a supplier or a customer. Communication within the marketing discourse is characterized by symmetrical roles’ relation between communicative opponents. The strategy of a supplier’s social role realization and the strategy of a customer’s role realization influence the discursive personality's linguistic repertoire in the marketing discourse. This study takes into account that one person can be both a supplier and a customer under different circumstances, thus, exploring the one individual who can be both a supplier and a customer. Cooperative and non-cooperative tactics are the instruments for the implementation of these strategies. In the marketing discourse, verbal and non-verbal behaviour of the speaker performing a customer’s social role is highly informative for speakers who perform the role of a supplier. The research methods include discourse, context-situational, pragmalinguistic, pragmasemantic analyses, the method of non-verbal components analysis. The methodology of the study includes 5 steps: 1) defining the configurations of speakers’ social roles on the selected material; 2) establishing the type of the discourse (marketing discourse); 3) describing the specific features of a discursive personality as a subject of the communication in the process of social roles realization; 4) selecting the strategies and tactics which direct the interaction in different roles configurations; 5) characterizing the structural, semantic and pragmatic features of the strategies and tactics realization, including the analysis of interaction between verbal and non-verbal components of communication. In the marketing discourse, non-verbal behaviour is usually spontaneous but not purposeful. Thus, the adequate decoding of a partner’s non-verbal behavior provides more opportunities both for the supplier and the customer. Super-verbal characteristics in the marketing discourse are crucial in defining the opponent's social status and social role at the initial stage of interaction. The research provides the scenario of stereotypical situations of the play of a supplier and a customer. The performed analysis has perspectives for further research connected with the study of discursive variativity of speakers' verbal and non-verbal behaviour considering the intercultural factor influencing the process of performing the social roles in the marketing discourse; and the formation of the methods for the scenario construction of non-stereotypical situations of social roles realization/change in the marketing discourse.

Keywords: discursive personality, marketing discourse, non-verbal component of communication, social role, strategy, super-verbal component of communication, tactic, verbal component of communication

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78 Comparing and Contrasting Western and Eastern Ways of War: Building a Universal Strategic Theory

Authors: Adam Kok Wey Leong


The comparison between the Western ways of war and Eastern ways of war has raised contemporary debates on the validity of these arguments. The Western way of war is popularly propounded by Victor Davis Hanson as originating from the Greek hoplite tactics, direct military maneuvers, democratic principles and social freedom and cohesion that has continued to yield military success for the Western powers for centuries. On the other hand, the Eastern way of war has been deemed as relying on indirect tactics, deception, and ruses. This often accepted notion of the divide between Western and Eastern style does not sustain in view of the available classical strategic texts from both sides from the same period that has proposed similar principles of warfare. This paper analyses the similarities between classical strategic texts on war from the Eastern perspective namely Sun Tzu’s Art of War with a similar temporal strategic text from the West which is Sextus Iuluis Frontinus’s Stratagematon, and deduces answers to this core research question - Does the hypothesis of the existence of distinctive Western and Eastern ways of warfare stands? The main thesis advanced by this research is that ways of warfare share universal principles, and it transcends cultural and spatial boundaries. Warfare is a human endeavour, and the same moral actions guide humans from different geo-cultural spheres in warfare’s objectives, which are winning over an enemy in the most economical way and serve as a mean to an end.

Keywords: ways of warfare, strategic culture, strategy, Sun Tzu, frontinus

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77 Integrated Risk Management as a Framework for Organisational Success

Authors: Olakunle Felix Adekunle


Risk management is recognised as an essential tool to tackle the inevitable uncertainty associated with business and projects at all levels. But it frequently fails to meet expectations, with projects continuing to run late, over budget or under performing, and business is not gaining the expected benefits. The evident disconnect which often occurs between strategic vision and tactical project delivery typically arises from poorly defined project objectives and inadequate attention to the proactive management of risks that could affect those objectives. One of the main failings in the traditional approach to risk management arises from a narrow focus on the downside, restricted to the technical or operational field, addressing tactical threats to processes, performance or people. This shortcoming can be overcome by widening the scope of risk management to encompass both strategic risks and upside opportunities, creating an integrated approach which can bridge the gap between strategy and tactics. Integrated risk management addresses risk across a variety of levels in the organisation, including strategy and tactics, and covering both opportunity and threat. Effective implementation of integrated risk management can produce a number of benefits to the organisation which are not available from the typical limited-scope risk process. This paper explores how to expand risk management to deliver strategic advantage while retaining its use as a tactical tool.

