Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 37

Search results for: Ramli Nazir

37 Soil Mass Loss Reduction during Rainfalls by Reinforcing the Slopes with the Surficial Confinement

Authors: Ramli Nazir, Hossein Moayedi

Abstract:

Soil confinement systems serve as effective solutions to any erosion control project. Various confinements systems, namely triangular, circular and rectangular with the size of 50, 100, and 150 mm, and with a depth of 10 mm, were embedded in soil samples at slope angle of 60°. The observed soil mass losses for the confined soil systems were much smaller than those from unconfined system. As a result, the size of confinement and rainfall intensity have a direct effect on the soil mass loss. The triangular and rectangular confinement systems showed the lowest and highest soil loss masses, respectively. The slopes also failed much faster in the unconfined system than in the confined slope.

Keywords: Erosion control, Soil confinement, Soil erosion, Slope stability.

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36 Computational Simulation of Turbulence Heat Transfer in Multiple Rectangular Ducts

Authors: Azli Abd. Razak, Yusli Yaakob, Mohd Nazir Ramli

Abstract:

This study comprehensively simulate the use of k-ε model for predicting flow and heat transfer with measured flow field data in a stationary duct with elucidates on the detailed physics encountered in the fully developed flow region, and the sharp 180° bend region. Among the major flow features predicted with accuracy are flow transition at the entrance of the duct, the distribution of mean and turbulent quantities in the developing, fully developed, and sharp 180° bend, the development of secondary flows in the duct cross-section and the sharp 180° bend, and heat transfer augmentation. Turbulence intensities in the sharp 180° bend are found to reach high values and local heat transfer comparisons show that the heat transfer augmentation shifts towards the wall and along the duct. Therefore, understanding of the unsteady heat transfer in sharp 180° bends is important. The design and simulation are related to concept of fluid mechanics, heat transfer and thermodynamics. Simulation study has been conducted on the response of turbulent flow in a rectangular duct in order to evaluate the heat transfer rate along the small scale multiple rectangular duct

Keywords: Heat transfer, turbulence, rectangular duct, simulation.

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35 The Internet, its Social and Ethical Problem to the Young and How Curriculum Can Address the Issue

Authors: R. Ramli

Abstract:

The impact of the information revolution is double edged. While it is applauded for its versatility and performance robustness and acclaimed for making life smooth and easy, on the other hand people are concerned about its dark side especially to younger generations. The education system should extend its educating role beyond the school to home. Parents should be included in forming the policies of Internet use as well as in the curriculum delivery. This paper discusses how curriculum can be instrumental in addressing social and ethical issues resulted from the Internet.

Keywords: Curriculum, Ethics, Internet Addiction, Social Issues

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34 Generating Arabic Fonts Using Rational Cubic Ball Functions

Authors: Fakharuddin Ibrahim, Jamaludin Md. Ali, Ahmad Ramli

Abstract:

In this paper, we will discuss about the data interpolation by using the rational cubic Ball curve. To generate a curve with a better and satisfactory smoothness, the curve segments must be connected with a certain amount of continuity. The continuity that we will consider is of type G1 continuity. The conditions considered are known as the G1 Hermite condition. A simple application of the proposed method is to generate an Arabic font satisfying the required continuity.

Keywords: Continuity, data interpolation, Hermite condition, rational Ball curve.

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33 Technology Enhanced Learning: Fostering Cooperative Learning Through the Integration of Online Communication as Part of Teaching and Learning Experience

Authors: R.Ramli

Abstract:

This paper discusses ways to foster cooperative learning through the integration of online communication technology. While the education experts believe constructivism produces a more positive learning experience, the educators are still facing problems in getting students to participate due to numerous reasons such as shy personality, language and cultural barriers. This paper will look into the factors that lead to lack of participations among students and how technology can be implemented to overcome these issues.

Keywords: cooperative learning, encouraging class participation, education, online discussion

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32 A Design of Fractional-Order PI Controller with Error Compensation

Authors: Mazidah Tajjudin, Norhashim Mohd Arshad, Ramli Adnan

Abstract:

Fractional-order controller was proven to perform better than the integer-order controller. However, the absence of a pole at origin produced marginal error in fractional-order control system. This study demonstrated the enhancement of the fractionalorder PI over the integer-order PI in a steam temperature control. The fractional-order controller was cascaded with an error compensator comprised of a very small zero and a pole at origin to produce a zero steady-state error for the closed-loop system. Some modification on the error compensator was suggested for different order fractional integrator that can improve the overall phase margin.

