Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2127

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

2127 Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis and Optimization of the Coanda Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Platform

Authors: Jin Lee, Nigel Kelly, Zaid Saddiqi

Abstract:

Research shows that using Coanda aero surfaces can drastically augment the lift forces when applied to an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) platform. By directing the flow of air from a propeller over a convex surface, a negative pressure gradient forms, resulting in additional lift generated. In theory, the direct thrust from the propeller in the gravity direction is then augmented by this additional lift force. However, Coanda saucer UAVs, which commonly use a dish-like, radially-extending structure, have shown no significant increases in thrust/lift force and therefore have never been commercially successful: the additional thrust/lift generated by the Coanda surface diminishes since the airstreams emerging from the rotor compartment expand radially causing serious loss of momentums and therefore a net loss of total thrust/lift. To overcome this technical weakness, we propose to examine the Coanda surface design and optimize its geometry for the highest thrust/lift. A typical Coanda UAV has flow directed radially outwards from an orifice and finally vectored in the direction of Coanda curvature. This behavior is highly influenced by the height, h, of the airstream emerging from the orifice preceding the Coanda surface and the radius of curvature, R, of the Coanda surface. The goal of this study is to: (1) determine what ratio of h/R will produce the highest lift coefficient for a Coanda surface of 2-dimensional geometry when applied to a newly designed cylindrical configuration and (2) compare the lift generated from a 4-sided cylindrical Coanda design vs. a conventional radial Coanda surface. To accomplish these objectives, the Buckingham Pi theorem is used to generate non-dimensional variables h/R, Reynold’s number, and Lift Coefficient. Our preliminary study shows that the airstream separates from the Coanda surface at certain conditions, resulting in near-complete loss of thrust/lift from the platform. Ideally, we aim to avoid these conditions to maximize thrust/lift. With these constraints in mind, a commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software, ANSYS Fluent®, is used to simulate the flow characteristics with suitable ranges of h/R ratios and orifice velocities. The results of this numerical study indicate that flow-separation occurs at h/R > 0.3, and the highest lift coefficient occurs at a range just before this flow-separation. To validate this approach, the Streamline Curvature Theorem is applied to the airstream, revealing a good agreement with the pressure gradient seen in our simulations. Additionally, a mathematical model in literature compares well with our estimation of the flow-separation angle. We conclude that the proposed 4-sided cylindrical configuration shows an average 25% increase in total thrust, compared with conventional radial-design Coanda platforms. It is also evident that flow-separation is heavily influenced by the h/R ratio. Moreover, an h/R ratio has been identified, which will produce the highest lift coefficient for a Coanda UAV, according to our simulations. This result, coupled with a 4-sided cylindrical Coanda configuration, is deemed to be a very efficient design for enhancing thrust/lift of a Coanda UAV platform. This venture integrates with an ongoing research project where a Coanda prototype is being assembled. Additionally, a custom thrust-stand has been constructed for thrust/lift measurement.

Keywords: CFD, UAV, lift, Coanda

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2126 Data Centers Temperature Profile Simulation Optimized by Finite Elements and Discretization Methods

Authors: Jose Alberto Garcia Fernandez, Zhimin Du, Xinqiao Jin

Abstract:

Nowadays, data center industry faces strong challenges for increasing the speed and data processing capacities while at the same time is trying to keep their devices a suitable working temperature without penalizing that capacity. Consequently, the cooling systems of this kind of facilities use a large amount of energy to dissipate the heat generated inside the servers, and developing new cooling techniques or perfecting those already existing would be a great advance in this type of industry. The installation of a temperature sensors matrix distributed in the structure of each server would provide the necessary information for collecting the required data for obtaining a temperature profile instantly inside them. However, the high number of temperature probes required to obtain the temperature profiles with sufficient accuracy is very high and expensive. Therefore, other less intrusive techniques are employed where each point that characterizes the server temperature profile is obtained by solving differential equations through simulation methods, simplifying data collection techniques, but increasing the time to obtain results. In order to reduce these calculation times, complicated and slow computational fluid dynamics simulations are replaced by simpler and faster finite element methods simulations which solve the Burgers' equations by backward, forward, and central discretization techniques after simplifying the energy and enthalpy conservation differential equations. The discretization methods employed for solving the first and second order derivatives of the obtained Burgers' equation after these simplifications are the key for obtaining results with greater or lesser accuracy regardless of the characteristic truncation error.

Keywords: Data center, FEM simulation, CFD simulation, temperature profile, Burgers' equations, discretization methods

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2125 Numerical Investigation of Fluid Flow, Characteristics of Thermal Performance and Enhancement of Heat Transfer of Corrugated Pipes with Various Geometrical Configurations

Authors: Ahmed Ramadhan Al-Obaidi, Jassim Alhamid

Abstract:

In this investigation, the flow pattern, characteristics of thermal-hydraulic, and improvement of heat transfer performance are evaluated using a numerical technique in three dimensions corrugated pipe heat exchanger. The modification was made under different corrugated pipe geometrical parameters, including corrugated ring angle (CRA), distance between corrugated ring (DBCR), and corrugated diameter (CD), the range of Re number from 2000 to 12000. The numerical results are validated with available experimental data. The numerical outcomes reveal that there is an important change in flow field behaviour and a significant increase in friction factor and improvement in heat transfer performance owing to the use of the corrugated shape in the heat exchanger pipe as compared to the conventional smooth pipe. Using corrugated pipe with different configurations makes the flow more turbulence, flow separation, boundary layer distribution, flow mixing, and that leads to augmenting the performance of heat transfer. Moreover, the value of pressure drop, and the Nusselt number increases as the corrugated pipe geometrical parameters increase. Furthermore, the corrugation configuration shapes have an important influence on the thermal evaluation performance factor, and the maximum value was more than 1.3. Numerical simulation can be performed to predict the various geometrical configurations effects on fluid flow, thermal performance, and heat transfer enhancement.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, nusselt number, corrugated ring angle, corrugated diameter