Keywords: risk management, success, organization, strategy, project, tactis, vision

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76 Football Smart Coach: Analyzing Corner Kicks Using Computer Vision

Authors: Arth Bohra, Marwa Mahmoud


In this paper, we utilize computer vision to develop a tool for youth coaches to formulate set-piece tactics for their players. We used the Soccernet database to extract the ResNet features and camera calibration data for over 3000 corner kick across 500 professional matches in the top 6 European leagues (English Premier League, UEFA Champions League, Ligue 1, La Liga, Serie A, Bundesliga). Leveraging the provided homography matrix, we construct a feature vector representing the formation of players on these corner kicks. Additionally, labeling the videos manually, we obtained the pass-trajectory of each of the 3000+ corner kicks by segmenting the field into four zones. Next, after determining the localization of the players and ball, we used event data to give the corner kicks a rating on a 1-4 scale. By employing a Convolutional Neural Network, our model managed to predict the success of a corner kick given the formations of players. This suggests that with the right formations, teams can optimize the way they approach corner kicks. By understanding this, we can help coaches formulate set-piece tactics for their own teams in order to maximize the success of their play. The proposed model can be easily extended; our method could be applied to even more game situations, from free kicks to counterattacks. This research project also gives insight into the myriad of possibilities that artificial intelligence possesses in transforming the domain of sports.

Keywords: soccer, corner kicks, AI, computer vision

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75 Human Trafficking the Kosovar Perspective of Fighting the Phenomena through Police and Civil Society Cooperation

Authors: Samedin Mehmeti


The rationale behind this study is considering combating and preventing the phenomenon of trafficking in human beings from a multidisciplinary perspective that involves many layers of the society. Trafficking in human beings is an abhorrent phenomenon highly affecting negatively the victims and their families in both human and material aspect, sometimes causing irreversible damages. The longer term effects of this phenomenon, in countries with a weak economic development and extremely young and dynamic population, such as Kosovo, without proper measures to prevented and control can cause tremendous damages in the society. Given the fact that a complete eradication of this phenomenon is almost impossible, efforts should be concentrated at least on the prevention and controlling aspects. Treating trafficking in human beings based on traditional police tactics, methods and proceedings cannot bring satisfactory results. There is no doubt that a multi-disciplinary approach is an irreplaceable requirement, in other words, a combination of authentic and functional proactive and reactive methods, techniques and tactics. Obviously, police must exercise its role in preventing and combating trafficking in human beings, a role sanctioned by the law, however, police role and contribution cannot by any means considered complete if all segments of the society are not included in these efforts. Naturally, civil society should have an important share in these collaborative and interactive efforts especially in preventive activities such as: awareness on trafficking risks and damages, proactive engagement in drafting appropriate legislation and strategies, law enforcement monitoring and direct or indirect involvement in protective and supporting activities which benefit the victims of trafficking etc.

Keywords: civil society, cooperation, police, human trafficking

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74 Hidden Truths of Advertising: An Unspoken Fact in Making Ethical Diffusions

