Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1081

Search results for: selectivity index

1081 High Efficiency, Selectivity against Cancer Cell Line of Purified L-Asparaginase from Pathogenic Escherichia coli

Authors: Hazim Saadoon Aljewari, Mohammed Ibraheem Nader, Abdul Hussain M. Alfaisal, NatthidaWeerapreeyakul, Sahapat

Abstract:

L-asparaginase was extracted from pathogenic Escherichia coli which was isolated from urinary tract infection patients. L-asparaginase was purified 96-fold by ultrafiltration, ion exchange and gel filtration giving 39.19% yield with final specific activity of 178.57 IU/mg. L-asparaginase showed 138,356±1,000 Dalton molecular weight with 31024±100 Dalton molecular mass. Kinetic properties of enzyme resulting 1.25×10-5 mM Km and 2.5×10-3 M/min Vmax. L-asparaginase showed a maximum activity at pH 7.5 when incubated at 37 ºC for 30 min and illustrated its full activity (100%) after 15 min incubation at 20-37 ºC, while 70% of its activity was lost when incubated at 60 ºC. L-asparaginase showed cytotoxicity to U937 cell line with IC50 0.5±0.19 IU/ml, and selectivity index (SI=7.6) about 8 time higher selectivity over the lymphocyte cells. Therefore, the local pathogenic E. coli strains may be used as a source of high yield of L-asparaginase to produce anti cancer agent with high selectivity.

Keywords: L-asparaginase, Purification, Cytotoxicity, selectivity index

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1080 Improved p-Xylene Selectivity of n-Pentane Aromatization over Silylated Ga-exchanged HZSM- 5 Catalysts

Authors: Tunchanok Nitipan, Siriporn Jongpatiwut, Thirasak Rirksomboon, Boonyarach Kitiyanan, Tivaporn Apphakvan

Abstract:

In this study, the conversion of n-pentane to aromatics is investigated on HZSM-5 zeolites modified by Ga ion-exchange and silylation using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) via chemical liquid deposition (CLD). The effect of SiO2/Al2O3 ratios of HZSM-5 was also studied. Parameters in preparing catalysts i.e. TEOS loading and cycles of deposition were varied to obtain the optimal condition for enhancing p-xylene selectivity. The highest p-xylene selectivity 99.7% was achieved when the amount of TEOS was 20 vol.%.The catalysts were characterized by TPD, TPO, XRF, and BET. Results show that the conversion of n-pentane was influenced remarkably by the SiO2/Al2O3 ratios of HZSM-5. The highest p-xylene selectivity 99.7% was achieved when the amount of TEOS was 20 vol.%. And cycles of deposition greatly improves HZSM-5 shape-selectivity.

Keywords: Aromatization, Chemical Liquid Deposition (CLD), p-Xylene, ZSM-5 Zeolite

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1079 Cost-Optimized SSB Transmitter with High Frequency Stability and Selectivity

Authors: J. P. Dubois

Abstract:

Single side band modulation is a widespread technique in communication with significant impact on communication technologies such as DSL modems and ATSC TV. Its widespread utilization is due to its bandwidth and power saving characteristics. In this paper, we present a new scheme for SSB signal generation which is cost efficient and enjoys superior characteristics in terms of frequency stability, selectivity, and robustness to noise. In the process, we develop novel Hilbert transform properties.

Keywords: Crystal filter, frequency drift, frequency mixing, Hilbert transform, phasing, selectivity, single side band AM.

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1078 The Extremal Graph with the Largest Merrifield-Simmons Index of (n, n + 2)-graphs

Authors: M. S. Haghighat, A. Dolati, M. Tabari, E. Mohseni

Abstract:

The Merrifield-Simmons index of a graph G is defined as the total number of its independent sets. A (n, n + 2)-graph is a connected simple graph with n vertices and n + 2 edges. In this paper we characterize the (n, n+2)-graph with the largest Merrifield- Simmons index. We show that its Merrifield-Simmons index i.e. the upper bound of the Merrifield-Simmons index of the (n, n+2)-graphs is 9 × 2n-5 +1 for n ≥ 5.

Keywords: Merrifield-Simmons index, (n, n+2)-graph.

