Search results for: soil quality.
3617 The Comparison of Some Soil Quality Indexes in Different Land uses of Ghareh Aghaj Watershed of Semirom, Isfahan, Iran
Authors: Bahareh Aghasi, Ahmad Jalalian, Naser Honarjoo
Abstract:Land use change, if not based on proper scientific investigation affects other physical, chemical, and biological properties of soil and leading to increased destruction and erosion. It was imperative to study the effects of changing rangelands to farmlands on some Soil quality indexes. Undisturbed soil samples were collected from the depths of 0-10 and 10-30 centimeter in pasture with good vegetation cover(GP), pasture with medium vegetation cover(MP), abandoned dry land farming(ADF) and degraded dry land farming(DDF) land uses in Ghareh Aghaj watershed of Isfahan province. The results revealed that organic matter(OM), cation exchange capacity(CEC) and available potassium(AK) decreasing in the depth of 0-10 centimeter were 66.6, 38.8 and 70 percent and in the depth of 10-30 centimeter were 58, 61.4 and 83.5 percent respectively in DDF comparison with GP. Concerning to the results, it seems that land use change can decrease soil quality and increase soil degradation and lead in undesirable consequences.
Keywords: Land use change, Soil degradation, Soil qualityProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1552
3616 Evaluation of Soil Stiffness and Strength for Quality Control of Compacted Earthwork
Authors: A. Sawangsuriya, T. B. Edil
Abstract:Microstructure and fabric of soils play an important role on structural properties e.g. stiffness and strength of compacted earthwork. Traditional quality control monitoring based on moisturedensity tests neither reflects the variability of soil microstructure nor provides a direct assessment of structural property, which is the ultimate objective of the earthwork quality control. Since stiffness and strength are sensitive to soil microstructure and fabric, any independent test methods that provide simple, rapid, and direct measurement of stiffness and strength are anticipated to provide an effective assessment of compacted earthen materials’ uniformity. In this study, the soil stiffness gauge (SSG) and the dynamic cone penetrometer (DCP) were respectively utilized to measure and monitor the stiffness and strength in companion with traditional moisture-density measurements of various earthen materials used in Thailand road construction projects. The practical earthwork quality control criteria are presented herein in order to assure proper earthwork quality control and uniform structural property of compacted earthworks.
Keywords: Dynamic cone penetrometer, moisture content, relative compaction, soil stiffness gauge, structural property.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2171
3615 Soil Quality Status under Dryland Vegetation of Yabello District, Southern Ethiopia
Authors: Mohammed Abaoli, Omer Kara
The current research has investigated the soil quality status under dryland vegetation of Yabello district, Southern Ethiopia in which we should identify the nature and extent of salinity problem of the area for further research bases. About 48 soil samples were taken from 0-30, 31-60, 61-90 and 91-120 cm soil depths by opening 12 representative soil profile pits at 1.5 m depth. Soil color, texture, bulk density, Soil Organic Carbon (SOC), Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC), Na, K, Mg, Ca, CaCO3, gypsum (CaSO4), pH, Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR), Exchangeable Sodium Percentage (ESP) were analyzed. The dominant soil texture was silty-clay-loam. Bulk density varied from 1.1 to 1.31 g/cm3. High SOC content was observed in 0-30 cm. The soil pH ranged from 7.1 to 8.6. The electrical conductivity shows indirect relationship with soil depth while CaCO3 and CaSO4 concentrations were observed in a direct relationship with depth. About 41% are non-saline, 38.31% saline, 15.23% saline-sodic and 5.46% sodic soils. Na concentration in saline soils was greater than Ca and Mg in all the soil depths. Ca and Mg contents were higher above 60 cm soil depth in non-saline soils. The concentrations of SO2-4 and HCO-3 were observed to be higher at the most lower depth than upper. SAR value tends to be higher at lower depths in saline and saline-sodic soils, but decreases at lower depth of the non-saline soils. The distribution of ESP above 60 cm depth was in an increasing order in saline and saline-sodic soils. The result of the research has shown the direction to which extent of salinity we should consider for the Commiphora plant species we want to grow on the area.
Keywords: Commiphora species, dryland vegetation, ecological significance, soil quality, salinity problem.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 364
3614 Soil Remediation Technologies towards Green Remediation Strategies
Authors: G. Petruzzelli, F. Pedron, M. Grifoni, M. Barbafieri, I. Rosellini, B. Pezzarossa
As a result of diverse industrial activities, pollution from numerous contaminant affects both groundwater and soils. Many contaminated sites have been discovered in industrialized countries and their remediation is a priority in environmental legislations. The aim of this paper is to provide the evolution of remediation from consolidated invasive technologies to environmental friendly green strategies. Many clean-up technologies have been used. Nowadays the technologies selection is no longer exclusively based on eliminating the source of pollution, but the aim of remediation includes also the recovery of soil quality. “Green remediation”, a strategy based on “soft technologies”, appears the key to tackle the issue of remediation of contaminated sites with the greatest attention to environmental quality, including the preservation of soil functionality.
