Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 60

Search results for: retail

60 Classification System for a Collaborative Urban Retail Logistics

Authors: Volker Lange, Stephanie Moede, Christiane Auffermann

Abstract:

From an economic standpoint the current and future road traffic situation in urban areas is a cost factor. Traffic jams and congestion prolong journey times and tie up resources in trucks and personnel. Many discussions about imposing charges or tolls for cities in Europe in order to reduce traffic congestion are currently in progress. Both of these effects lead – directly or indirectly - to additional costs for the urban distribution systems in retail companies. One approach towards improving the efficiency of retail distribution systems, and thus towards avoiding negative environmental factors in urban areas, is horizontal collaboration for deliveries to retail outlets – Urban Retail Logistics. This paper presents a classification system to help reveal where cooperation between retail companies is possible and makes sense for deliveries to retail outlets in urban areas.

Keywords: City Logistics, Horizontal Collaboration, Urban Freight Transport, Urban Retail Logistics.

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59 The Use of Electronic Shelf Labels in the Retail Food Sector

Authors: Brent McKenzie, Victoria Taylor

Abstract:

The use of QR (Quick Response Codes) codes for customer scanning with mobile phones is a rapidly growing trend. The QR code can provide the consumer with product information, user guides, product use, competitive pricing, etc. One sector for QR use has been in retail, through the use of Electronic Shelf Labeling (henceforth, ESL). In Europe, the use of ESL for pricing has been in practice for a number of years but continues to lag in acceptance in North America. Stated concerns include costs as a key constraint, but there is also evidence that consumer acceptance represents a limitation as well. The purpose of this study is to present the findings of a consumer based study to gage the impact on their use in the retail food sector.

Keywords: Electronic shelf labels (ESL), consumer insights, retail food sector.

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58 Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, and Turnover Intention: A Case Study on Employees of a Retail Company in Malaysia

Authors: Rohani Salleh, Mishaliny Sivadahasan Nair, Haryanni Harun

Abstract:

High employee turnover rate in Malaysia-s retail industry has become a major issue that needs to be addressed. This study determines the levels of job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intention of employees in a retail company in Malaysia. The relationships between job satisfaction and organizational commitment on turnover intention are also investigated. A questionnaire was developed using Job Descriptive Index, Organizational Commitment Questionnaire, and Lee and Mowday-s turnover intention items and data were collected from 62 respondents. The findings suggested that the respondents were moderately satisfied with job satisfaction facets such as promotion, work itself, co-workers, and supervisors but were unsatisfied with salary. They also had moderate commitment level with considerably high intention to leave the organization. All satisfaction facets (except for co-workers) and organizational commitment were significantly and negatively related to turnover intention. Based on the findings, retention strategies of retail employees were proposed.

Keywords: Job satisfaction, organizational commitment, retail employees, turnover intention.

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57 Empirical Study of Real Retail Trade Turnover

Authors: J. Arneric, E. Jurun, L. Kordic

Abstract:

This paper deals with econometric analysis of real retail trade turnover. It is a part of an extensive scientific research about modern trends in Croatian national economy. At the end of the period of transition economy, Croatia confronts with challenges and problems of high consumption society. In such environment as crucial economic variables: real retail trade turnover, average monthly real wages and household loans are chosen for consequence analysis. For the purpose of complete procedure of multiple econometric analysis data base adjustment has been provided. Namely, it has been necessary to deflate original national statistics data of retail trade turnover using consumer price indices, as well as provide process of seasonally adjustment of its contemporary behavior. In model establishment it has been necessary to involve the overcoming procedure for the autocorrelation and colinearity problems. Moreover, for case of time-series shift a specific appropriate econometric instrument has been applied. It would be emphasize that the whole methodology procedure is based on the real Croatian national economy time-series.

Keywords: Consumption society, multiple econometric model, real retail trade turnover, second order autocorrelation.