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1077 Effect of Recycle Gas on Activity and Selectivity of Co-Ru/Al2O3 Catalyst in Fischer- Tropsch Synthesis

Authors: A.A.Rohani, B.Hatami, L.Jokar, F.khorasheh, A.A.Safekordi

Abstract:

In industrial scale of Gas to Liquid (GTL) process in Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis, a part of reactor outlet gases such as CO2 and CH4 as side reaction products, is usually recycled. In this study, the influence of CO2 and CH4 on the performance and selectivity of Co-Ru/Al2O3 catalyst is investigated by injection of these gases (0-20 vol. % of feed) to the feed stream. The effect of temperature and feed flow rate, are also inspected. The results show that low amounts of CO2 in the feed stream, doesn`t change the catalyst activity significantly but increasing the amount of CO2 (more than 10 vol. %) cause the CO conversion to decrease and the selectivity of heavy components to increase. Methane acts as an inert gas and doesn`t affect the catalyst performance. Increasing feed flow rate has negative effect on both CO conversion and heavy component selectivity. By raising the temperature, CO conversion will increase but there are more volatile components in the product. The effect of CO2 on the catalyst deactivation is also investigated carefully and a mechanism is suggested to explain the negative influence of CO2 on catalyst deactivation.

Keywords: Alumina, Carbon dioxide, Cobalt catalyst, Conversion, Fischer Tropsch, Selectivity

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1076 Propane Dehydrogenation over Pt-Sn Supported on Magnesium Aluminate Material

Authors: Deepa Govindarajan, Debdut Roy

Abstract:

Pt-Sn catalysts have been prepared using magnesium aluminate as a support with two different Mg/Al ratio. The supports/catalysts have been characterized by N2-adsorption, XRD, and temperature programmed desorption of NH3 and thermogravimetry analysis (TGA). The catalysts have been evaluated at 595 0C for the propane dehydrogenation reaction at 0.5 barg pressure using a feed containing pure propane with steam to hydrocarbon ratio of 1 mol/mol and weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) 0.9 h-1. Chlorine quantification studies have been developed using Carbon-Hydrogen-Nitrogen-Sulphur (CHNS) analyzer. The dechlorinated catalyst with higher alumina content showed better performance (38-43% propane conversion, 91-94% propylene selectivity) in propane conversion and propylene selectivity than Pt-Sn-MG-AL-DC-1 (30-18% propane conversion, 83-90% propylene selectivity).

Keywords: Dehydrogenation, alumina, platinum-tin catalyst, dechlorination.

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1075 The Catalytic Properties of PtSn/Al2O3 for Acetic Acid Hydrogenation

Authors: Mingchuan Zhou, Haitao Zhang, Hongfang Ma, Weiyong Ying

Abstract:

Alumina supported platinum and tin catalysts with different loadings of Pt and Sn were prepared and characterized by low temperature N2 adsorption/desorption, H2-temperature programed reduction and CO pulse chemisorption. Pt and Sn below 1% loading were suitable for acetic acid hydrogenation. The best performance over 0.75Pt1Sn/Al2O3 can reach 87.55% conversion of acetic acid and 47.39% selectivity of ethanol. The operating conditions of acetic acid hydrogenation over 1Pt1Sn/Al2O3 were investigated. High reaction temperature can enhance the conversion of acetic acid, but it decreased total selectivity of ethanol and acetyl acetate. High pressure and low weight hourly space velocity were beneficial to both conversion of acetic acid and selectivity to ethanol.

Keywords: Acetic acid, hydrogenation, PtSn, operating condition.

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1074 Kinetic Study of 1-Butene Isomerization over Hydrotalcite Catalyst

Authors: S. Sripinun, K. Suriye, S. Kunjara Na Ayudhyab, P. Praserthdam, S. Assabumrungrat

Abstract:

This work studied the isomerization of 1-butene over hydrotalcite catalyst. The experiments were conducted at various gas hourly space velocity (GHSV), reaction temperature and feed concentration. No catalyst deactivation was observed over the reaction time of 16 hours. Two major reaction products were trans-2- butene and cis-2-butene. The reaction temperature played an important role on the reaction selectivity. At high operating temperatures, the selectivity of trans-2-butene was higher than the selectivity of cis-2-butene while it was opposite at lower reaction temperature. In the range of operating condition, the maximum conversion of 1-butene was found at 74% when T = 673 K and GHSV = 4 m3/h/kg-cat with trans- and cis-2-butene selectivities of 54% and 46%, respectively. Finally, the kinetic parameters of the reaction were determined.

