Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1111

Search results for: valid length

1111 Fractal - Wavelet Based Techniques for Improving the Artificial Neural Network Models

Authors: Reza Bazargan Lari, Mohammad H. Fattahi

Abstract:

Natural resources management including water resources requires reliable estimations of time variant environmental parameters. Small improvements in the estimation of environmental parameters would result in grate effects on managing decisions. Noise reduction using wavelet techniques is an effective approach for preprocessing of practical data sets. Predictability enhancement of the river flow time series are assessed using fractal approaches before and after applying wavelet based preprocessing. Time series correlation and persistency, the minimum sufficient length for training the predicting model and the maximum valid length of predictions were also investigated through a fractal assessment.

Keywords: Wavelet, de-noising, predictability, time series fractal analysis, valid length, ANN.

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1110 External Morphological Study of Wild Labeo calbasu with Reference to Body Weight' Total Length and Condition Factor from the River Chenab, Punjab, Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Naeem, Asif Hussain Bhatti, Muhammad Fahad Nouman

Abstract:

115 samples of Labeo calbasu ranged 8.0-17.9cm length with mean11.90±1.96 and 4.9-68.5g weight with mean 22.25±12.54 from the River Chenab, Southern Punjab, Pakistan were analyzed to investigate length-weight relationships (LWR) of fish in relation to condition factor (K). Standard length (SL), fork length (FL), head length (HL) head width (HW), body girth (BG), dorsal fin length (DFL), dorsal fin base (DFB), pectoral fin length (PcFL), pelvic fin length (PvFL) and anal fin length (AFL) are found to be highly correlated with increasing total length and wet body weight (r > 0.500). Wet body weight has positive (r=0.540) and total length has no correlation (r=0.344) with calculated Condition factor (K). The slope “b" in the relationship is 3.27 and intercepts -2.2258.

Keywords: Labeo calbasu, Length-weight relationship, Body weight, condition factor

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1109 Arc Length of Rational Bezier Curves and Use for CAD Reparametrization

Authors: Maharavo Randrianarivony

Abstract:

The length  of a given rational B'ezier curve is efficiently estimated. Since a rational B'ezier function is nonlinear, it is usually impossible to evaluate its length exactly. The length is approximated by using subdivision and the accuracy of the approximation n is investigated. In order to improve the efficiency, adaptivity is used with some length estimator. A rigorous theoretical analysis of the rate of convergence of n to  is given. The required number of subdivisions to attain a prescribed accuracy is also analyzed. An application to CAD parametrization is briefly described. Numerical results are reported to supplement the theory.

Keywords: Adaptivity, Length, Parametrization, Rational Bezier

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1108 Effect of Sperm Concentration and Length of Storage at 5 C on Motility of Goat Spermatozoa

Authors: Sri Wahjuningsih, Hermanto, Nuryadi, Agus Budiarto, Panji Bhintoro

Abstract:

The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of different concentration of spermatozoa and length of storage in 5 0C on sperm motility. Semen was collected using artificial vagina from goat aged 2 to 2.5 years. Fresh goat semen with sperm motility ≥ 70% was used as material. Semen was divided into 4 treatments of concentration (40 x 10 6 / ml, 50 x 106/ml, 60x106/ml, 70x106/ml) with length of storage 0,12,24,36 h. in 5 0C. There were interactions (P <0.05) between concentration and length of storage on individual motility of spermatozoa. Concentration of spermatozoa and length of storage affect the motility of individual (P <0.05). It was concluded that Sperm motility will decrease with increasing concentration and length of storage in 5 0C. Concentration of sperm 40x106/ ml and length of storage 0 h in 50C showed the highest motility of spermatozoa

Keywords: Goat, Length of storage, Motility, Sperm Concentration

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1107 Establishing a New Simple Formula for Buckling Length Factor (K) of Rigid Frames Columns

Authors: Ehab Hasan Ahmed Hasan Ali

Abstract:

The calculation of buckling length factor (K) for steel frames columns is a major and governing processes to determine the dimensions steel frame columns cross sections during design. The buckling length of steel frames columns has a direct effect on the cost (weight) of using cross section. A new formula is required to determine buckling length factor (K) by simplified way. In this research a new formula for buckling length factor (K) was established to determine by accurate method for a limited interval of columns ends rigidity (GA, GB). The new formula can be used ease to evaluate the buckling length factor without needing to complicated equations or difficult charts.