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2124 Cracks Detection and Measurement Using VLP-16 LiDAR and Intel Depth Camera D435 in Real-Time

Authors: Xinwen Zhu, Xingguang Li, Sun Yi

Abstract:

Crack is one of the most common damages in buildings, bridges, roads and so on, which may pose safety hazards. However, cracks frequently happen in structures of various materials. Traditional methods of manual detection and measurement, which are known as subjective, time-consuming, and labor-intensive, are gradually unable to meet the needs of modern development. In addition, crack detection and measurement need be safe considering space limitations and danger. Intelligent crack detection has become necessary research. In this paper, an efficient method for crack detection and quantification using a 3D sensor, LiDAR, and depth camera is proposed. This method works even in a dark environment, which is usual in real-world applications. The LiDAR rapidly spins to scan the surrounding environment and discover cracks through lasers thousands of times per second, providing a rich, 3D point cloud in real-time. The LiDAR provides quite accurate depth information. The precision of the distance of each point can be determined within around  ±3 cm accuracy, and not only it is good for getting a precise distance, but it also allows us to see far of over 100m going with the top range models. But the accuracy is still large for some high precision structures of material. To make the depth of crack is much more accurate, the depth camera is in need. The cracks are scanned by the depth camera at the same time. Finally, all data from LiDAR and Depth cameras are analyzed, and the size of the cracks can be quantified successfully. The comparison shows that the minimum and mean absolute percentage error between measured and calculated width are about 2.22% and 6.27%, respectively. The experiments and results are presented in this paper.

Keywords: Real-time, Lidar, depth camera, detection and measurement

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2123 Augmented ADRC for Trajectory Tracking of a Novel Hydraulic Spherical Motion Mechanism

Authors: Liang Wang, Bin Bian

Abstract:

A hydraulic spherical motion mechanism (HSMM) is proposed. Unlike traditional systems using serial or parallel mechanisms for multi-DOF rotations, the HSMM is capable of implementing continuous 2-DOF rotational motions in a single joint without the intermediate transmission mechanisms. It has some advantages of compact structure, low inertia and high stiffness. However, as HSMM is a nonlinear and multivariable system, it is very complicate to realize accuracy control. Therefore, an augmented active disturbance rejection controller (ADRC) is proposed in this paper. Compared with the traditional PD control method, three compensation items, i.e., dynamics compensation term, disturbance compensation term and nonlinear error elimination term, are added into the proposed algorithm to improve the control performance. The ADRC algorithm aims at offsetting the effects of external disturbance and realizing accurate control. Euler angles are applied to describe the orientation of rotor. Lagrange equations are utilized to establish the dynamic model of the HSMM. The stability of this algorithm is validated with detailed derivation. Simulation model is formulated in Matlab/Simulink. The results show that the proposed control algorithm has better competence of trajectory tracking in the presence of uncertainties.

Keywords: trajectory tracking, active disturbance rejection control, dynamic model, hydraulic spherical motion mechanism

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2122 Temperature Field Measurement of Premixed Landfill Gas Laminar Flame in a Cylindrical Slot Burner Using Mach-Zehnder Interferometry

Authors: Mehdi Ashjaee, Bahareh Najafian Ashrafi, Hossein Zeidabadinejad

Abstract:

The temperature field is a key factor of flame heat transfer rate and therefore should be measured accurately. In this study, the Mach-Zehnder Interferometry method is applied to measure the temperature field of premixed air/landfill gas (LFG60:60% CH4+40% CO2) laminar flame. The three-dimensional flame of cylindrical slot burner can assume to be two-dimensional due to the high aspect ratio (L/W=10) of the rectangular slot. So, the method converts two-dimensional flame to closed isothermal curves called fringes and the outer fringes temperature is measured by thermocouples. The experiments are carried out for Reynolds numbers and equivalence ratios ranging from 100 to 400 and 1.0 to 1.4, respectively. Results show that by increasing the equivalence ratio or Reynolds number, the flame height increases. The maximum flame temperature decreases by increasing the equivalence ratio but does not change considerably by changing the Reynolds number.

Keywords: landfill gas, Mach-Zehender interferometry, premix flame, slot burner, temperature filed

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2121 Determination of Optimal Stress Locations in 2D–9 Noded Element in Finite Element Technique

Authors: Nishant Shrivastava, D. K. Sehgal

Abstract:

In Finite Element Technique nodal stresses are calculated through displacement as nodes. In this process, the displacement calculated at nodes is sufficiently good enough but stresses calculated at nodes are not sufficiently accurate. Therefore, the accuracy in the stress computation in FEM models based on the displacement technique is obviously matter of concern for computational time in shape optimization of engineering problems. In the present work same is focused to find out unique points within the element as well as the boundary of the element so, that good accuracy in stress computation can be achieved. Generally, major optimal stress points are located in domain of the element some points have been also located at boundary of the element where stresses are fairly accurate as compared to nodal values. Then, it is subsequently concluded that there is an existence of unique points within the element, where stresses have higher accuracy than other points in the elements. Therefore, it is main aim is to evolve a generalized procedure for the determination of the optimal stress location inside the element as well as at the boundaries of the element and verify the same with results from numerical experimentation. The results of quadratic 9 noded serendipity elements are presented and the location of distinct optimal stress points is determined inside the element, as well as at the boundaries. The theoretical results indicate various optimal stress locations are in local coordinates at origin and at a distance of 0.577 in both directions from origin. Also, at the boundaries optimal stress locations are at the midpoints of the element boundary and the locations are at a distance of 0.577 from the origin in both directions. The above findings were verified through experimentation and findings were authenticated. For numerical experimentation five engineering problems were identified and the numerical results of 9-noded element were compared to those obtained by using the same order of 25-noded quadratic Lagrangian elements, which are considered as standard. Then root mean square errors are plotted with respect to various locations within the elements as well as the boundaries and conclusions were drawn. After numerical verification it is noted that in a 9-noded element, origin and locations at a distance of 0.577 from origin in both directions are the best sampling points for the stresses. It was also noted that stresses calculated within line at boundary enclosed by 0.577 midpoints are also very good and the error found is very less. When sampling points move away from these points, then it causes line zone error to increase rapidly. Thus, it is established that there are unique points at boundary of element where stresses are accurate, which can be utilized in solving various engineering problems and are also useful in shape optimizations.

Keywords:

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2120 A Study of Compressor CFD Solution Methods and Domain Decomposition: Cost vs Accuracy

Authors: Brett Peter Dewar

Abstract:

All computational models are a compromise between accuracy and computational expense, namely solution time. In turbomachinery CFD Ansys CFX provides the user with a simple method of simulating compressor performance by modelling one blade passage: inlet, impeller and diffuser; be it vaned or not, combined with periodic boundary conditions this greatly reduces simulation time for evaluating the whole compressor. This method does not involve simulation of the volute, a key component of the overall system. To incorporate the volute into the simulation the user must supply solution information across the diffuser – volute interface which by nature covers all blade passages. There are two ways to provide this information: by simulating all blade passages individually without periodic boundary conditions and by taking the diffuser outlet solution data of one blade passage and repeating it over the circumference of the volute inlet. The former is the most accurate, considering circumferential variations in the impeller and the effect the volute has on the impeller, not just the effect the impeller has on the volute. The latter method is computationally cheaper but not as accurate owing to it ignoring the aforementioned variations. Within this method of simulating the single blade passage there presents another method to reduce or increase solution cost and accuracy. In the case of a vaneless diffuser the question becomes how much of the diffuser is included in the volute part of the model, and thus covering all blade passages, or in the impeller part of the model, where it only needs to be solved for once but will ignore circumferential variation. This work examines the ways in which a whole compressor system can be decomposed and solved. It looks at the relative gains in solution accuracy as computational costs increase, specifically examining whether for operation close to design point whether it is necessary to simulate all blade passages, such work is for incorporating the volute into solution data but gaining faster results, such as in generating a compressor map.

Keywords: Turbomachinery, CFD, Mesh, Solution Methods

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2119 Vibration Frequency Analysis of Sandwich Nano-Plate on Visco Pasternak Foundation by Using Modified Couple Stress Theory

Authors: Hamed Khani Arani, Mohammad Shariyat, Armaghan Mohammadian

Abstract:

In this research, the free vibration of a rectangular sandwich nano-plate (SNP) made of three smart layers in the visco Pasternak foundation is studied. The core of the sandwich is a piezo magnetic nano-plate integrated with two layers of piezoelectric materials. First-order shear deformation plate theory is utilized to derive the motion equations by using Hamilton’s principle, piezoelectricity, and modified couple stress theory. Elastic medium is modeled by visco Pasternak foundation, where the damping coefficient effect is investigated on the stability of sandwich nano-plate. These equations are solved by the differential quadrature method (DQM), considering different boundary conditions. Results indicate the effect of various parameters such as aspect ratio, thickness ratio, shear correction factor, damping coefficient, and boundary conditions on the dimensionless frequency of sandwich nano-plate. The results are also compared by those available in the literature, and these findings can be used for automotive industry, communications equipment, active noise, stability, and vibration cancellation systems and utilized for designing the magnetostrictive actuator, motor, transducer and sensors in nano and micro smart structures.

Keywords: free vibration, modified couple stress theory, sandwich nano-plate, visco Pasternak foundation

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2118 Study and Simulation of a Dynamic System Using Digital Twin

Authors: J.P. Henriques, E. R. Neto, G. Almeida, G. Ribeiro, J.V. Coutinho, A.B. Lugli

Abstract:

Industry 4.0, or the Fourth Industrial Revolution, is transforming the relationship between people and machines. In this scenario, some technologies such as Cloud Computing, Internet of Things, Augmented Reality, Artificial Intelligence, Additive Manufacturing, among others, are making industries and devices increasingly intelligent. One of the most powerful technologies of this new revolution is the Digital Twin, which allows the virtualization of a real system or process. In this context, the present paper addresses the linear and nonlinear dynamic study of a didactic level plant using Digital Twin. In the first part of the work, the level plant is identified at a fixed point of operation, BY using the existing method of least squares means. The linearized model is embedded in a Digital Twin using Automation Studio® from Famous Technologies. Finally, in order to validate the usage of the Digital Twin in the linearized study of the plant, the dynamic response of the real system is compared to the Digital Twin. Furthermore, in order to develop the nonlinear model on a Digital Twin, the didactic level plant is identified by using the method proposed by Hammerstein. Different steps are applied to the plant, and from the Hammerstein algorithm, the nonlinear model is obtained for all operating ranges of the plant. As for the linear approach, the nonlinear model is embedded in the Digital Twin, and the dynamic response is compared to the real system in different points of operation. Finally, yet importantly, from the practical results obtained, one can conclude that the usage of Digital Twin to study the dynamic systems is extremely useful in the industrial environment, taking into account that it is possible to develop and tune controllers BY using the virtual model of the real systems.