Keywords: Hydrotalcite, isomerization, kinetic, 1-butene.

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1073 Comparison of the H-Index of Researchers of Google Scholar and Scopus

Authors: Adian Fatchur Rochim, Abdul Muis, Riri Fitri Sari

Abstract:

H-index has been widely used as a performance indicator of researchers around the world especially in Indonesia. The Government uses Scopus and Google scholar as indexing references in providing recognition and appreciation. However, those two indexing services yield to different H-index values. For that purpose, this paper evaluates the difference of the H-index from those services. Researchers indexed by Webometrics, are used as reference’s data in this paper. Currently, Webometrics only uses H-index from Google Scholar. This paper observed and compared corresponding researchers’ data from Scopus to get their H-index score. Subsequently, some researchers with huge differences in score are observed in more detail on their paper’s publisher. This paper shows that the H-index of researchers in Google Scholar is approximately 2.45 times of their Scopus H-Index. Most difference exists due to the existence of uncertified publishers, which is considered in Google Scholar but not in Scopus.

Keywords: Google Scholar, H-index, Scopus.

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1072 The Assessment of Reforms in Different Countries by Social-Economic Development Integral Index

Authors: Samson Davoyan, Tatevik Sahakyan

Abstract:

The purpose of this report is to suggest a new methodology for the assessment of the comparative efficiency of the reforms made in different countries by an integral index. We have highlighted the reforms made in post-crisis period in 21 former socialist countries. The integral index describes the social-economic development level. The integral index contains of six indexes: The Global Competitiveness Index, Doing Business, The Corruption Perception, The Index of Economic Freedom, The Human Development, and The Democracy Index, which are reported by different international organizations. With the help of our methodology we first summarized the above-mentioned 6 indexes and attained 1 general index, besides, our new method enables us to assess the comparative efficiency of the reforms made in different countries by analyzing them. The purpose is to reveal the opportunities and threats of socialeconomic reforms in different directions.

Keywords: Assessment, comparative, effectiveness, reforms

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1071 Eccentric Connectivity Index, First and Second Zagreb Indices of Corona Graph

Authors: A. Kulandai Therese

Abstract:

The eccentric connectivity index based on degree and eccentricity of the vertices of a graph is a widely used graph invariant in mathematics. In this paper, we present the explicit eccentric connectivity index, first and second Zagreb indices for a Corona graph and sub divisionrelated corona graphs.

Keywords: Corona graph, Degree, Eccentricity, Eccentric Connectivity Index, First Zagreb index, Second Zagreb index and Subdivision graphs.

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1070 An Efficiency Measurement of E-Government Performance for United Nation Ranking Index

Authors: Yassine Jadi, Lin Jie

Abstract:

In order to serve the society in an electronic manner, many developing countries have launched tremendous e-government projects. The strategies of development and implementation e-government system have reached different levels, and to ensure consistency of development, the governments need to evaluate e-government performance. The United nation has design e-government development ranking index (EGDI) that rely on three indexes, Online service index (OSI), Telecommunication Infrastructure index (TII), and human capital index( HCI) which are not reflecting the interaction between a government and their citizens. Based on data envelopment analyses (DEA) technique, we are using E-participating index (EPI) as an output of government effort to evaluate the performance of e-government system. Therefore, the ranking index can be achieved in efficiency manner.

Keywords: E-government, DEA, efficiency measurement, EGDI.

