Search results for: Rosa M. García-Fernández
26 ROSA/LSTF Test on Pressurized Water Reactor Steam Generator Tube Rupture Accident Induced by Main Steam Line Break with Recovery Actions
Authors: Takeshi Takeda
An experiment was performed for the OECD/NEA ROSA-2 Project employing the ROSA/LSTF (rig of safety assessment/large-scale test facility), which simulated a steam generator tube rupture (SGTR) accident induced by main steam line break (MSLB) with operator recovery actions in a pressurized water reactor (PWR). The primary pressure decreased to the pressure level nearly-equal to the intact steam generator (SG) secondary-side pressure even with coolant injection from the high-pressure injection (HPI) system of emergency core cooling system (ECCS) into cold legs. Multi-dimensional coolant behavior appeared such as thermal stratification in both hot and cold legs in intact loop. The RELAP5/MOD3.3 code indicated the insufficient predictions of the primary pressure, the SGTR break flow rate, and the HPI flow rate, and failed to predict the fluid temperatures in the intact loop hot and cold legs. Results obtained from the comparison among three LSTF SGTR-related tests clarified that the thermal stratification occurs in the horizontal legs by different mechanisms.
Keywords: LSTF, SGTR, thermal stratification, RELAP5.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 593
25 ROSA/LSTF Separate Effect Test on Natural Circulation under High Core Power Condition of Pressurized Water Reactor
Authors: Takeshi Takeda
Abstract:A separate effect test (SET) simulated natural circulation (NC) under high core power condition of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) utilizing the ROSA/LSTF (rig of safety assessment/large-scale test facility). The LSTF test results clarified the relationship between the primary loop mass inventory and the primary loop mass flow rate being dependent on the NC mode at a constant core power of 8% of the volumetric-scaled PWR nominal power. When the core power was 9% or more during reflux condensation, large-amplitude level oscillation in a form of slow fill and dump occurred in steam generator (SG) U-tubes. At 11% core power during reflux condensation, intermittent rise took place in the cladding surface temperature of simulated fuel rods. The RELAP5/MOD3.3 code indicated the insufficient prediction of the SG U-tube liquid level behavior during reflux condensation.
Keywords: LSTF, natural circulation, core power, RELAP5.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 641
24 Uncertainty Analysis of ROSA/LSTF Test on Pressurized Water Reactor Cold Leg Small-Break Loss-of-Coolant Accident without Scram
Authors: Takeshi Takeda
The author conducted post-test analysis with the RELAP5/MOD3.3 code for an experiment using the ROSA/LSTF (rig of safety assessment/large-scale test facility) that simulated a 1% cold leg small-break loss-of-coolant accident under the failure of scram in a pressurized water reactor. The LSTF test assumed total failure of high-pressure injection system of emergency core cooling system. In the LSTF test, natural circulation contributed to maintain core cooling effect for a relatively long time until core uncovery occurred. The post-test analysis result confirmed inadequate prediction of the primary coolant distribution. The author created the phenomena identification and ranking table (PIRT) for each component. The author investigated the influences of uncertain parameters determined by the PIRT on the cladding surface temperature at a certain time during core uncovery within the defined uncertain ranges.
Keywords: LSTF, LOCA, scram, RELAP5.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 601
23 Assessment and Uncertainty Analysis of ROSA/LSTF Test on Pressurized Water Reactor 1.9% Vessel Upper Head Small-Break Loss-of-Coolant Accident
Authors: Takeshi Takeda
An experiment utilizing the ROSA/LSTF (rig of safety assessment/large-scale test facility) simulated a 1.9% vessel upper head small-break loss-of-coolant accident with an accident management (AM) measure under the total failure of high-pressure injection system of emergency core cooling system in a pressurized water reactor. Steam generator (SG) secondary-side depressurization on the AM measure was started by fully opening relief valves in both SGs when the maximum core exit temperature rose to 623 K. A large increase took place in the cladding surface temperature of simulated fuel rods on account of a late and slow response of core exit thermocouples during core boil-off. The author analyzed the LSTF test by reference to the matrix of an integral effect test for the validation of a thermal-hydraulic system code. Problems remained in predicting the primary coolant distribution and the core exit temperature with the RELAP5/MOD3.3 code. The uncertainty analysis results of the RELAP5 code confirmed that the sample size with respect to the order statistics influences the value of peak cladding temperature with a 95% probability at a 95% confidence level, and the Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient.