Authors: Mustafa Hyder, Shamaila Burney, Roohi Mumtaz


The aim of this study is to determine the consequences of silent or hidden messages and their effectiveness in deteriorating or altering our ethical norms and values. The study also focuses the repercussions of subconscious messages and possibilities of ethical diffusion in our society. The research based on the question that what are the different factors that motivate advertisers to include subliminal messages and how much these unspoken truths affecting our ethical values silently. What are the causes and effects of the subliminal messages in general and the level of ethical diffusion and its acceptance? The concept of advertising is to promote and highlight the salient features of the products and services, a company offers. Advertising is the best option nowadays to convey the related information to the consumers so that they attracted more towards the products or services proposed. The other thing advertisers concentrate, is the psychological characteristics using to persuade consumers choice. Using skills and tactics of advertising to promote a product in such a way that it creates a sensation, controversy or brand consciousness among the consumers or customers. The purpose to have increase purchase or to gain popularity in comparison to their competitors, they sometimes use such tactics and techniques, which is highly unethical and immoral for any society. These kinds of stuff used very smartly within the ads that only the conscious mind subconsciously catches the meaning of those glittery images, posters, phrases, tag lines and non-verbal clues. This study elucidates the subliminal advertising their repercussions and impact on consumer’s behaviour in our society with the help of few ads embedded subliminally and the trends of profitability. The methods used to accomplish our research are based on qualitative research along with the research articles, books and feedback from focused groups regarding the topic. The basic objective of this study was that, there is no significant change in the behaviour and attitude observed. These messages capture very short-term life on the viewer’s subconscious mind but in long run people get used to it and hence not only have the diffusion power but also has the high level of acceptance as well that reflects mostly through their social behaviours and attitudes.

Keywords: ethical diffusion, subconscious, subliminal advertising, unspoken facts

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73 Digital Health During a Pandemic: Critical Analysis of the COVID-19 Contact Tracing Apps

Authors: Mohanad Elemary, Imose Itua, Rajeswari B. Matam


Virologists and public health experts have been predicting potential pandemics from coronaviruses for decades. The viruses which caused the SARS and MERS pandemics and the Nipah virus led to many lost lives, but still, the COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV2 virus surprised many scientific communities, experts, and governments with its ease of transmission and its pathogenicity. Governments of various countries reacted by locking down entire populations to their homes to combat the devastation caused by the virus, which led to a loss of livelihood and economic hardship to many individuals and organizations. To revive national economies and support their citizens in resuming their lives, governments focused on the development and use of contact tracing apps as a digital way to track and trace exposure. Google and Apple introduced the Exposure Notification Systems (ENS) framework. Independent organizations and countries also developed different frameworks for contact tracing apps. The efficiency, popularity, and adoption rate of these various apps have been different across countries. In this paper, we present a critical analysis of the different contact tracing apps with respect to their efficiency, adoption rate and general perception, and the governmental strategies and policies, which led to the development of the applications. When it comes to the European countries, each of them followed an individualistic approach to the same problem resulting in different realizations of a similarly functioning application with differing results of use and acceptance. The study conducted an extensive review of existing literature, policies, and reports across multiple disciplines, from which a framework was developed and then validated through interviews with six key stakeholders in the field, including founders and executives in digital health startups and corporates as well as experts from international organizations like The World Health Organization. A framework of best practices and tactics is the result of this research. The framework looks at three main questions regarding the contact tracing apps; how to develop them, how to deploy them, and how to regulate them. The findings are based on the best practices applied by governments across multiple countries, the mistakes they made, and the best practices applied in similar situations in the business world. The findings include multiple strategies when it comes to the development milestone regarding establishing frameworks for cooperation with the private sector and how to design the features and user experience of the app for a transparent, effective, and rapidly adaptable app. For the deployment section, several tactics were discussed regarding communication messages, marketing campaigns, persuasive psychology, and the initial deployment scale strategies. The paper also discusses the data privacy dilemma and how to build for a more sustainable system of health-related data processing and utilization. This is done through principles-based regulations specific for health data to allow for its avail for the public good. This framework offers insights into strategies and tactics that could be implemented as protocols for future public health crises and emergencies whether global or regional.