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1069 Energy Efficiency Index Applied to Reactive Systems

Authors: P. Góes, J. Manzi

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the development of an energy efficiency index that will be applied to reactive systems, which is based in the First and Second Law of Thermodynamics, by giving particular consideration to the concept of maximum entropy. Among the requirements of such energy efficiency index, the practical feasibility must be essential. To illustrate the performance of the proposed index, such an index was used as decisive factor of evaluation for the optimization process of an industrial reactor. The results allow the conclusion to be drawn that the energy efficiency index applied to the reactive system is consistent because it extracts the information expected of an efficient indicator, and that it is useful as an analytical tool besides being feasible from a practical standpoint. Furthermore, it has proved to be much simpler to use than tools based on traditional methodologies.

Keywords: Energy efficiency, maximum entropy, reactive systems.

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1068 Inorganic Anion Removal from Water Using Natural Adsorbents

Authors: A. Ortuzar, I. Escondrillas, F. Mijangos

Abstract:

There is a need for new systems that can be attached to drinking water treatment plants and have the required treatment capacity as well as the selectivity regarding components derived from anthropogenic activities. In a context of high volumes of water and low concentration of contaminants, adsorption/interchange processes are appealing since they meet the required features. Iron oxides such as siderite and molysite, which are respectively based on FeCO3 and FeCl3, can be found in nature. In this work, their observed performance, raw or roasted at different temperatures, as adsorbents of some inorganic anions is discussed. Roasted 1:1 FeCO3: FeCl3 mixture was very selective for arsenic and allowed a 100% removal of As from a 10 mg L-1 As solution. Besides, the 1:1 FeCO3 and FeCl3 mixture roasted at 500 ºC showed good selectivity for, in order of preference, arsenate, bromate, phosphate, fluoride and nitrate anions with distribution coefficients of, respectively, 4200, 2800, 2500 0.4 and 0.03 L g-1.

Keywords: Drinking water, natural adsorbent materials, removal, selectivity.

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1067 Protection Plan of Medium Voltage Distribution Network in Tunisia

Authors: S. Chebbi, A. Meddeb

Abstract:

The distribution networks are often exposed to harmful incidents which can halt the electricity supply of the customer. In this context, we studied a real case of a critical zone of the Tunisian network which is currently characterized by the dysfunction of its plan of protection. In this paper, we were interested in the harmonization of the protection plan settings in order to ensure a perfect selectivity and a better continuity of service on the whole of the network.

Keywords: Distribution network Gabes-Tunisia, NEPLAN©DACH, protection plan settings, selectivity.

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1066 Conversion of Methanol to Propylene over a High Silica B-HZSM-5 Catalyst

Authors: Aina Xu, Hongfang Ma, Haitao Zhang, Weiyong Ying, Dingye Fang

Abstract:

Hydrothermally synthesized high silica borosilicates with the MFI structure was subjected to several characterization techniques. The effect of boron on the structure and acidity of HZSM-5 catalyst were studied by XRD, SEM, N2 adsorption, solid state NMR, NH3-TPD. It was confirmed that boron had entered the framework in the boron samples. The results also revealed that strong acidity was weakened and weak acidity was strengthened by the boron added zeolite framework compared with parent catalyst. The catalytic performance was carried out in a fixed bed at 460°C for methanol to propylene (MTP) reaction. The results of MTP reaction showed a great increment of the propylene selectivity and excellent stability for the B-HZSM-5. The catalyst exhibited about 81% selectivity to C2 = - C4 = olefins with 40% selectivity of propylene as major component at near 100% methanol conversion, and the stable performance in the studied period was 100h.

Keywords: Methanol to propylene, HZSM-5, boron.

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1065 A Novel Spectral Index for Automatic Shadow Detection in Urban Mapping Based On WorldView-2 Satellite Imagery

Authors: Kaveh Shahi, Helmi Z. M. Shafri, Ebrahim Taherzadeh

Abstract:

In remote sensing, shadow causes problems in many applications such as change detection and classification. It is caused by objects which are elevated, thus can directly affect the accuracy of information. For these reasons, it is very important to detect shadows particularly in urban high spatial resolution imagery which created a significant problem. This paper focuses on automatic shadow detection based on a new spectral index for multispectral imagery known as Shadow Detection Index (SDI). The new spectral index was tested on different areas of WorldView-2 images and the results demonstrated that the new spectral index has a massive potential to extract shadows with accuracy of 94% effectively and automatically. Furthermore, the new shadow detection index improved road extraction from 82% to 93%.