Keywords: LSTF, LOCA, uncertainty analysis, RELAP5.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 534
22 Stability Analysis of a Tricore
Authors: C. M. De Marco Muscat-Fenech, A.M. Grech La Rosa
The application of stability theory has led to detailed studies of different types of vessels; however, the shortage of information relating to multihull vessels demanded further investigation. This study shows that the position of the hulls has a very influential effect on both the transverse and longitudinal stability of the tricore. HSC stability code is applied for the optimisation of the hull configurations. Such optimization criteria would undoubtedly aid the performance of the vessel for both commercial or leisure purposes
Keywords: Stability, Multihull, TricoreProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2771
21 Exploring the Importance of Knowledge Management for CRM Success
Authors: Aurora Garrido-Moreno, Antonio Padilla-Meléndez, Ana Rosa Del Águila-Obra
Abstract:After reporting a literature review on Customer Relationship Management (CRM) and knowledge management, some important issued arise, in particular related to the lack of success of CRM strategies implementation. The paper contributes to this proposing an integrated model of CRM success taking into account complementary factors such as organizational factors, technology, knowledge management and customer orientation.
Keywords: knowledge management, CRM, CRM success, organizational factors.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 5287
20 Resistance Analysis for a Trimaran
Authors: C. M. De Marco Muscat-Fenech, A. M. Grech La Rosa
Although a lot of importance has been given to resistance analysis for various vessel types, explicit guidelines applied to multihull vessels have not been clearly defined. The purpose of this investigation is to highlight the importance of the vessel’s layout in terms of three axes, the transverse (separation), the longitudinal (stagger) and the vertical (draught) with respect to resistance analysis. When a vessel has the potential to experience less resistance at a particular range of speeds a vast selection of opportunities are made available for both the commercial and leisure market.
Keywords: Multihull, Reistance, Trimaran.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3874
19 The Differential Transform Method for Advection-Diffusion Problems
Authors: M. F. Patricio, P. M. Rosa
In this paper a class of numerical methods to solve linear and nonlinear PDEs and also systems of PDEs is developed. The Differential Transform method associated with the Method of Lines (MoL) is used. The theory for linear problems is extended to the nonlinear case, and a recurrence relation is established. This method can achieve an arbitrary high-order accuracy in time. A variable stepsize algorithm and some numerical results are also presented.
Keywords: Method of Lines, Differential Transform Method.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1630
18 Social Marketing and Nonprofit Organizations
Authors: Marconi Freitas-da-Costa, Watsan C. Silva, Thaís S. Paula, Débora O. Silva, Maria G. Vieira
Abstract:Today the social marketing was constituted as a tool of significant value in what he refers to the promotion of changes of behaviors, attitudes end practices. With the objective of analyzing the benefits that the social marketing can bring for the organizations that use it the research was of the exploratory and descriptive. In the present study the comparative method was used, through a qualitative approach, to analyze the activities developed by three institutions: the Recovery Center Rosa de Saron, the House of Recovery for addicts and Teen Challenge Institute Children's Cancer of the Wasteland (ICIA), kindred of pointing out the benefits of the social marketing in organizations that don-t seek the profit.
