Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2159

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Civil and Environmental Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

2159 Assessing the Impact of Underground Cavities on Buildings with Stepped Foundations on Sloping Lands

Authors: Masoud Mahdavi

Abstract:

With the increasing number of residential buildings around the world, the use of uneven and sloping lands is increasing rapidly. In the design and construction of buildings on sloping lands, the foundation has special loading conditions that require the designer and executor to use the stair foundation. The creation of underground cavities, including urban and subway tunnels, sewers, urban facilities, etc., inside the ground, causes the behavior of the foundation to be unknown. In the present study, using Abacus software, a 45-degree stepped foundation on the ground is designed. The foundations are placed on the ground in a cohesive (no-hole) manner with circular cavities that show the effect of increasing the cross-sectional area of the underground cavities on the foundation's performance. The Kobe earthquake struck the foundation and ground for two seconds. The underground cavities have a circular cross-sectional area with a radius of 5 m, which is located at a depth of 22.54 m above the ground. The results showed that as the number of underground cavities increased, the stress of the Mises pressure von (in the vertical direction) increased, but the tensile toughness of the tensile von Mises in the no-hole model had the highest value. With the increase in the number of underground cavities, the plastic strain on the ground has increased. Also, with the increase in the number of underground cavities, the change in location and speed in the foundation has increased.

Keywords:

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2158 Bracing Location For Hip and Valley

Authors: Poorya Hajyalikhani

Abstract:

Wood framing is the most used construction method for building homes in the United States, and the most common type of wood frame used is platform framing, also known as stick framing. Roof failure is the most common type of wind damage in residential wood framing. The roof of a wood framed building is generally sloped. The more commonly used roof shapes are gable and hip roofs. Often these roof types are used in combination and consist of hips, valleys, and ridges. In the current study, one of the vulnerabilities of stick frame roofs is long unsupported member lengths for hips and valleys. ForteWeb software is utilized to find the bracing locations for long hips and valleys in different roof slopes. The analysis results indicating bracing at the ridge point is insufficient for hips and valleys longer than 10.25 ft. The maximum unbraced length of the hip and valley is analyzed and designed, it is from 8.5ft and 10.25 ft depend to the slope and roof type.

Keywords: hip, wood frame, valley, stick framing

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2157 Evaluation of Seismic Behavior of Steel Shear Wall with Opening with Hardener and Beam with Reduced Cross Section under Cycle Loading with Finite Element Analysis Method

Authors: Masoud Mahdavi

Abstract:

During an earthquake, the structure is subjected to seismic loads that cause tension in the members of the building. The use of energy dissipation elements in the structure reduces the percentage of seismic forces on the main members of the building (especially the columns). Steel plate shear wall, as one of the most widely used types of energy dissipation element, has evolved today, and regular drilling of its inner plate is one of the common cases. In the present study, using a finite element method, the shear wall of the steel plate is designed as a floor (with dimensions of 447 × 6/246 cm) with Abacus software and in three different modes on which a cyclic load has been applied. The steel shear wall has a horizontal element (beam) with a reduced cross section (RBS). The hole in the interior plate of the models is created in such a way that it has the process of increasing the area, which makes the effect of increasing the surface area of the hole on the seismic performance of the steel shear wall completely clear. In the end, it was found that with increasing the opening level in the steel shear wall (with reduced cross-section beam), total displacement and plastic strain indicators increased, structural capacity and total energy indicators decreased, and the Mises Monson stress index did not change much.

Keywords: Finite Element Method, Abaqus software, cyclic loading, steel plate shear wall with opening, reduced cross-section beam

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2156 Turbulent Flow Characteristics and Bed Morphology around Circular Bridge Pier

Authors: Pratik Acharya

Abstract:

Scour is the natural phenomenon brought about by erosive action of the flowing stream in alluvial channels. Frequent scouring around bridge piers may cause damage to the structures. In alluvial channels, a complex interaction between the streamflow and the bed particles results in scouring around piers. Thus, the study of characteristics of flow around piers can give sound knowledge about the scouring process. The present research has been done to investigate the turbulent flow characteristics around bridge piers and corresponding changes in bed morphology. Laboratory experiments were carried out in a tilting flume with a sand bed. The velocities around the pier are measured by Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter. Measurements show that at upstream of the pier velocity and Reynolds stresses are negative near the bed and near the free surface at downstream of the pier. At the downstream of the pier, Reynolds stresses changes rapidly due to the formation of wake vortices. Experimental results show that secondary currents are more predominant at the downstream of the pier. As the flowing stream hits the pier, the flow gets separated in the form of downflow along the face of the pier due to a strong pressure gradient and along the sides of the piers. Separation of flow around the pier leads to scour the bed material and develop the vortex. The downflow hits the bed and removes the bed material, which can be carried forward by the flow circulations along sides of the piers. Eroded bed material is deposited along the centerline at the rear side of the pier and produces hump in the downstream region. Initially, the rate of scouring is high and reduces gradually with increasing time. After a certain limit, equilibrium sets between the erosive capacity of the flowing stream and resistance to the motion by bed particles.