Keywords: Buckling length, New formula, Curve fitting, Simplification, Steel column design.

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1106 Optimization of Slider Crank Mechanism Using Design of Experiments and Multi-Linear Regression

Authors: Galal Elkobrosy, Amr M. Abdelrazek, Bassuny M. Elsouhily, Mohamed E. Khidr

Abstract:

Crank shaft length, connecting rod length, crank angle, engine rpm, cylinder bore, mass of piston and compression ratio are the inputs that can control the performance of the slider crank mechanism and then its efficiency. Several combinations of these seven inputs are used and compared. The throughput engine torque predicted by the simulation is analyzed through two different regression models, with and without interaction terms, developed according to multi-linear regression using LU decomposition to solve system of algebraic equations. These models are validated. A regression model in seven inputs including their interaction terms lowered the polynomial degree from 3rd degree to 1st degree and suggested valid predictions and stable explanations.

Keywords: Design of experiments, regression analysis, SI Engine, statistical modeling.

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1105 Post Mining- Discovering Valid Rules from Different Sized Data Sources

Authors: R. Nedunchezhian, K. Anbumani

Abstract:

A big organization may have multiple branches spread across different locations. Processing of data from these branches becomes a huge task when innumerable transactions take place. Also, branches may be reluctant to forward their data for centralized processing but are ready to pass their association rules. Local mining may also generate a large amount of rules. Further, it is not practically possible for all local data sources to be of the same size. A model is proposed for discovering valid rules from different sized data sources where the valid rules are high weighted rules. These rules can be obtained from the high frequency rules generated from each of the data sources. A data source selection procedure is considered in order to efficiently synthesize rules. Support Equalization is another method proposed which focuses on eliminating low frequency rules at the local sites itself thus reducing the rules by a significant amount.

Keywords: Association rules, multiple data stores, synthesizing, valid rules.

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1104 A Comparison of Fuel Usage and Harvest Capacity in Self-Propelled Forage Harvesters

Authors: Brian H. Marsh

Abstract:

Self-propelled forage harvesters in the 850 horsepower range were tested over three years for fuel consumption, throughput and quality of chop for corn silage. Cut length had a significant effect on fuel consumption, throughput and some aspects of chop quality. Measure cut length was often different than theoretical length of cut. Where cut length was equivalent fuel consumption and throughput were equivalent across brands. Shortening cut length from 17 to 11mm increases fuel consumption 53 percent measured as Mg of silage harvested per gallon of fuel used and a 42 percent decrease in capacity as tons of fresh material per hour run time.

Keywords: Corn silage, forage harvester, fuel use, length of cut.

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1103 Statistical Description of Counterpoise Effective Length Based On Regressive Formulas

Authors: Petar Sarajcev, Josip Vasilj, Damir Jakus

Abstract:

This paper presents a novel statistical description of the counterpoise effective length due to lightning surges, where the (impulse) effective length had been obtained by means of regressive formulas applied to the transient simulation results. The effective length is described in terms of a statistical distribution function, from which median, mean, variance, and other parameters of interest could be readily obtained. The influence of lightning current amplitude, lightning front duration, and soil resistivity on the effective length has been accounted for, assuming statistical nature of these parameters. A method for determining the optimal counterpoise length, in terms of the statistical impulse effective length, is also presented. It is based on estimating the number of dangerous events associated with lightning strikes. Proposed statistical description and the associated method provide valuable information which could aid the design engineer in optimising physical lengths of counterpoises in different grounding arrangements and soil resistivity situations.

Keywords: Counterpoise, Grounding conductor, Effective length, Lightning, Monte Carlo method, Statistical distribution.