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56 Knowledge Management Model for Modern Retail Business: A Conceptual Framework

Authors: M. W. Yip, H. H. Ng, S. Din, N. Abu Bakar

Abstract:

This paper reviewed the relationships between the Knowledge Management (KM) activities and its perceived benefits in the knowledge based organisations. KM activities include: knowledge identification, knowledge acquisition, knowledge application, knowledge sharing, knowledge creation and knowledge preservation. And the perceived benefits of KM are fast customer responsiveness, operation excellence and high innovative intensity.  Based on the above review, a conceptual framework for KM implementation in retail business organisations has been proposed. Finally the paper forwarded some limitations of the framework and based on which, directions for future research had been suggested.

Keywords: Knowledge Management, Knowledge Management Activities, Retail Business, Knowledge Economy.

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55 Reference Model for the Implementation of an E-Commerce Solution in Peruvian SMEs in the Retail Sector

Authors: Julio Kauss, Miguel Cadillo, David Mauricio

Abstract:

E-commerce is a business model that allows companies to optimize the processes of buying, selling, transferring goods and exchanging services through computer networks or the Internet. In Peru, the electronic commerce is used infrequently. This situation is due, in part to the fact that there is no model that allows companies to implement an e-commerce solution, which means that most SMEs do not have adequate knowledge to adapt to electronic commerce. In this work, a reference model is proposed for the implementation of an e-commerce solution in Peruvian SMEs in the retail sector. It consists of five phases: Business Analysis, Business Modeling, Implementation, Post Implementation and Results. The present model was validated in a SME of the Peruvian retail sector through the implementation of an electronic commerce platform, through which the company increased its sales through the delivery channel by 10% in the first month of deployment. This result showed that the model is easy to implement, is economical and agile. In addition, it allowed the company to increase its business offer, adapt to e-commerce and improve customer loyalty.

Keywords: E-commerce, retail, SMEs, reference model.

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54 The Prevalence of Organized Retail Crime in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Saleh Dabil

Abstract:

This study investigates the level of existence of organized retail crime in supermarkets of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The store managers, security managers and general employees were asked about the types of retail crimes occur in the stores. Three independent variables were related to the report of organized retail theft. The independent variables are: 1) the supermarket profile (volume, location, standard and type of the store), 2) the social physical environment of the store (maintenance, cleanness and overall organizational cooperation), 3) the security techniques and loss prevention electronics techniques used. The theoretical framework of this study based on the social disorganization theory. This study concluded that the organized retail theft, in specific, organized theft is moderately apparent in Riyadh stores. The general result showed that the environment of the stores has an effect on the prevalence of organized retail theft with relation to the gender of thieves, age groups, working shift, type of stolen items as well as the number of thieves in one case. Among other reasons, some factors of the organized theft are: economic pressure of customers based on the location of the store. The dealing of theft also was investigated to have a clear picture of stores dealing with organized retail theft. The result showed that mostly, thieves sent without any action and sometimes given written warning. Very few cases dealt with by police. There are other factors in the study can be looked up in the text. This study suggests solving the problem of organized theft; first, is "the well distributing of the duties and responsibilities between the employees especially for security purposes". Second "Installation of strong security system" and "Making well-designed store layout". Third is "giving training for general employees" and "to give periodically security skills training of employees". There are other suggestions in the study can be looked up in the text.

Keywords: Organized Crime, Retail, Theft, Loss prevention, Store environment.

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53 The Effect of TV and Online Shopping Value on Online Patronage Intention in a Multi-channel Retail Context

Authors: Hsin-Hui Lin

Abstract:

With the proliferation of multi-channel retailing, developing a better understanding of the factors that affect customers- purchase behaviors within a multi-channel retail context has become an important topic for practitioners and academics. While many studies have investigated the various customer behaviors associated with brick-and-mortar retailing, online retailing, and brick-and-click retailing, little research has explored how customer shopping value perceptions influence online purchase behaviors within the TV-and-online retail environment. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of TV and online shopping values on online patronage intention. Data collected from 116 respondents in Taiwan are tested against the research model using the partial least squares (PLS) approach. The results indicate that utilitarian and hedonic TV shopping values have indirect, positive influences on online patronage intention through their online counterparts in the TV-and-online retail context. The findings of this study provide several important theoretical and practical implications for multi-channel retailing.