Keywords: velocity, pier, scour depth, acoustic doppler velocimeter, Reynolds stress

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2155 Assessing the Effect of the Position of the Cavities on the Inner Plate of the Steel Shear Wall under Time History Dynamic Analysis

Authors: Masoud Mahdavi, Mojtaba Farzaneh Moghadam

Abstract:

The seismic forces caused by the waves created in the depths of the earth during the earthquake hit the structure and cause the building to vibrate. Creating large seismic forces will cause low-strength sections in the structure to suffer extensive surface damage. The use of new steel shear walls in steel structures has caused the strength of the building and its main members (columns) to increase due to the reduction and depreciation of seismic forces during earthquakes. In the present study, an attempt was made to evaluate a new type of steel shear wall that has regular holes in the inner sheet by modeling the finite element model with Abacus software. The shear wall of the steel plate, measuring 6000 × 3000 mm (one floor) and 3mm thickness, was modeled with four different pores with a cross-sectional area. The shear wall was dynamically subjected to a time history of 5 seconds by three accelerators, Elcentro, Imprialvalley, and Kobe. The results showed that increasing the distance between the geometric center of the hole and the geometric center of the inner plate in the steel shear wall (increasing the RCS index) caused the total maximum acceleration to be transferred from the perimeter of the hole to horizontal and vertical beams. The results also show that there is no direct relationship between RCS index and total acceleration in steel shear wall, and RCS index is separate from the peak ground acceleration value of earthquake.

Keywords: Finite Element Method, Abaqus software, time history analysis, hollow steel plate shear wall

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2154 The Nonlinear Research on Rotational Stiffness of Cuplock Joint

Authors: Min Liu, Liuyu Zhang, Di Mo, Qiang Yan

Abstract:

As the important equipment in the construction field, cuplock scaffold plays an important role in the construction process. As a scaffold connecting member, cuplock joint is of great importance. In order to explore the rotational stiffness nonlinear characteristics changing features of different structural forms of cuplock joint in different tightening torque condition under different conditions of load, ANSYS is used to establish four kinds of cuplock joint models with different forces to simulate the real force situation. By setting the different load conditions which means the cuplock is loaded at a certain distance from the cuplock joint in a certain direction until the cuplock is damaged and considering the gap between the cross bar joint and the vertical bar, the differences in the influence of the structural form and tightening torque on the rotation stiffness of the cuplock under different load conditions are compared. It is significantly important to improve the accuracy of calculating bearing capacity and stability of the cuplock steel pipe scaffold.

Keywords: theoretical analysis, cuplock joint, highway tunnel, non-linear characteristics, rotational stiffness, scaffold stability

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2153 Identifying Barriers of Implementing Building Information Modelling in Construction

Authors: Kasra HosseinMostofi, Mohamadamin Oyar Hossein, Reza Mehdizadeh Anvigh

Abstract:

BIM is an innovative concept for the majority of firms operating in industry. BIM offers a new paradigm to design, construct, operate, and maintain a facility. However, even with the most conscientious use, stakeholders can run into trouble during its implementation on a project or within an organization. At times, project stakeholders are unaware of the challenges that they can face with the implementation at the project level or an organizational level. Therefore, the study aimed to identify and compile barriers associated with the BIM implementation at the project and organizational level, as per the literature. Despite the fact that innumerable advantageous involved in exploiting BIM, there are some barriers to implement it properly. These barriers have been proved as impediments for academicians and members of construction team project to take the maximum advantage of its utilization. Although some research has been conducted to identify these barriers regarding BIM implementation in construction industry, more research is needed to be carried out among academicians to identify these barriers in institutions, and most importantly, to make suggestions for eliminating these obstacles.

Keywords: Construction, Design and Construction, Building Information Modelling, designers

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2152 Evaluation of High Damping Rubber Considering Initial History through Dynamic Loading Test and Program Analysis

Authors: Kyeong Hoon PARK, Taiji MAZUDA

Abstract:

High damping rubber (HDR) bearings are dissipating devices mainly used in seismic isolation systems and have a great damping performance. Although many studies have been conducted on the dynamic model of HDR bearings, few models can reflect phenomena such as dependency of experienced shear strain on initial history. In order to develop a model that can represent the dependency of experienced shear strain of HDR by Mullins effect, dynamic loading test was conducted using HDR specimen. The reaction of HDR was measured by applying a horizontal vibration using a hybrid actuator under a constant vertical load. Dynamic program analysis was also performed after dynamic loading test. The dynamic model applied in program analysis is a bilinear type double-target model. This model is modified from typical bilinear model. This model can express the nonlinear characteristics related to the initial history of HDR bearings. Based on the dynamic loading test and program analysis results, equivalent stiffness and equivalent damping ratio were calculated to evaluate the mechanical properties of HDR and the feasibility of the bilinear type double-target model was examined.