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1102 Length Dimension Correlates of Longitudinal Physical Conditioning on Indian Male Youth

Authors: Seema Sharma Kaushik, Dhananjoy Shaw

Abstract:

Various length dimensions of the body have been a variable of interest in the research areas of kinanthropometry. However the inclusion of length measurements in various studies remains restricted to reflect characteristics of a particular game/sport at a particular time. Hence, the present investigation was conducted to study various length dimensions correlates of a longitudinal physical conditioning program on Indian male youth. The study was conducted on 90 Indian male youth. The sample was equally divided into three groups namely, progressive load training (PLT), constant load training (CLT) and no load training (NL). The variables included sitting height, leg length, arm length and foot length. The study was conducted by adopting the multi group repeated measure design. Three different groups were measured four times after completion of each of the three meso-cycles of six-weeks duration each. The measurements were taken using the standard landmarks and procedures. Mean, standard deviation and analysis of co-variance were computed to analyze the data statistically. The post-hoc analysis was conducted for the significant F-ratios at 0.05 level. The study concluded that the followed longitudinal physical conditioning program had significant effect on various length dimensions of Indian male youth.

Keywords: Indian male youth, longitudinal, length dimensions, physical conditioning.

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1101 Length Weight Relationship of Terapon jarbua (Forsskal, 1775) from Puducherry Waters

Authors: R. Nandikeswari, M. Sambasivam, V. Anandan

Abstract:

The present study investigates the length-weight relationship of Terapon jarbua from Puducherry (East coast of India). A total of 370 individuals of different sizes were collected from Puducherry landings centre. Length-weight relationships were calculated for all specimens sampled. The length weight relationship equations are W = 0.0050 L3.2742; W = 0.0035 L3.3616; W = 0.0736 L2.4076; W = 0.0098 L3.0807; W = 0.0088 L3.0914; W = 0.0038 L3.3776 for immature male, immature female, matured male, matured female, total male, and total female respectively. The growth exponential (b) values were found to be positively allometric for all the stages except matured male.

Keywords: Allometry, Length weight relationship, Puducherry waters, Terapon jarbua.

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1100 On Minimum Cycle Bases of the Wreath Product of Wheels with Stars

Authors: M. M. M. Jaradat, M. K. Al-Qeyyam

Abstract:

The length of a cycle basis of a graph is the sum of the lengths of its elements. A minimum cycle basis is a cycle basis with minimum length. In this work, a construction of a minimum cycle basis for the wreath product of wheels with stars is presented. Moreover, the length of minimum cycle basis and the length of its longest cycle are calculated.

Keywords: Cycle space, minimum cycle basis, wreath product.

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1099 Stature Estimation Using Foot and Shoeprint Length of Malaysian Population

Authors: M. Khairulmazidah, A. B. Nurul Nadiah, A. R. Rumiza

Abstract:

Formulation of biological profile is one of the modern roles of forensic anthropologist. The present study was conducted to estimate height using foot and shoeprint length of Malaysian population. The present work can be very useful information in the process of identification of individual in forensic cases based on shoeprint evidence. It can help to narrow down suspects and ease the police investigation. Besides, stature is important parameters in determining the partial identify of unidentified and mutilated bodies. Thus, this study can help the problem encountered in cases of mass disaster, massacre, explosions and assault cases. This is because it is very hard to identify parts of bodies in these cases where people are dismembered and become unrecognizable. Samples in this research were collected from 200 Malaysian adults (100 males and 100 females) with age ranging from 20 to 45 years old. In this research, shoeprint length were measured based on the print of the shoes made from the flat shoes. Other information like gender, foot length and height of subject were also recorded. The data was analyzed using IBM® SPSS Statistics 19 software. Results indicated that, foot length has a strong correlation with stature than shoeprint length for both sides of the feet. However, in the unknown, where the gender was undetermined have shown a better correlation in foot length and shoeprint length parameter compared to males and females analyzed separately. In addition, prediction equations are developed to estimate the stature using linear regression analysis of foot length and shoeprint length. However, foot lengths give better prediction than shoeprint length. 

Keywords: Forensic anthropology, foot length, shoeprints, stature estimation.