Keywords: Fractional-order PI, Ziegler-Nichols tuning, Oustaloup's Recursive Approximation, steam temperature control.

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31 Design and Fabrication of a Low Cost Heart Monitor using Reflectance Photoplethysmogram

Authors: Nur Ilyani Ramli, Mansour Youseffi, Peter Widdop

Abstract:

This paper presents a low cost design of heart beat monitoring device using reflectance mode PhotoPlethysmography (PPG). PPG is known for its simple construction, ease of use and cost effectiveness and can provide information about the changes in cardiac activity as well as aid in earlier non-invasive diagnostics. The proposed device is divided into three phases. First is the detection of pulses through the fingertip. The signal is then passed to the signal processing unit for the purpose of amplification, filtering and digitizing. Finally the heart rate is calculated and displayed on the computer using parallel port interface. The paper is concluded with prototyping of the device followed by verification procedure of the heartbeat signal obtained in laboratory setting.

Keywords: Reflectance mode PPG, Heart beat detection, Circuitdesign, PCB design

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30 Construction of Intersection of Nondeterministic Finite Automata using Z Notation

Authors: Nazir Ahmad Zafar, Nabeel Sabir, Amir Ali

Abstract:

Functionalities and control behavior are both primary requirements in design of a complex system. Automata theory plays an important role in modeling behavior of a system. Z is an ideal notation which is used for describing state space of a system and then defining operations over it. Consequently, an integration of automata and Z will be an effective tool for increasing modeling power for a complex system. Further, nondeterministic finite automata (NFA) may have different implementations and therefore it is needed to verify the transformation from diagrams to a code. If we describe formal specification of an NFA before implementing it, then confidence over transformation can be increased. In this paper, we have given a procedure for integrating NFA and Z. Complement of a special type of NFA is defined. Then union of two NFAs is formalized after defining their complements. Finally, formal construction of intersection of NFAs is described. The specification of this relationship is analyzed and validated using Z/EVES tool.

Keywords: Modeling, Nondeterministic finite automata, Znotation, Integration of approaches, Validation.

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29 Factors Adopting E-Travel Website: The Case of Indonesia

Authors: Vera Pujani, Alfitman, Refdinal Nazir

Abstract:

E-travel is travel agency-s companies employing internet and website as e-commerce context. This study presents numerous initial key factors of electronic travel model based on small travel agencies perspectives. Browsing previous studies related to website travel activities are conducted. Five small travel agencies in Indonesia has been deeply interviewed in case studies. The finding of this research is identifying numerous characteristics and dimension factors and travel website operations including ownermanager roles, business experiences, characteristically business, and technological aspects. This study is the preliminary research related to travel website adoption in Indonesia. The further study would be conducted in questionnaires of the quantitative research in Indonesia contexts as a developing country.

Keywords: Tourism, travel agency, e-commerce, website, developing country, small business, case study.

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28 E-Voting: A Trustworthiness In Democratic; A View from Technology, Political and Social Issue

Authors: Sera Syarmila Sameon, Rohaini Ramli

Abstract:

A trustworthy voting process in democratic is important that each vote is recorded with accuracy and impartiality. The accuracy and impartiality are tallied in high rate with biometric system. One of the sign is a fingerprint. Fingerprint recognition is still a challenging problem, because of the distortions among the different impression of the same finger. Because of the trustworthy of biometric voting technologies, it may give a great effect on numbers of voter-s participation and outcomes of the democratic process. Hence in this study, the authors are interested in designing and analyzing the Electronic Voting System and the participation of the users. The system is based on the fingerprint minutiae with the addition of person ID number. This is in order to enhance the accuracy and speed of the voting process. The new design is analyzed by conducting pilot election among a class of students for selecting their representative.