Keywords: Bioremediation, green remediation, phytoremediation, remediation technologies, soil.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1676
3613 Effect of Marginal Quality Groundwater on Yield of Cotton Crop and Soil Salinity Status
Authors: Qureshi, A. L., Mahessar A. A., Dashti, R. K., Yasin S. M.
In this paper, effect of marginal quality groundwater on yield of cotton crop and soil salinity was studied. In this connection, three irrigation treatments each with four replications were applied. These treatments were i) use of canal water (T1), ii) use of marginal quality groundwater from tubewell (T2), and iii) conjunctive use by mixing with the ratio of 1:1 of canal water and marginal quality tubewell water (T3). Water was applied to the crop cultivated in Kharif season 2011; its quantity has been measured using cut-throat flume. Total 11 watering each of 50 mm depth have been applied from 20th April to 20th July, 2011. Further, irrigations were stopped due to monsoon rainfall up to crop harvesting. Maximum crop yield (seed cotton) was observed under T1 which was 1,517 kg/ha followed by T3 (mixed canal and tubewell water) having 1009 kg/ha and T2 i.e. marginal quality groundwater having 709 kg/ha. This concludes that crop yield in T2 and T3 in comparison to T1was reduced by about 53 and 30% respectively. It has been observed that yield of cotton crop is below potential limit for three treatments due to unexpected rainfall at the time of full flowering season; thus the yield was adversely affected. However, salt deposition in soil profiles was not observed that is due to leaching effect of heavy rainfall occurred during monsoon season.
Keywords: Conjunctive Use, Cotton Crop, Groundwater, Soil Salinity Status, Water Use Efficiency (WUE).Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2147
3612 Analysis and Protection of Soil in Controlled Regime Using Techniques Adapted to the Specifics of Precision Agriculture
Authors: Voicu Petre, Oaida Mircea, Surugiu Petru
It is now unanimously accepted that conventional agriculture has led to the emergence and intensification of some forms of soil and environmental degradation, some of which are due to poorly applied or insufficiently substantiated technological measures. For this reason, the elaboration of any agricultural technology requires a deep knowledge of all the factors involved as well as of the interaction relations between them. This is also the way in which the research will be approached in this paper. Despite the fact that at European level the implementation of precision agriculture has a low level compared to some countries located on the American continent, it is emerging not only as an alternative to conventional agriculture but, as a viable way to preserve the quality of the environment in general, and the edaphic environment in particular. This gives an increased importance to the research in this paper through physical, chemical, biological, mineralogical and micromorphological analytical determinations, processing of analytical results, identification of processes, causes, factors, establishment of soil quality indicators and the perspective of measurements from distance by satellite techniques of some of these soil properties (humidity, temperature, pH, N, P, K and so on).
Keywords: Conventional agriculture, environmental degradation, precision agriculture, soil.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 190
3611 The Effect of Different Level Crop Load and Humic Substance Applications on Yield and Yield Components of Alphonse Lavallee Grape Cultivar
Authors: A. Sarıkaya, A. Akın
This study was carried out to investigate effects of Control (C), 18 bud/vine, 23 bud/vine, 28 bud/vine, 18 bud/vine + TKI-Humas (soil), 23 bud/vine + TKI-Humas (soil), 28 bud/vine + TKI-Humas (soil) applications on yield and yield components of Alphonse Lavallee grape cultivar. The results were obtained as the highest cluster weight (302.31 g) with 18 bud/vine application; the highest berry weight (6.31 g) with 23 bud/vine + TKI-Humas (soil) and (6.79 g) with 28 bud/vine + TKI-Humas (soil) applications; the highest maturity index (36.95) with 18 bud/vine + TKI-Humas (soil) application; the highest L* color intensity (33.99) with 18 bud/vine + TKI-Humas (soil); the highest a* color intensity (1.53) with 23 bud/vine + TKI-Humas (soil) application. The effects of applications on grape fresh yield, grape juice yield and b* color intensity values were not found statistically significant.
