Search results for: zygotic embryos.
Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Search results for: zygotic embryos.

17 An Efficient Protocol for Cyclic Somatic Embryogenesis in Neem (Azadirachta indica A Juss.)

Authors: Mithilesh Singh, Rakhi Chaturvedi

Abstract:

Neem is a highly heterozygous and commercially important perennial plant. Conventionally, it is propagated by seeds which loose viability within two weeks. Strictly cross pollinating nature of the plant causes serious barrier to the genetic improvement by conventional methods. Alternative methods of tree improvement such as somatic hybridization, mutagenesis and genetic transformation require an efficient in vitro plant regeneration system. In this regard, somatic embryogenesis particularly secondary somatic embryogenesis may offer an effective system for large scale plant propagation without affecting the clonal fidelity of the regenerants. It can be used for synthetic seed production, which further bolsters conservation of this tree species which is otherwise very difficult The present report describes the culture conditions necessary to induce and maintain repetitive somatic embryogenesis, for the first time, in neem. Out of various treatments tested, the somatic embryos were induced directly from immature zygotic embryos of neem on MS + TDZ (0.1 μM) + ABA (4 μM), in more than 76 % cultures. Direct secondary somatic embryogenesis occurred from primary somatic embryos on MS + IAA (5 μM) + GA3 (5 μM) in 12.5 % cultures. Embryogenic competence of the explant as well as of the primary embryos was maintained for a long period by repeated subcultures at frequent intervals. A maximum of 10 % of these somatic embryos were converted into plantlets.

Keywords: Azadirachta indica A. Juss., Cytokinin, Somatic embryogenesis, zygotic embryo culture.

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16 Micropropagation and in vitro Conservation via Slow Growth Techniques of Prunus webbii (Spach) Vierh: An Endangered Plant Species in Albania

Authors: Valbona Sota, Efigjeni Kongjika

Abstract:

Wild almond is a woody species, which is difficult to propagate either generatively by seed or by vegetative methods (grafting or cuttings) and also considered as Endangered (EN) in Albania based on IUCN criteria. As a wild relative of cultivated fruit trees, this species represents a source of genetic variability and can be very important in breeding programs and cultivation. For this reason, it would be of interest to use an effective method of in vitro mid-term conservation, which involves strategies to slow plant growth through physicochemical alterations of in vitro growth conditions. Multiplication of wild almond was carried out using zygotic embryos, as primary explants, with the purpose to develop a successful propagation protocol. Results showed that zygotic embryos can proliferate through direct or indirect organogenesis. During subculture, stage was obtained a great number of new plantlets identical to mother plants derived from the zygotic embryos. All in vitro plantlets obtained from subcultures underwent in vitro conservation by minimal growth in low temperature (4ºC) and darkness. The efficiency of this technique was evaluated for 3, 6, and 10 months of conservation period. Maintenance in these conditions reduced micro cuttings growth. Survival and regeneration rates for each period were evaluated and resulted that the maximal time of conservation without subculture on 4ºC was 10 months, but survival and regeneration rates were significantly reduced, specifically 15.6% and 7.6%. An optimal period of conservation in these conditions can be considered the 5-6 months storage, which can lead to 60-50% of survival and regeneration rates. This protocol may be beneficial for mass propagation, mid-term conservation, and for genetic manipulation of wild almond.

Keywords: Micropropagation, minimal growth, storage, wild almond.

