Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2793

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Environmental and Ecological Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

2793 Evaluating Water Quality Index of Euphrates River South-West Part of Iraq, Najaf, Alhadaria by Using GIS Technique

Authors: Ali Abojassim, Nabeel Kadhim, Adil Jaber, Ali Hussein

Abstract:

Water quality index (WQI) is valuable and unique rating to depict the total water quality status in a single term that is helpful for the selection of appropriate treatment technique to meet the concerned issues. Fifteen surface water samples were collected from the Euphrates river within AlHaydria is sub district of AL-Najaf (Iraq). The quality of surface water were evaluated by testing various physicochemical parameters such as pH, Total Dissolved Solid (TDS), , Calcium, Chloride, Sulphate and Electrical conductivity. The WQI for all samples were found in the range of 25.92 to 47.22. The highest value of WQI was observed in the Ali Hajj Hassan(SW4,SW8), El Haj Abdel Sayed (SW 10 to SW 12)and Hasan alsab(SW 14) sampling locations. Most of the water samples within study area were found good to moderate categories. most of the water samples for study area were found good as well as moderate categories

Keywords: GIS, water quality index, physicochemical parameters, Iraq Standards for irrigation purpose 2012

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2792 Variation in Wood Anatomical Properties of Acacia seyal var. seyal Tree Species Growing in Different Zones in Sudan

Authors: Hanadi Mohamed Shawgi Gamal, Ashraf Mohamed Ahmed Abdalla

Abstract:

Sudan is endowed by a great diversity of tree species; nevertheless, the utilization of wood resources has traditionally concentrated on a few number of species. With the great variation in the climatic zones of Sudan, great variations are expected in the anatomical properties between and within species. This variation needs to be fully explored in order to suggest the best uses for the species. Modern research on wood has substantiated that the climatic condition where the species grow has significant effect on wood properties. Understanding the extent of variability of wood is important because the uses for each kind of wood are related to its characteristics; furthermore, the suitability or quality of wood for a particular purpose is determined by the variability of one or more of these characteristics. The present study demonstrates the effect of rainfall zones in some anatomical properties of Acacia seyal var. seyal growing in Sudan. For this purpose, twenty healthy trees were collected randomly from two zones (ten trees per zone). One zone with relatively low rainfall (273mm annually) which represented by North Kordofan state and White Nile state and the second with relatively high rainfall (701 mm annually) represented by Blue Nile state and South Kordofan state. From each sampled tree, a stem disc (3 cm thick) was cut at 10% from stem height. One radius was obtained in central stem dices. Two representative samples were taken from each disc, one at 10% distance from pith to bark, the second at 90% in order to represent the juvenile and mature wood. The investigated anatomical properties were fibers length, fibers and vessels diameter, lumen diameter, and wall thickness as well as cell proportions. The result of the current study reveals significant differences between zones in mature wood vessels diameter and wall thickness, as well as juvenile wood vessels, wall thickness. The higher values were detected in the drier zone. Significant differences were also observed in juvenile wood fiber length, diameter as well as wall thickness. Contrary to vessels diameter and wall thickness, the fiber length, diameter as well as wall thickness were decreased in the drier zone. No significant differences have been detected in cell proportions of juvenile and mature wood. The significant differences in some fiber and vessels dimension lead to expect significant differences in wood density. From these results, Acacia seyal var. seyal seems to be well adapted with the change in rainfall and may survive in any rainfall zone.

Keywords: Variation, anatomical properties, Acacia seyal var. seyal, rainfall zones

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2791 Validation of the X-Ray Densitometry Method for Radial Density Pattern Determination of Acacia seyal var. seyal Tree Species

Authors: Hanadi Mohamed Shawgi Gamal, Claus Thomas Bues

Abstract:

Wood density is a variable influencing many of the technological and quality properties of wood. Understanding the pattern of wood density radial variation is important for its end-use. The X-ray technique, traditionally applied to softwood species to assess the wood quality properties, due to its simple and relatively uniform wood structure. On the other hand, very limited information is available about the validation of using this technique for hardwood species. The suitability of using the X-ray technique for the determination of hardwood density has a special significance in countries like Sudan, where only a few timbers are well known. This will not only save the time consumed by using the traditional methods, but it will also enhance the investigations of the great number of the lesser known species, the thing which will fill the huge cap of lake information of hardwood species growing in Sudan. The current study aimed to evaluate the validation of using the X-ray densitometry technique to determine the radial variation of wood density of Acacia seyal var. seyal. To this, a total of thirty trees were collected randomly from four states in Sudan. The wood density radial trend was determined using the basic density as well as density obtained by the X-ray densitometry method in order to assess the validation of X-ray technique in wood density radial variation determination. The results showed that the pattern of radial trend of density obtained by X-ray technique is very similar to that achieved by basic density. These results confirmed the validation of using the X-ray technique for Acacia seyal var. seyal density radial trend determination. It also promotes the suitability of using this method in other hardwood species.

Keywords: wood density, X-ray densitometry, Acacia seyal var. seyal, radial variation

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2790 Synthesis of Positively Charged Thin Film Composite Membrane for Removal of Heavy Metals

Authors: Bart Van der Bruggen, Minh Trang Hoang, Tien Duc Pham, Manh Khai Nguyen, Thi Thuy Pham

Abstract:

This study aims to develop a new strategy to fabricate nanofiltration (NF) membranes with high removal efficiency for heavy metal ions. Thin-film nanocomposite nanofiltration (TFN) membrane was prepared via interfacial polymerization between polyethyleneimine (PEI) and trimesoyl chloride (TMC) with the incorporation of cellulose nanoparticles for removal of heavy metals from aqueous environment. The physicochemical properties of these membranes were characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM), attenuated total reflection -Fourier transform infra-red (ATR-FTIR), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle analysis. Physicochemical analysis confirmed the formation of polyamide (PA) layer for all TFC membranes. Water contact angle measurements and pure water test showed that the surface hydrophilicity of TFN membranes was improved with increment CNCs concentration. By adding CNCs nanoparticles, the membrane performance showed growing trend in the case of flux with a competitive rejection performance to Pb2+ and Cu2+. These results indicate the potential application of the CNCs-based TFN membranes for heavy metals treatment technology. Moreover, the renewable CNCs are safe and environmentally friendly nanoparticles. Therefore, their possible leaching out during membrane operation would not impose health and environmental concerns.