Keywords: Alphonse Lavallee grape cultivar, crop load, TKI-Humas substances (soil), yield, quality.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1397
3610 Physicochemistry of Pozzolanic Stabilization of a Class A-2-7 Lateritic Soil
Authors: Ahmed O. Apampa, Yinusa A. Jimoh
Abstract:The paper examines the mechanism of pozzolan-soil reactions, using a recent study on the chemical stabilization of a Class A-2-7 (3) lateritic soil, with corn cob ash (CCA) as case study. The objectives are to establish a nexus between cation exchange capacity of the soil, the alkaline forming compounds in CCA and percentage CCA addition to soil beyond which no more improvement in strength properties can be achieved; and to propose feasible chemical reactions to explain the chemical stabilization of the lateritic soil with CCA alone. The lateritic soil, as well as CCA of pozzolanic quality Class C were separately analysed for their metallic oxide composition using the X-Ray Fluorescence technique. The cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the soil and the CCA were computed theoretically using the percentage composition of the base cations Ca2+, Mg2+ K+ and Na2+ as 1.48 meq/100 g and 61.67 meq/100 g respectively, thus indicating a ratio of 0.024 or 2.4%. This figure, taken as the theoretical amount required to just fill up the exchangeable sites of the clay molecules, compares well with the laboratory observation of 1.5% for the optimum level of CCA addition to lateritic soil. The paper went on to present chemical reaction equations between the alkaline earth metals in the CCA and the silica in the lateritic soil to form silicates, thereby proposing an extension of the theory of mechanism of soil stabilization to cover chemical stabilization with pozzolanic ash only. The paper concluded by recommending further research on the molecular structure of soils stabilized with pozzolanic waste ash alone, with a view to confirming the chemical equations advanced in the study.
Keywords: Cation exchange capacity, corn cob ash, lateritic soil, soil stabilization.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1079
3609 The Effect of Soil Contamination on Chemical Composition and Quality of Aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) Fruits
Authors: Violina R. Angelova, Sava G. Tabakov, Aleksander B. Peltekov, Krasimir I. Ivanov
A field study was conducted to evaluate the chemical composition and quality of the Aronia fruits, as well as the possibilities of Aronia cultivation on soils contaminated with heavy metals. The experiment was performed on an agricultural field contaminated by the Non-Ferrous-Metal Works (NFMW) near Plovdiv, Bulgaria. The study included four varieties of Aronia; Aron variety, Hugin variety, Viking variety and Nero variety. The Aronia was cultivated according to the conventional technology on areas at a different distance from the source of pollution NFMW- Plovdiv (1 km, 3.5 km, and 15 km). The concentrations of macroelements, microelements, and heavy metals in Aronia fruits were determined. The dry matter content, ash, sugars, proteins, and fats were also determined. Aronia is a crop that is tolerant to heavy metals and can successfully be grown on soils contaminated with heavy metals. The increased content of heavy metals in the soil leads to less absorption of the nutrients (Ca, Mg and P) in the fruit of the Aronia. Soil pollution with heavy metals does not affect the quality of the Aronia fruit varieties.
Keywords: Aronia, chemical composition, fruits, quality.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 836
3608 Assessment of Water Quality Used for Irrigation: Case Study of Josepdam Irrigation Scheme
Authors: M. A. Adejumobi, J. O. Ojediran
Abstract:The aim of irrigation is to recharge the available water in the soil. Quality of irrigation water is essential for the yield and quality of crops produced, maintenance of soil productivity and protection of the environment. The analysis of irrigation water arises as a need to know the impact of irrigation water on the yield of crops, the effect, and the necessary control measures to rectify the effect of this for optimum production and yield of crops. This study was conducted to assess the quality of irrigation water with its performance on crop planted, in Josepdam irrigation scheme Bacita, Nigeria. Field visits were undertaken to identify and locate water supply sources and collect water samples from these sources; X1 Drain, Oshin, River Niger loop and Ndafa. Laboratory experiments were then undertaken to determine the quality of raw water from these sources. The analysis was carried for various parameters namely; physical and chemical analyses after water samples have been taken from four sources. The samples were tested in laboratory. Results showed that the raw water sources shows no salinity tendencies with SAR values less than 1me/l and Ecvaules at Zero while the pH were within the recommended range by FAO, there are increase in potassium and sulphate content contamination in three of the location. From this, it is recommended that there should be proper monitoring of the scheme by conducting analysis of water and soil in the environment, preferable test should be carried out at least one year to cover the impact of seasonal variations and to determine the physical and chemical analysis of the water used for irrigation at the scheme.
Keywords: Irrigation, Salinity, Raw water quality, Scheme.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1438
3607 Long-term Irrigation with Dairy Factory Wastewater Influences Soil Quality
Authors: Yen-Yiu Liu, Richard J. Haynes
Abstract:The effects of irrigation with dairy factory wastewater on soil properties were investigated at two sites that had received irrigation for > 60 years. Two adjoining paired sites that had never received DFE were also sampled as well as another seven fields from a wider area around the factory. In comparison with paired sites that had not received effluent, long-term wastewater irrigation resulted in an increase in pH, EC, extractable P, exchangeable Na and K and ESP. These changes were related to the use of phosphoric acid, NaOH and KOH as cleaning agents in the factory. Soil organic C content was unaffected by DFE irrigation but the size (microbial biomass C and N) and activity (basal respiration) of the soil microbial community were increased. These increases were attributed to regular inputs of soluble C (e.g. lactose) present as milk residues in the wastewater. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the soils data from all 11sites confirmed that the main effects of DFE irrigation were an increase in exchangeable Na, extractable P and microbial biomass C, an accumulation of soluble salts and a liming effect. PCA analysis of soil bacterial community structure, using PCR-DGGE of 16S rDNA fragments, generally separated individual sites from one another but did not group them according to irrigation history. Thus, whilst the size and activity of the soil microbial community were increased, the structure and diversity of the bacterial community remained unaffected.