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15 Comparative Growth Rates of Treculia africana Decne: Embryo in Varied Strengths of Murashige and Skoog Basal Medium

Authors: Okafor C. Uche, Agbo P. Ejiofor, Okezie C. Eziuche

Abstract:

This study provides a regeneration protocol for Treculia africana Decne (an endangered plant) through embryo culture. Mature zygotic embryos of T. africana were excised from the seeds aseptically and cultured on varied strengths (full, half and quarter) of Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented. All treatments experienced 100±0.00 percent sprouting except for half and quarter strengths. Plantlets in MS full strength had the highest fresh weight, leaf area, and longest shoot length when compared to other treatments. All explants in full, half, quarter strengths and control had the same number of leaves and sprout rate. Between the treatments, there was a significant difference (P>0.05) in their effect on the length of shoot and root, number of adventitious root, leaf area, and fresh weight. Full strength had the highest mean value in all the above-mentioned parameters and differed significantly (P>0.05) from others except in shoot length, number of adventitious roots, and root length where it did not differ (P<0.05) from half strength. The result of this study indicates that full strength MS basal medium offers a better option for the optimum growth for Treculia africana regeneration in vitro.

Keywords: Medium strengths, Murashige and Skoog, Treculia africana, zygotic embryos.

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14 Efficient Callus Induction and Plant Regeneration from Mature Embryo Culture of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Genotypes

Authors: Münüre Tanur Erkoyuncu, Mustafa Yorgancılar

Abstract:

Crop improvement through genetic engineering depends on effective and reproducible plant regeneration systems. Immature embryos are the most widely used explant source for in vitro regeneration in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). However, immature embryos require the continuous growth of donor plants and the suitable stage for their culture is also certainly limited. On the other hand, mature embryos can be procured and stored easily; they can be studied throughout the year. In this study, an effective callus induction and plant regeneration were aimed to develop from mature embryos of different barley genotypes. The effect of medium (MS1 and MS2), auxin type (2,4-D, dicamba, picloram and 2,4,5-T) and concentrations (2, 4, 6 mg/l) on callus formation and effect of cytokinin type (TDZ, BAP) and concentrations (0.2, 0.5, 1.0 mg/l) on green plant regeneration were evaluated in mature embryo culture of barley. Callus and shoot formation was successful for all genotypes. By depending on genotype, MS1 is the best medium, 4 mg/l dicamba is the best growth regulator in the callus induction and MS1 is the best medium, 1 mg/l BAP is the best growth regulator in the shoot formation were determined.

Keywords: Barley, callus, embryo culture, mature embryo.

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13 Somatic Embryogenesis for Agropyron cristatum on Murashige and Skoog Medium

Authors: Masoume Amirkhani, Kambiz Mashayekhi, Maurizio Lambardi

Abstract:

Agropyron cristatum L. Gaertn. is a native grass of semiarid region in Iran which is quit resistant to cool and drought climate and withstand heavy grazing. This species has close phylogenetic relationship with Triticum and Hordeum. In this research, the effect of seven different concentrations of growth regulator 2,4-D on callus production and somatic embryogenesis of A. cristatum was investigated on Murashige and Skoog medium. The results showed that the rate of callus, embryo and neomorph were highest in 1 mg L-1 2,4-D. Callus production was increased in 1 mg L-1 2,4-D but dramatically decreased at 5.5 and 9 mg L-1 2,4-D. The somatic embryos were observed at 1 and 4 mg L-1 2,4-D but matured embryos and plantlet were only occurred at 1 mg L-1 2,4-D. There were significant differences between 1 mg L-1 2,4-D and other treatments for producing globular and torpedo embryos, plantlet, rooted callus and number of roots (p<0.05) and there was not any callus production and embryogenesis in control treatment without growth regulator.

Keywords: 2, 4-D, callus production, somatic embryogenesis, Agropyron cristatum.

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12 Application of Whole Genome Amplification Technique for Genotype Analysis of Bovine Embryos

Authors: S. Moghaddaszadeh-Ahrabi, S. Farajnia, Gh. Rahimi-Mianji, A. Nejati-Javaremi

Abstract:

In recent years, there has been an increasing interest toward the use of bovine genotyped embryos for commercial embryo transfer programs. Biopsy of a few cells in morulla stage is essential for preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). Low amount of DNA have limited performing the several molecular analyses within PGD analyses. Whole genome amplification (WGA) promises to eliminate this problem. We evaluated the possibility and performance of an improved primer extension preamplification (I-PEP) method with a range of starting bovine genomic DNA from 1-8 cells into the WGA reaction. We optimized a short and simple I-PEP (ssI-PEP) procedure (~3h). This optimized WGA method was assessed by 6 loci specific polymerase chain reactions (PCRs), included restriction fragments length polymorphism (RFLP). Optimized WGA procedure possesses enough sensitivity for molecular genetic analyses through the few input cells. This is a new era for generating characterized bovine embryos in preimplantation stage.