Keywords: interfacial polymerization, PEI, cellulose nanoparticles, thin-film nanocomposite membrane

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2789 Biodegradation Study of a Biocomposite Material Based on Sunflower Oil and Alfa Fibers as Natural Resources

Authors: Sihem Kadem, Ratiba Irinislimane, Naima Belhaneche

Abstract:

The natural resistance to biodegradation of polymeric materials prepared from petroleum-based source and the management of their wastes in the environment are the driving forces to replace them by other biodegradable materials from renewable resources. For that, in this work new biocomposites materials have been synthesis from sunflower oil (Helianthus annuus) and alfa plants (Stipatenacissima) as natural based resources. The sunflower oil (SFO) was chemically modified via epoxidation then acrylation reactions to obtain acrylated epoxidized sunflower oil resin (AESFO). The AESFO resin was then copolymerized with styrene as co-monomer in the presence of boron trifluoride (BF3) as cationic initiator and cobalt octoate (Co) as catalyst. The alfa fibers were treated with alkali treatment (5% NaOH) before been used as bio-reinforcement. Biocomposites were prepared by mixing the resin with untreated and treated alfa fibers at different percentages. A biodegradation study was carried out for the synthesized biocomposites in a solid medium (burial in the soil) by evaluated, first, the loss of mass, the results obtained were reached between 7.8% and 11% during one year. Then an observation under an optical microscope was carried out, after one year of burial in the soil, microcracks, brown and black spots were appeared on the samples surface. This results shows that the synthesized biocomposites have a great aptitude for biodegradation.

Keywords: Soil, biodegradation, biocomposite, sunflower oil, alfa fiber

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2788 Super Mario Guide: An Updated Roadmap on Research with Travel Subjective Well-Being

Authors: Wu Hu

Abstract:

There is an increasing amount of research bridging the gap between transportation and subjective well-being (SWB). However, travel SWB research in this area is still sporadic. Therefore, we are in need of a more systematic body of work that examines travel SWB considering various work occupations, working conditions, commuting variabilities, and other related variables, and develops updated qualitative and quantitative methods to inform the transportation design. In this Super Mario Guide, the author reflects on the related elements involved with travel SWB under four categories (having Super Mario as the protagonist): 1. the starting point including variables like living conditions; 2. the commuter including the commuter’s age, gender, occupation, and others; 3. the commuting including commuting environment, vehicles, commuting time, commuting vehicles flexibility and variability and others; 4. destination including the workplace conditions, the corporate culture on working flexibility, the employer supportiveness and others. In addition, with the rise of new vehicles such as auto-driving, this research can play a significant role to better understand travel SWB and to guide the design of more efficient travelling systems so as to improve worker performance and general SWB. The author also shares thoughts on promising areas for future research.

Keywords: Transportation, Happiness, commuting, subjective well-being (SWB)

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2787 Benefit Of Waste Collection Route Optimisation

Authors: Bojana Tot, Goran BošKović, Goran Vujić

Abstract:

Route optimisation is a process of planning one or multiple routes, with the purpose of minimizing overall costs, while achieving the highest possible performance under a set of given constraints. It combines routing or route planning, which is the process of creating the most cost-effective route by minimizing the distance or travelled time necessary to reach a set of planned stops, and route scheduling, which is the process of assigning an arrival and service time for each stop, with drivers being given shifts that adhere to their working hours. The objective of this paper is to provide benefits on the implementation of waste collection route optimisation and thus achieve economic efficiency for public utility companies, better service for citizens and positive environment and health.

Keywords: Waste Management, Environment, GIS, collection route optimisation

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2786 Estimation of Reservoir Capacity and Sediment Deposition Using Remote Sensing Data

Authors: Tapas Karmaker, Odai Ibrahim Mohammed Al Balasmeh, Richa Babbar

Abstract:

In this study, the reservoir capacity and sediment deposition were estimated using remote sensing data. The satellite images were synchronized with water level and storage capacity to find out the change in sediment deposition due to soil erosion and transport by streamflow. The water bodies spread area was estimated using vegetation indices, e.g., normalize differences vegetation index (NDVI) and normalize differences water index (NDWI). The 3D reservoir bathymetry was modeled by integrated water level, storage capacity, and area. From the models of different time span, the change in reservoir storage capacity was estimated. Another reservoir with known water level, storage capacity, area, and sediment deposition was used to validate the estimation technique. The t-test was used to assess the results between observed and estimated reservoir capacity and sediment deposition.

Keywords: Sedimentation, Satellite Data, NDVI, NDWI, normalize differences vegetation index, normalize differences water index, reservoir capacity, t-test hypothesis

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2785 Synthesis and Characterisation of Different Blends of Virgin Polyethylene Modified by Naturel Fibres Alfa

Authors: Benalia Kouini

Abstract:

The basic idea of this study is to promote a polyethylene recycle and local vegetable fiber (alfa) in the development and characterization of a new composite material. In this work, different sizes of fiber alfa (<63 microns, between 63 and 125 microns, 125 and 250 microns) were incorporated into the blends (HDPE / recycled HDPE) with different methods elaboration (extruder twin-screw and twin-cylinder mixer). The fiber was modified by sodium hydroxide in order to evaluate the effect of alkaline treatment on the interfacial adhesion and therefore the properties of composites prepared. These were characterized by various techniques: mechanical (tensile and Charpy impact test), Rheological (melt flow), morphological (SEM). The demonstration of the effect of alkali treatment on alfa fiber was examined by FTIR spectroscopy and morphological analysis. The introduction of alfa treated fiber in the (HDPE/recycled HDPE) increased stress, impact strength and Young's modulus on the contrary, the elongation at break decreased. The results of the mechanical properties showed an improvement is better in extrusion twin-screw mixer than two cylinders.

Keywords: Recycling, Polyethylene, blends, naturel fiber, alfa

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2784 Numerical Investigation of Wastewater ‎Rheological Characteristics on Flow Field ‎Inside a Sewage Network

Authors: Seyed-Mohammad-Kazem Emami, Behrang Saki, Majid Mohammadian

Abstract:

The wastewater flow field inside a sewage network including pipe and ‎manhole was investigated using a Computational Fluid Dynamics ‎‎(CFD) model. The numerical model is developed by incorporating a ‎rheological model to calculate the viscosity of wastewater fluid by ‎means of open source toolbox OpenFOAM. The rheological ‎properties of prepared wastewater fluid suspensions are first measured ‎using a BrookField LVDVII Pro+ viscometer with an enhanced UL ‎adapter and then correlated the suitable rheological viscosity model ‎values from the measured rheological properties. The results show the ‎significant effects of rheological characteristics of wastewater fluid on ‎the flow domain of sewer system. Results were compared and ‎discussed with the commonly used Newtonian model to evaluate the ‎differences for velocity profile, pressure and shear stress. ‎

Keywords: Rheology, wastewater, Numerical Simulation, Non-Newtonian Flows, Sewage Network

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2783 One Dimensional Flood Modelling Using River Analysis System-Mapper Tools in Hydrological Engineering Centers-River Analysis System: A Case Study on Purna River, Navsari City

Authors: Azazkhan Pathan, Prasit Agnihotri

Abstract:

The research is intended to utilize the RAS mapper tools capabilities in HEC-RAS (hydrological engineering centers-River Analysis System) for flood modelling in coastal side of Purna River without the need of Arc-GIS technology. Research shows the capabilities of the newest version of HEC-RAS 5.0.6, through which 30 m resolution DEM (Digital Elevation Model) and projection database have been used as an input data set as stream elevation information and maximum flow information, normal downstream slope has been used for steady flow assessment in this area of study. In the current research, river geometries such as river centerline, bank line, flow path line, and cross-section are created in RAS mapper tools present in HEC-RAS, which were earlier used in Arc-GIS and exported for model execution to HEC-RAS. It is, therefore, a big benefit that model simulation and flood mapping can be carried out in HEC-RAS simultaneously using RAS mapper. The depth of water, the velocity of low and the water surface elevation can be found by utilizing study flow analysis. Flood control authorities could use the findings of the research investigation to measure for the flood at different cross-sections.