Keywords: Multi-channel retailing, utilitarian shopping value, hedonic shopping value, online purchase

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52 Generic Data Warehousing for Consumer Electronics Retail Industry

Authors: S. Habte, K. Ouazzane, P. Patel, S. Patel

Abstract:

The dynamic and highly competitive nature of the consumer electronics retail industry means that businesses in this industry are experiencing different decision making challenges in relation to pricing, inventory control, consumer satisfaction and product offerings. To overcome the challenges facing retailers and create opportunities, we propose a generic data warehousing solution which can be applied to a wide range of consumer electronics retailers with a minimum configuration. The solution includes a dimensional data model, a template SQL script, a high level architectural descriptions, ETL tool developed using C#, a set of APIs, and data access tools. It has been successfully applied by ASK Outlets Ltd UK resulting in improved productivity and enhanced sales growth.

Keywords: Consumer electronics retail, dimensional data model, data analysis, generic data warehousing, reporting.

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51 Improving Sales through Inventory Reduction: A Retail Chain Case Study

Authors: M. G. Mattos, J. E. Pécora Jr, T. A. Briso

Abstract:

Today's challenging business environment, with unpredictable demand and volatility, requires a supply chain strategy that handles uncertainty and risks in the right way. Even though inventory models have been previously explored, this paper seeks to apply these concepts on a practical situation. This study involves the inventory replenishment problem, applying techniques that are mainly based on mathematical assumptions and modeling. The primary goal is to improve the retailer’s supply chain processes taking store differences when setting the various target stock levels. Through inventory review policy, picking piece implementation and minimum exposure definition, we were able not only to promote the inventory reduction as well as improve sales results. The inventory management theory from literature review was then tested on a single case study regarding a particular department in one of the largest Latam retail chains.

Keywords: Inventory, distribution, retail, risk, safety stock, sales, uncertainty.

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50 Online Purchase of Luxury Products in the U.A.E.

Authors: Prakash Vel, Jocelyn Rodrigues

Abstract:

Luxury is an identity, a philosophy and a culture which requires understanding before the adoption of e-business practices because of its intricacies and output are essentially different from other types of goods. Factors such as culture, personal characteristics, website quality, and vendor characteristics influence the online purchasing behavior of consumers thus making it a complex area of study. This paper explores the scope of e-retail for luxury consumption in the U.A.E. by identifying what motivates and de-motivates online purchase behavior of U.A.E. consumers and necessary hypotheses have been drawn to reflect behavior between online luxury preference consumers and non-online luxury preference consumers.

Keywords: e-Retail, Luxury brands, U.A.E. consumer.

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49 An Interactive 3D Experience for the Creation of Personalized Styling

Authors: Dawei Lin

Abstract:

This research proposes an Interactive 3D Experience to enhance customer value in the fantasy era. As products reach maturity, they become more similar in the range of functions that they provide. This leads to competition via reduced retail price and ultimately reduced profitability. A competitive design method is therefore needed that can produce higher value products. An Enhanced Value Experience has been identified that can assist designers to provide quality products and to give them a unique positioning. On the basis of this value opportunity, the method of Interactive 3D Experience has been formulated and applied to the domain of retail furniture. Through this, customers can create their own personalized styling via the interactive 3D platform.

Keywords: Interactive 3D experience, enhanced valueexperience, value opportunity, personalized styling.