Keywords: Whole genome amplification (WGA), Genotyping, Bovine, Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD)

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11 Effects of Supplementation with Annatto (Bixa orellana)-Derived δ-Tocotrienol on the Nicotine-Induced Reduction in Body Weight and 8-Cell Preimplantation Embryonic Development in Mice

Authors: M. H. Rajikin, S. M. M. Syairah, A. R. Sharaniza

Abstract:

Effects of nicotine on pre-partum body weight and preimplantation embryonic development has been reported previously. Present study was conducted to determine the effects of annatto (Bixa orellana)-derived delta-tocotrienol (TCT) (with presence of 10% gamma-TCT isomer) on the nicotine-induced reduction in body weight and 8-cell embryonic growth in mice. Twenty-four 6-8 weeks old (23-25g) female balb/c mice were randomly divided into four groups (G1-G4; n=6). Those groups were subjected to the following treatments for 7 consecutive days: G1 (control) were gavaged with 0.1 ml tocopherol stripped corn oil. G2 was subcutaneously (s.c.) injected with 3 mg/kg/day of nicotine. G3 received concurrent treatment of nicotine (3 mg/kg/day) and 60 mg/kg/day of δ-TCT mixture (contains 90% delta & 10% gamma isomers) and G4 was given 60 mg/kg/day of δ-TCT mixture alone. Body weights were recorded daily during the treatment. On Day 8, females were superovulated with 5 IU Pregnant Mare’s Serum Gonadotropin (PMSG) for 48 hours followed with 5 IU human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) before mated with males at the ratio of 1:1. Females were sacrificed by cervical dislocation for embryo collection 48 hours post-coitum. Collected embryos were cultured in vitro. Results showed that throughout Day 1 to Day 7, the body weight of nicotine treated group (G2) was significantly lower (p<0.05) than that of G1, G3 and G4. Intervention with δ-TCT mixture (G3) managed to increase the body weight close to the control group. This is also observed in the group treated with δ-TCT mixture alone (G4). The development of 8-cell embryos following in vitro culture (IVC) was totally inhibited in G2. Intervention with δ- TCT mixture (G3) resulted in the production of 8-cell embryos, although it was not up to that of the control group. Treatment with δ- TCT mixture alone (G4) caused significant increase in the average number of produced 8-cell embryo compared to G1. Present data indicated that δ-TCT mixture was able to reverse the body weight loss in nicotine treated mice and the development of 8-cell embryos was also improved. Further analysis on the quality of embryos need to done to confirm the effects of δ-TCT mixture on preimplantation embryos.

Keywords: δ-tocotrienol, body weight, nicotine, preimplantation embryonic development.

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10 Effect of White Kwao Extract (Pueraria mirifica) on in vitro Development and Implantation Rate of Mouse Embryo

Authors: Sansani Rungrattawatchai

Abstract:

The White Kwao (Pueraria mirifica), a potent phytoestrogenic medicinal plant, has long been use in Thailand as a traditional folkmedicine. However, no scientific information of the direct effect of White Kwao on the development of mammalian embryo was available. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of White Kwao extract on the in vitro development and implantation rate of mouse embryos. This study was designed into two experiments. In the first experiment, the two-cell stage mouse embryos were collected from the oviduct of superovulated mature female mice, and randomly cultured in three different media, the M16, M16 supplemented with 0.52μg esthinylestradiol-17β, and M16 supplemented with 10 mg/ml White Kwao extract. The culture was incubated in CO2 incubator at 37 oC . After the embryos were cultivated, the developments of embryos were observed every 24 hours for 5 days. The development rate of embryos from the two-cell stage to blastocyst stage in the media was with White Kwao was significantly higher (p<0.05) than those of the control group (68.50% versus 43.50%) but did not differ from the positive control group (68.50% versus 57.66%). In the second experiment, hatched blastocysts, which obtained from three different media, were differently labeled the nuclei with two polynucleotide-specific fluorochromes, the propidium iodide (PI) and the bisbenzimide. The results showed that the number of trophectoderm cells in the blastocysts that cultivated in the media with White Kwao did not significantly differ from the control (80.00 versus 70 cells) and the positive control group (80.00 versus 112.50 cells). The average number of inner cell mass in the White Kwao treated group did not significantly differ from the control group (20.50 versus 16.00 cells) and the positive control group (20.50 versus 20.50 cells). The total cell number including the trophectoderm and the inner cell mass of the individual hatched blastocyst was evaluated. The cell number in the blastocysts obtained from the media with the White Kwao did not significantly differ from the control (94.25 + 9.50 versus 92.33 + 4.05) and the positive control group (94.25 + 9.50 versus 110.33 + 9.16). The results demonstrated that the White Kwao treatment group did have a stimulating effect on the in vitro development of mouse embryos. The exact mechanism that White Kwao stimulated mouse embryo development is not known. The suspect mechanism may in a manner similar to the mechanism that of estrogen stimulated the development of the mouse embryos. Futher studies are needed to transfer the blastocyst into the endometrium of pseudopreagnancy mice to evaluate the effect of White Kwao on implantation

Keywords: White Kwao (Pueraria mirifica), blastocyst.

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9 The Toxicity of Doxorubicin with Nanotransporters

Authors: I. Blazkova, A. Moulick, V. Milosavljevic, P. Kopel, M. Vaculovicova, V. Adam, R. Kizek

Abstract:

Doxorubicin (DOX) is an anthracycline drug used to treat many cancer diseases. Similarly to other cytostatic drugs, DOX has serious side effects; the biggest obstacle is the cardiotoxicity. With the aim of lowering the negative side effects and to target the DOX into the tumor tissue, the different nanoparticles (NPs) are studied. The aim of this work was to synthetized different NPs and conjugated them with DOX and determine the binding capacity of the NPs. For this experiment, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphene oxide (GO), fullerene (FUL) and liposomes (LIP) were used. The highest binding capacity was observed in GO (85%). Subsequently the toxicity of NPs and NPs-DOX conjugates was analyzed in in vivo system (chicken embryos). Some NPs (GO) can increase the toxicity of DOX, whereas other NPs (LIP, CNTs) decrease DOX toxicity.

Keywords: Chicken embryos, Doxorubicin, Nanotransporters, Toxicity

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8 The Effect of Acute Toxicity and Thyroid Hormone Treatments on Hormonal Changes during Embryogenesis of Acipenser persicus

Authors: Samaneh Nazeri, Bagher Mojazi Amiri, Hamid Farahmand

Abstract:

Production of high quality fish eggs with reasonable hatching rate makes a success in aquaculture industries. It is influenced by the environmental stimulators and inhibitors. Diazinon is a widely-used pesticide in Golestan province (Southern Caspian Sea, North of Iran) which is washed to the aquatic environment (3 mg/L in the river). It is little known about the effect of this pesticide on the embryogenesis of sturgeon fish, the valuable species of the Caspian Sea. Hormonal content of the egg is an important factor to guaranty the successful passes of embryonic stages. In this study, the fate of Persian sturgeon embryo to 24, 48, 72, and 96-hours exposure of diazinon (LC50 dose) was tested. Also, the effect of thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) on these embryos was tested concurrently or separately with diazinon LC 50 dose. Fertilized eggs are exposed to T3 (low dose: 1 ng/ml, high dose: 10 ng/ml), T4 (low dose: 1 ng/ml, high dose: 10 ng/ml). Six eggs were randomly selected from each treatment (with three replicates) in five developmental stages (two cell- division, neural, heart present, heart beaten, and hatched larvae). The possibility of changing T3, T4, and cortisol contents of the embryos were determined in all treated groups and in every mentioned embryonic stage. The hatching rate in treated groups was assayed at the end of the embryogenesis to clarify the effect of thyroid hormones and diazinon. The results indicated significant differences in thyroid hormone contents, but no significant differences were recognized in cortisol levels at various early life stages of embryos. There was also significant difference in thyroid hormones in (T3, T4) + diazinon treated embryos (P˂0.05), while no significant difference between control and treatments in cortisol levels was observed. The highest hatching rate was recorded in HT3 treatment, while the lowest hatching rate was recorded for diazinon LC50 treatment. The result confirmed that Persian sturgeon embryo is less sensitive to diazinon compared to teleost embryos, and thyroid hormones may increase hatching rate even in the presence of diazinon.