Keywords: Dairy factory, wastewater; effluent, irrigation, soil quality.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1447
3606 Long- term Irrigation with Dairy Factory Wastewater Influences Soil Quality
Authors: Yen-Yiu Liu, Richard J. Haynes
The effects of irrigation with dairy factory wastewater on soil properties were investigated at two sites that had received irrigation for > 60 years. Two adjoining paired sites that had never received DFE were also sampled as well as another seven fields from a wider area around the factory. In comparison with paired sites that had not received effluent, long-term wastewater irrigation resulted in an increase in pH, EC, extractable P, exchangeable Na and K and ESP. These changes were related to the use of phosphoric acid, NaOH and KOH as cleaning agents in the factory. Soil organic C content was unaffected by DFE irrigation but the size (microbial biomass C and N) and activity (basal respiration) of the soil microbial community were increased. These increases were attributed to regular inputs of soluble C (e.g. lactose) present as milk residues in the wastewater. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the soils data from all 11sites confirmed that the main effects of DFE irrigation were an increase in exchangeable Na, extractable P and microbial biomass C, an accumulation of soluble salts and a liming effect. PCA analysis of soil bacterial community structure, using PCR-DGGE of 16S rDNA fragments, generally separated individual sites from one another but did not group them according to irrigation history. Thus, whilst the size and activity of the soil microbial community were increased, the structure and diversity of the bacterial community remained unaffected.
Keywords: Dairy factory, wastewater; effluent, irrigation, soil quality.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1901
3605 Soil Moisture Content in Hill-Filed Side Slope
Authors: A. Aboufayed
Abstract:The soil moisture content is an important property of the soil. The results of mean weekly gravimetric soil moisture content, measured for the three soil layers within the A horizon, showed that it was higher for the top 5 cm over the whole period of monitoring (15/7/2004 up to 10/11/05) with the variation becoming greater during winter time. This reflects the pattern of rainfall in Ireland which is spread over the whole year and shows that light rainfall events during summer time were compensated by loss through evapotranspiration, but only in the top 5 cm of soil. This layer had the highest porosity and highest moisture holding capacity due to the high content of organic matter. The gravimetric soil moisture contents of the top 5 cm and the underlying 5-15 and 15-25 cm layers show that bottom site of the Hill Field had higher soil moisture content than the middle and top sites during the whole period of monitoring.
Keywords: Soil, Soil moisture, Gravimetric soil moisture content.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2137
3604 Computational Model for Prediction of Soil-Gas Radon-222 Concentration in Soil-Depths and Soil Grain Size Particles
Authors: I. M. Yusuff, O. M. Oni, A. A. Aremu
Percentage of soil-gas radon-222 concentration (222Rn) from soil-depths contributing to outdoor radon atmospheric level depends largely on some physical parameters of the soil. To determine its dependency in soil-depths, survey tests were carried out on soil depths and grain size particles using in-situ measurement method of soil-gas radon-222 concentration at different soil depths. The measurements were carried out with an electronic active radon detector (RAD-7) manufactured by Durridge Company USA. Radon-222 concentrations (222Rn) in soil-gas were measured at four different soil depths of 20, 40, 60 and 100 cm in five feasible locations. At each soil depth, soil samples were collected for grain size particle analysis using soil grasp sampler. The result showed that highest value of radon-222 concentration (24,680 ± 1960 Bqm-3) was measured at 100 cm depth with utmost grain size particle of 17.64% while the lowest concentration (7370 ± 1139 Bqm-3) was measured at 100 cm depth with least grain size particle of 10.75% respectively. A computational model was derived using SPSS regression package. This model could be a yardstick for prediction on soil gas radon concentration reference to soil grain size particle at different soil-depths.
Keywords: Concentration, radon, porosity, diffusion, colorectal, emanation, yardstick.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 463
3603 Soil Compaction in Tropical Organic Farming Systems and Its Impact on Natural Soil-Borne Disease Suppression: Challenges for Management
Authors: Ishak, L., McHenry, M. T., Brown, P. H.
Organic farming systems still depend on intensive, mechanical soil tillage. Frequent passes by machinery traffic cause substantial soil compaction that threatens soil health. Adopting practices as reduced tillage and organic matter retention on the soil surface are considered effective ways to control soil compaction. In tropical regions, however, the acceleration of soil organic matter decomposition and soil carbon turnover on the topsoil layer is influenced more rapidly by the oscillation process of drying and wetting. It is hypothesized therefore, that rapid reduction in soil organic matter hastens the potential for compaction to occur in organic farming systems. Compaction changes soil physical properties and as a consequence it has been implicated as a causal agent in the inhibition of natural disease suppression in soils. Here we describe relationships between soil management in organic vegetable systems, soil compaction, and declining soil capacity to suppress pathogenic microorganisms.