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48 The Relationship between Inventory Management and Profitability: A Comparative Research on Turkish Firms Operated in Weaving Industry, Eatables Industry, Wholesale and Retail Industry

Authors: G. Sekeroglu, M. Altan

Abstract:

Working capital is identified as firm’s all current assets. Inventories which are one of the working capital elements are very important among current assets for firms. Because, profitability is an indicator for firms’ financial success is provided with minimum cost and optimum inventory quantity. So in this study, it is investigated as comparatively that the effect of inventory management on the profitability of Turkish firms which operated in weaving industry, eatables industry, wholesale and retail industry in between 2003 – 2012 years. Research data consist of profitability ratios and inventory turnovers ratio calculated by using balance sheets and income statements of firms which operated in Borsa Istanbul (BIST). In this research, the relationship between inventories and profitability is investigated by using SPSS-20 software with regression and correlation analysis. The results achieved from three industry departments which exist in study interpreted as comparatively. Accordingly, it is determined that there is a positive relationship between inventory management and profitability in eatables industry. However, it was founded that there is no relationship between inventory management and profitability in weaving industry and wholesale and retail industry.

Keywords: Profitability, regression analysis, inventory management, working capital.

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47 Machine Learning Based Approach for Measuring Promotion Effectiveness in Multiple Parallel Promotions’ Scenarios

Authors: Revoti Prasad Bora, Nikita Katyal

Abstract:

Promotion is a key element in the retail business. Thus, analysis of promotions to quantify their effectiveness in terms of Revenue and/or Margin is an essential activity in the retail industry. However, measuring the sales/revenue uplift is based on estimations, as the actual sales/revenue without the promotion is not present. Further, the presence of Halo and Cannibalization in a multiple parallel promotions’ scenario complicates the problem. Calculating Baseline by considering inter-brand/competitor items or using Halo and Cannibalization's impact on Revenue calculations by considering Baseline as an interpretation of items’ unit sales in neighboring nonpromotional weeks individually may not capture the overall Revenue uplift in the case of multiple parallel promotions. Hence, this paper proposes a Machine Learning based method for calculating the Revenue uplift by considering the Halo and Cannibalization impact on the Baseline and the Revenue. In the first section of the proposed methodology, Baseline of an item is calculated by incorporating the impact of the promotions on its related items. In the later section, the Revenue of an item is calculated by considering both Halo and Cannibalization impacts. Hence, this methodology enables correct calculation of the overall Revenue uplift due a given promotion.

Keywords: Halo, cannibalization, promotion, baseline, temporary price reduction, retail, elasticity, cross price elasticity, machine learning, random forest, linear regression.

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46 Mobile App versus Website: A Comparative Eye-Tracking Case Study of Topshop

Authors: Zofija Tupikovskaja-Omovie, David Tyler, Sam Dhanapala, Steve Hayes

Abstract:

The UK is leading in online retail and mobile adoption. However, there is a dearth of information relating to mobile apparel retail, and developing an understanding about consumer browsing and purchase behaviour in m-retail channel would provide apparel marketers, mobile website and app developers with the necessary understanding of consumers’ needs. Despite the rapid growth of mobile retail businesses, no published study has examined shopping behaviour on fashion mobile apps and websites. A mixed method approach helped to understand why fashion consumers prefer websites on smartphones, when diverse mobile apps are also available. The following research methods were employed: survey, eye-tracking experiments, observation, and interview with retrospective think aloud. The mobile gaze tracking device by SensoMotoric Instruments was used to understand frustrations in navigation and other issues facing consumers in mobile channel. This method helped to validate and compliment other traditional user-testing approaches in order to optimize user experience and enhance the development of mobile retail channel. The study involved eight participants - females aged 18 to 35 years old, who are existing mobile shoppers. The participants used the Topshop mobile app and website on a smart phone to complete a task according to a specified scenario leading to a purchase. The comparative study was based on: duration and time spent at different stages of the shopping journey, number of steps involved and product pages visited, search approaches used, layout and visual clues, as well as consumer perceptions and expectations. The results from the data analysis show significant differences in consumer behaviour when using a mobile app or website on a smart phone. Moreover, two types of problems were identified, namely technical issues and human errors. Having a mobile app does not guarantee success in satisfying mobile fashion consumers. The differences in the layout and visual clues seem to influence the overall shopping experience on a smart phone. The layout of search results on the website was different from the mobile app. Therefore, participants, in most cases, behaved differently on different platforms. The number of product pages visited on the mobile app was triple the number visited on the website due to a limited visibility of products in the search results. Although, the data on traffic trends held by retailers to date, including retail sector breakdowns for visits and views, data on device splits and duration, might seem a valuable source of information, it cannot explain why consumers visit many product pages, stay longer on the website or mobile app, or abandon the basket. A comprehensive list of pros and cons was developed by highlighting issues for website and mobile app, and recommendations provided. The findings suggest that fashion retailers need to be aware of actual consumers’ behaviour on the mobile channel and their expectations in order to offer a seamless shopping experience. Added to which is the challenge of retaining existing and acquiring new customers. There seem to be differences in the way fashion consumers search and shop on mobile, which need to be explored in further studies.