Keywords: Persian sturgeon, diazinon, thyroid hormones, cortisol, embryo.

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7 Direct and Indirect Somatic Embryogenesis from Petiole and Leaf Explants of Purple Fan Flower (Scaevola aemula R. Br. cv. 'Purple Fanfare')

Authors: Shyama Ranjani Weerakoon

Abstract:

Direct and indirect somatic embryogenesis (SE) from petiole and leaf explants of Scaevola aemula R. Br. cv. 'Purple Fanfare' was achieved. High frequency of somatic embryos was obtained directly from petiole and leaf explants using an inductive plant growth regulator signal thidiazuron (TDZ). Petiole explants were more responsive to SE than leaves. Plants derived from somatic embryos of petiole explants germinated more readily into plants. SE occurred more efficiently in half-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium than in full-strength MS medium. Non-embryogenic callus induced by 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid was used to investigate the feasibility of obtaining SE with TDZ as a secondary inductive plant growth regulator (PGR) signal. Non-embryogenic callus of S. aemula was able to convert into an “embryogenic competent mode" with PGR signal. Protocol developed for induction of direct and indirect somatic embryogenesis in S. aemula can improve the large scale propagation system of the plant in future.

Keywords: Petiole and leaf explants, Scaevola aemula, Somaticembryogenesis

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6 Embryo Transfer as an Assisted Reproductive Technology in Farm Animals

Authors: Diah Tri Widayati

Abstract:

Various assisted reproductive techniques have been developed and refined to obtain a large number of offspring from genetically superior animals or obtain offspring from infertile (or subfertile) animals. The embryo transfer is one assisted reproductive technique developed well, aimed at increased productivity of selected females, disease control, importation and exportation of livestock, rapid screening of AI sires for genetically recessive characteristics, treatment or circumvention of certain types of infertility. Embryo transfer also is a useful research tool for evaluating fetal and maternal interactions. This technique has been applied to nearly every species of domestic animal and many species of wildlife and exotic animals, including humans and non-human primates. The successful of embryo transfers have been limited to within-animal, homologous replacement of the embryos. There are several examples of interspecific and intergeneric embryo transfers in which embryos implanted but did not develop to term: sheep and goat, mouse and rat. An immunological rejections and placental incompatibility between the embryo and the surrogate mother appear to restrict interspecific embryo transfer/interspecific pregnancy. Recently, preimplantation embryo manipulation procedures have been applied, such as technique of inner cell mass transfer. This technique will possible to overcome the reproductive barrier interspecific embryo transfer/interspecific pregnancy, if there is a protective mechanism which prevents recognition of the foreign fetus by the mother of the other species

Keywords: Embryo Transfer, Assisted Reproductive Techology, Intraspesific-Interspesific Pregnancy, Inner cell mass.