Keywords: Organic farming systems, soil compaction, soil disease suppression, tropical regions.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1991
3602 Soil Quality State and Trends in New Zealand’s Largest City after 15 Years
Authors: Fiona Curran-Cournane
Soil quality monitoring is a science-based soil management tool that assesses soil ecosystem health. A soil monitoring program in Auckland, New Zealand’s largest city extends from 1995 to the present. The objective of this study was to firstly determine changes in soil parameters (basic soil properties and heavy metals) that were assessed from rural land in 1995-2000 and repeated in 2008-2012. The second objective was to determine differences in soil parameters across various land uses including native bush, rural (horticulture, pasture and plantation forestry) and urban land uses using soil data collected in more recent years (2009- 2013). Across rural land, mean concentrations of Olsen P had significantly increased in the second sampling period and was identified as the indicator of most concern, followed by soil macroporosity, particularly for horticultural and pastoral land. Mean concentrations of Cd were also greatest for pastoral and horticultural land and a positive correlation existed between these two parameters, which highlights the importance of analysing basic soil parameters in conjunction with heavy metals. In contrast, mean concentrations of As, Cr, Pb, Ni and Zn were greatest for urban sites. Native bush sites had the lowest concentrations of heavy metals and were used to calculate a ‘pollution index’ (PI). The mean PI was classified as high (PI > 3) for Cd and Ni and moderate for Pb, Zn, Cr, Cu, As and Hg, indicating high levels of heavy metal pollution across both rural and urban soils. From a land use perspective, the mean ‘integrated pollution index’ was highest for urban sites at 2.9 followed by pasture, horticulture and plantation forests at 2.7, 2.6 and 0.9, respectively. It is recommended that soil sampling continues over time because a longer spanning record will allow further identification of where soil problems exist and where resources need to be targeted in the future. Findings from this study will also inform policy and science direction in regional councils.
Keywords: Heavy metals, Pollution Index, Rural and Urban land use.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2010
3601 Effect of Different Methods of Soil Fertility on Grain Yield and Chickpea Quality
Authors: Mohammadi K., Ghalavand A., Aghaalikhani M
Abstract:In order to evaluation the effects of natural, biological and chemical fertilizers on grain yield and chickpea quality, field experiments were carried out in 2007 and 2008 growing seasons. In this research the effects of different organic, chemical and biological fertilizers were investigated on grain yield and quality of chickpea. Experimental units were arranged in split-split plots based on randomized complete blocks with three replications. The highest amounts of yield and yield components were obtained in G1×N5 interaction. Significant increasing of N, P, K, Fe and Mg content in leaves and grains emphasized on superiority of mentioned treatment because each one of these nutrients has an approved role in chlorophyll synthesis and photosynthesis ability of the crop. The combined application of compost, farmyard manure and chemical phosphorus (N5) had the best grain quality due to high protein, starch and total sugar contents, low crude fiber and reduced cooking time.
Keywords: soil fertility, grain yield, chickpea, natural resources.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2468
3600 Effect of Soil Tillage System upon the Soil Properties, Weed Control, Quality and Quantity Yield in Some Arable Crops
Authors: T Rusu, P I Moraru, I Bogdan, A I Pop, M L Sopterean
Abstract:The paper presents the influence of the conventional ploughing tillage technology in comparison with the minimum tillage, upon the soil properties, weed control and yield in the case of maize (Zea mays L.), soya-bean (Glycine hispida L.) and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in a three years crop rotation. A research has been conducted at the University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The use of minimum soil tillage systems within a three years rotation: maize, soya-bean, wheat favorites the rise of the aggregates hydro stability with 5.6-7.5% on a 0-20 cm depth and 5-11% on 20-30 cm depth. The minimum soil tillage systems – paraplow, chisel or rotary grape – are polyvalent alternatives for basic preparation, germination bed preparation and sowing, for fields and crops with moderate loose requirements being optimized technologies for: soil natural fertility activation and rationalization, reduction of erosion, increasing the accumulation capacity for water and realization of sowing in the optimal period. The soil tillage system influences the productivity elements of cultivated species and finally the productions thus obtained. Thus, related to conventional working system, the productions registered in minimum tillage working represented 89- 97% in maize, 103-112% in soya-bean, 93-99% in winter-wheat. The results of investigations showed that the yield is a conclusion soil tillage systems influence on soil properties, plant density assurance and on weed control. Under minimum tillage systems in the case of winter weat as an option for replacing classic ploughing, the best results in terms of quality indices were obtained from version worked with paraplow, followed by rotary harrow and chisel. At variants worked with paraplow were obtained quality indices close to those of the variant worked with plow, and protein and gluten content was even higher. At Ariesan variety, highest protein content, 12.50% and gluten, 28.6% was obtained for the variant paraplow.