Keywords: bilinear model, Base-isolation, loading test, high damping rubber

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2151 Study on Flexible Diaphragm In-Plane Model of Irregular Multi-Storey Industrial Plant

Authors: Mu-Xuan Tao, Cheng-Hao Jiang

Abstract:

The rigid diaphragm model may cause errors in the calculation of internal forces due to neglecting the in-plane deformation of the diaphragm. This paper thus studies the effects of different diaphragm in-plane models (including in-plane rigid model and in-plane flexible model) on the seismic performance of structures. Taking an actual industrial plant as an example, the seismic performance of the structure is predicted using different floor diaphragm models, and the analysis errors caused by different diaphragm in-plane models including deformation error and internal force error are calculated. Furthermore, the influence of the aspect ratio on the analysis errors is investigated. Finally, the code rationality is evaluated by assessing the analysis errors of the structure models whose floors were determined as rigid according to the code’s criterion. It is found that different floor models may cause great differences in the distribution of structural internal forces, and the current code may underestimate the influence of the floor in-plane effect.

Keywords: diaphragm, industrial plant, calculating error, code rationality

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2150 Sustainable Maintenance Model for Infrastructure in Egypt

Authors: Sahar Hasan, Ireny Beshara

Abstract:

Infrastructure maintenance is a great challenge facing sustainable development of infrastructure assets due to the high cost of passive implementation of sustainable maintenance plan. An assessment model of sustainable maintenance for highway infrastructure projects in Egypt is developed in this paper. It helps improving the implementation of sustainable maintenance criteria. Thus, this paper has applied the analytical hierarchy processes (AHP) to rank and explore the weight of (26) assessment indicators using three hierarchy levels containing the main sustainable categories and subcategories with related indicators. Overall combined Weight of each indicator for sustainable maintenance evaluation has been calculated to sum up to sustainable maintenance performance index (SMI). The results show that the factor "Preventive maintenance cost" has the highest relative contribution factor among others (13.5%), while two factors of environmental performance has the least weights (0.7%). The developed model aims to provide the decision makers with information about current maintenance performance and support them in the decision-making process regarding future directions of maintenance activities. It can be used as an assessment performance tool during the operation and maintenance stage. The developed indicators can be considered during designing the maintenance plan. Practices for successful implementation of the model are also presented.

Keywords: analytical hierarchy process, assessment performance Model, KPIs for sustainable maintenance, sustainable maintenance index

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2149 Analysis of Elastic-Plastic Deformation of Reinforced Concrete Shear-Wall Structures under Earthquake Excitations

Authors: Karomatullo Umarov, Oleg Kabantsev

Abstract:

The engineering analysis of earthquake consequences demonstrates a significantly different level of damage to load-bearing systems of different types. Buildings with reinforced concrete columns and separate shear-walls receive the highest level of damage. Traditional methods for predicting damage under earthquake excitations do not provide an answer to the question about the reasons for the increased vulnerability of reinforced concrete frames with shear-walls bearing systems. Thus, the study of the problem of formation and accumulation of damages in the structures reinforced concrete frame with shear-walls requires the use of new methods of assessment of the stress-strain state, as well as new approaches to the calculation of the distribution of forces and stresses in the load-bearing system based on account of various mechanisms of elastic-plastic deformation of reinforced concrete columns and walls. The results of research into the processes of non-linear deformation of structures with a transition to destruction (collapse) will allow to substantiate the characteristics of limit states of various structures forming an earthquake-resistant load-bearing system. The research of elastic-plastic deformation processes of reinforced concrete structures of frames with shear-walls is carried out on the basis of experimentally established parameters of limit deformations of concrete and reinforcement under dynamic excitations. Limit values of deformations are defined for conditions under which local damages of the maximum permissible level are formed in constructions. The research is performed by numerical methods using ETABS software. The research results indicate that under earthquake excitations, plastic deformations of various levels are formed in various groups of elements of the frame with the shear-wall load-bearing system. During the main period of seismic effects in the shear-wall elements of the load-bearing system, there are insignificant volumes of plastic deformations, which are significantly lower than the permissible level. At the same time, plastic deformations are formed in the columns and do not exceed the permissible value. At the final stage of seismic excitations in shear-walls, the level of plastic deformations reaches values corresponding to the plasticity coefficient of concrete , which is less than the maximum permissible value. Such volume of plastic deformations leads to an increase in general deformations of the bearing system. With the specified parameters of the deformation of the shear-walls in concrete columns, plastic deformations exceeding the limiting values develop, which leads to the collapse of such columns. Based on the results presented in this study, it can be concluded that the application seismic-force-reduction factor, common for the all load-bearing system, does not correspond to the real conditions of formation and accumulation of damages in elements of the load-bearing system. Using a single coefficient of seismic-force-reduction factor leads to errors in predicting the seismic resistance of reinforced concrete load-bearing systems. In order to provide the required level of seismic resistance buildings with reinforced concrete columns and separate shear-walls, it is necessary to use values of the coefficient of seismic-force-reduction factor differentiated by types of structural groups.