Keywords: contact tracing apps, COVID-19, digital health applications, exposure notification system

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72 Adaptive Approach Towards Comprehensive Urban Development Simulation in Coastal Regions: Case Study of New Alamein City, Egypt

Authors: Nada Mohamed, Abdel Aziz Mohamed


Climate change in coastal areas is a global issue that can be felt on local scale and will be around for decades and centuries to come to an end; it also has critical risks on the city’s economy, communities, and the natural environment. One of these changes that cause a huge risk on coastal cities is the sea level rise (SLR). SLR is a result of scarcity and reduction in global environmental system. The main cause of climate change and global warming is the countries with high development index (HDI) as Japan and Germany while the medium and low HDI countries as Egypt does not have enough awareness and advanced tactics to adapt with this changes that destroy urban areas and cause loss in land and economy. This is why Climate Resilience is one of the UN sustainable development goals 2030, which is calling for actions to strengthen climate change resilience through mitigation and adaptation. For many reasons, adaptation has received less attention than mitigation and it is only recently that adaptation has become a focal global point of attention. This adaption can be achieved through some actions such as upgrading the use and the design of the land, adjusting business and activities of people, and increasing community understanding of climate risks. To reach the adaption goals, and we have to apply a strategic pathway to Climate Resilience, which is the Urban Bioregionalism Paradigm. Resiliency has been framed as persistence, adaptation, and transformation. Climate Resilience decision support system includes a visualization platform where ecological, social, and economic information can be viewed alongside with specific geographies that's why Urban Bioregionalism is a socio-ecological system which is defined as a paradigm that has potential to help move social attitudes toward environmental understanding and deepen human-environment connections within ecological development. The research aim is to achieve an adaptive integrated urban development model throughout the analyses of tactics and strategies that can be used to adapt urban areas and coastal communities to the challenges of climate changes especially SLR and also simulation model using advanced technological software for a coastal city corridor to elaborates the suitable strategy to apply.

Keywords: climate resilience, sea level rise, SLR, coastal resilience, adaptive development simulation

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71 Phishing Attacks Facilitated by Open Source Intelligence

Authors: Urva Maryam


The information has become an important asset to the current cosmos. Globally, various tactics are being observed to confine the spread of information as it makes people vulnerable to security attacks. Open Source Intelligence (OSINT) is a publicly available source that has disseminated information about users or websites, companies, and various organizations. This paper focuses on the quantitative method of exploring various OSINT tools that reveal public information of personals. This information could further facilitate phishing attacks. Phishing attacks can be launched on email addresses, open ports, and unsecure web-surfing. This study allows to analyze the information retrieved from OSINT tools, i.e. theHarvester, and Maltego that can be used to send phishing attacks to individuals.

Keywords: e-mail spoofing, Maltego, OSINT, phishing, spear phishing, theHarvester

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70 Option Pricing Theory Applied to the Service Sector

Authors: Luke Miller


This paper develops an options pricing methodology to value strategic pricing strategies in the services sector. More specifically, this study provides a unifying taxonomy of current service sector pricing practices, frames these pricing decisions as strategic real options, demonstrates accepted option valuation techniques to assess service sector pricing decisions, and suggests future research areas where pricing decisions and real options overlap. Enhancing revenue in the service sector requires proactive decision making in a world of uncertainty. In an effort to strategically price service products, revenue enhancement necessitates a careful study of the service costs, customer base, competition, legalities, and shared economies with the market. Pricing decisions involve the quality of inputs, manpower, and best practices to maintain superior service. These decisions further hinge on identifying relevant pricing strategies and understanding how these strategies impact a firm’s value. A relatively new area of research applies option pricing theory to investments in real assets and is commonly known as real options. The real options approach is based on the premise that many corporate decisions to invest or divest in assets are simply an option wherein the firm has the right to make an investment without any obligation to act. The decision maker, therefore, has more flexibility and the value of this operating flexibility should be taken into consideration. The real options framework has already been applied to numerous areas including manufacturing, inventory, natural resources, research and development, strategic decisions, technology, and stock valuation. Additionally, numerous surveys have identified a growing need for the real options decision framework within all areas of corporate decision-making. Despite the wide applicability of real options, no study has been carried out linking service sector pricing decisions and real options. This is surprising given the service sector comprises 80% of the US employment and Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Identifying real options as a practical tool to value different service sector pricing strategies is believed to have a significant impact on firm decisions. This paper identifies and discusses four distinct pricing strategies available to the service sector from an options’ perspective: (1) Cost-based profit margin, (2) Increased customer base, (3) Platform pricing, and (4) Buffet pricing. Within each strategy lie several pricing tactics available to the service firm. These tactics can be viewed as options the decision maker has to best manage a strategic position in the market. To demonstrate the effectiveness of including flexibility in the pricing decision, a series of pricing strategies were developed and valued using a real options binomial lattice structure. The options pricing approach discussed in this study allows service firms to directly incorporate market-driven perspectives into the decision process and thus synchronizing service operations with organizational economic goals.