Keywords: Consumer behaviour, eye-tracking technology, fashion retail, mobile app, m-retail, smart phones, Topshop, user experience, website.

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45 Spatially Random Sampling for Retail Food Risk Factors Study

Authors: Guilan Huang

Abstract:

In 2013 and 2014, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) collected data from selected fast food restaurants and full service restaurants for tracking changes in the occurrence of foodborne illness risk factors. This paper discussed how we customized spatial random sampling method by considering financial position and availability of FDA resources, and how we enriched restaurants data with location. Location information of restaurants provides opportunity for quantitatively determining random sampling within non-government units (e.g.: 240 kilometers around each data-collector). Spatial analysis also could optimize data-collectors’ work plans and resource allocation. Spatial analytic and processing platform helped us handling the spatial random sampling challenges. Our method fits in FDA’s ability to pinpoint features of foodservice establishments, and reduced both time and expense on data collection.

Keywords: Geospatial technology, restaurant, retail food risk factors study, spatial random sampling.

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44 Chances and Challenges of Intelligent Technologies in the Production and Retail Sector

Authors: Carsten Röcker

Abstract:

This paper provides an introduction into the evolution of information and communication technology and illustrates its usage in the work domain. The paper is sub-divided into two parts. The first part gives an overview over the different phases of information processing in the work domain. It starts by charting the past and present usage of computers in work environments and shows current technological trends, which are likely to influence future business applications. The second part starts by briefly describing, how the usage of computers changed business processes in the past, and presents first Ambient Intelligence applications based on identification and localization information, which are already used in the production and retail sector. Based on current systems and prototype applications, the paper gives an outlook of how Ambient Intelligence technologies could change business processes in the future.

Keywords: Ambient Intelligence, Ubiquitous Computing, Business Applications, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID).

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43 Ambient Intelligence in the Production and Retail Sector: Emerging Opportunities and Potential Pitfalls

Authors: Carsten Röcker

Abstract:

This paper provides an introduction into the evolution of information and communication technology and illustrates its usage in the work domain. The paper is sub-divided into two parts. The first part gives an overview over the different phases of information processing in the work domain. It starts by charting the past and present usage of computers in work environments and shows current technological trends, which are likely to influence future business applications. The second part starts by briefly describing, how the usage of computers changed business processes in the past, and presents first Ambient Intelligence applications based on identification and localization information, which are already used in the production and retail sector. Based on current systems and prototype applications, the paper gives an outlook of how Ambient Intelligence technologies could change business processes in the future.

