Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30521
Stature Estimation Based On Lower Limb Dimensions in the Malaysian Population

Authors: F. M. Nor, N. Abdullah, Al-M. Mustapa, L. Q. Wen, N. A. Faisal, D. A. A. Ahmad Nazari


Estimation of stature is an important step in developing a biological profile for human identification. It may provide a valuable indicator for unknown individual in a population. The aim of this study was to analyses the relationship between stature and lower limb dimensions in the Malaysian population. The sample comprised 100 corpses, which included 69 males and 31 females between age ranges of 20 to 90 years old. The parameters measured were stature, thigh length, lower leg length, leg length, foot length, foot height and foot breadth. Results showed that mean values in males were significantly higher than those in females (P < 0.05). There were significant correlations between lower limb dimensions and stature. Cross-validation of the equation on 100 individuals showed close approximation between known stature and estimated stature. It was concluded that lower limb dimensions were useful for estimation of stature, which should be validated in future studies. 

Keywords: stature, Malaysian, Forensic anthropology population data, lower leg length

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2832


[1] J. Sen, S. Ghosh, “Estimation of stature from foot length and foot breadth among the Rajbanshi: An indigenous population of North Bengal,” Forensic Sci. Int., vol. 181, no. 1-3, pp. 55 e1-55 e6, 2008.
[2] M.A. Bidmos, “Estimation of stature using fragmentary femora in indigenous South Africans,” Int. J. Legal Med., vol. 122, pp. 293-299, 2007.
[3] A. Ozaslan, M.Y. Iscan, I. Ozaslan, H. Tugcu, S. Koc, “Estimation of stature from body parts,” Forensic Sci. Int., vol. 3501, pp. 1-6, 2003.
[4] P. Mahakkanukrauh, P. Khanpetch, S. Prasitwattanseree, K. Vichairat, D.T. Case, “Stature estimation from long bone lengths in a Thai Population,” Forensic Sci. Int., vol. 210, pp. 279 e1-279e7, 2011.
[5] M.A. Bidmos, “Stature Reconstruction Using Fragmentary Femora in South Africans of European Descent,” J. Forensic Sci., vol. 53, no. 5, pp. 1044-1048, 2008.
[6] M.R. Dayal, M. Steyn, K.L. Kuykendall, “Stature estimation from bones of South African whites,” S. Afr. J. Sci., vol. 104, no. 3-4, pp. 124-128, 2008.
[7] T.W. Auyeung, J.S.W. Lee, T. Kwok, J. Leung, P.C. Leung, J. Woo, “Estimation of stature by measuring fibula and ulna bone length in 2443 Older Adults,” J. Nutrition Health Aging, vol. 13, pp. 931-936, 2009.
[8] D. Radoinova, K. Tenekedjiev, Y. Yordanov, “Stature Estimation from long bone lengths in Bulgarians,” H.O.M.O., vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 221- 232, 2002.
[9] J.K. Lundy, “Regression equations for estimating living stature from long limb bones in South Africa Negro,” S. Afr. J. Sci., vol. 79, pp. 337- 338, 1983.
[10] J.K. Lundy, M.R. Feldesman, “Revised equations for estimating living stature from long bones of South African Negro,” S. Afr. J. Sci., vol. 83, pp. 54-55, 1987.
[11] M. Trotter, G.C. Glesser, “Estimation of stature from long bones of American Whites and Negroes,” Am. J. Phys. Anthropol., vol. 10, pp. 463-514, 1952.
[12] Department of Statistics, Malaysia, Preliminary Court Report, Population and Housing Census, Malaysia,, 2010.
[13] K. Krishnan, A. Sharma, “Estimation of stature from dimension of hands and feet in North Indian Population,” J. Forensic Leg. Med., vol. 14, no. 6, pp.327-332, 2007.
[14] S.J. Ulijaszek, C.G.N. Mascie-Taylor, “Anthropometry: The individual and the population,” Cambridge: University Press Cambridge, 1994, vol. xiii, pp. 213.
[15] SPSS for windows (Version 20.0), SPSS Science, Inc. Chicago, 2005.
[16] M. Bland, “An introduction to medical statistics,” Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995.
[17] S.G. Sanli, E.D. Kizilkanat, N. Boyan, “Stature estimation based on hand length and foot length,” Clin. Anat., vol. 18,pp. 589-596, 2005.
[18] H. Ozden, Y. Balci, C. Demirustu, A. Turgut, M. Ertugrul,Stature and sex estimate using foot and shoe dimensions,” Forensic Sci. Int., vol. 147, no. 2-3, pp. 181-184, 2005.
[19] S.K. Saxena, “A study of correlations and estimation of stature from hand length, hand breadth and sole length,” Anthropol. Anz., vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 241-246, 1984.
[20] C.C. Gordon, J.E. Buikstra, “Linear Models for the prediction of stature from foot and boot dimensions,” J. Forensic Sci., vol. 37, pp. 771-782, 1992.
[21] K. Ashizawa, C. Kumakura, A. Kusumoto, S. Narasaki, “Relative foot size and shape to general body size in Javanese, Filipinas and Japanese with special reference to habitual footwear types,” Ann. Hum. Biol., vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 117-129, 1997.
[22] H.L. Muncie Jr, J. Sobal, J.M. Hoopes, J.H. Tenney, J. W. Warren, “A practical method of estimating stature of bedridden female nursing home patients,” J. Am. Geriartr. Soc., vol. 35, pp. 285-289, 1987.
[23] M. Chiba, K. Terazawa, “Estimation of stature from somatometry of skull,” Forensic Sci. Int., vol. 97, pp. 87-92, 1998.