Keywords: HEC-RAS, floodplain mapping, RAS-mapper

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2782 Assessing Smallholder Farmers’ Perception of Climate Change and Coping Strategies Adopted in the Olifants Catchment of South Africa

Authors: Mary Funke Olabanji, Thando Ndarana, Nerhene Davis, Sylvester Okechukwu Ilo

Abstract:

Scientific evidence indicates that climate change is already being experienced by farmers, and its impacts are felt on agricultural and food systems. Understanding the perceptions of farmers on climate change and how they respond to this change is essential to the development and implementation of appropriate policies for agriculture and food security. This paper aims to contribute to the understanding of farmers’ perceptions of climate change, adopted coping strategies, long-term implications of their adaptation choices, and barriers to their decisions to adapt. Data were randomly collected from 73 respondents in five districts located in the Olifants catchment of South Africa. A combination of descriptive statistics and Chi-Square statistical tests using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) was used to analyse the data obtained from the survey. Results show that smallholder farmers have an in-depth perception of climate change. The most significant changes perceived by farmers were increased temperature and low rainfall. The results equally revealed that smallholder farmers in the Olifants catchment had adopted several adaptation strategies in response to the perceived climate change. The significant adaptation strategies from the results include changing cropping patterns and planting date, use of improved seed variety, and chemical fertilizers. The study, therefore, concludes that crop diversification and agroforestry were more effective and sustainable in mitigating the impact of climate change.

Keywords: Climate Change, Perception, Adaptation, smallholder farmers

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2781 Application of Aquatic Plants for the Remediation of Organochlorine Pesticides from Keenjhar Lake

Authors: Soomal Hamza, Uzma Imran

Abstract:

Organochlorine pesticides bio-accumulate into the fat of fish, birds, and animals through which it enters the human food cycle. Due to their persistence and stability in the environment, many health impacts are associated with them, most of which are carcinogenic in nature. In this study, the level of organochlorine pesticides has been detected in Keenjhar Lake and remediated using Rhizoremediation technique. 14 OC pesticides namely, Aldrin, Deldrin, Heptachlor, Heptachlor epoxide, Endrin, Endosulfun I and II, DDT, DDE, DDD, Alpha, Beta, Gamma BHC and two plants namely, Water Hyacinth and Slvinia Molesta were used in the system using pot experiment which processed for 11 days. A consortium was inoculated in both plants to increase its efficiency. Water samples were processed using liquide-liquid extraction. Sediments and roots samples were processed using Soxhlet method followed by clean-up and Gas Chromatography. Delta-BHC was the predominantly found in all samples with mean concentration (ppb) and standard deviation of 0.02 ± 0.14, 0.52 ± 0.68, 0.61 ± 0.06, in Water, Sediments and Roots samples respectively. The highest levels were of Endosulfan II in the samples of water, sediments and roots. Water Hyacinth proved to be better bioaccumulaor as compared to Silvinia Molesta. The pattern of compounds reduction rate by the end of experiment was Delta-BHC>DDD > Alpha-BHC > DDT> Heptachlor> H.Epoxide> Deldrin> Aldrin> Endrin> DDE> Endosulfun I > Endosulfun II. Not much significant difference was observed between the pots with the consortium and pots without the consortium addition. Phytoremediation is a promising technique, but more studies are required to assess the bioremediation potential of different aquatic plants and plant-endophyte relationship.

Keywords: Gas Chromatography, aquatic plant, bio remediation, liquid liquid extraction

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2780 Effect of Antimony on Microorganisms in Aerobic and Anaerobic Environments

Authors: Barrera C. Monserrat, Sierra-Alvarez Reyes, Pat-Espadas Aurora, Moreno Andrade Ivan

Abstract:

Antimony is a toxic and carcinogenic metalloid considered a pollutant of priority interest by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. It is present in the environment in two oxidation states: antimonite (Sb (III)) and antimony (Sb (V)). Sb (III) is toxic to several aquatic organisms, but the potential inhibitory effect of Sb species for microorganisms has not been extensively evaluated. The fate and possible toxic impact of antimony on aerobic and anaerobic wastewater treatment systems are unknown. For this reason, the objective of this study was to evaluate the microbial toxicity of Sb (V) and Sb (III) in aerobic and anaerobic environments. Sb(V) and Sb(III) were used as potassium hexahydroxoantimonate (V) and potassium antimony tartrate, respectively (Sigma-Aldrich). The toxic effect of both Sb species in anaerobic environments was evaluated on methanogenic activity and the inhibition of hydrogen production of microorganisms from a wastewater treatment bioreactor. For the methanogenic activity, batch experiments were carried out in 160 mL serological bottles; each bottle contained basal mineral medium (100 mL), inoculum (1.5 g of VSS/L), acetate (2.56 g/L) as substrate, and variable concentrations of Sb (V) or Sb (III). Duplicate bioassays were incubated at 30 ± 2°C on an orbital shaker (105 rpm) in the dark. Methane production was monitored by gas chromatography. The hydrogen production inhibition tests were carried out in glass bottles with a working volume of 0.36 L. Glucose (50 g/L) was used as a substrate, pretreated inoculum (5 g VSS/L), mineral medium and varying concentrations of the two species of antimony. The bottles were kept under stirring and at a temperature of 35°C in an AMPTSII device that recorded hydrogen production. The toxicity of Sb on aerobic microorganisms (from a wastewater activated sludge treatment plant) was tested with a Microtox standardized toxicity test and respirometry. Results showed that Sb (III) is more toxic than Sb (V) for methanogenic microorganisms. Sb (V) caused a 50% decrease in methanogenic activity at 250 mg/L. In contrast, exposure to Sb (III) resulted in a 50% inhibition at a concentration of only 11 mg/L, and an almost complete inhibition (95%) at 25 mg/L. For hydrogen-producing microorganisms, Sb (III) and Sb (V) inhibited 50% of this production with 12.6 mg/L and 87.7 mg/L, respectively. The results for aerobic environments showed that 500 mg/L of Sb (V) do not inhibit the Allivibrio fischeri (Microtox) activity or specific oxygen uptake rate of activated sludge. In the case of Sb (III), this caused a loss of 50% of the respiration of the microorganisms at concentrations below 40 mg/L. The results obtained indicate that the toxicity of the antimony will depend on the speciation of this metalloid and that Sb (III) has a significantly higher inhibitory potential compared to Sb (V). It was shown that anaerobic microorganisms can reduce Sb (V) to Sb (III). Acknowledgments: This work was funded in part by grants from the UA-CONACYT Binational Consortium for the Regional Scientific Development and Innovation (CAZMEX), the National Institute of Health (NIH ES- 04940), and PAPIIT-DGAPA-UNAM (IN105220).