Keywords: Social marketing, organizations of the third section, social changesProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2120
17 The Effect of Outliers on the Economic and Social Survey on Income and Living Conditions
Authors: Encarnación Álvarez, Rosa M. García-Fernández, Francisco J. Blanco-Encomienda, Juan F. Muñoz
The European Union Survey on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) is a popular survey which provides information on income, poverty, social exclusion and living conditions of households and individuals in the European Union. The EU-SILC contains variables which may contain outliers. The presence of outliers can have an impact on the measures and indicators used by the EU-SILC. In this paper, we used data sets from various countries to analyze the presence of outliers. In addition, we obtain some indicators after removing these outliers, and a comparison between both situations can be observed. Finally, some conclusions are obtained.
Keywords: Headcount index, poverty line, risk of poverty, skewness coefficient.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2344
16 On Estimating the Headcount Index by Using the Logistic Regression Estimator
Authors: Encarnación Álvarez, Rosa M. García-Fernández, Juan F. Muñoz, Francisco J. Blanco-Encomienda
The problem of estimating a proportion has important applications in the field of economics, and in general, in many areas such as social sciences. A common application in economics is the estimation of the headcount index. In this paper, we define the general headcount index as a proportion. Furthermore, we introduce a new quantitative method for estimating the headcount index. In particular, we suggest to use the logistic regression estimator for the problem of estimating the headcount index. Assuming a real data set, results derived from Monte Carlo simulation studies indicate that the logistic regression estimator can be more accurate than the traditional estimator of the headcount index.
Keywords: Poverty line, poor, risk of poverty, sample, Monte Carlo simulations.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1862
15 Recycling Poultry Feathers for Pb Removal from Wastewater: Kinetic and Equilibrium Studies
Authors: G. de la Rosa, H. E. Reynel-Avila, A. Bonilla-Petriciolet, I. Cano-Rodríguez, C. Velasco-Santos, and A. L. Martínez-Hernández
Abstract:Chicken feathers were used as biosorbent for Pb removal from aqueous solution. In this paper, the kinetics and equilibrium studies at several pH, temperature, and metal concentration values are reported. For tested conditions, the Pb sorption capacity of this poultry waste ranged from 0.8 to 8.3 mg/g. Optimal conditions for Pb removal by chicken feathers have been identified. Pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order equations were used to analyze the experimental data. In addition, the sorption isotherms were fitted to classical Langmuir and Freundlich models. Finally, thermodynamic parameters for the sorption process have been determined. In summary, the results showed that chicken feathers are an alternative and promising sorbent for the treatment of effluents polluted by Pb ions.
Keywords: Sorption, chicken feathers, Pb, water treatment.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2434
14 Renewable Energies in Spain and Portugal: A Strategic Challenge for the Sustainability
Authors: María Teresa García-Álvarez, Isabel Soares, Rosa María Mariz-Pérez
Directive 2009/28/CE establishes, as obligatory objective, a share of renewable energies on energetic consumption of 20%, in European Union, in 2020 However, such European normative gives freedom to member states in the selection of the renewable promotion mechanism that allows them to obtain that objective. In this paper, we analyze the main characteristics of the promotion mechanisms of renewable energy used in the countries that shape the Electricity Iberian Market (Spain and Portugal) and the results in employment. The importance of these countries is given by the great increasing of the renewable energies which suppose a share higher than 30% of the overall generation in 2010. Therefore, this research paper can serve as the basis for the learning of other countries with regard to the main advantages that entail the use of a feed-in tariff system.