Keywords: Minimum tillage, soil properties, yields quality.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1813
3599 The Potential Effect of Biochar Application on Microbial Activities and Availability of Mineral Nitrogen in Arable Soil Stressed by Drought
Authors: Helena Dvořáčková, Jakub Elbl, Irina Mikajlo, Antonín Kintl, Jaroslav Hynšt, Olga Urbánková, Jaroslav Záhora
Abstract:Application of biochar to arable soils represents a new approach to restore soil health and quality. Many studies reported the positive effect of biochar application on soil fertility and development of soil microbial community. Moreover biochar may affect the soil water retention, but this effect has not been sufficiently described yet. Therefore this study deals with the influence of biochar application on: microbial activities in soil, availability of mineral nitrogen in soil for microorganisms, mineral nitrogen retention and plant production. To demonstrate the effect of biochar addition on the above parameters, the pot experiment was realized. As a model crop, Lactuca sativa L. was used and cultivated from December 10th 2014 till March 22th 2015 in climate chamber in thoroughly homogenized arable soil with and without addition of biochar. Five variants of experiment (V1 – V5) with different regime of irrigation were prepared. Variants V1 – V2 were fertilized by mineral nitrogen, V3 – V4 by biochar and V5 was a control. The significant differences were found only in plant production and mineral nitrogen retention. The highest content of mineral nitrogen in soil was detected in V1 and V2, about 250 % in comparison with the other variants. The positive effect of biochar application on soil fertility, mineral nitrogen availability was not found. On the other hand results of plant production indicate the possible positive effect of biochar application on soil water retention.
Keywords: Arable soil, biochar, drought, mineral Nitrogen.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1909
3598 Enrichment of Cr, Mn, Ni and Zn in Surface Soil
Authors: Gitimoni Deka, Krishna G Bhattacharyya
Abstract:The textile industry produces highly coloured effluents containing polar and non-polar compounds. The textile mill run by the Assam Polyester Co-operative Society Limited (APOL) is situated at Rangia, about 55 km from Guwahati (26011' N, 91047' E) in the northern bank of the river Brahmaputra, Assam (India). This unit was commissioned in June 1988 and started commercial production in November 1988. The installed capacity of the weaving unit was 8000 m/day and that of the processing unit was 20,000 m/day. The mill has its own dyeing unit with a capacity of 1500-2000 kg/day. The western side of the mill consists of vast agricultural land and the far northern and southern side of the mill has scattered human population. The eastern side of the mill has a major road for thoroughfare. The mill releases its effluents into the agricultural land in the western side of the mill. The present study was undertaken to assess the impact of the textile mill on surface soil quality in and around the mill with particular reference to Cr, Mn, Ni and Zn. Surface soil samples, collected along different directions at 200, 500 and 1000 m were digested and the metals were estimated with Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The metals were found in the range of: Cr 50.9 – 105.0 mg kg-1, Mn 19.2- 78.6 mg kg-1, Ni 41.9 – 50.6 mg kg-1 and Zn 187.8 – 1095.8 mg kg-1. The study reveals enrichment of Cr, Mn, Ni and Zn in the soil near the textile mill.
Keywords: Cr, Mn, Ni, Zn, soil quality, heavy metal enrichment.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1579
3597 Effects of an Added Foaming Agent on Hydro-Mechanical Properties of Soil
Authors: Moez Selmi, Mariem Kacem, Mehrez Jamei, Philippe Dubujet
Abstract:Earth pressure balance (EPB) tunnel boring machines are designed for digging in different types of soil, especially clay soils. This operation requires the treatment of soil by lubricants to facilitate the procedure of excavation. A possible use of this soil is limited by the effect of treatment on the hydro-mechanical properties of the soil. This work aims to study the effect of a foaming agent on the hydro-mechanical properties of clay soil. The injection of the foam agent in the soil leads to create a soil matrix in which they are incorporated gas bubbles. The state of the foam in the soil is scalable thanks to the degradation of the gas bubbles in the soil.