Keywords: Spectral index, shadow detection, remote sensing images, WorldView-2.

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1064 Public Transport: Punctuality Index for Bus Operation

Authors: Noorfakhriah Yaakub, Madzlan Napiah

Abstract:

Public bus service plays a significant role in our society as people movers and to facilitate travels within towns and districts. The quality of service of public bus is always being regarded as poor, or rather, underestimated as second class means of transportation. Reliability of service, or the ability to deliver service as planned, is one key element in perceiving the quality of bus service and the punctuality index is one of the performance parameters in determining the service reliability. This study concentrates on evaluating the reliability performance of bus operation using punctuality index assessment. A week data for each of six city bus routes is recorded using the on-board methodology to calculate the punctuality index for city bus service in Kota Bharu. The results revealed that the punctuality index for the whole city bus network is 94.25% (LOS B).

Keywords: Punctuality Index, Reliability Performance, Service Performance.

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1063 Assessing Relationship between Type of Financial Market and Market Indices in Tehran Stock Exchange

Authors: Zahra Amirhosseini, Alireza Bashiri

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to examine and identify the type of Iranian financial market in terms of being symmetrical or asymmetrical and to measure relationship between type of market and the market's indices. In this study, daily information on the market-s Share Price Index, Industrial Index and Top Fifty Most Active Companies during the years 1999-2010 has been used. In addition, to determine type of the financial market, rate of return on Security is taken into account. In this research, by using logistic regression analysis methods, relationship of the market type with the above mentioned indices have been examined. The results showed that the type of the financial market has a positive significant association with market share price index and Industrial Index. Index of Top Fifty Most Active Companies is significantly associated with type of financial market, however this relationship is inverse.

Keywords: All Share Price Index, Asymmetrical Market, Industrial Index, Symmetrical Market, Top Fifty Most Active Companies Index

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1062 Polyethylenimine Coated Carbon Nanotube for Detecting Rancidity in Frying Oil

Authors: Vincent Lau Chun Fai, Yang Doo Lee, Kyongsoo Lee, Keun-Soo Lee, Shin-Kyung, Byeong-Kwon Ju

Abstract:

Chemical detection is still a continuous challenge when it comes to designing single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) sensors with high selectivity, especially in complex chemical environments. A perfect example of such an environment would be in thermally oxidized soybean oil. At elevated temperatures, oil oxidizes through a series of chemical reactions which results in the formation of monoacylglycerols, diacylglycerols, oxidized triacylglycerols, dimers, trimers, polymers, free fatty acids, ketones, aldehydes, alcohols, esters, and other minor products. In order to detect the rancidity of oxidized soybean oil, carbon nanotube chemiresistor sensors have been coated with polyethylenimine (PEI) to enhance the sensitivity and selectivity. PEI functionalized SWCNTs are known to have a high selectivity towards strong electron withdrawing molecules. The sensors were very responsive to different oil oxidation levels and furthermore, displayed a rapid recovery in ambient air without the need of heating or UV exposure.

Keywords: Carbon nanotubes, polyethylenimine, sensor, oxidized oil

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1061 Construction Methods for Sign Patterns Allowing Nilpotence of Index k

Authors: Jun Luo

Abstract:

In this paper, the smallest such integer k is called by the index (of nilpotence) of B such that Bk = 0. In this paper, we study sign patterns allowing nilpotence of index k and obtain four methods to construct sign patterns allowing nilpotence of index at most k, which generalizes some recent results.

Keywords: Sign pattern, Nilpotence, Jordan block.

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1060 Estimation of Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI) for Bhavnagar District, Gujarat, India

Authors: Ravi Shah, V. L. Manekar, R. A. Christian, N. J. Mistry

Abstract:

There are two types of drought as conceptual drought and operational drought. The three parameters as the beginning, the end and the degree of severity of the drought can be identifying in operational drought by average precipitation in the whole region. One of the methods classified to measure drought is Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI). Evapotranspiration is calculated using Penman-Monteith method by analyzing thirty nine years prolong climatic data. The evapotranspiration is then utilized in RDI to classify normalized and standardized RDI. These RDI classifications led to what kind of drought faced in Bhavnagar region on 12 month time scale basis. The comparison between actual drought conditions and RDI method used to find out drought are also illustrated. It can be concluded that the index results of drought in a particular year are same in both methods but having different index values where as severity remain same.