Keywords: Employment, Energy policy, Professional profiles, Renewable energies, Professional profiles.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1817
13 A New Method to Estimate the Low Income Proportion: Monte Carlo Simulations
Authors: Encarnación Álvarez, Rosa M. García-Fernández, Juan F. Muñoz
Estimation of a proportion has many applications in economics and social studies. A common application is the estimation of the low income proportion, which gives the proportion of people classified as poor into a population. In this paper, we present this poverty indicator and propose to use the logistic regression estimator for the problem of estimating the low income proportion. Various sampling designs are presented. Assuming a real data set obtained from the European Survey on Income and Living Conditions, Monte Carlo simulation studies are carried out to analyze the empirical performance of the logistic regression estimator under the various sampling designs considered in this paper. Results derived from Monte Carlo simulation studies indicate that the logistic regression estimator can be more accurate than the customary estimator under the various sampling designs considered in this paper. The stratified sampling design can also provide more accurate results.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1840
12 Influence of Culturing Conditions on Biomass Yield, Total Lipid, and Fatty Acid Composition of Some Filamentous Fungi
Authors: Alla V. Goncharova, Tatyana A. Karpenyuk, Yana S. Tsurkan, Rosa U. Beisembaeva, Togzhan D. Mukasheva, Ludmila V. Ignatova, Ramza Z. Berzhanova
In this work the effect of culturing conditions of filamentous fungi Penicillium raistrickii, Penicillium anatolicum, Fusarium sp. on biomass yield, the content of total lipids and fatty acids was studied. It has been established that in time the process of lipids accumulation correlated with biomass growth of cultures, reaching maximum values in stationary growth phase.
Biomass yield and accumulation of general lipids was increased by adding zinc to the culture medium. The more intensive accumulation of biomass and general lipids was observed at temperature 18°C. Lowering the temperature of culturing has changed the ratio of saturated: Unsaturated fatty acids in the direction of increasing the latter.
Keywords: Biomass, culturing conditions, fungi, fatty acids (FA), growth dynamics, lipids.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1671
11 Enriching Egg Yolk with Carotenoids and Phenols
Authors: Amar Benakmoum, Rosa Larid, Sofiane Zidani
Dried tomato peel (DTP) was tested in vivo (n=10) in 42 week-old laying hens at rates of 0, 40, 70, 100 and 130g/kg DM feed. Laying hens were fed in group 120 g DM/day/animal for 26 days. After 21 days, feed intake was not affected after DTP incorporation (97% of the offered feed in the five groups). Laying rate was not significantly different after DTP incorporation at 4 and 10% from the control group. Egg yolk resulting from DTP-enriched diets, contained lower amounts of cholesterol (14 to 17mg/g) and triglyceride (188mg/g) compared to the control group (22 and 241 mg/g, respectively) (P<0.0001). After DTP-enriched diets, content in total phenol was 2.0 to 3.6-fold higher, β-carotene 1.7 to 2.7-fold higher, and lycopene increased between 26.5 and 42.8μg/g compared to the control (P<0.0001). The optimal incorporation rate was 7% DTP.
Keywords: Carotenoid, dried tomato peel, lycopene, laying hens, phenols.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3456
10 The Use of Mobile Phones by Refugees to Create Social Connectedness: A Literature Review
Authors: Sarah Vuningoma, Maria Rosa Lorini, Wallace Chigona
Mobile phones are one of the main tools for promoting the wellbeing of people and supporting the integration of communities on the margins such as refugees. Information and Communication Technology has the potential to contribute towards reducing isolation, loneliness, and to assist in improving interpersonal relations and fostering acculturation processes. Therefore, the use of mobile phones by refugees might contribute to their social connectedness. This paper aims to demonstrate how existing literature has shown how the use of mobile phones by refugees should engender social connectedness amongst the refugees. Data for the study are drawn from existing literature; we searched a number of electronic databases for papers published between 2010 and 2019. The main findings of the study relate to the use of mobile phones by refugees to (i) create a sense of belonging, (ii) maintain relationships, and (iii) advance the acculturation process. The analysis highlighted a gap in the research over refugees and social connectedness. In particular, further studies should consider evaluating the differences between those who have a refugee permit, those who are waiting for the refugee permit, and those whose request was denied.