Keywords: System Identification, Industry 4.0, Digital Twin, linear and nonlinear models

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2117 Computational Approaches for Ballistic Impact Response of Stainless Steel 304

Authors: A. Mostafa

Abstract:

This paper presents a numerical study on determination of ballistic limit velocity (V50) of stainless steel 304 (SS 304) used in manufacturing security screens. The simulated ballistic impact tests were conducted on clamped sheets with different thicknesses using ABAQUS/Explicit nonlinear finite element (FE) package. The ballistic limit velocity was determined using three approaches, namely: numerical tests based on material properties, FE calculated residual velocities and FE calculated residual energies. Johnson-Cook plasticity and failure criterion were utilized to simulate the dynamic behaviour of the SS 304 under various strain rates, while the well-known Lambert-Jonas equation was used for the data regression for the residual velocity and energy model. Good agreement between the investigated numerical methods was achieved. Additionally, the dependence of the ballistic limit velocity on the sheet thickness was observed. The proposed approaches present viable and cost-effective assessment methods of the ballistic performance of SS 304, which will support the development of robust security screen systems.

Keywords: Numerical Approaches, stainless steel, ballistic velocity, security screen

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2116 Numerical Simulation for Self-Loosening Phenomenon Analysis of Bolt Joint under Vibration

Authors: Long Kim Vu, Ban Dang Nguyen

Abstract:

Over the years, numerous experimental researches have been implemented to investigate the self-loosening failure analysis of bolt joint under different types of vibration. However, these experimental methods do not give insight into this phenomenon. In this paper, the finite element (FE) method is utilized to simulate the comprehensive process, including tightening, releasing, and self-loosening of a bolt joint under various vibration conditions. According to model accurately, the geometry of helical threads, an absolutely hexahedral meshing, is implemented. The accuracy of finite element method has been verified and validated by comparison with the experimental results on clamping force – vibration relationship, which shows a sufficient correlation. By post-processing, the simulation output, the contact state between internal and external threads are analyzed to explain the mechanism of self-loosening phenomena.

Keywords: Finite Element Method, FEM, bolt self-loosening, contact state, helical thread modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2115 Experimental Investigation on the Effect of Cross Flow on Discharge Coefficient of an Orifice

Authors: Mathew Saxon A, Aneeh Rajan, Sajeev P

Abstract:

Many fluid flow applications employ different types of orifices to control the flow rate or to reduce the pressure. Discharge coefficients generally vary from 0.6 to 0.95 depending on the type of the orifice. The tabulated value of discharge coefficients of various types of orifices available can be used in most common applications. The upstream and downstream flow condition of an orifice is hardly considered while choosing the discharge coefficient of an orifice. But literature shows that the discharge coefficient can be affected by the presence of cross flow. Cross flow is defined as the condition wherein; a fluid is injected nearly perpendicular to a flowing fluid. Most researchers have worked on water being injected into a cross-flow of water. The present work deals with water to gas systems in which water is injected in a normal direction into a flowing stream of gas. The test article used in the current work is called thermal regulator, which is used in a liquid rocket engine to reduce the temperature of hot gas tapped from the gas generator by injecting water into the hot gas so that a cooler gas can be supplied to the turbine. In a thermal regulator, water is injected through an orifice in a normal direction into the hot gas stream. But the injection orifice had been calibrated under backpressure by maintaining a stagnant gas medium at the downstream. The motivation of the present study aroused due to the observation of a lower Cd of the orifice in flight compared to the calibrated Cd. A systematic experimental investigation is carried out in this paper to study the effect of cross-flow on the discharge coefficient of an orifice in water to a gas system. The study reveals that there is an appreciable reduction in the discharge coefficient with cross flow compared to that without cross flow. It is found that the discharge coefficient greatly depends on the ratio of momentum of water injected to the momentum of the gas cross flow. The effective discharge coefficient of different orifices was normalized using the discharge coefficient without cross-flow and it is observed that normalized curves of effective discharge coefficient of different orifices with momentum ratio collapsing into a single curve. Further, an equation is formulated using the test data to predict the effective discharge coefficient with cross flow using the calibrated Cd value without cross flow.

Keywords: orifice, cross flow, discharge coefficient, momentum ratio

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2114 A Steady State Characteristics of Four-Lobe Journal Bearing Lubricated with a Couple Stress Fluids in Turbulent Flow Regime

Authors: Boualem Chetti, Samir Zahaf

Abstract:

This paper presents the steady-state performance analysis of a four-lobe journal bearing lubricated with a couple stress fluids operating in the turbulent regime, following Constantinescu’s turbulent lubrication theory. The modified Reynolds equation is solved numerically using the finite difference method taking into consideration the effects of the turbulence and the couple stress. In this analysis, the steady-state parameters in terms of the attitude angle, load carrying capacity, side leakage and friction coefficient are determined at various values of eccentricities ratio. The computed results show that the turbulence increases the load carrying capacity, the attitude angle and the friction coefficient for a journal bearing lubricated with a Newtonian or a couple stress fluids. It is found that the turbulence has strongly influence on the steady-state performances of the four-lobe journal bearing lubricated with Newtonian fluids or a couple stress fluids.