Keywords: Biometric, FAR and FRR, democratic, voting

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27 Technology Integrated Education – Shaping the Personality and Social Development of the Young

Authors: R. Ramli, S. Sameon

Abstract:

There has been a strong link between computermediated education and constructivism learning and teaching theory.. Acknowledging how well the constructivism doctrine would work online, it has been established that constructivist views of learning would agreeably correlate with the philosophy of open and distance learning. Asynchronous and synchronous communications have placed online learning on the right track of a constructive learning path. This paper is written based on the social constructivist framework, where knowledge is constructed from social communication and interaction. The study explores the possibility of practicing this theory through incorporating online discussion in the syllabus and the ways it can be implemented to contribute to young people-s personality and social development by addressing some aspects that may contribute to the social problem such as prejudice, ignorance and intolerance.

Keywords: Educational Technology, Internet, Personal Development, Student Exchange

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26 Microcrystalline Cellulose (MCC) From Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) Fiber via Simultaneous Ultrasonic and Alkali Treatment

Authors: Ridzuan Ramli, Norhafzan Junadi, Mohammad D.H. Beg, Rosli M. Yunus

Abstract:

In this study, microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was extracted from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) cellulose which was earlier isolated from oil palm EFB fibre. In order to isolate the cellulose, the chlorination method was carried out. Then, the MCC was prepared by simultaneous ultrasonic and alkali treatment from the isolated α-cellulose. Based on mass balance calculation, the yields for MCC obtained from EFB was 44%. For fiber characterization, it is observed that the chemical composition of the hemicellulose and lignin for all samples decreased while composition for cellulose increased. The structural property of the MCC was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) method and the result shows that the MCC produced is a cellulose-I polymorph, with 73% crystallinity.

Keywords: Oil palm empty fruit bunch, microcrystalline cellulose, ultrasonic, alkali treatment, X-ray diffraction.

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25 Steam Gasification of Palm Kernel Shell (PKS): Effect of Fe/BEA and Ni/BEA Catalysts and Steam to Biomass Ratio on Composition of Gaseous Products

Authors: M.F. Mohamad, Anita Ramli, S.E.E Misi, S. Yusup

Abstract:

This work presents the hydrogen production from steam gasification of palm kernel shell (PKS) at 700 oC in the presence of 5% Ni/BEA and 5% Fe/BEA as catalysts. The steam gasification was performed in two-staged reactors to evaluate the effect of calcinations temperature and the steam to biomass ratio on the product gas composition. The catalytic activity of Ni/BEA catalyst decreases with increasing calcinations temperatures from 500 to 700 oC. The highest H2 concentration is produced by Fe/BEA (600) with more than 71 vol%. The catalytic activity of the catalysts tested is found to correspond to its physicochemical properties. The optimum range for steam to biomass ratio if found to be between 2 to 4. Excess steam content results in temperature drop in the gasifier which is undesirable for the gasification reactions.

Keywords: Hydrogen, Palm Kernel Shell, Steam gasification, Ni/BEA, Fe/BEA

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24 Characterization of ZrO2/PEG Composite Film as Immobilization Matrix for Glucose Oxidase

Authors: N. M. Ahmad, J. Abdullah, N. I. Ramli, S. Abd Rahman, N. E. Azmi, Z. Hamzah, A. Saat, N. H. Rahman

Abstract:

A biosensor based on glucose oxidase (GOx) immobilized onto nanoparticles zirconium oxide with polyethylene nanocomposite for glucose monitoring has been designed. The CTAB/PEG/ZrO2/GOx nanocomposite was deposited onto screen printed carbon paste (SPCE) electrode via spin coating technique. The properties of CTAB/PEG/ZrO2/GOx were study using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The SPE modified with the CTAB/PEG/ZrO2/GOx showed electrocatalytical response to the oxidation of glucose when ferrocene carboxaldehyde was used as an artificial redox mediator, which was studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV). Several parameters such as working potential, effect of pH and effect of ZrO2/PEG layers that governed the analytical performance of the biosensor, have been studied. The biosensor was applied to detect glucose with a linear range of 0.4 to 2.0 mmol L−1 with good repetability and reproducibility.

Keywords: Nanocomposite, Nanoparticles, Modified SPE, Ferrocenecarboxaldehyde.