Keywords: Drought, Drought index, Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI), Precipitation.

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1059 Analysis of Influenza Cases and Seasonal Index in Thailand

Authors: S. Youthao, M. Jaroensutasinee, K. Jaroensutasinee

Abstract:

This study investigated the pattern and seasonal index of influenza cases in Thailand. Our results showed that southern Thailand had the highest influenza incidence among the four regions of Thailand (i.e. north, northeast, central and southern Thailand). The influenza pattern in southern Thailand was similar to that of northeastern Thailand. Seasonal index values of influenza cases in Thailand were higher in the hot season than in the wet season. Influenza cases started to increase at the beginning of the hot season (April), reached a maximum in August, rapidly declined in the middle of the wet season and reached the lowest value in December. Seasonal index values for northern Thailand differed from other regions of Thailand.

Keywords: Influenza, disease index, seasonal index, Thailand.

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1058 On Estimating the Headcount Index by Using the Logistic Regression Estimator

Authors: Encarnación Álvarez, Rosa M. García-Fernández, Juan F. Muñoz, Francisco J. Blanco-Encomienda

Abstract:

The problem of estimating a proportion has important applications in the field of economics, and in general, in many areas such as social sciences. A common application in economics is the estimation of the headcount index. In this paper, we define the general headcount index as a proportion. Furthermore, we introduce a new quantitative method for estimating the headcount index. In particular, we suggest to use the logistic regression estimator for the problem of estimating the headcount index. Assuming a real data set, results derived from Monte Carlo simulation studies indicate that the logistic regression estimator can be more accurate than the traditional estimator of the headcount index.

Keywords: Poverty line, poor, risk of poverty, sample, Monte Carlo simulations.

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1057 Drought Stress Indices in Some Silage Maize Cultivars

Authors: Ehsan Shahrabian, Ali Soleymani

Abstract:

Several yield-based stress indices have been developed that may be more applicable to work on drought tolerance. In this study, we investigate possibility of using stress susceptibility index (SSI), tolerance index (TOL), yield stability index (YSI), yield index (YI), stress tolerance index (STI), geometric mean productivity (GMP), harmonic mean (HARM), mean productivity (MP) to identify genotypic performance of some maize cultivars under normal and stressed condition. The results indicate that it was possible to identify superior genotypes for drought tolerance based on their stress indices and generally SSI indices which showed the lowest negative correlation with dry matter yield can be used as the best index for maize breeding programs to introduce drought tolerant hybrids. It was found that SC 647 showed the best behavior under drought stress condition based on TOL and SSI. A higher STI, GMP, and HARM values were attained for ko6. It can be suggested that ko6 should be cultivated in moderate stressful environment of Iran.

Keywords: Index, productivity, stress, susceptibility tolerance, yield.

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1056 Application of Scientific Metrics to Evaluate Academic Reputation in Different Research Areas

Authors: Cristiano R. Cervi, Renata Galante, José Palazzo M. de Oliveira

Abstract:

In this paper, we address the problem of identifying academic reputation of researchers using scientific metrics in different research areas. Due to the characteristics of each area, researchers can present different behaviors. In previous work, we define Rep-Index that makes use of a profile template to individually identify the reputation of researchers. The Rep-Index is comprehensive and adaptive because involves hole trajectory of the researcher built throughout his career and can be used in different areas and in different contexts. Now, we compare our metric (Rep-Index) with the h-index and the g-index through experiments with researchers in the fields of Economics, Dentistry and Computer Science. We analyze the trajectory of 830 Brazilian researchers from the National Council of Technological and Scientific Development (CNPq), which receive grants research productivity. The grants are aimed at productivity researchers that stand out among their peers, enhancing their scientific normative criteria established by CNPq. Of the 830 researchers, 210 are in the area of Economics, 216 of Dentistry e 404 of Computer Science. The experiments show that our metric is strongly correlated with h-index, g-index and CNPq ranking. We also show good results for our hypothesis that our metric can be used to evaluate research in several areas. We apply our metric (Rep-Index) to compare the behavior of researchers in relation to their h-index and g-index through extensive experiments. The experiments showed that our metric is strongly correlated with h-index, g-index and CNPq ranking.