Keywords: option pricing theory, real options, service sector, valuation

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69 Using Discrete Event Simulation Approach to Reduce Waiting Times in Computed Tomography Radiology Department

Authors: Mwafak Shakoor


The purpose of this study was to reduce patient waiting times, improve system throughput and improve resources utilization in radiology department. A discrete event simulation model was developed using Arena simulation software to investigate different alternatives to improve the overall system delivery based on adding resource scenarios due to the linkage between patient waiting times and resource availability. The study revealed that there is no addition investment need to procure additional scanner but hospital management deploy managerial tactics to enhance machine utilization and reduce the long waiting time in the department.

Keywords: discrete event simulation, radiology department, arena, waiting time, healthcare modeling, computed tomography

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68 Compromised Sexual Territoriality under Reflexive Cosmopolitanism: From Coffee Bean to Gay Bean in South Korea

Authors: Robert Christopher Hamilton


This research examined the effects of reflexive cosmopolitanism on the competition for sexual territoriality. By adopting Michel De Certeau’s (1984) spatial didactic model, the article maps out the key elements at play and the dynamics explaining how gays gay place in the backdrop of rapid modernization. It found that heterosexual space and heteronormative assumptions helped to create temporal and spatial opportunities that allow for sexual performativity of gay males. Moreover, using data collected from multiple semi-controlled one-on-one interviews over 13 months, this article illustrates how spatial competition culminates in non-zero sum game outcomes and particularly to compromise of sexual territoriality while further demonstrating the need to understand the sexual coping tactics used in cultures with similar backgrounds. The findings enable researchers to better understand how gay men gay space, and how space performatively embodies gay men.

Keywords: South Korea, coffee bean, sexual territoriality, reflexive cosmopolitanism

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67 Leading to Attract, Retain, Motivate, Inspire your Employees to Peak Performance

Authors: David Suson


In today's work environment, it becomes harder and harder to attract top talent, motivate them to achieve your goals, create a collaborative work environment and then retain them. It is especially challenging when you have remote employees, manage virtually, have different personalities, ages, work ethics and especially when there is a lure of better opportunities elsewhere. Leaders want results. All the strategies and tactics in the world won't make a difference if your people don't execute and "follow you into battle". The key to better leadership is motivating your teams to want to execute, want to work harder, want to work as a team, all while improving morale. Anyone can force employees by threatening them. This session teaches a 180-degree approach. Objectives/Outcomes: 1. Learn the 3 ways this leadership approach differs from traditional leadership, 2. Use a simple process to increase engagement and loyalty, 3. Implement strategies to drive performance. The approach being taught inspires, motivates, engages, and helps to attract better employees.

Keywords: leadership, success, communication, skills

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66 'Propaganda by the Deed', 'Armed Propaganda' and Mass Mobilization: The Missing Link in the Left-Wing Terrorist Thinking

Authors: Ersun N. Kurtulus


One of the strategic goals of left-wing terrorism, both in its Anarchist and Marxist-Leninist forms, was mobilization of masses as a first step in launching a revolution. However, in the canonical texts of left-wing terrorist literature (such as the works of Brousse, Nachaev, Bakunin, Kropotkin, Most, Heinzen, Guevara and Marighella) it is not clear how resort to terrorist tactics such as assassinations or bomb attacks will lead to mobilization of masses. This link is usually presumed and taken for granted. However, in other, less known terrorist texts, where there is some elaboration upon this link, two conflicting views emerge: (i) terrorist attacks are supposed to cause state repression which in turn radicalizes masses and opens up the way for recruitment and mobilization versus (ii) terrorist attacks are supposed to demonstrate the hollowness of the already existent state repression and thereby encourage mobilization of masses that are already radicalized but inactive due fear caused by state repression. The paper argues that terrorism studies have largely overemphasized the former while the latter has remained more or less unnoticed.