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23 Anticipating Action Decisions of Automated Guided Vehicle in an Autonomous Decentralized Flexible Manufacturing System

Authors: Rizauddin Ramli, Jaber Abu Qudeiri, Hidehiko Yamamoto

Abstract:

Nowadays the market for industrial companies is becoming more and more globalized and highly competitive, forcing them to shorten the duration of the manufacturing system development time in order to reduce the time to market. In order to achieve this target, the hierarchical systems used in previous manufacturing systems are not enough because they cannot deal effectively with unexpected situations. To achieve flexibility in manufacturing systems, the concept of an Autonomous Decentralized Flexible Manufacturing System (AD-FMS) is useful. In this paper, we introduce a hypothetical reasoning based algorithm called the Algorithm for Future Anticipative Reasoning (AFAR) which is able to decide on a conceivable next action of an Automated Guided Vehicle (AGV) that works autonomously in the AD-FMS.

Keywords: Flexible Manufacturing System, Automated GuidedVehicle, Hypothetical Reasoning, Autonomous Decentralized.

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22 Fuzzy Logic and Control Strategies on a Sump

Authors: Nasser Mohamed Ramli, Nurul Izzati Zulkifli

Abstract:

Sump can be defined as a reservoir which contains slurry; a mixture of solid and liquid or water, in it. Sump system is an unsteady process owing to the level response. Sump level shall be monitored carefully by using a good controller to avoid overflow. The current conventional controllers would not be able to solve problems with large time delay and nonlinearities, Fuzzy Logic controller is tested to prove its ability in solving the listed problems of slurry sump. Therefore, in order to justify the effectiveness and reliability of these controllers, simulation of the sump system was created by using MATLAB and the results were compared. According to the result obtained, instead of Proportional-Integral (PI) and Proportional-Integral and Derivative (PID), Fuzzy Logic controller showed the best result by offering quick response of 0.32 s for step input and 5 s for pulse generator, by producing small Integral Absolute Error (IAE) values that are 0.66 and 0.36 respectively.

Keywords: Fuzzy, sump, level, controller.

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21 Modelling for Temperature Non-Isothermal Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor Using Fuzzy Logic

Authors: Nasser Mohamed Ramli, Mohamad Syafiq Mohamad

Abstract:

Many types of controllers were applied on the continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) unit to control the temperature. In this research paper, Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controller are compared with Fuzzy Logic controller for temperature control of CSTR. The control system for temperature non-isothermal of a CSTR will produce a stable response curve to its set point temperature. A mathematical model of a CSTR using the most general operating condition was developed through a set of differential equations into S-function using MATLAB. The reactor model and S-function are developed using m.file. After developing the S-function of CSTR model, User-Defined functions are used to link to SIMULINK file. Results that are obtained from simulation and temperature control were better when using Fuzzy logic control compared to PID control.

Keywords: CSTR, temperature, PID, fuzzy logic.

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20 Influence of Surface-Treated Coarse Recycled Concrete Aggregate on Compressive Strength of Concrete

Authors: Sallehan Ismail, Mahyuddin Ramli

Abstract:

This paper reports on the influence of surface-treated coarse recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) on developing the compressive strength of concrete. The coarse RCA was initially treated by separately impregnating it in calcium metasilicate (CM) or wollastonite and nanosilica (NS) prepared at various concentrations. The effects of both treatment materials on concrete properties (e.g., slump, density and compressive strength) were evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis was performed to examine the microstructure of the resulting concrete. Results show that the effective use of treated coarse RCA significantly enhances the compressive strength of concrete. This result is supported by the SEM analysis, which indicates the formation of a dense interface between the treated coarse RCA and the cement matrix. Coarse RCA impregnated in CM solution results in better concrete strength than NS, and the optimum concentration of CM solution recommended for treated coarse RCA is 10%.

Keywords: Calcium metasilicate, compressive strength, nanosilica, recycled concrete aggregate.

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19 Designing Early Warning System: Prediction Accuracy of Currency Crisis by Using k-Nearest Neighbour Method

Authors: Nor Azuana Ramli, Mohd Tahir Ismail, Hooy Chee Wooi

Abstract:

Developing a stable early warning system (EWS) model that is capable to give an accurate prediction is a challenging task. This paper introduces k-nearest neighbour (k-NN) method which never been applied in predicting currency crisis before with the aim of increasing the prediction accuracy. The proposed k-NN performance depends on the choice of a distance that is used where in our analysis; we take the Euclidean distance and the Manhattan as a consideration. For the comparison, we employ three other methods which are logistic regression analysis (logit), back-propagation neural network (NN) and sequential minimal optimization (SMO). The analysis using datasets from 8 countries and 13 macro-economic indicators for each country shows that the proposed k-NN method with k = 4 and Manhattan distance performs better than the other methods.