Keywords: EPB, clay soils, foam agent, hydro-mechanical properties, degradation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1351
3596 Conservation Agriculture Practice in Bangladesh: Farmers’ Socioeconomic Status and Soil Environment Perspective
Authors: Mohammad T. Uddin, Aurup R. Dhar
The study was conducted to assess the impact of conservation agriculture practice on farmers’ socioeconomic condition and soil environmental quality in Bangladesh. A total of 450 (i.e., 50 focal, 150 proximal and 250 control) farmers from five districts were selected for this study. Descriptive statistics like sum, averages, percentages, etc. were calculated to evaluate the socioeconomic data. Using Enyedi’s crop productivity index, it was found that the crop productivity of focal, proximal and control farmers was increased by 0.9, 1.2 and 1.3 percent, respectively. The result of DID (Difference-in-difference) analysis indicated that the impact of conservation agriculture practice on farmers’ average annual income was significant. Multidimensional poverty index (MPI) indicates that poverty in terms of deprivation of health, education and living standards was decreased; and a remarkable improvement in farmers’ socioeconomic status was found after adopting conservation agriculture practice. Most of the focal and proximal farmers stated about increased soil environmental condition where majority of control farmers stated about constant environmental condition in this regard. The Probit model reveals that minimum tillage operation, permanent organic soil cover, and application of compost and vermicompost were found significant factors affecting soil environmental quality under conservation agriculture. Input support, motivation, training programmes and extension services are recommended to implement in order to raise the awareness and enrich the knowledge of the farmers on conservation agriculture practice.
Keywords: Conservation agriculture, crop productivity, socioeconomic status, soil environment quality.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 992
3595 Stabilization of Clay Soil Using A-3 Soil
Authors: Mohammed Mustapha Alhaji, Salawu Sadiku
Abstract:A clay soil classified as A-7-6 and CH soil according to AASHTO and unified soil classification system respectively, was stabilized using A-3 soil (AASHTO soil classification system). The clay soil was replaced with 0%, 10%, 20%, to 100% A-3 soil, compacted at both British Standard Light (BSL) and British Standard Heavy (BSH) compaction energy levels and using Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS) as evaluation criteria. The Maximum Dry Density (MDD) of the treated soils at both the BSL and BSH compaction energy levels showed increase from 0% to 40% A-3 soil replacement after which the values reduced to 100% replacement. The trend of the Optimum Moisture Content (OMC) with varied A-3 soil replacement was similar to that of MDD but in a reversed order. The OMC reduced from 0% to 40% A-3 soil replacement after which the values increased to 100% replacement. This trend was attributed to the observed reduction in void ratio from 0% to 40% replacement after which the void ratio increased to 100% replacement. The maximum UCS for the soil at varied A-3 soil replacement increased from 272 and 770 kN/m2 for BSL and BSH compaction energy level at 0% replacement to 295 and 795 kN/m2 for BSL and BSH compaction energy level respectively at 10% replacement after which the values reduced to 22 and 60 kN/m2 for BSL and BSH compaction energy level respectively at 70% replacement. Beyond 70% replacement, the mixtures could not be moulded for UCS test.
Keywords: A-3 soil, clay soil, pozzolanic action, stabilization.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2271
3594 Prediction of in situ Permeability for Limestone Rock Using Rock Quality Designation Index
Authors: Ahmed T. Farid, Muhammed Rizwan
Geotechnical study for evaluating soil or rock permeability is a highly important parameter. Permeability values for rock formations are more difficult for determination than soil formation as it is an effect of the rock quality and its fracture values. In this research, the prediction of in situ permeability of limestone rock formations was predicted. The limestone rock permeability was evaluated using Lugeon tests (in-situ packer permeability). Different sites which spread all over the Riyadh region of Saudi Arabia were chosen to conduct our study of predicting the in-situ permeability of limestone rock. Correlations were deducted between the values of in-situ permeability of the limestone rock with the value of the rock quality designation (RQD) calculated during the execution of the boreholes of the study areas. The study was performed for different ranges of RQD values measured during drilling of the sites boreholes. The developed correlations are recommended for the onsite determination of the in-situ permeability of limestone rock only. For the other sedimentary formations of rock, more studies are needed for predicting the actual correlations related to each type.
Keywords: Packer, permeability, rock, quality.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1304
3593 The Effect of the Disc Coulters Forms on Cutting of Spring Barley Residues in No-Tillage
Authors: E. Šarauskis, L. Masilionytė, K. Romaneckas, Z. Kriaučiūnienė, A. Jasinskas
The introduction of sowing technologies into minimum- or no-tillage soil has a number of economical and environmental virtues, such as improving soil properties, decreasing soil erosion and degradation, and saving working time and fuel. However, the main disadvantage of these technologies is that plant residues on the soil surface reduce the quality of the planted crop seeds, thus requiring plant residues to be removed or cut. This paper presents a analysis of disc coulter parameters and an experimental investigation of cutting spring barley straw containing various amounts of moisture with different disc coulters (smooth and notched).