Keywords: aerobic inhibition, antimony reduction, hydrogen inhibition, methanogenic toxicity

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2779 Socio-Economic Transformation of Barpak Post-Earthquake Reconstruction

Authors: Sudikshya Bhandari, Jonathan K. London

Abstract:

The earthquake of April 2015 was one of the biggest disasters in the history of Nepal. The epicenter was located near Barpak, north of the Gorkha district. Before the disaster, this settlement was a compact and homogeneous settlement manifesting its uniqueness through the social and cultural activities, and a distinct vernacular architecture. Narrow alleys with stone paved streets, buildings with slate roofs, and common spaces between the houses made this settlement socially, culturally, and environmentally cohesive. With the presence of micro hydro power plants, local economic activities enabled the local community to exist and thrive. Agriculture and animal rearing are the sources of livelihood for the majority of families, along with the booming homestays (where local people welcome guests to their home, as a business) and local shops. Most of these activities are difficult to find as the houses have been destroyed with the earthquake and the process of reconstruction has been transforming the outlook of the settlement. This study characterized the drastic transformation in Barpak post-earthquake, and analyzed the consequences of the reconstruction process. In addition, it contributes to comprehending a broader representation about unsustainability created by the lack of contextual post-disaster development. Since the research is based in a specific area, a case study approach was used. Sample houses were selected on the basis of ethnicity and house typology. Mixed methods such as key informant and semi structured interviews, focus groups, observations and photographs are used for the collection of data. The research focus is predominantly on the physical change of the house typology from vernacular to externally adopted designs. This transformation of the house entails socio-cultural changes such as social fragmentation with differences among the rich and the poor and decreases in the social connectivity within families and neighborhood. Families have found that new houses require more maintenance and resources that have increased their economic expenses. The study also found that the reconstructed houses are not thermally comfortable in the cold climate of Barpak, leading to the increased use of different sources of heating like electric heaters and more firewood. Lack of storage spaces for crops and livestock have discouraged them to pursue traditional means of livelihood and depend more on buying food from stores, ultimately making it less economical for most of the families. The transformation of space leading to the economic, social and cultural changes demonstrates the unsustainability of Barpak. Conclusions from the study suggest place based and inclusive planning and policy formations that include locals as partners, identifying the possible ways to minimize the impact and implement these recommendations into the future policy and planning scenarios.

Keywords: Earthquake, Transformation, Reconstruction, Settlement, Nepal

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2778 Concrete Performance Evaluation of Coarse Aggregate Replacement by Civil Construction Waste

Authors: Natália U. Yamaguchi, Juliane P. De Oliveira, Carlos H. Dos Santos, Marcia Shoji, Maria E. C. Ferreira

Abstract:

The construction sector is considered a major generator of environmental impacts due to the high consumption of natural resources and waste generation. Thus, this article aims to evaluate the performance of a concrete produced by the partial and total replacement of natural coarse aggregate by recycled coarse aggregate, derived from the concrete residue of buildings and demolitions. The study was made by comparing the compressive strength and absorption of three different concrete traces, keeping the water/cement factor of 0.60 and changing only the proportions of recycled coarse aggregate between 0%, 50% and 100%. Traces 50% and 100% obtained good results by comparing the actual specific mass, because the material used is lighter to the natural coarse aggregate. It was concluded that the concrete produced with recycled aggregates, even with inferior results, can be used where it is not needed a structural function, giving an adequate destination to the construction and demolition waste and consequently reducing the extraction and consumption of natural resources.

Keywords: Sustainable Development, Recycling, Green Concrete, recycled aggregate

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2777 Analysis of Environmental Sustainability in Post- Earthquake Reconstruction : A Case of Barpak, Nepal

Authors: Sudikshya Bhandari, Jonathan K. London

Abstract:

Barpak in northern Nepal represents a unique identity expressed through the local rituals, values, lifeways and the styles of vernacular architecture. The traditional residential buildings and construction practices adopted by the dominant ethnic groups: Ghales and Gurungs, reflect environmental, social, cultural and economic concerns. However, most of these buildings did not survive the Gorkha earthquake in 2015 that made many residents skeptical about their strength to resist future disasters. This led Barpak residents to prefer modern housing designs primarily for the strength but additionally for convenience and access to earthquake relief funds. Post-earthquake reconstruction has transformed the cohesive community, developed over hundreds of years into a haphazard settlement with the imposition of externally-driven building models. Housing guidelines provided for the community reconstruction and earthquake resilience have been used as a singular template, similar to other communities on different geographical locations. The design and construction of these buildings do not take into account the local, historical, environmental, social, cultural and economic context of Barpak. In addition to the physical transformation of houses and the settlement, the consequences continue to develop challenges to sustainability. This paper identifies the major challenges for environmental sustainability with the construction of new houses in post-earthquake Barpak. Mixed methods such as interviews, focus groups, site observation, and documentation, and analysis of housing and neighborhood design have been used for data collection. The discernible changing situation of this settlement due to the new housing has included reduced climatic adaptation and thermal comfort, increased consumption of agricultural land and water, minimized use of local building materials, and an increase in energy demand. The research has identified that reconstruction housing practices happening in Barpak, while responding to crucial needs for disaster recovery and resilience, are also leading this community towards an unsustainable future. This study has also integrated environmental, social, cultural and economic parameters into an assessment framework that could be used to develop place-based design guidelines in the context of other post-earthquake reconstruction efforts. This framework seeks to minimize the unintended repercussions of unsustainable reconstruction interventions, support the vitality of vernacular architecture and traditional lifeways and respond to context-based needs in coordination with residents.