Keywords: terrorism, repression, radical left, mobilization of masses

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65 A Study of Tactics in the Dissident Urban Form

Authors: Probuddha Mukhopadhyay


The infiltration of key elements to the civil structure is foraying its way to reclaim, what is its own. The reclamation of lives and spaces, once challenged, becomes a consistent process of ingress, disguised as parallels to the moving city, disperses into discourses often unheard of and conveniently forgotten. In this age of 'hyper'-urbanization, there are solutions suggested to a plethora of issues faced by citizens, in improving their standards of living. Problems are ancillary to proposals that emerge out of the underlying disorders of the townscape. These interventions result in the formulation of urban policies, to consolidate and optimize, to regularize and to streamline resources. Policy and practice are processes where the politics in policies define the way in which urban solutions are prescribed. Social constraints, that formulate the various cycles of order and disorders within the urban realm, are the stigmas for such interventions. There is often a direct relation of policy to place, no matter how people-centric it may seem to be projected. How we live our lives depends on where we live our lives - a relative statement for urban problems, varies from city to city. Communal compositions, welfare, crisis, socio-economic balance, need for management are the generic roots for urban policy formulation. However, in reality, the gentry administering its environmentalism is the criterion, that shapes and defines the values and expanse of such policies. In relation to the psycho-spatial characteristic of urban spheres with respect to the other side of this game, there have been instances, where the associational values have been reshaped by interests. The public domain reclaimed for exclusivity, thus creating fortified neighborhoods. Here, the citizen cumulative is often drifted by proposals that would over time deplete such landscapes of the city. It is the organized rebellion that in turn formulates further inward looking enclaves of latent aggression. In recent times, it has been observed that the unbalanced division of power and the implied processes of regulating the weak, stem the rebellion who respond in kits and parts. This is a phenomenon that mimics the guerilla warfare tactics, in order to have systems straightened out, either by manipulations or by force. This is the form of the city determined by the various forms insinuated by the state of city wide decisions. This study is an attempt at understanding the way in which development is interpreted by the state and the civil society and the role that community driven processes undertake to reinstate their claims to the city. This is a charter of consolidated patterns of negotiations that tend to counter policies. The research encompasses a study of various contested settlements in two cities of India- Mumbai and Kolkata, tackling dissent through spatial order. The study has been carried out to identify systems - formal and informal, catering to the most challenged interests of the people with respect to their habitat, a model to counter the top-down authoritative framework challenging the legitimacy of such settlements.

Keywords: urban design, insurgence, tactical urbanism, urban governance, civil society, state

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64 Emotional Intelligence: A Panacea in the Management and Marketing of Hospitality and Tourism Good and Services

Authors: M. Azugama, P. Okoro Ugo Chigozie, A. O. Nnamocha


Emotional Intelligence constitutes powerful psychological forces that can strongly influence performance in behaviour, interaction and relationship management. Surprisingly how emotions are interpreted and employed in marketing of hospitality experience have had limited comprehension. Marketing of hospitality experiences have important emotional dimensions which the traditional marketing techniques tend to underplay. Guest and host relationship are challenged by mutual hospitableness obligations; suggesting that the commercial practice of delivering satisfactory guest experience has much to gain from traditional understanding of hospitality. By understanding the emotion-based hospitality transaction between guests and hosts, customers’ experiences can be delivered over and against competitor pressure. In this paper, marketing strategies and tactics in hospitality and tourism are principally concerned with adjusting each of the 6P & T elements (i.e. product, place, price and promotion; and adding people, processes and Time in service contexts), to provide a competitive offer (experience) to customers.