Keywords: Belonging, mobile phones, refugees, social connectedness.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 603
9 Knowledge and Attitude: Challenges for Continuing Education in Health
Authors: André M. Senna, Mary L. G. S. Senna, Rosa M. Machado-de-Sena
One of the great challenges presented in educational practice is how to ensure the students not only acquire knowledge of training courses throughout their academic life, but also how to apply it in their current professional activities. Consequently, aiming to incite changes in the education system of healthcare professionals noticed the inadequacy of the training providers to solve the social problems related to health, the education related to these procedures should initiate in the earliest years of process. Following that idea, there is another question that needs an answer: If the change in the education should start sooner, in the period of basic training of healthcare professionals, what guidelines should a permanent education program incorporate to promote changes in an already established system? For this reason, the objective of this paper is to present different views of the teaching-learning process, with the purpose of better understanding the behavior adopted by healthcare professionals, through bibliographic study. The conclusion was that more than imparting knowledge to the individual, a larger approach is necessary on permanent education programs concerning the performance of professional health services in order to foment significant changes in education.
Keywords: Health education, continuing education, training, behavior.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 815
8 Negative RT-PCR in a Newborn Infected with Zika Virus: A Case Report
Authors: Vallejo Michael, Acuña Edgar, Roa Juan David, Peñuela Rosa, Parra Alejandra, Casallas Daniela, Rodriguez Sheyla
Congenital Zika Virus Syndrome is an entity composed by a variety of birth defects presented in newborns that have been exposed to the Zika Virus during pregnancy. The syndrome characteristic features are severe microcephaly, cerebral tissue abnormalities, ophthalmological abnormalities such as uveitis and chorioretinitis, arthrogryposis, clubfoot deformity and muscular tone abnormalities. The confirmatory test is the Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) associated to the physical findings. Here we present the case of a newborn with microcephaly whose mother presented a confirmed Zika Virus infection during the third trimester of pregnancy, despite of the evident findings and the history of Zika infection the RT-PCR in amniotic and cerebrospinal fluid of the newborn was negative. RT-PCR has demonstrated a low sensibility in samples with low viral loads, reason why, we propose a clinical diagnosis in patients with clinical history of Zika Virus infection during pregnancy accompanied by evident clinical manifestations of the child.
Keywords: Zika Virus, polymerase chain reaction, microcephaly, amniotic fluid.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 530
7 Definition, Structure and Core Functions of the State Image
Authors: Rosa Nurtazina, Yerkebulan Zhumashov, Maral Tomanova
Humanity is entering an era when "virtual reality" as the image of the world created by the media with the help of the Internet does not match the reality in many respects, when new communication technologies create a fundamentally different and previously unknown "global space". According to these technologies, the state begins to change the basic technology of political communication of the state and society, the state and the state. Nowadays image of the state becomes the most important tool and technology.
Image is a purposefully created image granting political object (person, organization, country, etc.) certain social and political values and promoting more emotional perception.
Political image of the state plays an important role in international relations. The success of the country's foreign policy, development of trade and economic relations with other countries depends on whether it is positive or negative. Foreign policy image has an impact on political processes taking place in the state: the negative image of the country's can be used by opposition forces as one of the arguments to criticize the government and its policies.
Keywords: Image of the country, country's image classification, function of the country image, country's image components.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3532
6 Exergetic and Life Cycle Assessment Analyses of Integrated Biowaste Gasification-Combustion System: A Study Case
Authors: Anabel Fernandez, Leandro Rodriguez-Ortiz, Rosa Rodríguez
Due to the negative impact of fossil fuels, renewable energies are promising sources to limit global temperature rise and damage to the environment. Also, the development of technology is focused on obtaining energetic products from renewable sources. In this study, a thermodynamic model including exergy balance and a subsequent Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) were carried out for four subsystems of the integrated gasification-combustion of pinewood. Results of exergy analysis and LCA showed the process feasibility in terms of exergy efficiency and global energy efficiency of the life cycle (GEELC). Moreover, the energy return on investment (EROI) index was calculated. The global exergy efficiency resulted in 67%. For pretreatment, reaction, cleaning, and electric generation subsystems, the results were 85%, 59%, 87%, and 29%, respectively. Results of LCA indicated that the emissions from the electric generation caused the most damage to the atmosphere, water, and soil. GEELC resulted in 31.09% for the global process. This result suggested the environmental feasibility of an integrated gasification-combustion system. EROI resulted in 3.15, which determines the sustainability of the process.