Keywords: Researcher reputation, profile model, scientific metrics.

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1055 Brainwave Classification for Brain Balancing Index (BBI) via 3D EEG Model Using k-NN Technique

Authors: N. Fuad, M. N. Taib, R. Jailani, M. E. Marwan

Abstract:

In this paper, the comparison between k-Nearest Neighbor (kNN) algorithms for classifying the 3D EEG model in brain balancing is presented. The EEG signal recording was conducted on 51 healthy subjects. Development of 3D EEG models involves pre-processing of raw EEG signals and construction of spectrogram images. Then, maximum PSD values were extracted as features from the model. There are three indexes for balanced brain; index 3, index 4 and index 5. There are significant different of the EEG signals due to the brain balancing index (BBI). Alpha-α (8–13 Hz) and beta-β (13–30 Hz) were used as input signals for the classification model. The k-NN classification result is 88.46% accuracy. These results proved that k-NN can be used in order to predict the brain balancing application.

Keywords: Brain balancing, kNN, power spectral density, 3D EEG model.

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1054 Analyzing Disclosure Practice of Religious Nonprofit Organizations using Partial Disclosure Index

Authors: Ruhaya Atan, Saunah Zainon, Roland Yeow Theng Nam, Sharifah Aliman

Abstract:

This study examines the relevance of disclosure practices in improving the accountability and transparency of religious nonprofit organizations (RNPOs). The assessment of disclosure is based on the annual returns of RNPOs for the financial year 2010. In order to quantify the information disclosed in the annual returns, partial disclosure indexes of basic information (BI) disclosure index, financial information (FI) disclosure index and governance information (GI) disclosure index have been built which takes into account the content of information items in the annual returns. The empirical evidence obtained revealed low disclosure practices among RNPOs in the sample. The multiple regression results showed that the organizational attribute of the board size appeared to be the most significant predictor for both partial index on the extent of BI disclosure index, and FI disclosure index. On the other hand, the extent of financial information disclosure is related to the amount of donation received by RNPOs. On GI disclosure index, the existence of an external audit appeared to be significant variable. This study has contributed to the academic literature in providing empirical evidence of the disclosure practices among RNPOs.

Keywords: disclosure, index, partial, NPOs, religious

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1053 Terminal Wiener Index for Graph Structures

Authors: J. Baskar Babujee, J. Senbagamalar,

Abstract:

The topological distance between a pair of vertices i and j, which is denoted by d(vi, vj), is the number of edges of the shortest path joining i and j. The Wiener index W(G) is the sum of distances between all pairs of vertices of a graph G. W(G) = i

Keywords: Graph, Degree, Distance, Pendent vertex, Wiener index, Tree.

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1052 Development for the Evaluation Index of an Anesthesia Depth using the Bispectrum Analysis

Authors: Soo-young Ye, Jun-mo Park, Jae-hyung Kim, Jae-hee Jung, Ah-young Jeon, In-cheol Kim, Jung-man Son, Ki-gon Nam, Seong-wan Baik, Jung-hoon Ro, Gye-rok Jeon

Abstract:

The linear SEF (Spectral Edge Frequency) parameter and spectrum analysis method can not reflect the non-linear of EEG. This method can not contribute to acquire real time analysis and obtain a high confidence in the clinic due to low discrimination. To solve the problems, the development of a new index is carried out using the bispectrum analyzing the EEG(electroencephalogram) including the non-linear characteristic. After analyzing the bispectrum of the 2 dimension, the most significant power spectrum density peaks appeared abundantly at the specific area in awakening and anesthesia state. These points are utilized to create the new index since many peaks appeared at the specific area in the frequency coordinate. The measured range of an index was 0-100. An index is 20-50 at an anesthesia, while the index is 90-60 at the awake. New index could afford to effectively discriminate the awake and anesthesia state.

Keywords: Bispectrum, anesthesia depth, EEG, SEF.

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