Keywords: Reinforced Concrete Structures, nonlinear dynamic analysis, Earthquake excitation, plasticity coefficients, seismic-force-reduction factor

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2148 Seismic Reliability of Two-DegreE-of-Freedom Systems with Supplemental Damping

Authors: A.D. García-Soto, Miguel Jaimes, J.G. Valdés-Vázquez, A. Hernández-Martínez

Abstract:

The seismic reliability of two-degree-of-freedom (2DOF) systems with and without supplemental damping are computed. The used records are scaled from realistic records using standard incremental dynamic Analysis (IDA). The total normalized shear base is computed for both cases using different scaling factors, and it is considered as the demand. The seismic reliability is computed using codified design to stipulate the capacity and, after some assumptions, applying the first-order reliability method (FORM). The 2DOF considered can be thought as structures with non-linear behavior, with and without seismic protection, subjected to earthquake activity in Mexico City. It is found that the reliability of 2DOF structures retrofitted with supplemental damper at its first story is generally higher than the reliability of 2DOF structures without supplemental damping.

Keywords: Form, Seismic Reliability, IDA

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2147 Non-Linear Finite Element Investigation on the Behavior of CFRP Strengthened Steel Square HSS Columns under Eccentric Loading

Authors: Tasnuba Binte Jamal, Khan Mahmud Amanat

Abstract:

Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) composite materials have proven to have valuable properties and suitability to be used in the construction of new buildings and in upgrading the existing ones due to its effectiveness, ease of implementation and many more. In the present study, a numerical finite element investigation has been conducted using ANSYS 18.1 to study the behavior of square HSS AISC sections under eccentric compressive loading strengthened with CFRP materials. A three-dimensional finite element model for square HSS section using shell element was developed. Application of CFRP strengthening was incorporated in the finite element model by adding an additional layer of shell elements. Both material and geometric nonlinearities were incorporated in the model. The developed finite element model was applied to simulate experimental studies done by past researchers and it was found that good agreement exists between the current analysis and past experimental results, which established the acceptability and validity of the developed finite element model to carry out further investigation. Study was then focused on some selected non-compact AISC square HSS columns and the effects of number of CFRP layers, amount of eccentricities and cross-sectional geometry on the strength gain of those columns were observed. Load was applied at a distance equal to the column dimension and twice that of column dimension. It was observed that CFRP strengthening is comparatively effective for smaller eccentricities. For medium sized sections, strengthening tends to be effective at smaller eccentricities as well. For relatively large AISC square HSS columns, with increasing number of CFRP layers (from 1 to 3 layers) the gain in strength is approximately 1 to 38% to that of unstrengthened section for smaller eccentricities and slenderness ratio ranging from 27 to 54. For medium sized square HSS sections, effectiveness of CFRP strengthening increases approximately by about 12 to 162%. The findings of the present study provide a better understanding of the behavior of HSS sections strengthened with CFRP subjected to eccentric compressive load.

Keywords: finite element model, square hollow section, eccentricity, CFRP strengthening

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2146 Analysing Construction Cost Estimation Factors as a Map

Authors: Kambiz Borna, Duaa Alshadli, Antoni Moore

Abstract:

For construction projects, different factors such as the type of project, material costs, project conditions and duration are combined to estimate the total project cost. Hence it is essential for the relationships between these factors to be well-defined in order to produce an accurate cost estimate of each stage of the project. The aim of this paper is to formulate and implement a Geographic Information System (GIS)-based approach that allows the user to properly quantify and visualize the relationship between these (non-spatial) factors in a virtual geospatial space, providing accurate cost estimates. To achieve this, Voronoi polygons are used in the developed method to transfer the duration and completion time of each project stage from one-dimensional data into a two-dimensional space (spatialisation). A sigmoidal shape is then utilised as a profile and scaled to convert the two-dimensional map into a three-dimensional map based on the material costs and difficulty of each activity. This provides a visualization tool that is similar to a topographic map. The generated maps are then compared to quantify and identify inconsistencies between duration, difficulty, and cost of each activity for a house-construction project. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of this method in identifying the best cost estimation scheme.

Keywords: GIS, Construction Project, cost estimation process, spatialisation

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2145 Performance Evaluation of Construction Projects by Earned Value Management Method, Using Primavera P6 – A Case Study in Istanbul, Turkey

Authors: Cemil Akcay, Mohammad Lemar Zalmai, Osman Hurol Turkakin, Ekrem Manisali

Abstract:

Most of the construction projects are exposed to time and cost overruns due to various factors and this is a major problem. As a solution to this, the Earned Value Management (EVM) method is considered. EVM is a powerful and well-known method used in monitoring and controlling the project. EVM is a technique that project managers use to track the performance of their project against project baselines. EVM gives an early indication that either project is delayed or not, and the project is either over budget or under budget at any particular day by tracking it. Thus, it helps to improve the management control system of a construction project, to detect and control the problems in potential risk areas and to suggest the importance and purpose of monitoring the construction work. This paper explains the main parameters of the EVM system involved in the calculation of time and cost for construction projects. In this study, the project management software Primavera P6 is used to deals with the project monitoring process of a seven-storeyed (G+6) faculty building whose construction is in progress at Istanbul, Turkey. A comparison between the planned progress of construction activities and actual progress is performed, and the analysis results are interpreted. This case study justifies the benefits of using EVM for project cash flow analysis and forecasting.