Keywords: Turbulent Flow, static characteristics, Four-lobe journal bearings, couple-stress fluids

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2113 Convergence Results of Two-Dimensional Homogeneous Elastic Plates from Truncation of Potential Energy

Authors: Nikhil Padhye, Erick Pruchnicki

Abstract:

Plates are important engineering structures which have attracted extensive research since the 19th century. The subject of this work is statical analysis of a linearly elastic homogenous plate under small deformations. A 'thin plate' is a three-dimensional structure comprising of a small transverse dimension with respect to a flat mid-surface. The general aim of any plate theory is to deduce a two-dimensional model, in terms of mid-surface quantities, to approximately and accurately describe the plate's deformation in terms of mid-surface quantities. In recent decades, a common starting point for this purpose is to utilize series expansion of a displacement field across the thickness dimension in terms of the thickness parameter (h). These attempts are mathematically consistent in deriving leading-order plate theories based on certain a priori scaling between the thickness and the applied loads; for example, asymptotic methods which are aimed at generating leading-order two-dimensional variational problems by postulating formal asymptotic expansion of the displacement fields. Such methods rigorously generate a hierarchy of two-dimensional models depending on the order of magnitude of the applied load with respect to the plate-thickness. However, in practice, applied loads are external and thus not directly linked or dependent on the geometry/thickness of the plate; thus, rendering any such model (based on a priori scaling) of limited practical utility. In other words, the main limitation of these approaches is that they do not furnish a single plate model for all orders of applied loads. Following analogy of recent efforts of deploying Fourier-series expansion to study convergence of reduced models, we propose two-dimensional model(s) resulting from truncation of the potential energy and rigorously prove the convergence of these two-dimensional plate models to the parent three-dimensional linear elasticity with increasing truncation order of the potential energy.

Keywords: Legendre polynomials, Plate Theory, Fourier-series expansion, convergence result

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2112 A New Evolutionary Algorithm for Multi-Objective Cylindrical Spur Gear Design Optimization

Authors: Hammoudi Abderazek

Abstract:

The present paper introduces a modified adaptive mixed differential evolution (MAMDE) to select the main geometry parameters of specific cylindrical spur gear. The developed algorithm used the self-adaptive mechanism in order to update the values of mutation and crossover factors. The feasibility rules are used in the selection phase to improve the search exploration of MAMDE. Moreover, the elitism is performed to keep the best individual found in each generation. For the constraints handling the normalization method is used to treat each constraint design equally. The finite element analysis is used to confirm the optimization results for the maximum bending resistance. The simulation results reached in this paper indicate clearly that the proposed algorithm is very competitive in precision gear design optimization.

Keywords: Meta-heuristics, evolutionary algorithm, spur gear, Tooth profile

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2111 On Cold Roll Bonding of Polymeric Films

Authors: Nikhil Padhye

Abstract:

Recently a new phenomenon for bonding of polymeric films in solid-state, at ambient temperatures well below the glass transition temperature of the polymer, has been reported. This is achieved by bulk plastic compression of polymeric films held in contact. Here we analyze the process of cold-rolling of polymeric films via finite element simulations and illustrate a flexible and modular experimental rolling-apparatus that can achieve bonding of polymeric films through cold-rolling. Firstly, the classical theory of rolling a rigid-plastic thin-strip is utilized to estimate various deformation fields such as strain-rates, velocities, loads etc. in rolling the polymeric films at the specified feed-rates and desired levels of thickness-reduction(s). Predicted magnitudes of slow strain-rates, particularly at ambient temperatures during rolling, and moderate levels of plastic deformation (at which Bauschinger effect can be neglected for the particular class of polymeric materials studied here), greatly simplifies the task of material modeling and allows us to deploy a computationally efficient, yet accurate, finite deformation rate-independent elastic-plastic material behavior model (with inclusion of isotropic-hardening) for analyzing the rolling of these polymeric films. The interfacial behavior between the roller and polymer surfaces is modeled using Coulombic friction; consistent with the rate-independent behavior. The finite deformation elastic-plastic material behavior based on (i) the additive decomposition of stretching tensor (D = De + Dp, i.e. a hypoelastic formulation) with incrementally objective time integration and, (ii) multiplicative decomposition of deformation gradient (F = FeFp) into elastic and plastic parts, are programmed and carried out for cold-rolling within ABAQUS Explicit. Predictions from both the formulations, i.e., hypoelastic and multiplicative decomposition, exhibit a close match. We find that no specialized hyperlastic/visco-plastic model is required to describe the behavior of the blend of polymeric films, under the conditions described here, thereby speeding up the computation process .

Keywords: Bonding, Rolling, Polymer Plasticity, Deformation Induced Mobility

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2110 Dynamic Relaxation and Isogeometric Analysis for Finite Deformation Elastic Sheets with Combined Bending and Stretching

Authors: Nikhil Padhye, Ellen Kintz, Dan Dorci

Abstract:

Recent years have seen a rising interest in study and applications of materially uniform thin-structures (plates/shells) subject to finite-bending and stretching deformations. We introduce a well-posed 2D-model involving finite-bending and stretching of thin-structures to approximate the three-dimensional equilibria. Key features of this approach include: Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline (NURBS)-based spatial discretization for finite elements, method of dynamic relaxation to predict stable equilibria, and no a priori kinematic assumption on the deformation fields. The approach is validated against the benchmark problems,and the use of NURBS for spatial discretization facilitates exact spatial representation and computation of curvatures (due to C1-continuity of interpolated displacements) for this higher-order accuracy 2D-model.