Keywords: Currency crisis, k-nearest neighbour method, logit, neural network.

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18 Investigating Feed Mix Problem Approaches: An Overview and Potential Solution

Authors: Rosshairy Abd Rahman, Chooi-Leng Ang, Razamin Ramli

Abstract:

Feed is one of the factors which play an important role in determining a successful development of an aquaculture industry. It is always critical to produce the best aquaculture diet at a minimum cost in order to trim down the operational cost and gain more profit. However, the feed mix problem becomes increasingly difficult since many issues need to be considered simultaneously. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to review the current techniques used by nutritionist and researchers to tackle the issues. Additionally, this paper introduce an enhance algorithm which is deemed suitable to deal with all the issues arise. The proposed technique refers to Hybrid Genetic Algorithm which is expected to obtain the minimum cost diet for farmed animal, while satisfying nutritional requirements. Hybrid GA technique with artificial bee algorithm is expected to reduce the penalty function and provide a better solution for the feed mix problem.

Keywords: Artificial bee algorithm, feed mix problem, hybrid genetic algorithm.

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17 Privacy Issues in Pervasive Healthcare Monitoring System: A Review

Authors: Rusyaizila Ramli, Nasriah Zakaria, Putra Sumari

Abstract:

Privacy issues commonly discussed among researchers, practitioners, and end-users in pervasive healthcare. Pervasive healthcare systems are applications that can support patient-s need anytime and anywhere. However, pervasive healthcare raises privacy concerns since it can lead to situations where patients may not be aware that their private information is being shared and becomes vulnerable to threat. We have systematically analyzed the privacy issues and present a summary in tabular form to show the relationship among the issues. The six issues identified are medical information misuse, prescription leakage, medical information eavesdropping, social implications for the patient, patient difficulties in managing privacy settings, and lack of support in designing privacy-sensitive applications. We narrow down the issues and chose to focus on the issue of 'lack of support in designing privacysensitive applications' by proposing a privacy-sensitive architecture specifically designed for pervasive healthcare monitoring systems.

Keywords: Human Factors, Pervasive Healthcare, PrivacyIssues

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16 Key Issues and Challenges of Intrusion Detection and Prevention System: Developing Proactive Protection in Wireless Network Environment

Authors: M. Salman, B. Budiardjo, K. Ramli

Abstract:

Nowadays wireless technology plays an important role in public and personal communication. However, the growth of wireless networking has confused the traditional boundaries between trusted and untrusted networks. Wireless networks are subject to a variety of threats and attacks at present. An attacker has the ability to listen to all network traffic which becoming a potential intrusion. Intrusion of any kind may lead to a chaotic condition. In addition, improperly configured access points also contribute the risk to wireless network. To overcome this issue, a security solution that includes an intrusion detection and prevention system need to be implemented. In this paper, first the security drawbacks of wireless network will be analyzed then investigate the characteristics and also the limitations on current wireless intrusion detection and prevention system. Finally, the requirement of next wireless intrusion prevention system will be identified including some key issues which should be focused on in the future to overcomes those limitations.

Keywords: intrusion detection, intrusion prevention, wireless networks, proactive protection

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15 Applying Lean Principles, Tools and Techniques in Set Parts Supply Implementation

Authors: Suhartini M. Jainury, Rizauddin Ramli, Mohd Nizam A. Rahman

Abstract:

Lean, which was initially developed by Toyota, is widely implemented in other companies to improve competitiveness. This research is an attempt to identify the adoption of lean in the production system of Malaysian car manufacturer, Proton using case study approach. To gain the in-depth information regarding lean implementation, an activity on the assembly line called Set Parts Supply (SPS) was studied. The result indicates that by using lean principles, tools and techniques in the implementation of SPS enabled to achieve the goals on safety, quality, cost, delivery and morale. The implementation increased the size of the workspace, improved the quality of assembly and the delivery of parts supply, reduced the manpower, achieved cost savings on electricity and also increased the motivation of manpower in respect of attendance at work. A framework of SPS implementation is suggested as a contribution for lean practices in production system.

Keywords: Assembly line, lean manufacturing, production, parts supply.