Keywords: Project Management, Construction Planning, Project Scheduling, earned value management (EVM), construction cost management, primavera P6

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2144 Research of Strong-Column-Weak-Beam Criteria of reinforced concrete Frames Subjected to Biaxial Seismic Excitation Based on Fiber Model Approach

Authors: Chong Zhang, Mu-Xuan Tao

Abstract:

In several earthquakes, numerous reinforced concrete (RC) frames subjected to seismic excitation demonstrated a collapse pattern characterized by column hinges, though designed according to the Strong-Column-Weak-Beam (S-C-W-B) criteria. The effect of biaxial seismic excitation on the disparity between design and actual performance is carefully investigated in this article. First, a group of time history analyses of a simple frame modeled by fiber beam-column elements subjected to biaxial seismic excitation is conducted to verify the current S-C-W-B criteria is not adequate to prevent the occurrence of column hinges. Afterwards, a modified load contour method is proposed to derive a closed-form equation of biaxial bending moment capacity, which is verified by numerical and experimental tests. A biaxial overdesign factor is developed based on the proposed equation and the reinforcement of columns is appropriately amplified with this factor to prevent the occurrence of column hinges under biaxial excitation, which is proved to be effective by another group of time history analyses.

Keywords: biaxial bending moment capacity, biaxial seismic excitation, fiber beam model, load contour method, strong-column-weak-beam

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2143 Effective Slab Width for Beam-End Flexural Strength of Composite Frames with Circular-Section Columns

Authors: Jizhi Zhao, Qiliang Zhou, Muxuan Tao

Abstract:

The calculation of the ultimate loading capacity of composite frame beams is an important step in the design of composite frame structural systems. Currently, the plastic limit theory is mainly used for this calculation in the codes adopted by many countries; however, the effective slab width recommended in most codes is based on the elastic theory, which does not accurately reflect the complex stress mechanism at the beam-column joints in the ultimate loading state. Therefore, the authors’ research group put forward the Compression-on-Column-Face mechanism and Tension-on-Transverse-Beam mechanism to explain the mechanism in the ultimate loading state. Formulae are derived for calculating the effective slab width in composite frames with rectangular/square-section columns under ultimate lateral loading. Moreover, this paper discusses the calculation method of the effective slab width for the beam-end flexural strength of composite frames with circular-section columns. The proposed design formula is suitable for exterior and interior joints. Finally, this paper compares the proposed formulae with available formulae in other literature, current design codes, and experimental results, providing the most accurate results to predict the effective slab width and ultimate loading capacity.

Keywords: composite frame structure, effective slab width, circular-section column, design formulae, ultimate loading capacity

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2142 The Impact of Structural Empowerment on Risk Management Practices: A Case Study of Saudi Arabia Construction Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

Authors: S. Mohammad, S. Alyami

Abstract:

These Risk management practices have a significant impact on construction SMEs. The effective utilisation of these practices depends on culture change in order to optimise decision making for critical activities within construction projects. Thus, successful implementation of empowerment strategies would enhance operational employees to participate in effective decision making. However, there remain many barriers to individuals and organisations within empowerment strategies that require empirical investigation before the industry can benefit from their implementation. Gaps in understanding the relationship between employee empowerment and risk management practices still exist. This research paper aims to examine the impact of the structural empowerment on risk management practices in construction SMEs. The questionnaire has been distributed to participants (162 employees) that involve projects and civil engineers within a case study from Saudi construction SMEs. Partial least squares based structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) was utilised to perform analysis. The results reveal a positive relationship between empowerment and risk management practices. The study shows how structural empowerment contributes to operational employees in risk management practices through involving activities such as decision making, self-efficiency, and autonomy. The findings of this study will contribute to close the current gaps in the construction SMEs context.

Keywords: Decision Making, Risk management, Culture, Empowerment, construction SMEs

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2141 Vertical and Lateral Vibration Response for Corrugated Track Curves Supported on High-Density Polyethylene and Hytrel Rail Pads

Authors: B.M. Balekwa, D.V.V. Kallon, D.J. Fourie

Abstract:

Modal analysis is applied to establish the dynamic difference between vibration response of the rails supported on High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) and Hytrel/6358 rail pads. The experiment was conducted to obtain the results in the form of Frequency Response Functions (FRFs) in the vertical and lateral directions. Three antiresonance modes are seen in the vertical direction; one occurs at about 150 Hz when the rail resting on the Hytrel/6358 pad experiences a force mid-span. For the rail resting on this type of rail pad, no antiresonance occurs when the force is applied on the point of the rail that is resting on the pad and directly on top of a sleeper. The two antiresonance modes occur in a frequency range of 250 – 300 Hz in the vertical direction for the rail resting on HDPE pads. At resonance, the rail vibrates with a higher amplitude, but at antiresonance, the rail transmits vibration downwards to the sleepers. When the rail is at antiresonance, the stiffness of the rail pads play a vital role in terms of damping the vertical vibration to protect the sleepers. From the FRFs it is understood that the Hytrel/6358 rail pads perform better than the HDPE in terms of vertical response, given that at a lower frequency range of 0 – 300 Hz only one antiresonance mode was identified for vertical vibration of the rail supported on Hytrel/6358. This means the rail is at antiresonance only once within this frequency range and this is the only time when vibration is transmitted downwards.