Keywords: Exergy analysis, Life Cycle Assessment, LCA, renewability, sustainability.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 167
5 Plant Supporting Units (Ekobox) Application Project for Increasing Planting Success in Arid and Semi-Arid Areas
Authors: Gürcan D. Baysal, Ali Tanış
Abstract:In this study, samples of plant types including rose hip (Rosa canina L.), jujube (Ziziphus jujube), sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides), elderberry (Sambucus nigra), apricot (Prunus armeniaca), scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), and cedar of Lebanon (Cedrus libani) were grown using plant supporting units called Ekobox and drip irrigation systems in the Karapınar, Konya region of Turkey to reveal the efficiency of Ekobox and drip irrigation compared against a control with no irrigation. The plant diameter, height, and survival rates were determined, compared with each other, and statistically analyzed. According to the statistical analysis of the results, Ekobox applications resulted in the highest values for survival rate, diameter, and height measurements whereas the lowest values were determined in the control groups. These results indicate that the cultivation of plants with Ekobox may help protect against the loss of fertile soils as an effective mechanism for combating erosion and desertification. These advantages may also lead to a lasting economic effect on the cultivation of plants by locals of the Karapınar, Konya province who suffer from an ever-decreasing underground water level as a result of agricultural consumption.
Keywords: Drip irrigation, Ekobox, plant diameter, plant height, plant survival rate.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 461
4 A Cross-Disciplinary Educational Model in Biomanufacturing to Sustain a Competitive Workforce Ecosystem
Authors: Rosa Buxeda, Lorenzo Saliceti-Piazza, Rodolfo J. Romañach, Luis Ríos, Sandra L. Maldonado-Ramírez
Biopharmaceuticals manufacturing is one of the major economic activities worldwide. Ninety-three percent of the workforce in a biomanufacturing environment concentrates in production-related areas. As a result, strategic collaborations between industry and academia are crucial to ensure the availability of knowledgeable workforce needed in an economic region to become competitive in biomanufacturing. In the past decade, our institution has been a key strategic partner with multinational biotechnology companies in supplying science and engineering graduates in the field of industrial biotechnology. Initiatives addressing all levels of the educational pipeline, from K-12 to college to continued education for company employees have been established along a ten-year span. The Amgen BioTalents Program was designed to provide undergraduate science and engineering students with training in biomanufacturing. The areas targeted by this educational program enhance their academic development, since these topics are not part of their traditional science and engineering curricula. The educational curriculum involved the process of producing a biomolecule from the genetic engineering of cells to the production of an especially targeted polypeptide, protein expression and purification, to quality control, and validation. This paper will report and describe the implementation details and outcomes of the first sessions of the program.
Keywords: Biomanufacturing curriculum, interdisciplinary learning, workforce development, industry-academia partnering.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1856
3 Arsenic Mobility from Mining Tailings of Monte San Nicolas to Presa de Mata in Guanajuato, Mexico
Authors: I. Cano-Aguilera, B. E. Rubio-Campos, G. De la Rosa, A. F. Aguilera-Alvarado
Mining tailings represent a generating source of rich heavy metal material with a potential danger the public health and the environment, since these metals, under certain conditions, can leach and contaminate aqueous systems that serve like supplying potable water sources. The strategy for this work is based on the observation, experimentation and the simulation that can be obtained by binding real answers of the hydrodynamic behavior of metals leached from mining tailings, and the applied mathematics that provides the logical structure to decipher the individual effects of the general physicochemical phenomenon. The case of study presented herein focuses on mining tailings deposits located in Monte San Nicolas, Guanajuato, Mexico, an abandoned mine. This was considered the contamination source that under certain physicochemical conditions can favor the metal leaching, and its transport towards aqueous systems. In addition, the cartography, meteorology, geology and the hydrodynamics and hydrological characteristics of the place, will be helpful in determining the way and the time in which these systems can interact. Preliminary results demonstrated that arsenic presents a great mobility, since this one was identified in several superficial aqueous systems of the micro watershed, as well as in sediments in concentrations that exceed the established maximum limits in the official norms. Also variations in pH and potential oxide-reduction were registered, conditions that favor the presence of different species from this element its solubility and therefore its mobility.