Keywords: Earthquake, Environment, Sustainability, Reconstruction

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2776 Improving Evapotranspiration Estimates for Hydrologic Assessment and Restoration Using Modified Remotely Sensed Data and Penman-Monteith Methods for the Apalachicola Region, Northwest Florida

Authors: Gang Chen, Chisty Crandall, Joseph St. Peter, Jason Drake, Paul Medley, Victor Ibeanusi, Charles Jagoe

Abstract:

The Lower Apalachicola Region in Northwest Florida has declined in species richness and diversity due to decreases in freshwater availability and reduced critical habitat that once supported many threatened and endangered species. Another consequence of the decline in freshwater availability includes the loss of the fishery and, as a consequence, tourism, two major economic drivers of the region. Precipitous declines in the fishery and tourism followed a 5-year regional drought (2007-2012) and three major hurricanes (2015-2018). The loss has created severe hardship to residents and community disruption. The lower Apalachicola basin, comprised primarily of forest, was managed for timber production and, as a secondary priority, recreation for nearly 100 years. This region once contained numerous wetlands, intermittent ponds, swamps, and forest streams and lakes that supplied the bulk of freshwater discharge to the Apalachicola River, Bay, and Estuary, but freshwater availability and streamflows have decreased significantly in the last 50 years. A century of forestry land-use and management practices, including road, ditch, and culvert construction, pine plantation management (clear-cutting every 25 years and high-density replanting with Slash pine instead of the more common and lower density Longleaf pine), and draining wetlands and swamps for road construction and pine production have reduced streamflow, and wetland and pond acreage. This study proposes to use estimated basal area and vegetation geospatial data, developed from recent high resolution LiDAR, and remotely sensed imagery and land use data to estimate and refine evapotranspiration (ET) estimates throughout the Apalachicola Region. Generated ET estimates will be compared with calculated ET estimates using the modified Penman-Monteith equation, and final ET estimates will be a combined dataset. Improved ET estimates will be used to calculate soil water yield. Areas that will potentially generate maximum positive change in water yield will be identified and flagged for restoration in the regional hydrologic assessment and restoration plan. Stochastic methods will be used to generate confidence intervals and error estimates for ET and soil water yield. Increased soil water yield and water availability are the primary objectives of the Apalachicola Hydrologic Restoration project. This research will ensure that land managers focus scarce restoration resources in areas that will provide the greatest potential increase in water yield which, in turn, will ensure the maximum increase in freshwater availability for water resources, improved water quality, and increased critical habitat promoting a stronger and more resilient ecosystem for the future.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, Restoration, Hydrologic, Ecosystem Resilience, Evapotranspiration, soil water yield

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2775 The Hyperbolic Smoothing Approach for Automatic Calibration of Rainfall-Runoff Models

Authors: Adilson Elias Xavier, Otto Corrêa Rotunno Filho, Paulo Canedo De Magalhães

Abstract:

This paper addresses the issue of automatic parameter estimation in conceptual rainfall-runoff (CRR) models. Due to threshold structures commonly occurring in CRR models, the associated mathematical optimization problems have the significant characteristic of being strongly non-differentiable. In order to face this enormous task, the resolution method proposed adopts a smoothing strategy using a special C∞ differentiable class function. The final estimation solution is obtained by solving a sequence of differentiable subproblems which gradually approach the original conceptual problem. The use of this technique, called Hyperbolic Smoothing Method (HSM), makes possible the application of the most powerful minimization algorithms, and also allows for the main difficulties presented by the original CRR problem to be overcome. A set of computational experiments is presented for the purpose of illustrating both the reliability and the efficiency of the proposed approach.

Keywords: automatic calibration, rainfall-runoff models, hyperbolic smoothing method

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2774 Constructed Wetlands with Subsurface Flow for Nitrogen and Metazachlor Removal from Tile Drainage: First Year Results

Authors: P. Fucik, J. Vymazal, M. Seres

Abstract:

Pollution from agricultural drainage is a severe issue for water quality, and it is a major reason for the failure in accomplishment of 'good chemical status' according to Water Framework Directive, especially due to high nitrogen and pesticide burden of receiving waters. Constructed wetlands were proposed as a suitable measure for removal of nitrogen from agricultural drainage in the early 1990s. Until now, the vast majority of constructed wetlands designed to treat tile drainage were free-surface constructed wetlands. In 2018, three small experimental constructed wetlands with horizontal subsurface flow were built in Czech Highlands to treat tile drainage from 15.73 ha watershed. The wetlands have a surface area of 79, 90 and 98 m² and were planted with Phalaris arundinacea and Glyceria maxima in parallel bands. The substrate in the first two wetlands is gravel (4-8 mm) mixed with birch woodchips (10:1 volume ratio). In one of those wetlands, the water level is kept 10 cm above the surface; in the second one, the water is kept below the surface. The third wetland has 20 cm layer of birch woodchips on top of gravel. The drainage outlet, as well as wetland outlets, are equipped with automatic discharge-gauging devices, temperature probes, as well as automatic water samplers (Teledyne ISCO). During the monitored period (2018-2019), the flows were unexpectedly low due to a drop of the shallow ground water level, being the main source of water for the monitored drainage system, as experienced at many areas of the Czech Republic. The mean water residence time was analyzed in the wetlands (KBr), which was 16, 9 and 27 days, respectively. The mean total nitrogen concentration eliminations during one-year period were 61.2%, 62.6%, and 70.9% for wetlands 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The average load removals amounted to 0.516, 0.323, and 0.399 g N m-2 d-1 or 1885, 1180 and 1457 kg ha-1 yr-1 in wetlands 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The plant uptake and nitrogen sequestration in aboveground biomass contributed only marginally to the overall nitrogen removal. Among the three variants, the one with shallow water on the surface was revealed to be the most effective for removal of nitrogen from drainage water. In August 2019, herbicide Metazachlor was experimentally poured in time of 2 hours at drainage outlet in a concentration of 250 ug/l to find out the removal rates of the aforementioned wetlands. Water samples were taken the first day every six hours, and for the next nine days, every day one water sample was taken. The removal rates were as follows 94, 69 and 99%; when the most effective wetland was the one with the longest water residence time and the birch woodchip-layer on top of gravel.

Keywords: Nitrogen, Constructed Wetlands, metazachlor, tile drainage

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2773 Influence of Atmospheric Pollutants on Child Respiratory Disease in Cartagena De Indias, Colombia

Authors: Jose A. Alvarez Aldegunde, Adrian Fernandez Sanchez, Matthew D. Menden, Bernardo Vila Rodriguez

Abstract:

Up to five statistical pre-processings have been carried out considering the pollutant records of the stations present in Cartagena de Indias, Colombia, also taking into account the childhood asthma incidence surveys conducted in hospitals in the city by the Health Ministry of Colombia for this study. These pre-processings have consisted of different techniques such as the determination of the quality of data collection, determination of the quality of the registration network, identification and debugging of errors in data collection, completion of missing data and purified data, as well as the improvement of the time scale of records. The characterization of the quality of the data has been conducted by means of density analysis of the pollutant registration stations using ArcGis Software and through mass balance techniques, making it possible to determine inconsistencies in the records relating the registration data between stations following the linear regression. The results obtained in this process have highlighted the positive quality in the pollutant registration process. Consequently, debugging of errors has allowed us to identify certain data as statistically non-significant in the incidence and series of contamination. This data, together with certain missing records in the series recorded by the measuring stations, have been completed by statistical imputation equations. Following the application of these prior processes, the basic series of incidence data for respiratory disease and pollutant records have allowed the characterization of the influence of pollutants on respiratory diseases such as, for example, childhood asthma. This characterization has been carried out using statistical correlation methods, including visual correlation, simple linear regression correlation and spectral analysis with PAST Software which identifies maximum periodicity cycles and minimums under the formula of the Lomb periodgram. In relation to part of the results obtained, up to eleven maximums and minimums considered contemporary between the incidence records and the particles have been identified taking into account the visual comparison. The spectral analyses that have been performed on the incidence and the PM2.5 have returned a series of similar maximum periods in both registers, which are at a maximum during a period of one year and another every 25 days (0.9 and 0.07 years). The bivariate analysis has managed to characterize the variable "Daily Vehicular Flow" in the ninth position of importance of a total of 55 variables. However, the statistical correlation has not obtained a favorable result, having obtained a low value of the R2 coefficient. The series of analyses conducted has demonstrated the importance of the influence of pollutants such as PM2.5 in the development of childhood asthma in Cartagena. The quantification of the influence of the variables has been able to determine that there is a 56% probability of dependence between PM2.5 and childhood respiratory asthma in Cartagena. Considering this justification, the study could be completed through the application of the BenMap Software, throwing a series of spatial results of interpolated values of the pollutant contamination records that exceeded the established legal limits (represented by homogeneous units up to the neighborhood level) and results of the impact on the exacerbation of pediatric asthma. As a final result, an economic estimate (in Colombian Pesos) of the monthly and individual savings derived from the percentage reduction of the influence of pollutants in relation to visits to the Hospital Emergency Room due to asthma exacerbation in pediatric patients has been granted.

Keywords: Statistical Analysis, PM2.5, Asthma Incidence, BenMap

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2772 Community Perception of Dynamics and Drivers of Land Cover Change around Pendjari Biosphere Reserve in Northern Benin

Authors: Jesugnon E. A. Kpodo, Aurlus D. Ouindeyama, Jan H. Sommer, Fifanou G. Vodouhe, Kolo Yeo

Abstract:

Local communities are recognized as key actors for sustainable land use and to some extent actors driving land use land cover (LULC) change around protected areas. Understanding drivers responsible for these changes are very crucial for better policy decisions making. This study analyzed perception of 425 local people in 28 villages towards land cover change around Pendjari Biosphere Reserve using semi-structured questionnaire. 72.9% of local communities perceive land cover as degrading while 24.5% as improving and only 2.6% as stable during the five last years. Women perceived more land cover degradation than men do (84.1 vs. 67.1%). Local communities identified cultivated land expansion, logging, firewood collection, charcoal production, population growth, and poverty as the key drivers of declined LULC in the study area. Education has emerged as a significant factor influencing respondents’ perceptions of these drivers of LULC changes. Appropriate management measures and government policies should be implemented around Pendjari Biosphere Reserve to control drivers of LULC change.

Keywords: Rural Livelihoods, local perceptions, LULC drivers, LULC dynamics, Pendjari Biosphere Reserve, sustainable resource management

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2771 The Use of Non-Parametric Bootstrap in Computing of Microbial Risk Assessment from Lettuce Consumption Irrigated with Contaminated Water by Sanitary Sewage in Infulene Valley

Authors: Mario Tauzene Afonso Matangue, Ivan Andres Sanchez Ortiz

Abstract:

The Metropolitan area of Maputo (Mozambique Capital City) is located in semi-arid zone (800 mm annual rainfall) with 1101170 million inhabitants. On the west side, there are the flatlands of Infulene where the Mulauze River flows towards to the Indian Ocean, receiving at this site, the storm water contaminated with sanitary sewage from Maputo, transported through a concrete open channel. In Infulene, local communities grow salads crops such as tomato, onion, garlic, lettuce, and cabbage, which are then commercialized and consumed in several markets in Maputo City. Lettuce is the most daily consumed salad crop in different meals, generally in fast-foods, breakfasts, lunches, and dinners. However, the risk of infection by several pathogens due to the consumption of lettuce, using the Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) tools, is still unknown since there are few studies or publications concerning to this matter in Mozambique. This work is aimed at determining the annual risk arising from the consumption of lettuce grown in Infulene valley, in Maputo, using QMRA tools. The exposure model was constructed upon the volume of contaminated water remaining in the lettuce leaves, the empirical relations between the number of pathogens and the indicator of microorganisms (E. coli), the consumption of lettuce (g) and reduction of pathogens (days). The reference pathogens were Vibrio cholerae, Cryptosporidium, norovirus, and Ascaris. The water quality samples (E. coli) were collected in the storm water channel from January 2016 to December 2018, comprising 65 samples, and the urban lettuce consumption data were collected through inquiry in Maputo Metropolis covering 350 persons. A non-parametric bootstrap was performed involving 10,000 iterations over the collected dataset, namely, water quality (E. coli) and lettuce consumption. The dose-response models were: Exponential for Cryptosporidium, Kummer Confluent hypergeomtric function (1F1) for Vibrio and Ascaris Gaussian hypergeometric function (2F1-(a,b;c;z) for norovirus. The annual infection risk estimates were performed using R 3.6.0 (CoreTeam) software by Monte Carlo (Latin hypercubes), a sampling technique involving 10,000 iterations. The annual infection risks values expressed by Median and the 95th percentile, per person per year (pppy) arising from the consumption of lettuce are as follows: Vibrio cholerae (1.00, 1.00), Cryptosporidium (3.91x10⁻³, 9.72x 10⁻³), nororvirus (5.22x10⁻¹, 9.99x10⁻¹) and Ascaris (2.59x10⁻¹, 9.65x10⁻¹). Thus, the consumption of the lettuce would result in greater risks than the tolerable levels ( < 10⁻³ pppy or 10⁻⁶ DALY) for all pathogens, and the Vibrio cholerae is the most virulent pathogens, according to the hit-single models followed by the Ascaris lumbricoides and norovirus. The sensitivity analysis carried out in this work pointed out that in the whole QMRA, the most important input variable was the reduction of pathogens (Spearman rank value was 0.69) between harvest and consumption followed by water quality (Spearman rank value was 0.69). The decision-makers (Mozambique Government) must strengthen the prevention measures related to pathogens reduction in lettuce (i.e., washing) and engage in wastewater treatment engineering.