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1098 Comparison of GSA, SA and PSO Based Intelligent Controllers for Path Planning of Mobile Robot in Unknown Environment

Authors: P. K. Panigrahi, Saradindu Ghosh, Dayal R. Parhi

Abstract:

Now-a-days autonomous mobile robots have found applications in diverse fields. An autonomous robot system must be able to behave in an intelligent manner to deal with complex and changing environment. This work proposes the performance of path planning and navigation of autonomous mobile robot using Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA), Simulated Annealing (SA) and Particle Swarm optimization (PSO) based intelligent controllers in an unstructured environment. The approach not only finds a valid collision free path but also optimal one. The main aim of the work is to minimize the length of the path and duration of travel from a starting point to a target while moving in an unknown environment with obstacles without collision. Finally, a comparison is made between the three controllers, it is found that the path length and time duration made by the robot using GSA is better than SA and PSO based controllers for the same work.

Keywords: Autonomous Mobile Robot, Gravitational Search Algorithm, Particle Swarm Optimization, Simulated Annealing Algorithm.

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1097 Study of Bored Pile Retaining Wall Using Physical Modeling

Authors: Amin Eslami, Jafar Bolouri Bazaz

Abstract:

Excavation and retaining walls are of challenging issues in civil engineering. In this study, the behavior of one important type of supporting systems called Contiguous Bored Pile (CBP) retaining wall is investigated using a physical model. Besides, a comparison is made between two modes of free end piles (soft bed) and fixed end piles (stiff bed). Also a back calculation of effective length (the real free length of pile) is done by measuring lateral deflection of piles in different stages of excavation in both aforementioned cases. Based on observed results, for the fixed end mode, the effective length to free length ratio (Leff/L0) is equal to unity in initial stages of excavation and less than 1 in its final stages in a decreasing manner. While this ratio for free end mode, remains constant during all stages of excavation and is always less than unity.

Keywords: Contiguous Bored Pile Wall, Effective Length, Fixed End, Free End, Free Length.

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1096 Automotive 3-Microphone Noise Canceller in a Frequently Moving Noise Source Environment

Authors: Z. Qi, T. J. Moir

Abstract:

A combined three-microphone voice activity detector (VAD) and noise-canceling system is studied to enhance speech recognition in an automobile environment. A previous experiment clearly shows the ability of the composite system to cancel a single noise source outside of a defined zone. This paper investigates the performance of the composite system when there are frequently moving noise sources (noise sources are coming from different locations but are not always presented at the same time) e.g. there is other passenger speech or speech from a radio when a desired speech is presented. To work in a frequently moving noise sources environment, whilst a three-microphone voice activity detector (VAD) detects voice from a “VAD valid zone", the 3-microphone noise canceller uses a “noise canceller valid zone" defined in freespace around the users head. Therefore, a desired voice should be in the intersection of the noise canceller valid zone and VAD valid zone. Thus all noise is suppressed outside this intersection of area. Experiments are shown for a real environment e.g. all results were recorded in a car by omni-directional electret condenser microphones.

Keywords: Signal processing, voice activity detection, noise canceller, microphone array beam forming.

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1095 Proteins Length and their Phenotypic Potential

Authors: Tom Snir, Eitan Rubin

Abstract:

Mendelian Disease Genes represent a collection of single points of failure for the various systems they constitute. Such genes have been shown, on average, to encode longer proteins than 'non-disease' proteins. Existing models suggest that this results from the increased likeli-hood of longer genes undergoing mutations. Here, we show that in saturated mutagenesis experiments performed on model organisms, where the likelihood of each gene mutating is one, a similar relationship between length and the probability of a gene being lethal was observed. We thus suggest an extended model demonstrating that the likelihood of a mutated gene to produce a severe phenotype is length-dependent. Using the occurrence of conserved domains, we bring evidence that this dependency results from a correlation between protein length and the number of functions it performs. We propose that protein length thus serves as a proxy for protein cardinality in different networks required for the organism's survival and well-being. We use this example to argue that the collection of Mendelian Disease Genes can, and should, be used to study the rules governing systems vulnerability in living organisms.