Keywords: FRF, accelerance, rail corrugation, rail pad

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2140 Flexural Behavior of Light-Gauge Steel Box Sections Filled with Normal and Recycled Aggregates Concrete

Authors: Rola El-Nimri, Mu’Tasime Abdel-Jaber, Yasser Hunaiti

Abstract:

The flexural behavior of light-gauge steel box sections filled with recycled concrete was assessed through an experimental program involving 15 composite beams. Recycled concrete was obtained by replacing natural aggregates (NA) with recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) and recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) with replacement levels of 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% by the total weight of NA. In addition, RCA and RAP were incorporated in the same mixes with replacement levels of (1) 20% RCA and 80% RAP; (2) 40% RCA and 60% RAP; (3) 60% RCA and 40% RAP; and (4) 80% RCA and 20% RAP. A comparison between the experimental capacities and the theoretically predicted values according to Eurocode 4 (EC4) was made as well. Results proved that the ultimate capacity of composite beams decreased with the increase of recycled aggregate (RA) percentage and EC4 was conservative in predicting the ultimate capacity of composite beams.

Keywords: recycled concrete aggregate, flexure, recycled asphalt pavement, Light Gauge, Steel Tube

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2139 Torsional Behavior of Reinforced Concrete (RC) Beams Strengthened by Fiber Reinforced Cementitious Materials– a Review

Authors: Sifatullah Bahij, Safiullah Omary, Francoise Feugeas, Amanullah Faqiri

Abstract:

Reinforced concrete (RC) is commonly used material in the construction sector, due to its low-cost and durability, and allowed the architectures and designers to construct structural members with different shapes and finishing. Usually, RC members are designed to sustain service loads efficiently without any destruction. However, because of the faults in the design phase, overloading, materials deficiencies, and environmental effects, most of the structural elements will require maintenance and repairing over their lifetime. Therefore, strengthening and repair of the deteriorated and/or existing RC structures are much important to extend their life cycle. Various techniques are existing to retrofit and strengthen RC structural elements such as steel plate bonding, external pre-stressing, section enlargement, fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) wrapping, etc. Although these configurations can successfully improve the load bearing capacity of the beams, they are still prone to corrosion damage which results in failure of the strengthened elements. Therefore, many researchers used fiber reinforced cementitious materials due to its low-cost, corrosion resistance, and result in improvement of the tensile and fatigue behaviors. Various types of cementitious materials have been used to strengthen or repair structural elements. This paper has summarized to accumulate data regarding on previously published research papers concerning the torsional behaviors of RC beams strengthened by various types of cementitious materials.

Keywords: cementitious materials, Strengthening Techniques, torsional strength, reinforced concrete beams, twisting angle

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2138 Use of Non-woven Polyethylene Terephthalate Fabrics to Improve Certain Properties of Concrete

Authors: Sifatullah Bahij, Safiullah Omary, Francoise Feugeas, Amanullah Faqiri

Abstract:

Plastic packages have been broadly used for a long time. Such widespread usage of plastic has resulted in an increased amount of plastic wastes and many environmental impacts. Plastic wastes are one of the most significant types of waste materials because of their non-degradation and low biodegradability. It is why many researchers tried to find a safe and environmentally friendly solution for plastic wastes. In this goal, in the civil engineering industry, many types of plastic wastes have been incorporated, as a partial substitution of aggregates or as additive materials (fibers) in concrete mixtures because of their lengthier lifetime and lower weight. This work aims to study the mechanical properties (compressive, split tensile and flexural strengths) of concrete with a water-cement ratio (w/c) of 0.45 and with the incorporation of non-woven PET plastic sheets. Five configurations -without PET (reference), 1-layer sheet, 2-side, 3-side, and full sample wrapping- were applied. The 7, 14 and 28-days samples’ compressive strengths, flexural strength and split tensile strength were measured. The outcomes of the study show that the compressive strength was improved for the wrapped samples, particularly for the cylindrical specimens. Also, split tensile and flexural behaviors of the wrapped samples improved significantly compared to the reference ones. Moreover, reference samples were damaged into many parts after mechanical testing, while wrapped specimens were taken by the applied configurations and were not divided into many small fragments. Therefore, non-woven fabrics appeared to improve some properties of the concrete.