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14 Effects of Adding Fibre on Strength and Permeability of Recycled Aggregate Concrete Containing Treated Coarse RCA

Authors: Sallehan Ismail, Mahyuddin Ramli

Abstract:

This paper presents the experiment results of investigating the effects of adding various types and proportions of fibre on mechanical strength and permeability characteristics of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC), which was produced with treated coarse recycled concrete aggregate (RCA). Two types of synthetic fibres (i.e., barchip and polypropylene fibre) with various volume fractions were added to the RAC, which was calculated by the weight of the cement. The hardened RAC properties such as compressive strength, flexural strength, ultrasonic pulse velocity, water absorption and total porosity at the curing ages of 7 and 28 days were evaluated and compared with the properties of the control specimens. Results indicate that the treated coarse RCA enhances the mechanical strength and permeability properties of RAC and adding barchip fibre further optimises the results. Adding 1.2% barchip fibre has the best effect on the mechanical strength performance of the RAC.

Keywords: Barchip fibre, polypropylene fibre, recycled aggregate concrete.

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13 Synthesis, Characterization and Antibacterial Screening of 3-Hydroxy-2-[3-(2/3/4-Methoxybenzoyl)Thioureido]Butyric Acid

Authors: M. S. M. Yusof, R. Ramli, S. K. C. Soh, N. Ismail, N. Ngah

Abstract:

This study presents the synthesis of a series of methoxybenzoylthiourea amino acid derivatives. The compounds were obtained from the reactions between 2/3/4-methoxybenzoyl isothiocyanate with threonine. All of the compounds were characterized via mass spectrometry, 1H and 13C NMR spectrometry, UV-Vis spectrophotometer and FT-IR spectroscopy. Mass spectra for all of the compounds showed the presence of molecular ion [M]+ peaks at m/z 312, which are in agreement to the calculated molecular weight. For 1H NMR spectra, the presence of OCH3, C=S-NH and C=O-NH protons were observed within range of δH 3.8-4.0 ppm, 11.1-11.5 ppm and 10.0-11.5 ppm, respectively. 13C NMR spectra in all compounds displayed the presence of OCH3, C=O-NH, C=O-OH and C=S carbon resonances within range of δC 55.0-57.0 ppm, 165.0-168.0 ppm, 170.0-171.0 ppm and 180.0-182.0 ppm, respectively. In UV spectra, two absorption bands have been observed and both were assigned to the n-π* and π-π* transitions. Six vibrational modes of v(N-H), v(O-H), v(C=O-OH), v(C=O-NH), v(C=C) aromatic and v(C=S) appeared in the FT-IR spectra within the range of 3241-3467 cm-1, 2976-3302 cm-1, 1720-1768 cm-1, 1655-1672 cm-1, 1519-1525 cm-1 and 754-763 cm-1, respectively. The antibacterial activity for all of the compounds was screened against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli. However, no activity was observed.

Keywords: Methoxybenzoyl isothiocyanate, amino acid, threonine, antibacterial.

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12 The Effect of Gross Vehicle Weight on the Stability of Heavy Vehicle during Cornering

Authors: Nurzaki Ikhsan, Ahmad Saifizul Abdullah, Rahizar Ramli

Abstract:

One of the functions of the commercial heavy vehicle is to safely and efficiently transport goods and people. Due to its size and carrying capacity, it is important to study the vehicle dynamic stability during cornering. Study has shown that there are a number of overloaded heavy vehicles or permissible Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW) violations recorded at selected areas in Malaysia assigned by its type and category. Thus, the objective of this study is to investigate the correlation and effect of the GVW on heavy vehicle stability during cornering event using simulation. Various selected heavy vehicle types and category are simulated using IPG/Truck Maker® with different GVW and road condition (coefficient of friction of road surface), while the speed, driver characteristic, center of gravity of load and road geometry are constant. Based on the analysis, the relationship between GVW and lateral acceleration were established. As expected, on the same value of coefficient of friction, the maximum lateral acceleration would be increased as the GVW increases.

Keywords: Heavy Vehicle, Road Safety, Vehicle Stability, Lateral Acceleration, Gross Vehicle Weight.