Keywords: Disc coulter, Spring barley residue, No-till, Straw moistureProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1869
3592 Soil Respiration Rate of Laurel-Leaved and Cryptomeria japonica Forests
Authors: Ayuko Itsuki, Sachiyo Aburatani
We assessed the ecology of the organic and mineral soil layers of laurel-leaved (BB-1) and Cryptomeria japonica (BB-2 and Pw) forests in the Kasugayama Hill Primeval Forest (Nara, Japan). The soil respiration rate was higher in the deeper horizons (F and H) of organic layers than in those of mineral soil layers, suggesting organic layers may be where active microbial metabolism occurs. Respiration rates in the soil of BB-1, BB-2 and Pw forests were closely similar at 5 and 10°C. However, the soil respiration rate increased in proportion to temperatures of 15°C or above. We therefore consider the activity of soil microorganisms to markedly decrease at temperatures below 10°C. At a temperature of 15°C or above, the soil respiration rate in the BB-1 organic layers was higher than in those of the BB-2 and Pw organic layers, due to differences in forest vegetation that appeared to influence several salient soil properties, particularly pH and the carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content of the F and H horizons.
Keywords: Forest soil, mineralization rate, soil respiration rate.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1197
3591 The Water Quantity and Quality for Conjunctive Use in Saline Soil Problem Area
Authors: P. Mekpruksawong, S. Chuenchooklin, T. Ichikawa
Abstract:The aim of research project is to evaluate quantity and quality for conjunctive use of groundwater and surface water in lower in the Lower Nam Kam area, Thailand, even though there have been hints of saline soil and water. The mathematical model named WUSMO and MIKE Basin were applied for the calculation of crop water utilization. Results of the study showed that, in irrigation command area, water consumption rely on various sources; rain water 21.56%, irrigation water 78.29%, groundwater and some small surface storage 0.15%. Meanwhile, for non-irrigation command area, water consumption depends on the Nam Kam and Nambang stream 42%, rain water 36.75% and groundwater and some small surface storage 19.18%. Samples of surface water and groundwater were collected for 2 seasons. The criterion was determined for the assessment of suitable water for irrigation. It was found that this area has very limited sources of suitable water for irrigation.
Keywords: Conjunctive use, Groundwater, Surface water, Saline soil.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1652
3590 The Effect of Raindrop Kinetic Energy on Soil Erodibility
Authors: A. Moussouni, L. Mouzai, M. Bouhadef
Soil erosion is a very complex phenomenon, resulting from detachment and transport of soil particles by erosion agents. The kinetic energy of raindrop is the energy available for detachment and transport by splashing rain. The soil erodibility is defined as the ability of soil to resist to erosion. For this purpose, an experimental study was conducted in the laboratory using rainfall simulator to study the effect of the kinetic energy of rain (Ec) on the soil erodibility (K). The soil used was a sandy agricultural soil of 62.08% coarse sand, 19.14% fine sand, 6.39% fine silt, 5.18% coarse silt and 7.21% clay. The obtained results show that the kinetic energy of raindrops evolves as a power law with soil erodibility.
Keywords: Erosion, runoff, raindrop kinetic energy, soil erodibility, rainfall intensity, raindrop fall velocity.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3926
3589 The Influence of using Compost Leachate on Soil Reaction
Authors: Ali Gholami, Shahram Ahmadi
Abstract:In the area where the high quality water is not available, unconventional water sources are used to irrigate. Household leachate is one of the sources which are used in dry and semi dry areas in order to water the barer trees and plants. It meets the plants needs and also has some effects on the soil, but at the same time it might cause some problems as well. This study in order to evaluate the effect of using Compost leachate on the density of soil iron in form of a statistical pattern called ''Split Plot'' by using two main treatments, one subsidiary treatment and three repetitions of the pattern in a three month period. The main N treatments include: irrigation using well water as a blank treatments and the main I treatments include: irrigation using leachate and well water concurrently. Some subsidiary treatments were DI (Drop Irrigation) and SDI (Sub Drop Irrigation). Then in the established plots, 36 biannual pine and cypress shrubs were randomly grown. Two months later the treatment begins. The results revealed that there was a significant variation between the main treatment and the instance regarding pH decline in the soil which was related to the amount of leachate injected into the soil. After some time and using leachate the pH level fell, as much as 0.46 and also increased due to the great amounts of leachate. The underneath drop irrigation ends in better results than sub drop irrigation since it keeps the soil texture fixed.
Keywords: Compost Leachate, Drop irrigation, Soil ReactionProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1773
3588 Soil Mass Loss Reduction during Rainfalls by Reinforcing the Slopes with the Surficial Confinement
Authors: Ramli Nazir, Hossein Moayedi
Soil confinement systems serve as effective solutions to any erosion control project. Various confinements systems, namely triangular, circular and rectangular with the size of 50, 100, and 150 mm, and with a depth of 10 mm, were embedded in soil samples at slope angle of 60°. The observed soil mass losses for the confined soil systems were much smaller than those from unconfined system. As a result, the size of confinement and rainfall intensity have a direct effect on the soil mass loss. The triangular and rectangular confinement systems showed the lowest and highest soil loss masses, respectively. The slopes also failed much faster in the unconfined system than in the confined slope.
Keywords: Erosion control, Soil confinement, Soil erosion, Slope stability.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1739