Keywords: Mechanical Behaviors, crack pattern, solid waste plastic, non-woven polyethylene terephthalate sheets

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2137 A Probability-Based Model for Building Energy Performance Analysis (A Monte Carlo Approach)

Authors: Fatemeh Shahsavari, Rasool Koosha

Abstract:

Growing demand for handling uncertainties in building energy performance analysis has challenged the conventional deterministic tools and, thus, researchers in the field lean towards viable alternatives to using deterministic design methods, e.g., probabilistic methods. This paper proposes a framework to implement probabilistic methods in the field of building thermal energy consumption (TEC) analysis, considering maximum deviation from comfort temperature (MDCT) as a design constraint. The framework integrates a building design process with Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis (UA), and variance-based sensitivity analysis (SA). This study considers several sources of uncertainty in building energy analysis and provides predictions on the possible range of building TEC and MDCT. Also, a level of significance for each design input variable is identified, to provide a better understanding of the building model. This study demonstrates the application of the proposed framework with a hypothetical test case building in College Station, Texas, USA. The probabilistic TEC and MDCT results are discussed and compared with deterministic results obtained from conventional methods. The UA process provides the relative frequency of TEC and MDCT for the test case with confidence intervals. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis indicates that mechanical parameters have the highest impact on building TEC and MDCT, while Window to Wall Ratio (WWR) has the least effects. The thermal properties of building materials roughly equally contribute to the variations of TEC and MDCT, while the effect of weather changes on building TEC is considerably stronger than that on MDCT variations. This information provides architects and energy modelers with an opportunity to assess building energy performance more robustly and make more effective design decisions.

Keywords: Thermal comfort, Uncertainty analysis, Energy Analysis, Sensitivity Analysis, high performance building

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2136 GIS-Based Automatic Flight Planning of Camera-Equipped UAVs for Fire Emergency Response

Authors: Hexu Liu, Mohammed Sulaiman, Mohamed Binalhaj, William W. Liou, Osama Abudayyeh

Abstract:

Emerging technologies such as camera-equipped unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are increasingly being applied in building fire rescue to provide real-time visualization and 3D reconstruction of the entire fireground. However, flight planning of camera-equipped UAVs is usually a manual process, which is not sufficient to fulfill the needs of emergency management. This research proposes a Geographic Information System (GIS)-based approach to automatic flight planning of camera-equipped UAVs for building fire emergency response. In this research, Haversine formula and lawn mowing patterns are employed to automate flight planning based on geometrical and spatial information from GIS. The resulting flight mission satisfies the requirements of 3D reconstruction purposes of the fireground, in consideration of flight execution safety and visibility of camera frames. The proposed approach is implemented within a GIS environment through an application programming interface. A case study is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. The result shows that flight mission can be generated in a timely manner for application to fire emergency response.

Keywords: GIS, camera-equipped UAVs, automatic flight planning, fire emergency response

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2135 A Feasibility Study of Crowdsourcing Data Collection for Facility Maintenance Management

Authors: Mohamed Bin Alhaj, Hexu Liu, Mohammed Sulaiman, Osama Abudayyeh

Abstract:

An effective facility maintenance management (FMM) system plays a crucial role in improving the quality of services and maintaining the facility in good condition. Current FMM heavily relies on the quality of the data collection function of the FMM systems, at times resulting in inefficient FMM decision-making. The new technology-based crowdsourcing provides great potential to improve the current FMM practices, especially in terms of timeliness and quality of data. This research aims to investigate the feasibility of using new technology-driven crowdsourcing for FMM and highlight its opportunities and challenges. A survey was carried out to understand the human, data, system, geospatial, and automation characteristics of crowdsourcing for an educational campus FMM via social networks. The survey results were analyzed to reveal the challenges and recommendations for the implementation of crowdsourcing for FMM. This research contributes to the body of knowledge by synthesizing the challenges and opportunities of using crowdsourcing for facility maintenance and providing a road map for applying crowdsourcing technology in FMM. In future work, a conceptual framework will be proposed to support data-driven FMM using social networks.

Keywords: Social Networks, Crowdsourcing, facility maintenance management

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2134 Adhesion Study of Repair Mortar Based in Dune and Crushed Limestone Sand

Authors: Krobba Benharzallah, Kenai Said, Bouhicha Mohamed, Lakhdari Mohammed Fatah, Merah Ahmed

Abstract:

In recent years, great interest has been directed towards the use of local materials and natural resources in building and public works. This is to satisfy the enormous need for these materials and contribute to sustainable development. Among these resources, dune sand and limestone crushed sand, which can be an interesting alternative to the replacement of siliceous alluvial sands for the formulation of a repair mortar. The results found show that the particle size correction of dune sand by limestone sand and the addition of a superplasticizer are very beneficial in terms of adhesion and mechanical strength.