Keywords: Emotional intelligence, hospitality and tourism, relationship management, marketing

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63 Examining the Racialisation of White Workers in Rural Louisiana as a Technology of Capitalist Management and Control

Authors: Kendall Artz


In the 1950s, a wave of violent labor unrest shook a small town in south-western Louisiana leading to the racialisation of workers—previously considered white—as ‘mixed-race’ or, in local terms, ‘Redbone.’ This paper examines why the group known as ‘Redbones’ were marked as non-white in relation to strike violence and their opposition to capitalist expansion. Utilising archival research, historiography and oral testimony, I examine how an instance of labor unrest was reinterpreted by local law enforcement, an interstate capitalist class and the national press as calling into question the racial integrity of a group of workers who had been formerly marked as white. This explosive and largely unstudied strike provides an opportunity to better understand how racialisation operates as a technology of control, even over individuals who appear phenotypically white. The strike at Elizabeth allows a glimpse at the tactics of representatives of white supremacy when white workers do not fully embrace the ‘wages of whiteness.

Keywords: American federation of labor, labor history, Louisiana history, wages of whiteness

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62 The Research of Industrial Space Characteristics, Layout, and Strategy in Metropolitan Area in China: In Case of Wuhan

Authors: Min Zhou, Kaixuan Lin, Yaping Huang


In this paper, the industrial space of metropolitan area in Wuhan is taken as a sample. First of all, it puts forward that the structure of service economy, circle gradient relocation and high degree of regional collaboration are the rules of industrial spatial development in the modern world cities. Secondly, using the economic statistics and land use vector data (1993, 2004, 2010, and 2013) of Wuhan, it analyzes the present situation of industry development and the characteristics of industrial space layout from three aspects of the industrial economic structure, industrial layout, and industrial regional synergy. Then, based on the industrial development regularity of world cities, it puts forward to construct the industrial spatial level of ‘complex industrial concentration area + modular industry unit’ and the industrial spatial structure of ‘13525’. Finally, it comes up with the optimization tactics of the industrial space’s transformation in the future under the background of new economic era.

Keywords: big city of metropolitan area, industrial space, characteristics, layout, strategy

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61 Classroom Management Whereas Teaching ESL to Saudi Students

Authors: Mohammad Akram


The aim of this study is to improve classroom management while teaching especially ESL/EFL. At the same time, it has been discussed about the standard of the students through some surveys held in Jazan University in the month of February and March, 2013. The present research is a classroom action-oriented study. The subject of the study is mainly the students whose first language is not English at all. The study is prepared in one cycle that has planning, action, and reaction as well. Teachers of English as a second language/foreign language generally face numerous of unexpected problems while dealing with their students. To make the classes practical, meaningful, and easy like fun for the students is really a cumbersome task. It's a very practical move towards classroom ESL/EFL teaching if we want to apply anything new, I mean new policies, tactics, recent/smart teaching methodologies, we must peep into the hole of past because it will give us the best solution for the present strategies. We need to academically study the past of our students to make their present fruitful. Here, author wants to present a few important problematic issues like classroom management in the area of ESL/EFL while teaching ESL students. Impact these are suggestions to combat drawbacks of 'Classroom Teaching'. “Classroom management is to put into practice and a process through teaching and learning process”.

Keywords: global, teachers, perceptions, classroom, management, integrated, segregated, comprehension, productive

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60 Lessons Learned from Ransomware-as-a-Service (RaaS) Organized Campaigns

Authors: Vitali Kremez


The researcher monitored an organized ransomware campaign in order to gain significant visibility into the tactics, techniques, and procedures employed by a campaign boss operating a ransomware scheme out of Russia. As the Russian hacking community lowered the access requirements for unsophisticated Russian cybercriminals to engage in ransomware campaigns, corporations and individuals face a commensurately greater challenge of effectively protecting their data and operations from being held ransom. This report discusses two notorious ransomware campaigns. Though the loss of data can be devastating, the findings demonstrate that sending ransom payments does not always help obtain data. Key learnings: 1. From the ransomware affiliate perspective, such campaigns have significantly lowered the barriers for entry for low-tier cybercriminals. 2. Ransomware revenue amounts are not as glamorous and fruitful as they are often publicly reported. Average ransomware crime bosses make only $90K per year on average. 3. Data gathered indicates that sending ransom payments does not always help obtain data. 4. The talk provides the complete payout structure and Bitcoin laundering operation related to the ransomware-as-a-service campaign.