Keywords: lettuce, annual infections risk, non-parametric bootstrapping, quantitative microbial risk assessment tools

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2770 Human Health Risks Assessment of Particulate Air Pollution in Romania

Authors: Katalin Bodor, Zsolt Bodor, Robert Szep

Abstract:

The particulate matter (PM) smaller than 2.5 μm are less studied due to the limited availability of PM₂.₅, and less information is available on the health effects attributable to PM₁₀ in Central-Eastern Europe. The objective of the current study was to assess the human health risk and characterize the spatial and temporal variation of PM₂.₅ and PM₁₀ in eight Romanian regions between the 2009-2018 and. The PM concentrations showed high variability over time and spatial distribution. The highest concentration was detected in the Bucharest region in the winter period, and the lowest was detected in West. The relative risk caused by the PM₁₀ for all-cause mortality varied between 1.017 (B) and 1.025 (W), with an average 1.020. The results demonstrate a positive relative risk of cardiopulmonary and lung cancer disease due to exposure to PM₂.₅ on the national average 1.26 ( ± 0.023) and 1.42 ( ± 0.037), respectively.

Keywords: Health Effect, PM2.5, PM10, Relative risk

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2769 A Drop of Water for the Thirsty Ground: Implementing Drip-Irrigation System as an Alternative to the Existing System to Promote Sustainable Livelihoods in the Archipelagic Dryland East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia

Authors: F. L. Benu, I. W. Mudita, R. L. Natonis

Abstract:

East Nusa Tenggara, together with part of East Java, West Nusa Tenggara, and Maluku, has been included as part of global drylands defined according to the ratio of annual precipitation (P) and annual potential evaporation (PET) and major vegetation types of grassland and savannah ecosystems. These tropical drylands are unique because, whereas drylands in other countries are mostly continental, here they are archipelagic. These archipelagic drylands are also unique in terms of being included because of more on their major vegetation types than of their P/PET ratio. Slash-and-burn cultivation and free roaming animal husbandry are two major livelihoods being widely practiced, along with alternative seasonal livelihood such as traditional fishing. Such livelihoods are vulnerable in various respects, especially because of drought, which becomes more unpredictable in the face of climate changes. To cope with such vulnerability, semi-intensive farming using drip irrigation is implemented as an appropriate technology with the goal of promoting a more sustainable alternative to the existing livelihoods. The implementation was started in 2016 with a pilot system at the university field laboratory in Kupang in which various designs of installation were tested. The modified system consisting of an uplifted water reservoir and solar-powered pump was tested in Papela, the District of Rote-Ndao, in 2017 to convince fishermen who had been involved in illegal fishing in Australia-Indonesia transboundary waters, to adopt small-scale farming as a more sustainable alternative to their existing livelihoods. The system was again tested in a larger coverage in Oesena, the District of Kupang, in 2018 to convince slash-and-burn cultivators to adopt an environmentally friendlier cultivation system. From the implementation of the modified system in both sites, the participating fishermen in Papela were able to manage the system under tight water supply to grow chili pepper, tomatoes, and watermelon and the slash-and-burn cultivators in Oesena to grow chili pepper in a more efficient water use than water use in a conventional irrigation system. The gross margin obtained from growing chili pepper, tomatoes, and watermelon in Papela and from growing chili pepper in Oesena showed that small-scale farming using drip irrigation system was a promising alternative to local people in generating cash income to support their livelihoods. However, before promoting this appropriate technology as a more sustainable alternative to the existing livelihoods elsewhere in the region, better understanding on social-related contexts of the implementation is needed.

Keywords: drip irrigation system, East Nusa Tenggara, sustainable livelihoods, archipelagic drylands

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2768 Estimating Understory Species Diversity of West Timor Tropical Savanna, Indonesia: The Basis for Planning an Integrated Management of Agricultural and Environmental Weeds and Invasive Species

Authors: I. W. Mudita, M. L. Gaol

Abstract:

Indonesia is well known as a country covered by lush tropical rain forests, but in fact, the northeastern part of the country, within the areas geologically known as Lesser Sunda, the dominant vegetation is tropical savanna. Lesser Sunda is a chain of islands located closer to Australia than to islands in the other parts of the country. Among those of islands in the chain which is closes to Australia, and thereby most strongly affected by the hot and dry Australian climate, is the island of Timor, the western part of which belongs to Indonesia and the eastern part is a sovereign state East Timor. Regardless of being the most dominant vegetation cover, tropical savanna in West Timor, especially its understory, is rarely investigated. This research was therefore carried out to investigate the structure, composition and diversity of the understory of this tropical savanna as the basis for looking at the possibility of introducing other spesieis for various purposes. For this research, 14 terrestrial communities representing major types of the existing savannas in West Timor was selected with aid of the most recently available satellite imagery. At each community, one stand of the size of 50 m x 50 m most likely representing the community was as the site of observation for the type of savanna under investigation. At each of the 14 communities, 20 plots of 1 m x 1 m in size was placed at random to identify understory species and to count the total number of individuals and to estimate the cover of each species. Based on such counts and estimation, the important value of each species was later calculated. The results of this research indicated that the understory of savanna in West Timor consisted of 73 understory species. Of this number of species, 18 species are grasses and 55 are non-grasses. Although lower than non-grass species, grass species indeed dominated the savanna as indicated by their number of individuals (65.33 vs 34.67%), species cover (57.80 vs 42.20%), and important value (123.15 vs 76.85). Of the 14 communities, the lowest density of grass was 13.50/m2 and the highest was 417.50/m2. Of 18 grass species found, all were commonly found as agricultural weeds, whereas of 55 non-grass, 10 species were commonly found as agricultural weeds, environmental weeds, or invasive species. In terms of better managing the savanna in the region, these findings provided the basis for planning a more integrated approach in managing such agricultural and environmental weeds as well as invasive species by considering the structure, composition, and species diversity of the understory species existing in each site. These findings also provided the basis for better understanding the flora of the region as a whole and for developing a flora database of West Timor in future.

Keywords: Integrated Management, tropical savanna, understory species, weedy and invasive species

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2767 Banana in the Dryland East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia: Assessing Its Biodiversity and Biosecurity Status and Its Contribution to Food Security in the Face of Climate Change

Authors: I. W. Mudita, R. L. Natonis, M. L. Gaol, I. W. Nampa, J. E. R. Markus

Abstract:

Banana is a diverse crop in the humid tropic of Southeast Asia, but how diverse is it in the drier part of the region such as in East Nusa Tenggara? How does this diversity relate to the biosecurity of this crop and how does it contribute to food security of communities in such drylands? How will the interplay between biodiversity and biosecurity be affected by climate change? To answer these questions, repeated surveys were carried out in the region in 2017, 2018, and 2019 to discuss with stakeholders in banana growing areas of the region. The 2017 survey was focused in the island of Sumba and the western part of the island of Flores. The survey was continued in 2018 in the eastern part of the island of Flores and in West Timor along with in the surrounding islands. In 2019, the survey was again carried out in the island of Sumba focusing out on checking the spread of blood disease found in the island the previous survey. During the surveys, interviews were carried out with local government officers, local traders, community leaders, and growers. In each sampled field, banana passport data and symptoms and signs of pests and diseases were assessed. For each pest and disease found in the field, samples were taken for further laboratory examination. Interview results suggested that local communities relied on banana for different purposes in each island, but most importantly for cash income. However, people in different parts of the region also used banana for different purposes, depending on the existing banana cultivars. No less than 25 landraces belonged to 15 cultivars of banana within the AA, AAA, AAB and ABB genome groups existed throughout the region. Despite being diverse, the most dominant cultivar was Pisang Kepok, an ABB cultivar consisting of various landraces known with different local names. According to local communities in the drier part of the region, this ABB cultivar was drought tolerant on which people in local communities relied on its fruits for alternative staple food and on its pseudo-stems for animal feeds. Unfortunately, this dominant ABB banana cultivar was seriously damaged by fusarium wilt already found throughout the region and by blood disease spreading eastward in the island of Sumba. Meanwhile, each of other cultivars was also damaged by one or more pests and diseases including weevil borer, pseudo-stem weevil, aphid, fusarium wilt, sigatoka disease complex, and bunchy top of banana. Despite of being diverse, banana in the region was prone to biosecurity hazards. However, how such biosecurity hazards were mediated by climate change remained unclear, although people in the local communities admitted of experiencing drought more often and more severe and facing pests and diseases more damaging. Nevertheless, the damage of banana because of the devastating pests and diseases would leave local communities to have less choices for sustaining their livelihoods in facing drought that could be more unpredictable in the face of climate change.

Keywords: Climate Change, Food Security, dryland East Nusa Tenggara, biodiversity and biosecurity interplay

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2766 Plastic Pellets in Santa Cruz Dos Navegantes Beach, Brazil, in the Winter of 2019

Authors: Victor Vasques Ribeiro

Abstract:

The Santa Cruz dos Navegantes beach is located in the city of Guarujá, in the central portion of the coast of the state of São Paulo. Next to this beach is located the Channel of the Port of Santos, configured as a source of plastic pellets for marine environments. On sandy beaches near the sources, especially during the winter and after cold front entrance events, the amounts of pellets can be very high. This study aimed to determine the influence of a cold front entry event of the winter of 2019 on the amount of pellets found on Santa Cruz dos Navegantes beach, besides assuming the proximity of the sources. During six consecutive collection campaigns, three of which were previous and three after the cold front entry peak, 30.0 square meters of surface sediments were sampled in each campaign. The color and shape of the pellets were determined to assume the length of the permanence of these granules in the marine environment and, consequently, the proximity of the sources. This beach was considered ideal for this type of research. The pellet pollution index (PPI) was from moderate to very high right after the peak of the cold front entry. The cold front peak event significantly influenced the amount of pellets found on the beach of Santa Cruz dos Navegantes. The factors that can bury the pellets in the sediments were classified as low when compared to other beaches in the region. Most of the pellets found were recently produced and lost to aquatic environments. Like the other beaches near Santos Bay, Santa Cruz dos Navegantes beach receives significant amounts of pellets that have nearby origins. Therefore, it was supposed that the activities of the Santos port complex are sources of pellets for the marine environment. This pollution can be further worsened in certain meteoceanographic events. The beaches of this region need to be constantly monitored and evaluated for pollution by pellets.

Keywords: Sources, pellets, beach, cold front

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2765 Significance of Treated Wasteater in Facing Consequences of Climate Change in Arid Regions

Authors: Jamal A. Radaideh, A. J. Radaideh

Abstract:

Being a problem threatening the planet and its ecosystems, the climate change has been considered for a long time as a disturbing topic impacting water resources in Jordan. Jordan is expected for instance to be highly vulnerable to climate change consequences given its unbalanced distribution between water resources availability and existing demands. Thus, action on adaptation to climate impacts is urgently needed to cope with the negative consequences of climate change. Adaptation to global change must include prudent management of treated wastewater as a renewable resource, especially in regions lacking groundwater or where groundwater is already over exploited. This paper highlights the expected negative effects of climate change on the already scarce water sources and to motivate researchers and decision makers to take precautionary measures and find alternatives to keep the level of water supplies at the limits required for different consumption sectors in terms of quantity and quality. The paper will focus on assessing the potential for wastewater recycling as an adaptation measure to cope with water scarcity in Jordan and to consider wastewater as integral part of the national water budget to solve environmental problems. The paper also identified a research topic designed to help the nation progress in making the most appropriate use of the resource, namely for agricultural irrigation. Wastewater is a promising alternative to fill the shortage in water resources, especially due to climate changes, and to preserve the valuable fresh water to give priority to securing drinking water for the population from these resources and at the same time raise the efficiency of the use of available resources. Jordan has more than 36 wastewater treatment plants distributed throughout the country and producing about 386,000 CM/day of reclaimed water. According to the reports of water quality control programs, more than 85 percent of this water is of a quality that is completely identical to the quality suitable for irrigation of field crops and forest trees according to the requirements of Jordanian Standard No. 893/2006.

Keywords: jordan, climate change effects on water resources, adaptation on climate change, treated wastewater recycling, arid and semi-arid regions

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2764 Environmental Cost and Benefits Analysis of Different Electricity Option: A Case Study of Kuwait

Authors: Mohammad Abotalib, Hamid Alhamadi

Abstract:

In Kuwait, electricity is generated from two primary sources that are heavy fuel combustion and natural gas combustion. As Kuwait relies mainly on petroleum-based products for electricity generation, identifying and understanding the environmental trade-off of such operations should be carefully investigated. The life cycle assessment (LCA) tool is applied to identify the potential environmental impact of electricity generation under three scenarios by considering the material flow in various stages involved, such as raw-material extraction, transportation, operations, and waste disposal. The three scenarios investigated represent current and futuristic electricity grid mixes. The analysis targets six environmental impact categories: (1) global warming potential (GWP), (2) acidification potential (AP), (3) water depletion (WD), (4) acidification potential (AP), (4) eutrophication potential (EP), (5) human health particulate matter (HHPM), and (6) smog air (SA) per one kWh of electricity generated. Results indicate that one kWh of electricity generated would have a GWP (881-1030) g CO₂-eq, mainly from the fuel combustion process, water depletion (0.07-0.1) m³ of water, about 68% from cooling processes, AP (15.3-17.9) g SO₂-eq, EP (0.12-0.14) g N eq., HHPA (1.13- 1.33)g PM₂.₅ eq., and SA (64.8-75.8) g O₃ eq. The variation in results depend on the scenario investigated. It can be observed from the analysis that introducing solar photovoltaic and wind to the electricity grid mix improves the performance of scenarios 2 and 3 where 15% of the electricity comes from renewables correspond to a further decrease in LCA results.

Keywords: Energy, Life Cycle Assessment, global warming potential, functional unit, functional uni

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