Keywords: Systems Biology, Protein Length

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1094 Learning Monte Carlo Data for Circuit Path Length

Authors: Namal A. Senanayake, A. Beg, Withana C. Prasad

Abstract:

This paper analyzes the patterns of the Monte Carlo data for a large number of variables and minterms, in order to characterize the circuit path length behavior. We propose models that are determined by training process of shortest path length derived from a wide range of binary decision diagram (BDD) simulations. The creation of the model was done use of feed forward neural network (NN) modeling methodology. Experimental results for ISCAS benchmark circuits show an RMS error of 0.102 for the shortest path length complexity estimation predicted by the NN model (NNM). Use of such a model can help reduce the time complexity of very large scale integrated (VLSI) circuitries and related computer-aided design (CAD) tools that use BDDs.

Keywords: Monte Carlo data, Binary decision diagrams, Neural network modeling, Shortest path length estimation.

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1093 Design of Stilling Basins using Artificial Roughness

Authors: N. AboulAtta, G. Ezizah, N. Yousif , S. Fathy

Abstract:

The stilling basins are commonly used to dissipate the energy and protect the downstream floor from erosion. The aim of the present experimental work is to improve the roughened stilling basin using T-shape roughness instead of the regular cubic one and design this new shape. As a result of the present work the best intensity and the best roughness length are identified. Also, it is found that the T-shape roughness save materials and reduce the jump length compared to the cubic one. Sensitivity analysis was performed and it was noticed that the change in the length of jump is more sensitive to the change in roughness length than the change in intensity.

Keywords: hydraulic jump, energy dissipater, roughened bed, stilling basin.

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1092 Level of Concentration in Banking Markets and Length of EU Membership

Authors: Ivan Pavic, Fran Galetic, Tomislava Pavic Kramaric

Abstract:

The purpose of this article is to analyze the degree of concentration in the banking market in EU member states as well as to determine the impact of the length of EU membership on the degree of concentration. In that sense several analysis were conducted, specifically, panel analysis, calculation of correlation coefficient and regression analysis of the impact of the length of EU membership on the degree of concentration. Panel analysis was conducted to determine whether there is a similar trend of concentration in three groups of countries - countries with a low, moderate and high level of concentration. The conducted panel analysis showed that in EU countries with a moderate level of concentration, the level of concentration decreases. The calculation of correlation showed that, to some extent, with other influential factors, the length of EU membership negatively affects the market concentration of the banking market. Using the regression analysis for investigation of the influence of the length of EU membership on the level of concentration in the banking sector in a particular country, the results reveal that there is a negative effect of the length in EU membership on market concentration, although it is not significantly influential variable.

Keywords: Banking sector, concentration, EU

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1091 Online Control of Knitted Fabric Quality: Loop Length Control

Authors: Dariush Semnani, Mohammad Sheikhzadeh

Abstract:

Circular knitting machine makes the fabric with more than two knitting tools. Variation of yarn tension between different knitting tools causes different loop length of stitches duration knitting process. In this research, a new intelligent method is applied to control loop length of stitches in various tools based on ideal shape of stitches and real angle of stitches direction while different loop length of stitches causes stitches deformation and deviation those of angle. To measure deviation of stitch direction against variation of tensions, image processing technique was applied to pictures of different fabrics with constant front light. After that, the rate of deformation is translated to needed compensation of loop length cam degree to cure stitches deformation. A fuzzy control algorithm was applied to loop length modification in knitting tools. The presented method was experienced for different knitted fabrics of various structures and yarns. The results show that presented method is useable for control of loop length variation between different knitting tools based on stitch deformation for various knitted fabrics with different fabric structures, densities and yarn types.