Keywords: Ambient Intelligence, Ubiquitous Computing, Business Applications, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)

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42 Retail Inventory Management for Perishable Products with Two Bins Strategy

Authors: Madhukar Nagare, Pankaj Dutta, Amey Kambli

Abstract:

Perishable goods constitute a large portion of retailer inventory and lose value with time due to deterioration and/or obsolescence. Retailers dealing with such goods required considering the factors of short shelf life and the dependency of sales on inventory displayed in determining optimal procurement policy. Many retailers follow the practice of using two bins - primary bin sales fresh items at a list price and secondary bin sales unsold items at a discount price transferred from primary bin on attaining certain age. In this paper, mathematical models are developed for primary bin and for secondary bin that maximizes profit with decision variables of order quantities, optimal review period and optimal selling price at secondary bin. The demand rates in two bins are assumed to be deterministic and dependent on displayed inventory level, price and age but independent of each other. The validity of the model is shown by solving an example and the sensitivity analysis of the model is also reported.

Keywords: Retail Inventory, Perishable Products, Two Bin, Profitable Sales.

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41 Optimal Prices under Revenue Sharing Contract in a Supply Chain with Direct Channel

Authors: Aussadavut Dumrongsiri

Abstract:

Westudy a dual-channel supply chain under decentralized setting in which manufacturer sells to retailer and to customers directly usingan online channel. A customer chooses the purchase-channel based on price and service quality. Also, to buy product from the retail store, the customer incurs a transportation cost influenced by the fluctuating gasoline cost. Both companies are under the revenue sharing contract. In this contract the retailer share a portion of the revenue to the manufacturer while the manufacturer will charge the lower wholesales price. The numerical result shows that the effects of gasoline costs, the revenue sharing ratio and the wholesale price play an important role in determining optimal prices. The result shows that when the gasoline price fluctuatesthe optimal on-line priceis relatively stable while the optimal retail price moves in the opposite direction of the gasoline prices.

Keywords: direct-channel, e-business, pricing model, dualchannel supply chain, gasoline cost, revenue sharing

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40 Modeling the Country Selection Decision in Retail Internationalization

Authors: A. Hortacsu, A. Tektas

Abstract:

This paper aims to develop a model that assists the international retailer in selecting the country that maximizes the degree of fit between the retailer-s goals and the country characteristics in his initial internationalization move. A two-stage multi criteria decision model is designed integrating the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Goal Programming. Ethical, cultural, geographic and economic proximity are identified as the relevant constructs of the internationalization decision. The constructs are further structured into sub-factors within analytic hierarchy. The model helps the retailer to integrate, rank and weigh a number of hard and soft factors and prioritize the countries accordingly. The model has been implemented on a Turkish luxury goods retailer who was planning to internationalize. Actual entry of the specific retailer in the selected country is a support for the model. Implementation on a single retailer limits the generalizability of the results; however, the emphasis of the paper is on construct identification and model development. The paper enriches the existing literature by proposing a hybrid multi objective decision model which introduces new soft dimensions i.e. perceived distance, ethical proximity, humane orientation to the decision process and facilitates effective decision making.

Keywords: Analytic hierarchy process, culture, ethics, goal programming, retail foreign market selection.

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39 Mediating Role of Social Responsibility on the Relationship between Consumer Awareness of Green Marketing and Purchase Intentions

Authors: Norazah Mohd Suki, Norbayah Mohd Suki

Abstract:

This research aims to examine the influence of mediating effect of corporate social responsibility on the relationship between consumer awareness of green marketing and purchase intentions in the retail setting. Data from 200 valid questionnaires was analyzed using the partial least squares (PLS) approach for the analysis of structural equation models with SmartPLS computer program version 2.0 as research data does not necessarily have a multivariate normal distribution and is less sensitive to sample size than other covariance approaches. PLS results revealed that corporate social responsibility partially mediated the link between consumer awareness of green marketing and purchase intentions of the product in the retail setting. Marketing managers should allocate a sufficient portion of their budget to appropriate corporate social responsibility activities by engaging in voluntary programs for positive return on investment leading to increased business profitability and long run business sustainability. The outcomes of the mediating effects of corporate social responsibility add a new impetus to the growing literature and preceding discoveries on consumer green marketing awareness, which is inadequately researched in the Malaysian setting. Direction for future research is also presented.

Keywords: Green marketing awareness, corporate social responsibility, partial least squares, purchase intention.