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5 Supplementation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor during in vitro Maturation of Porcine Cumulus Oocyte Complexes and Subsequent Developmental Competence after Parthenogenesis and in vitro Fertilization

Authors: D. Biswas, Sang H. Hyun

Abstract:

In mammalian reproductive tract, the oviduct secretes huge number of growth factors and cytokines that create an optimal micro-environment for the initial stages of preimplantation embryos. Secretion of these growth factors is stage-specific. Among them, VEGF is a potent mitogen for vascular endothelium and stimulates vascular permeability. Apart from angiogenesis, VEGF in the oviduct may be involved in regulating the oocyte maturation and subsequent developmental process during embryo production in vitro. In experiment 1, to evaluate the effect of VEGF during IVM of porcine COC and subsequent developmental ability after PA and SCNT. The results from these experiments indicated that maturation rates among the different VEGF concentrations were not significant different. In experiment 2, total intracellular GSH concentrations of oocytes matured with VEGF (5-50 ng/ml) were increased significantly compared to a control and VEGF group (500 ng/ml). In experiment 3, the blastocyst formation rates and total cell number per blastocyst after parthenogenesis of oocytes matured with VEGF (5-50 ng/ml) were increased significantly compared to a control and VEGF group (500 ng/ml). Similarly, in experiment 4, the blastocyst formation rate and total cell number per blastocyst after SCNT and IVF of oocytes matured with VEGF (5 ng/ml) were significantly higher than that of oocytes matured without VEGF group. In experiment 5, at 10 hour after the onset of IVF, pronuclear formation rate was evaluated. Monospermy was significantly higher in VEGF-matured oocytes than in the control, and polyspermy and sperm penetration per oocyte were significantly higher in the control group than in the VEGFmatured oocytes. Supplementation with VEGF during IVM significantly improved male pronuclear formation as compared with the control. In experiment 6, type III cortical granule distribution in oocytes was more common in VEGF-matured oocytes than in the control. In conclusion, the present study suggested that supplementation of VEGF during IVM may enhance the developmental potential of porcine in vitro embryos through increase of the intracellular GSH level, higher MPN formation and increased fertilization rate as a consequence of an improved cytoplasmic maturation.

Keywords: angiogenesis, GSH, monospermy, VEGF

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4 Function of miR-125b in Zebrafish Neurogenesis

Authors: Minh T. N. Le, Cathleen Teh, Ng Shyh-Chang, Vladimir Korzh, Harvey F. Lodish, Bing Lim

Abstract:

MicroRNAs are an important class of gene expression regulators that are involved in many biological processes including embryogenesis. miR-125b is a conserved microRNA that is enriched in the nervous system. We have previously reported the function of miR-125b in neuronal differentiation of human cell lines. We also discovered the function of miR-125b in regulating p53 in human and zebrafish. Here we further characterize the brain defects in zebrafish embryos injected with morpholinos against miR-125b. Our data confirm the essential role of miR-125b in brain morphogenesis particularly in maintaining the balance between proliferation, cell death and differentiation. We identified lunatic fringe (lfng) as an additional target of miR-125b in human and zebrafish and suggest that lfng may mediate the function of miR-125b in neurogenesis. Together, this report reveals new insights into the function of miR- 125b during neural development of zebrafish.

Keywords: microRNA, miR-125b, neurogenesis, zebrafish.

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3 Histogenesis of Rabbit Vallate Papillae

Authors: Elnasharty M., El Sharaby A., Nor El-din A.

Abstract:

The gustatory system allows animals to distinguish varieties of food and affects greatly the consumption of food, hence the health and growth of animals. In the current study, we investigated the histogenesis of vallate papillae (VLP) in the rabbit tongue using light and scanning electron microscopy. Samples were obtained from rabbit embryos at the embryonic days 16-30 (E16-30), and from newborns until maturity; 6 months. At E16, the first primordia of vallate papillae were observed as small pits on the surface epithelium of the tongue-s root. At E18, the caudal part was prominent with loose mesenchymal tissue core; meanwhile the rostral part of the papilla was remained as a thick mass of epithelial cells. At E20-24, the side epithelium formed the primitive annular groove. At E26, the primitive taste buds appeared only at the papillary surface and reached their maturity by E28. The annular groove started to appear at E26 became more defined at E28. The definitive vallate papillae with substantial number of apparently mature taste buds were observed by the end of the second week. We conclude that the vallate papillae develop early and mature during the early postnatal life.