Keywords: Finite element methods, Isogeometric Analysis, Plates/Shells, Dynamic Relaxation

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2109 A Predictive Model of Supply and Demand in the State of Jalisco, Mexico

Authors: M. Gil, R. Montalvo

Abstract:

Business Intelligence (BI) has become a major source of competitive advantages for firms around the world. BI has been defined as the process of data visualization and reporting for understanding what happened and what is happening. Moreover, BI has been studied for its predictive capabilities in the context of trade and financial transactions. The current literature has identified that BI permits managers to identify market trends, understand customer relations, and predict demand for their products and services. This last capability of BI has been of special concern to academics. Specifically, due to its power to build predictive models adaptable to specific time horizons and geographical regions. However, the current literature of BI focuses on predicting specific markets and industries because the impact of such predictive models was relevant to specific industries or organizations. Currently, the existing literature has not developed a predictive model of BI that takes into consideration the whole economy of a geographical area. This paper seeks to create a predictive model of BI that would show the bigger picture of a geographical area. This paper uses a data set from the Secretary of Economic Development of the state of Jalisco, Mexico. Such data set includes data from all the commercial transactions that occurred in the state in the last years. By analyzing such data set, it will be possible to generate a BI model that predicts supply and demand from specific industries around the state of Jalisco. This research has at least three contributions. Firstly, a methodological contribution to the BI literature by generating the predictive supply and demand model. Secondly, a theoretical contribution to BI current understanding. The model presented in this paper incorporates the whole picture of the economic field instead of focusing on a specific industry. Lastly, a practical contribution might be relevant to local governments that seek to improve their economic performance by implementing BI in their policy planning.

Keywords: Business Intelligence, Supply and demand, predictive model, Mexico

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2108 Modeling and Analysis of a Cycling Prosthetic

Authors: Yong Seok Park, John Tolentino

Abstract:

There are currently many people living with limb loss in the USA. The main causes for amputation can range from vascular disease, to trauma, or cancer. This number is expected increase over the next decade. Many patients have a single prosthetic for the first year but end up getting a second one to accommodate their changing physique. Afterwards, the prosthesis gets replaced every three to five years depending on how often it is used. This could cost the patient up to $500,000 throughout their lifetime. Complications do not end there, however. Due to the absence of nerves, it becomes more difficult to traverse terrain with a prosthetic. Moving on an incline or decline becomes difficult, thus curbs and stairs can be a challenge. Certain physical activities, such as cycling, could be even more strenuous. It will need to be relearned to accommodate for the change in weight, center of gravity, and transfer of energy from the leg to the pedal. The purpose of this research project is to develop a new, alternate below-knee cycling prosthetic using Dieter & Schmidt’s design process approach. It will be subjected to fatigue analysis under dynamic loading to observe the limitations as well as the strengths and weaknesses of the prosthetic. Benchmark comparisons will be made between existing prosthetics and the proposed one, examining the benefits and disadvantages. The resulting prosthetic will be 3D printed using acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) or polycarbonate (PC) plastic.

Keywords: Cycling, Prosthetic design, Synthetic design

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2107 Multiscale Approach for the Structural Simulation of Carbon Fiber Sheet Molding Compounds

Authors: Peter Fischer, Philipp S. Stelzer, Federico Coren, Bernhard Plank, Zoltan Major

Abstract:

Carbon fiber sheet molding compounds (CF-SMC) are promising high-performance materials for lightweight applications in the automotive industry. The discontinuous type of reinforcement enables the manufacture of complex, three-dimensional shapes in a cost efficient compression molding process. Thus, they are more suitable for large-scale production than conventional composites with continuous fiber reinforcement. CF-SMCs consist either of chopped prepreg platelets or carbon fiber tows dispersed in a resin, which are randomly oriented and distributed to form a semi-finished sheet. The stochastic composition and the flow behavior during processing result in a complex mesostructure with inherent defects and fiber alignment in high-flow areas. This mesostructure determines the macroscopic material behavior and needs to be considered in the structural analysis. The current work presents a multiscale modeling approach for the structural simulation of CF-SMC components. The objective is the development of a computationally effective, macroscale finite element model based on the laminate analogy approach. Anisotropic failure criteria with progressive damage accumulation are used to predict structural failure accurately. Full-scale three-dimensional finite element models of representative volume elements (RVE) are used to consider the complex stochastic mesostructure on the micro and mesoscale in order to determine suitable macroscale material parameters. X-ray computed tomography measurements are performed to generate realistic RVE models. Quasi-static, monotonic 3- and 4-point bending tests of manufactured hat profiles are carried out to validate the simulation models. The macroscopic material behavior and the variability of mechanical properties are well captured with the proposed simulation methodology and are in good agreement with the experiments.

Keywords: Carbon Fiber, Failure, Compression Molding, discontinuous reinforcement

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2106 Design of an Eddy Current Brake System for the Use of Roller Coasters Based on a Human Factors Engineering Approach

Authors: Yong Seok Park, Adam L. Yanagihara

Abstract:

The goal of this paper is to converge upon a design of a brake system that could be used for a roller coaster found at an amusement park. It was necessary to find what could be deemed as a “comfortable” deceleration so that passengers do not feel as if they are suddenly jerked and pressed against the restraining harnesses. A human factors engineering approach was taken in order to determine this deceleration. Using a previous study that tested the deceleration of transit vehicles, it was found that a -0.45 G deceleration would be used as a design requirement to build this system around. An adjustable linear eddy current brake using permanent magnets would be the ideal system to use in order to meet this design requirement. Anthropometric data were then used to determine a realistic weight and length of the roller coaster that the brake was being designed for. The weight and length data were then factored into magnetic brake force equations. These equations were used to determine how the brake system and the brake run layout would be designed. A final design for the brake was determined and it was found that a total of 12 brakes would be needed with a maximum braking distance of 53.6 m in order to stop a roller coaster travelling at its top speed and loaded to maximum capacity. This design is derived from theoretical calculations, but is within the realm of feasibility.