Keywords: bitcoin, cybercrime, ransomware, Russia

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59 Design for Sentiment-ancy: Conceptual Framework to Improve User’s Well-being Through Fostering Emotional Attachment in the Use Experience with Their Assistive Devices

Authors: Seba Quqandi


This study investigates the bond that people form using their assistive devices and the tactics applied during the product design process to help improve the user experience leading to a long-term product relationship. The aim is to develop a conceptual framework with which to describe and analyze the bond people form with their assistive devices and to integrate human emotions as a factor during the development of the product design process. The focus will be on the assistive technology market, namely, the Aid-For-Daily-Living market for situational impairments, to increase the quality of wellbeing. Findings will help us better understand the real issues of the product experience concerning people’s interaction throughout the product performance, establish awareness of the emotional effects in the daily interaction that fosters the product attachment, and help product developers and future designers create a connection between users and their assistive devices. The research concludes by discussing the implications of these findings for professionals and academics in the form of experiments in order to identify new areas that can stimulate new /or developed design directions.

Keywords: experience design, interaction design, emotion, design psychology, assistive tools, customization, userentred design

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58 Fuzzy Multi-Criteria Decision-Making Based on Ignatian Discernment Process

Authors: Pathinathan Theresanathan, Ajay Minj


Ignatian Discernment Process (IDP) is an intense decision-making tool to decide on life-issues. Decisions are influenced by various factors outside of the decision maker and inclination within. This paper develops IDP in the context of Fuzzy Multi-criteria Decision Making (FMCDM) process. Extended VIKOR method is a decision-making method which encompasses even conflict situations and accommodates weightage to various issues. Various aspects of IDP, namely three ways of decision making and tactics of inner desires, are observed, analyzed and articulated within the frame work of fuzzy rules. The decision-making situations are broadly categorized into two types. The issues outside of the decision maker influence the person. The inner feeling also plays vital role in coming to a conclusion. IDP integrates both the categories using Extended VIKOR method. Case studies are carried out and analyzed with FMCDM process. Finally, IDP is verified with an illustrative case study and results are interpreted. A confused person who could not come to a conclusion is able to take decision on a concrete way of life through IDP. The proposed IDP model recommends an integrated and committed approach to value-based decision making.

Keywords: AHP, FMCDM, IDP, ignatian discernment, MCDM, VIKOR

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57 Impact of Marketing towards Behavior Intention

Authors: Sathyamangalam Rangasamy Guru Prasath


Due to the increasing homogeneity in product offerings, the attendant services provided are emerging as a key differentiator in the mind of the consumers. Services marketing are a sub field of marketing which covers the marketing of both goods and services. Service marketing differs from product marketing due to the face that services are intangible and typically require personal interaction with the customer. Relationships are a key factor when it comes to the marketing of services. The role of interpersonal relationships distinguishes service and product marketing in strategic vision and organizational considerations. This paper explores some of the trends in service marketing as they relate to strategic vision, operational and organizational changes, and marketing tactics. The presence of the customer in the service facility means that capacity management becomes an important driver of the firm’s profitability service marketing is a process from the organization’s point of view, but an experience from the customer’s perspective. The quality of the experience is a function of the careful design of customer service processes, adoption of standardized procedures, rigorous management of service quality, high standards of training and automation. Services marketing helps to ensure that these processes are designed from the customer’s perspective. Services marketing includes customer loyalty, managing relationships, complaint handling, improving service quality and productivity of service operations, and how to become a service leader in your industry.

Keywords: customer perspective, product marketing, service marketing, rigorous management

Procedia PDF Downloads 271