Keywords: Rabbit, vallate papillae, histogenesis, taste buds.

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2 Enhanced Differentiation of Stromal Cells and Embryonic Stem Cells with Vitamin D3

Authors: Mayada Alqaisi, Nasser Al-Shanti, Quiyu Wang, William S. Gilmore

Abstract:

In-vitro mouse co-culture of E14 embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and OP9 stromal cells can recapitulate the earliest stages of haematopoietic development, not accessible in human embryos, supporting both haemogenic precursors and their primitive haematopoietic progeny. 1α, 25-Dihydroxy-vitamin D3 (VD3) has been demonstrated to be a powerful differentiation inducer for a wide variety of neoplastic cells, and could enhance early differentiation of ESCs into blood cells in E14/OP9 co-culture. This study aims to ascertain whether VD3 is key in promoting differentiation and suppressing proliferation, by separately investigating the effects of VD3 on the proliferation phase of the E14 cell line and on stromal OP9 cells.The results showed that VD3 inhibited the proliferation of the cells in a dose-dependent manner, quantitatively by decreased cell number, and qualitatively by alkaline-phosphatase staining that revealed significant differences between VD3-treated and untreated cells, characterised by decreased enzyme expression (colourless cells). Propidium-iodide cell-cycle analyses showed no significant percentage change in VD3-treated E14 and OP9 cells within their G and S-phases, compared to the untreated controls, despite the increased percentage of G-phase compared to the S-phase in a dosedependent manner. These results with E14 and OP9 cells indicate that adequate VD3 concentration enhances cellular differentiation and inhibits proliferation. The results also suggest that if E14 and OP9 cells were co-cultured andVD3-treated, there would be furtherenhanced differentiation of ESCs into blood cells.

Keywords: Differentiation, embryonic stem cells, OP9 stromal cells, , 25-dihydroxy-vitamin D3

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1 Indirect Regeneration and Somatic Embryogenesis from Leaf and Stem Explants of Crassula ovata (Mill.) Druce – An Ornamental Medicinal Plant

Authors: A. B. A. Ahmed, Amar, D. I., R. M. Taha

Abstract:

This research aims to investigate callus induction, somatic embryogenesis and indirect plant regeneration of Crassula ovata (Mill.) Druce – the famous ornamental plant. Experiment no.1: Callus induction was obtained from leaf and stem explants on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with various plant growth regulators (PGRs). Effects of different PGRs, plant regeneration and subsequent plantlet conversion were also assessed. Indirect plant regeneration was achieved from the callus of stem explants by the addition of 1.5 mg/L Kinetin (KN) alone. Best shoot induction was achieved (6.5 shoots/per explant) after 60 days. For successful rooting, regenerated plantlets were sub-cultured on the same MS media supplemented with 1.5 mg/L KN alone. The rooted plantlets were acclimatized and the survival rate was 90%. Experiment no.2: Results revealed that 0.5 mg/L 2,4-D alone and in combination with 1.0 mg/L 6-Benzyladenine (BA) gave 89.8% callus from the stem explants as compared to leaf explants. Callus proliferation and somatic embryo formation were also evaluated by ‘Double Staining Method’ and different stages of somatic embryogenesis were revealed by scanning electron microscope. Full Strength MS medium produced the highest number (49.6%) of cotyledonary stage somatic embryos (SEs). Mature cotyledonary stage SEs developed into plantlets after 12 weeks of culture. Wellrooted plantlets were successfully acclimatized at the survival rate of 85%. Indirectly regenerated plants did not show any detectable variation in morphological and growth characteristics when compared with the donor plant.

Keywords: Callus induction, Crassula ovata, Double Staining, Indirect plant regeneration, Somatic embryogenesis.

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