Keywords: Engineering design, Human Factors Engineering, Design Synthesis, eddy current brake

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2105 The Effectiveness of Synthesizing A-Pillar Structures in Passenger Cars

Authors: Yong Seok Park, Chris Phan

Abstract:

The Toyota Camry is one of the best-selling cars in America. It is economical, reliable, and most importantly, safe. These attributes allowed the Camry to be the trustworthy choice when choosing dependable vehicle. However, a new finding brought question to the Camry’s safety. Since 1997, the Camry received a “good” rating on its moderate overlap front crash test through the Insurance Institute of Highway Safety. In 2012, the Insurance Institute of Highway Safety introduced a frontal small overlap crash test into the overall evaluation of vehicle occupant safety test. The 2012 Camry received a “poor” rating on this new test, while the 2015 Camry redeemed itself with a “good” rating once again. This study aims to find a possible solution that Toyota implemented to reduce the severity of a frontal small overlap crash in the Camry during a mid-cycle update. The purpose of this study is to analyze and evaluate the performance of various A-pillar shapes as energy absorbing structures in improving passenger safety in a frontal crash. First, A-pillar structures of the 2012 and 2015 Camry were modeled using CAD software, namely SolidWorks. Then, a crash test simulation using ANSYS software, was applied to the A-pillars to analyze the behavior of the structures in similar conditions. Finally, the results were compared to safety values of cabin intrusion to determine the crashworthy behaviors of both A-pillar structures by measuring total deformation. This study highlights that it is possible that Toyota improved the shape of the A-pillar in the 2015 Camry in order to receive a “good” rating from the IIHS safety evaluation once again. These findings can possibly be used to increase safety performance in future vehicles to decrease passenger injury or fatality.

Keywords: Finite Element Analysis, Crashworthiness, A-pillar, Design Synthesis

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2104 Inertial Spreading of Drop on Porous Surfaces

Authors: Shilpa Sahoo, Michel Louge, Anthony Reeves, Olivier Desjardins, Susan Daniel, Sadik Omowunmi

Abstract:

The microgravity on the International Space Station (ISS) was exploited to study the imbibition of water into a network of hydrophilic cylindrical capillaries on time and length scales long enough to observe details hitherto inaccessible under Earth gravity. When a drop touches a porous medium, it spreads as if laid on a composite surface. The surface first behaves as a hydrophobic material, as liquid must penetrate pores filled with air. When contact is established, some of the liquid is drawn into pores by a capillarity that is resisted by viscous forces growing with length of the imbibed region. This process always begins with an inertial regime that is complicated by possible contact pinning. To study imbibition on Earth, time and distance must be shrunk to mitigate gravity-induced distortion. These small scales make it impossible to observe the inertial and pinning processes in detail. Instead, in the International Space Station (ISS), astronaut Luca Parmitano slowly extruded water spheres until they touched any of nine capillary plates. The 12mm diameter droplets were large enough for high-speed GX1050C video cameras on top and side to visualize details near individual capillaries, and long enough to observe dynamics of the entire imbibition process. To investigate the role of contact pinning, a text matrix was produced which consisted nine kinds of porous capillary plates made of gold-coated brass treated with Self-Assembled Monolayers (SAM) that fixed advancing and receding contact angles to known values. In the ISS, long-term microgravity allowed unambiguous observations of the role of contact line pinning during the inertial phase of imbibition. The high-speed videos of spreading and imbibition on the porous plates were analyzed using computer vision software to calculate the radius of the droplet contact patch with the plate and height of the droplet vs time. These observations are compared with numerical simulations and with data that we obtained at the ESA ZARM free-fall tower in Bremen with a unique mechanism producing relatively large water spheres and similarity in the results were observed. The data obtained from the ISS can be used as a benchmark for further numerical simulations in the field.

Keywords: porous medium, droplet imbibition, hydrophilic surface, inertial phase

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2103 Development of Lead-Bismuth Eutectic Sub-Channel Code Available for Wire Spacer

Authors: Qi Lu, Jian Deng, Daishun Huang, Chao Guo

Abstract:

The lead cooled fast reactor is considered as one of the most potential Generation IV nuclear systems due to the low working pressure, the appreciable neutron economy, and the considerable passive characteristics. Meanwhile, the lead bismuth eutectic (LBE) has the related advantages of lead with the weaker corrosiveness, which has been paid much attention by recent decades. Moreover, the sub-channel code is a necessary analysis tool for the reactor thermal-hydraulic design and safety analysis, which has been developed combined with the accumulation of LBE experimental data and the understanding of physical phenomena. In this study, a sub-channel code available for LBE was developed, and the corresponding geometric characterization method of typical sub-channels was described in detail, especially for for the fuel assembly with wire spacer. As for this sub-channel code, the transversal thermal conduction through gap was taken into account. In addition, the physical properties, the heat transfer model, the flow resistance model and the turbulent mixing model were analyzed. Finally, the thermal-hydraulic experiments of LBE conducted on THEADES (THErmal-hydraulics and Ads DESign) were selected as the evaluation data of this sub-channel code, including 19 rods with wire spacer, and the calculated results were in good agreement with the experimental results.