Keywords: Adhesion, Mechanical Strength, dune sand, repair mortar, crushed limestone sand

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2133 Physical and Numerical Modelling of Load Transfer Mechanisms in a Wind Turbine Foundation

Authors: Janet Modu, Jean-Francois Georgin, Laurent Briancon, Eric Antoinet

Abstract:

The current practice during the repowering phase of wind turbines is deconstruction of existing foundations and construction of new foundations to accept larger wind loads or once the foundations have reached the end of their service lives. The ongoing research project FUI25 FEDRE (Fondations d’Eoliennes Durables et REpowering) therefore serves to propose scalable wind turbine foundation designs to allow reuse of the existing foundations. To undertake this research, numerical models and laboratory-scale models are currently being utilized and implemented in the GEOMAS laboratory at INSA Lyon following instrumentation of a reference wind turbine situated in the Northern part of France. Sensors placed within both the foundation and the underlying soil monitor the evolution of stresses from the foundation’s early age to stresses during service. The results from the instrumentation form the basis of validation for both the laboratory and numerical works conducted throughout the project duration. The study currently focuses on the effect of coupled mechanisms (Thermal-Hydro-Mechanical-Chemical) that induce stress during the early age of the reinforced concrete foundation, and scale factor considerations in the replication of the reference wind turbine foundation at laboratory-scale. Using THMC 3D models on COMSOL Multi-physics software, the numerical analysis performed on both the laboratory-scale and the full-scale foundations simulate the thermal deformation, hydration, shrinkage (desiccation and autogenous) and creep so as to predict the initial damage caused by internal processes during concrete setting and hardening. Results show a prominent effect of early age properties on the damage potential in full-scale wind turbine foundations. However, a prediction of the damage potential at laboratory scale shows significant differences in early age stresses in comparison to the full-scale model depending on the spatial position in the foundation. In addition to the well-known size effect phenomenon, these differences may contribute to inaccuracies encountered when predicting ultimate deformations of the on-site foundation using laboratory scale models.

Keywords: Wind turbines, Reinforced Concrete, Cement Hydration, shrinkage, early age behavior, THMC 3D models

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2132 Fractional Calculus into Structural Dynamics

Authors: Jorge Lopez

Abstract:

In this work, we introduce fractional calculus in order to study the dynamics of a damped multistory building with some symmetry. Initially we make a review of the dynamics of a free and damped multistory building. Then we introduce those concepts of fractional calculus that will be involved in our study. It has been noticed that fractional calculus provides models with less parameters than those based on classical calculus. In particular, a damped classical oscilator is more naturally described by using fractional derivatives. Accordingly, we model our multistory building as a set of coupled fractional oscillators and compare its dynamics with the results coming from traditional methods.

Keywords: Structural dynamics, Fractional Calculus, coupled oscillators, fractional oscillator

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2131 Optimal Design of Concrete Shells by Modified Particle Community Algorithm Using Spinless Curves

Authors: Reza Abbasi, Ahmad Hamidi Benam

Abstract:

Shell structures have many geometrical variables that modify some of these parameters to improve the mechanical behavior of the shell. On the other hand, the behavior of such structures depends on their geometry rather than on mass. Optimization techniques are useful in finding the geometrical shape of shell structures to improve mechanical behavior, especially to prevent or reduce bending anchors. The overall objective of this research is to optimize the shape of concrete shells using the thickness and height parameters along the reference curve and the overall shape of this curve. To implement the proposed scheme, the geometry of the structure was formulated using nonlinear curves. Shell optimization was performed under equivalent static loading conditions using the modified bird community algorithm. The results of this optimization show that without disrupting the initial design and with slight changes in the shell geometry, the structural behavior is significantly improved.

Keywords: shape optimization, Concrete shells, Spinless curves, Modified particle community algorithm

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2130 Applying Laser Scanning and Digital Photogrammetry for Developing an Archaeological Model Structure for Old Castle in Germany

Authors: Bara' Al-Mistarehi

Abstract:

Documentation and assessment of conservation state of an archaeological structure is a significant procedure in any management plan. However, it has always been a challenge to apply this with a low coast and safe methodology. It is also a time-demanding procedure. Therefore, a low cost, efficient methodology for documenting the state of a structure is needed. In the scope of this research, this paper will employ digital photogrammetry and laser scanner to one of highly significant structures in Germany, The Old Castle (German: Altes Schloss). The site is well known for its unique features. However, the castle suffers from serious deterioration threats because of the environmental conditions and the absence of continuous monitoring, maintenance and repair plans. Digital photogrammetry is a generally accepted technique for the collection of 3D representations of the environment. For this reason, this image-based technique has been extensively used to produce high quality 3D models of heritage sites and historical buildings for documentation and presentation purposes. Additionally, terrestrial laser scanners are used, which directly measure 3D surface coordinates based on the run-time of reflected light pulses. These systems feature high data acquisition rates, good accuracy and high spatial data density. Despite the potential of each single approach, in this research work maximum benefit is to be expected by a combination of data from both digital cameras and terrestrial laser scanners. Within the paper, the usage, application and advantages of the technique will be investigated in terms of building high realistic 3D textured model for some parts of the old castle. The model will be used as diagnosing tool of the conservation state of the castle and monitoring mean for future changes.

Keywords: Digital Photogrammetry, Terrestrial laser scanners, archaeological structure

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