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38 Privacy Protection Principles of Omnichannel Approach

Authors: Renata Mekovec, Dijana Peras, Ruben Picek

Abstract:

The advent of the Internet, mobile devices and social media is revolutionizing the experience of retail customers by linking multiple sources through various channels. Omnichannel retailing is a retailing that combines multiple channels to allow customers to seamlessly leverage all the distribution information online and offline while shopping. Therefore, today data are an asset more critical than ever for all organizations. Nonetheless, because of its heterogeneity through platforms, developers are currently facing difficulties in dealing with personal data. Considering the possibilities of omnichannel communication, this paper presents channel categorization that could enhance the customer experience of omnichannel center called hyper center. The purpose of this paper is fundamentally to describe the connection between the omnichannel hyper center and the customer, with particular attention to privacy protection. The first phase was finding the most appropriate channels of communication for hyper center. Consequently, a selection of widely used communication channels has been identified and analyzed with regard to the effect requirements for optimizing user experience. The evaluation criteria are divided into 3 groups: general, user profile and channel options. For each criterion the weight of importance for omnichannel communication was defined. The most important thing was to consider how the hyper center can make user identification while respecting the privacy protection requirements. The study carried out also shows what customer experience across digital networks would look like, based on an omnichannel approach owing to privacy protection principles.

Keywords: Personal data, privacy protection, omnichannel communication, retail.

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37 Safety Assessment of Traditional Ready-to-Eat Meat Products Vended at Retail Outlets in Kebbi and Sokoto States, Nigeria

Authors: M. I. Ribah, M. Jibir, Y. A. Bashar, S. S. Manga

Abstract:

Food safety is a significant and growing public health problem in the world and Nigeria as a developing country, since food-borne diseases are important contributors to the huge burden of sickness and death of humans. In Nigeria, traditional ready-to-eat meat products (RTE-MPs) like balangu, tsire, guru and dried meat products like kilishi, dambun nama, banda, were reported to be highly appreciated because of their eating qualities. The consumption of these products was considered as safe due to the treatments that are usually involved during their production process. However, during processing and handling, the products could be contaminated by pathogens that could cause food poisoning. Therefore, a hazard identification for pathogenic bacteria on some traditional RTE-MPs was conducted in Kebbi and Sokoto States, Nigeria. A total of 116 RTE-MPs (balangu-38, kilishi-39 and tsire-39) samples were obtained from retail outlets and analyzed using standard cultural microbiological procedures in general and selective enrichment media to isolate the target pathogens. A six-fold serial dilution was prepared and using the pour plating method, colonies were counted. Serial dilutions were selected based on the prepared pre-labeled Petri dishes for each sample. A volume of 10-12 ml of molten Nutrient agar cooled to 42-45°C was poured into each Petri dish and 1 ml each from dilutions of 102, 104 and 106 for every sample was respectively poured on a pre-labeled Petri plate after which colonies were counted. The isolated pathogens were identified and confirmed after series of biochemical tests. Frequencies and percentages were used to describe the presence of pathogens. The General Linear Model was used to analyze data on pathogen presence according to RTE-MPs and means were separated using the Tukey test at 0.05 confidence level. Of the 116 RTE-MPs samples collected, 35 (30.17%) samples were found to be contaminated with some tested pathogens. Prevalence results showed that Escherichia coli, salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus were present in the samples. Mean total bacterial count was 23.82×106 cfu/g. The frequency of individual pathogens isolated was; Staphylococcus aureus 18 (15.51%), Escherichia coli 12 (10.34%) and Salmonella 5 (4.31%). Also, among the RTE-MPs tested, the total bacterial counts were found to differ significantly (P < 0.05), with 1.81, 2.41 and 2.9×104 cfu/g for tsire, kilishi, and balangu, respectively. The study concluded that the presence of pathogenic bacteria in balangu could pose grave health risks to consumers, and hence, recommended good manufacturing practices in the production of balangu to improve the products’ safety.