Keywords: Circular knitting, Radon transformation, Knittedfabric, Regularity, Fuzzy control

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1090 Use of Regression Analysis in Determining the Length of Plastic Hinge in Reinforced Concrete Columns

Authors: Mehmet Alpaslan Köroğlu, Musa Hakan Arslan, Muslu Kazım Körez

Abstract:

Basic objective of this study is to create a regression analysis method that can estimate the length of a plastic hinge which is an important design parameter, by making use of the outcomes of (lateral load-lateral displacement hysteretic curves) the experimental studies conducted for the reinforced square concrete columns. For this aim, 170 different square reinforced concrete column tests results have been collected from the existing literature. The parameters which are thought affecting the plastic hinge length such as crosssection properties, features of material used, axial loading level, confinement of the column, longitudinal reinforcement bars in the columns etc. have been obtained from these 170 different square reinforced concrete column tests. In the study, when determining the length of plastic hinge, using the experimental test results, a regression analysis have been separately tested and compared with each other. In addition, the outcome of mentioned methods on determination of plastic hinge length of the reinforced concrete columns has been compared to other methods available in the literature.

Keywords: Columns, plastic hinge length, regression analysis, reinforced concrete.

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1089 Effects of Geometry on Intensity of Singular Stress Fields at the Corner of Single-Lap Joints

Authors: Yu Zhang, Nao-Aki Noda, Kentaro Takaishi

Abstract:

This paper discusses effects of adhesive thickness, overlap length and material combinations on the single-lap joints strength from the point of singular stress fields. A useful method calculating the ratio of intensity of singular stress is proposed using FEM for different adhesive thickness and overlap length. It is found that the intensity of singular stress increases with increasing adhesive thickness, and decreases with increasing overlap length. The increment and decrement are different depending on material combinations between adhesive and adherent.

Keywords: Adhesive thickness, Overlap length, Intensity ofsingular stress, Single-lap joint

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1088 Coding of DWT Coefficients using Run-length Coding and Huffman Coding for the Purpose of Color Image Compression

Authors: Varun Setia, Vinod Kumar

Abstract:

In present paper we proposed a simple and effective method to compress an image. Here we found success in size reduction of an image without much compromising with it-s quality. Here we used Haar Wavelet Transform to transform our original image and after quantization and thresholding of DWT coefficients Run length coding and Huffman coding schemes have been used to encode the image. DWT is base for quite populate JPEG 2000 technique.

Keywords: Lossy compression, DWT, quantization, Run length coding, Huffman coding, JPEG2000.

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1087 Molecular Dynamics Analysis onI mpact Behaviour of Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene Sheets

Authors: Sajjad Seifoori

Abstract:

Impact behavior of striker on graphene sheet and carbon nanotube is investigated based on molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. A MD simulation is conducted to obtain the maximum dynamic deflections of a square and rectangular single-layered graphene sheets (SLGSs) with various values of side-length and striker parameter. Effect of (i) chirality, (ii) graphene side-length and nanotube length, (iii) striker mass on the maximum dynamic deflections of graphene and nanotube are investigated. The effect of different types of boundary condition on the maximum dynamic deflections is studied for zigzag and armchair SWCNTs with various aspect ratios (Length/Diameter).

Keywords: Impact, molecular dynamic, graphene, nanotube.

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1086 Stature Estimation Based On Lower Limb Dimensions in the Malaysian Population

Authors: F. M. Nor, N. Abdullah, Al-M. Mustapa, L. Q. Wen, N. A. Faisal, D. A. A. Ahmad Nazari

Abstract:

Estimation of stature is an important step in developing a biological profile for human identification. It may provide a valuable indicator for unknown individual in a population. The aim of this study was to analyses the relationship between stature and lower limb dimensions in the Malaysian population. The sample comprised 100 corpses, which included 69 males and 31 females between age ranges of 20 to 90 years old. The parameters measured were stature, thigh length, lower leg length, leg length, foot length, foot height and foot breadth. Results showed that mean values in males were significantly higher than those in females (P < 0.05). There were significant correlations between lower limb dimensions and stature. Cross-validation of the equation on 100 individuals showed close approximation between known stature and estimated stature. It was concluded that lower limb dimensions were useful for estimation of stature, which should be validated in future studies. 

Keywords: Forensic anthropology population data, lower leg length, Malaysian, stature.