Keywords: Arsenic, mining tailings, transport.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1583
2 Physicochemical and Thermal Characterization of Starch from Three Different Plantain Cultivars in Puerto Rico
Authors: Carmen E. Pérez-Donado, Fernando Pérez-Muñoz, Rosa N. Chávez-Jáuregui
Plantain contains starch as the main component and represents a relevant source of this carbohydrate. Starches from different cultivars of plantain and bananas have been studied for industrialization purposes due to their morphological and thermal characteristics and their influence in food products. This study aimed to characterize the physical, chemical, and thermal properties of starch from three different plantain cultivated in Puerto Rico: Maricongo, Maiden and FHIA 20. Amylose and amylopectin content, color, granular size, morphology, and thermal properties were determined. According to the amylose content in starches, FHIA 20 presented lowest content of the three cultivars studied. In terms of color, Maiden and FHIA 20 starches exhibited significantly higher whiteness indexes compared to Maricongo starch. Starches of the three cultivars had an elongated-ovoid morphology, with a smooth surface and a non-porous appearance. Regardless of similarities in their morphology, FHIA 20 exhibited a lower aspect ratio since its granules tended to be more elongated. Comparison of the thermal properties of starches showed that initial starch gelatinization temperature was similar among cultivars. However, FHIA 20 starch presented a noticeably higher final gelatinization temperature (87.95°C) and transition enthalpy than Maricongo (79.69°C) and Maiden (77.40°C). Despite similarities, starches from plantain cultivars showed differences in their composition and thermal behavior. This represents an opportunity to diversify plantain starch use in food-related applications.
Keywords: aspect ratio, morphology, Musa spp., starch, thermal properties, amylose contentProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 414
1 An Integrated Experimental and Numerical Approach to Develop an Electronic Instrument to Study Apple Bruise Damage
Authors: Paula Pascoal-Faria, Rúben Pereira, Elodie Pinto, Miguel Belbut, Ana Rosa, Inês Sousa, Nuno Alves
Apple bruise damage from harvesting, handling, transporting and sorting is considered to be the major source of reduced fruit quality, resulting in loss of profits for the entire fruit industry. The three factors which can physically cause fruit bruising are vibration, compression load and impact, the latter being the most common source of bruise damage. Therefore, prediction of the level of damage, stress distribution and deformation of the fruits under external force has become a very important challenge. In this study, experimental and numerical methods were used to better understand the impact caused when an apple is dropped from different heights onto a plastic surface and a conveyor belt. Results showed that the extent of fruit damage is significantly higher for plastic surface, being dependent on the height. In order to support the development of a biomimetic electronic device for the determination of fruit damage, the mechanical properties of the apple fruit were determined using mechanical tests. Preliminary results showed different values for the Young’s modulus according to the zone of the apple tested. Along with the mechanical characterization of the apple fruit, the development of the first two prototypes is discussed and the integration of the results obtained to construct the final element model of the apple is presented. This work will help to reduce significantly the bruise damage of fruits or vegetables during the entire processing which will allow the introduction of exportation destines and consequently an increase in the economic profits in this sector.
Keywords: Apple, fruit damage, impact during crop and post-crop, mechanical characterization of the apple, numerical evaluation of fruit bruise damage, electronic device.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1187