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11 Machine Learning in Production Systems Design Using Genetic Algorithms

Authors: Abu Qudeiri Jaber, Yamamoto Hidehiko Rizauddin Ramli

Abstract:

To create a solution for a specific problem in machine learning, the solution is constructed from the data or by use a search method. Genetic algorithms are a model of machine learning that can be used to find nearest optimal solution. While the great advantage of genetic algorithms is the fact that they find a solution through evolution, this is also the biggest disadvantage. Evolution is inductive, in nature life does not evolve towards a good solution but it evolves away from bad circumstances. This can cause a species to evolve into an evolutionary dead end. In order to reduce the effect of this disadvantage we propose a new a learning tool (criteria) which can be included into the genetic algorithms generations to compare the previous population and the current population and then decide whether is effective to continue with the previous population or the current population, the proposed learning tool is called as Keeping Efficient Population (KEP). We applied a GA based on KEP to the production line layout problem, as a result KEP keep the evaluation direction increases and stops any deviation in the evaluation.

Keywords: Genetic algorithms, Layout problem, Machinelearning, Production system.

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10 Robust Fractional-Order PI Controller with Ziegler-Nichols Rules

Authors: Mazidah Tajjudin, Mohd Hezri Fazalul Rahiman, Norhashim Mohd Arshad, Ramli Adnan

Abstract:

In process control applications, above 90% of the controllers are of PID type. This paper proposed a robust PI controller with fractional-order integrator. The PI parameters were obtained using classical Ziegler-Nichols rules but enhanced with the application of error filter cascaded to the fractional-order PI. The controller was applied on steam temperature process that was described by FOPDT transfer function. The process can be classified as lag dominating process with very small relative dead-time. The proposed control scheme was compared with other PI controller tuned using Ziegler-Nichols and AMIGO rules. Other PI controller with fractional-order integrator known as F-MIGO was also considered. All the controllers were subjected to set point change and load disturbance tests. The performance was measured using Integral of Squared Error (ISE) and Integral of Control Signal (ICO). The proposed controller produced best performance for all the tests with the least ISE index.

Keywords: PID controller, fractional-order PID controller, PI control tuning, steam temperature control, Ziegler-Nichols tuning.

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9 Approximating Maximum Speed on Road from Curvature Information of Bezier Curve

Authors: M. Y. Misro, A. Ramli, J. M. Ali

Abstract:

Bezier curves have useful properties for path generation problem, for instance, it can generate the reference trajectory for vehicles to satisfy the path constraints. Both algorithms join cubic Bezier curve segment smoothly to generate the path. Some of the useful properties of Bezier are curvature. In mathematics, curvature is the amount by which a geometric object deviates from being flat, or straight in the case of a line. Another extrinsic example of curvature is a circle, where the curvature is equal to the reciprocal of its radius at any point on the circle. The smaller the radius, the higher the curvature thus the vehicle needs to bend sharply. In this study, we use Bezier curve to fit highway-like curve. We use different approach to find the best approximation for the curve so that it will resembles highway-like curve. We compute curvature value by analytical differentiation of the Bezier Curve. We will then compute the maximum speed for driving using the curvature information obtained. Our research works on some assumptions; first, the Bezier curve estimates the real shape of the curve which can be verified visually. Even though, fitting process of Bezier curve does not interpolate exactly on the curve of interest, we believe that the estimation of speed are acceptable. We verified our result with the manual calculation of the curvature from the map.

Keywords: Speed estimation, path constraints, reference trajectory, Bezier curve.

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8 Architectural Building Safety and Health Performance Model for Stratified Low-Cost Housing: Education and Management Tool for Building Managers

Authors: Zainal Abidin Akasah, Maizam Alias, Azuin Ramli

Abstract:

The safety and health performances aspects of a building are the most challenging aspect of facility management. It requires a deep understanding by the building managers on the factors that contribute to health and safety performances. This study attempted to develop an explanatory architectural safety performance model for stratified low-cost housing in Malaysia. The proposed Building Safety and Health Performance (BSHP) model was tested empirically through a survey on 308 construction practitioners using partial least squares (PLS) and structural equation modelling (SEM) tool. Statistical analysis results supports the conclusion that architecture, building services, external environment, management approaches and maintenance management have positive influence on safety and health performance of stratified low-cost housing in Malaysia. The findings provide valuable insights for construction industry to introduce BSHP model in the future where the model could be used as a guideline for training purposes of managers and better planning and implementation of building management.

Keywords: Building management, stratified low-cost housing, Safety and health model

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