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1085 Estimating Shortest Circuit Path Length Complexity

Authors: Azam Beg, P. W. Chandana Prasad, S.M.N.A Senenayake

Abstract:

When binary decision diagrams are formed from uniformly distributed Monte Carlo data for a large number of variables, the complexity of the decision diagrams exhibits a predictable relationship to the number of variables and minterms. In the present work, a neural network model has been used to analyze the pattern of shortest path length for larger number of Monte Carlo data points. The neural model shows a strong descriptive power for the ISCAS benchmark data with an RMS error of 0.102 for the shortest path length complexity. Therefore, the model can be considered as a method of predicting path length complexities; this is expected to lead to minimum time complexity of very large-scale integrated circuitries and related computer-aided design tools that use binary decision diagrams.

Keywords: Monte Carlo circuit simulation data, binary decision diagrams, neural network modeling, shortest path length estimation

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1084 Numerical Investigations on Group Piles’ Lateral Bearing Capacity Considering Interaction of Soil and Structure

Authors: Mahdi Sadeghian, Mahmoud Hassanlourad, Alireza Ardakani, Reza Dinarvand

Abstract:

In this research, the behavior of monopiles, under lateral loads, was investigated with vertical and oblique piles by Finite Element Method. In engineering practice when soil-pile interaction comes to the picture some simplifications are applied to reduce the design time. As a simplified replacement of soil and pile interaction analysis, pile could be replaced by a column. The height of the column would be equal to the free length of the pile plus a portion of the embedded length of it. One of the important factors studied in this study was that columns with an equivalent length (free length plus a part of buried depth) could be used instead of soil and pile modeling. The results of the analysis show that the more internal friction angle of the soil increases, the more the bearing capacity of the soil is achieved. This additional length is 6 to 11 times of the pile diameter in dense soil although in loose sandy soil this range might increase.

Keywords: Lateral bearing capacity, pile group, oblique pile, soil-structure interaction, depth of fixity.

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1083 Experimental Study of Submersible Jet on Flow Hydraulic Parameters

Authors: Mohsen Solimani Babarsad, Habib Musavi Jahromi

Abstract:

Behavior of turbulent jet is relying on jet parameters, environmental and geometric parameters. In this research, it has attempt to Study effect of jet parameters of internal angle on maximum effective length and velocity on centerline from nozzle experimentally. Toward this end, four internal angles 30, 45, 60 and 90-degree are considered for this study in a flume with 600cm as long, 100cm as high and 150cm in width. Various discharges were used to evaluate effective length for a wide range of densimetric Froude numbers F0, from 17.9 to 39.4 that is defined at the nozzle. As a result, It is revealed that both velocity on centerline and effective length decreases when nozzle angle decreased from 90° to 30°. The results show that, for all range of Fr0 the Um/U0 ratio for nozzle with α=90° on centerline increases 20% - 27% than nozzle with α=30° that has lowest velocity on centerline than other nozzle.

Keywords: Turbulent jet, velocity, effective length, Froude number.

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1082 Keyloggers Prevention with Time-Sensitive Obfuscation

Authors: Chien-Wei Hung, Fu-Hau Hsu, Chuan-Sheng Wang, Chia-Hao Lee

Abstract:

Nowadays, the abuse of keyloggers is one of the most widespread approaches to steal sensitive information. In this paper, we propose an On-Screen Prompts Approach to Keyloggers (OSPAK) and its analysis, which is installed in public computers. OSPAK utilizes a canvas to cue users when their keystrokes are going to be logged or ignored by OSPAK. This approach can protect computers against recoding sensitive inputs, which obfuscates keyloggers with letters inserted among users' keystrokes. It adds a canvas below each password field in a webpage and consists of three parts: two background areas, a hit area and a moving foreground object. Letters at different valid time intervals are combined in accordance with their time interval orders, and valid time intervals are interleaved with invalid time intervals. It utilizes animation to visualize valid time intervals and invalid time intervals, which can be integrated in a webpage as a browser extension. We have tested it against a series of known keyloggers and also performed a study with 95 users to evaluate how easily the tool is used. Experimental results made by volunteers show that OSPAK is a simple approach.

Keywords: Authentication, computer security, keylogger, privacy, information leakage.

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