Keywords: lead bismuth eutectic, sub-channel code, wire spacer, transversal thermal conduction

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2102 Flame Kernel Growth and Related Effects of Spark Plug Electrodes: Fluid Motion Interaction in an Optically Accessible DISI Engine

Authors: A. Schirru, A. Irimescu, S. Merola, A. d’Adamo, S. Fontanesi

Abstract:

One of the aspects that are usually neglected during the design phase of an engine is the effect of the spark plug on the flow field inside the combustion chamber. Because of the difficulties in the experimental investigation of the mutual interaction between flow alteration and early flame kernel convection effect inside the engine combustion chamber, CFD-3D simulation is usually exploited in such cases. Experimentally speaking, a particular type of engine has to be used in order to directly observe the flame propagation process. In this study, a double electrode spark plug was fitted into an optically accessible engine and a high-speed camera was used to capture the initial stages of the combustion process. Both the arc and the kernel phases were observed. Then, a morphologic analysis was carried out and the position of the center of mass of the flame, relative to the spark plug position, was calculated. The crossflow orientation was chosen for the spark plug and the kernel growth process was observed for different air-fuel ratios. It was observed that during a normal cycle the flow field between the electrodes tends to transport the arc deforming it. Because of that, the kernel growth phase takes place away from the electrodes and the flame propagates with a preferential direction dictated by the flow field.

Keywords: Combustion, Optically Accessible Engine, Spark-Ignition Engine, Sparl Orientation, Kernel Growth

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2101 The Effects of Aging on the Cost of Operating and Support: An Empirical Study Applied to Weapon Systems

Authors: Byungchae Kim, Jiwoo Nam

Abstract:

Aging of weapon systems can cause the failure and degeneration of components which results in increase of operating and support costs. However, whether this aging effect is significantly strong and it influences a lot on national defense spending due to the rapid increase in operating and support (O&S) costs is questionable. To figure out this, we conduct a literature review analyzing the aging effect of US weapon systems. We also conduct an empirical research using a maintenance database of Korean weapon systems, Defense Logistics Integrated Information System (DAIIS). We run regression of various types of O&S cost on weapon system age to investigate the statistical significance of aging effect and use generalized linear model to find relations between the failure of different priced components and the age. Our major finding is although aging effect exists, its impacts on weapon system cost seem to be not too large considering several characteristics of O&S cost elements not relying on the age.

Keywords: GLM, aging effect, O&S cost, weapon system

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2100 Development of Long and Short Range Ordered Domains in a High Specific Strength Steel

Authors: Nikhil Kumar, Aparna Singh

Abstract:

Microstructural development when annealed at different temperatures in a high aluminum and manganese light weight steel has been examined. The FCC matrix of the manganese (Mn)-rich and nickel (Ni)-rich areas in the studied Fe-Mn-Al-Ni-C-light weight steel have been found to contain anti phase domains. In the Mn-rich region short order range of domains manifested by the diffuse scattering in the electron diffraction patterns was observed. Domains in the Ni-rich region were found to be arranged periodically validated through lattice imaging. The nature of these domains can be tuned with annealing temperature resulting in profound influence in the mechanical properties.

Keywords: FCC, BCC, Anti-phase domain boundaries, Light Weight Steel

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2099 Torque Loss Prediction Test Method of Bolted Joints in Heavy Commercial Vehicles

Authors: Volkan Ayik

Abstract:

Loosening as a result of torque loss in bolted joints is one of the most encountered problems resulting in loss of connection between parts. The main reason for this is the dynamic loads to which the joints are subjected while the vehicle is moving. In particular, vibration-induced loads can loosen the joints in any size and geometry. The aim of this study is to study an improved method due to road-induced vibration in heavy commercial vehicles for estimating the vibration performance of bolted joints of the components connected to the chassis, before conducting prototype level vehicle structural strength tests on a proving ground. The frequency and displacements caused by the road conditions-induced vibration loads have been determined for the parts connected to the chassis, and various experimental design scenarios have been formed by matching specific components and vibration behaviors. In the studies, the performance of the torque, washer, test displacement, and test frequency parameters were observed by maintaining the connection characteristics on the vehicle, and the sensitivity ratios for these variables were calculated. As a result of these experimental design findings, tests performed on a developed device based on Junker’s vibration device and proving ground conditions versus test correlation levels were found.

Keywords: Bolted joints, junker’s test, loosening failure, torque loss

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2098 An Analytical Method for Maintenance Cost Estimating Relationships of Helicopters Using Linear Programming

Authors: Meesun Sun, Yongmin Kim

Abstract:

Estimating maintenance cost is crucial in defense management because it affects military budgets and availability of equipment. When it comes to estimating maintenance cost of the deployed equipment, time series forecasting can be applied with the actual historical cost data. It is more difficult issue to estimate maintenance cost of new equipment for which the actual costs are not provided. In this underlying context, this study proposes an analytical method for maintenance cost estimating relationships (CERs) development of helicopters using linear programming. The CERs can be applied to a new helicopter because they use non-cost independent variables such as the number of engines, the empty weight and so on. In the Republic of Korea, the maintenance cost of new equipment has been usually estimated by reflecting maintenance cost to unit price ratio of the legacy equipment. This study confirms that the CERs perform well for the 10 types of airmobile helicopters in terms of mean absolute percentage error by applying leave-one-out cross-validation. The suggested method is very useful to estimate the maintenance cost of new equipment and can help in the affordability assessment of acquisition program portfolios for total life cycle systems management.

Keywords: Helicopter, Linear Programming, maintenance cost, affordability analysis, cost estimating relationship

Procedia PDF Downloads 1