Keywords: Ready-to-eat meat products, retail outlets, safety assessment, public health.

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36 An Enterprise Intelligent System Development and Solution Framework

Authors: Rajendra M. Sonar

Abstract:

The recent trend has been using hybrid approach rather than using a single intelligent technique to solve the problems. In this paper, we describe and discuss a framework to develop enterprise solutions that are backed by intelligent techniques. The framework not only uses intelligent techniques themselves but it is a complete environment that includes various interfaces and components to develop the intelligent solutions. The framework is completely Web-based and uses XML extensively. It can work like shared plat-form to be accessed by multiple developers, users and decision makers.

Keywords: Intelligent System Development Framework, WebbasedIntelligent Systems, Retail Banking.

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35 Manufacturers-Retailers: The New Actor in the U.S. Furniture Industry. Characteristics and Implications for the Chinese Industry

Authors: Lidia Martínez Murillo

Abstract:

Since the 1990s the American furniture industry faces a transition period. Manufacturers, one of its most important actors made its entrance into the retail industry. This shift has had deep consequences not only for the American furniture industry as a whole, but also for other international furniture industries, especially the Chinese. The present work aims to analyze this actor based on the distinction provided by the Global Commodity Chain Theory. It stresses its characteristics, structure, operational way and importance for both the U.S. and the Chinese furniture industries.

Keywords: M&RC, blended strategy, U.S. furniture industry, Chinese furniture industry.

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34 Manufacturers-Retailers: The New Actor in the U.S. Furniture Industry. Characteristics and Implications for the Chinese Furniture Industry

Authors: Lidia Martínez Murillo

Abstract:

Since the 1990s the American furniture industry faces a transition period. Manufacturers, one of its most important actors made its entrance into the retail industry. This shift has had deep consequences not only for the American furniture industry as a whole, but also for other international furniture industries, especially the Chinese. The present work aims to analyze this actor based on the distinction provided by the Global Commodity Chain Theory. It stresses its characteristics, structure, operational way and importance for both the U.S. and the Chinese furniture industries.

Keywords: M&RC, blended strategy, U.S. furniture industry, Chinese furniture industry.

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33 The Investors- Reaction to Investment Rating Change Announcements

Authors: Chih-Hsiang Chang, Liang-Chien Lee, Shu-Ling Wu

Abstract:

This study investigates the investors- behavioral reaction to the investment rating change announcements from the views of behavioral finance. The empirical results indicate that self-interest does affect the intention of securities firms to release investment ratings for individual stocks. In addition, behavioral pitfalls are also found in the response of retail investors to investment rating change announcements.

Keywords: Investment ratings, Behavioral finance, Self-interest, Behavioral pitfalls

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32 Value Co-Creation in Used-Car Auctions: A Service Scientific Perspective

Authors: Safdar Muhammad Usman, Youji Kohda, Katsuhiro Umemoto

Abstract:

Electronic market place plays an important intermediary role for connecting dealers and retail customers. The main aim of this paper is to design a value co-creation model in used-car auctions. More specifically, the study has been designed in order to describe the process of value co-creation in used-car auctions, to explore the co-created values in used-car auctions, and finally conclude the paper indicating the future research directions. Our analysis shows that economic values as well as non-economic values are co-created in used-car auctions. In addition, this paper contributes to the academic society broadening the view of value co-creation in service science.

Keywords: Value co-creation, Used-car auctions, Non-economic values, Service science.

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31 Performance Monitoring of the Refrigeration System with Minimum Set of Sensors

Authors: Radek Fisera, Petr Stluka

Abstract:

This paper describes a methodology for remote performance monitoring of retail refrigeration systems. The proposed framework starts with monitoring of the whole refrigeration circuit which allows detecting deviations from expected behavior caused by various faults and degradations. The subsequent diagnostics methods drill down deeper in the equipment hierarchy to more specifically determine root causes. An important feature of the proposed concept is that it does not require any additional sensors, and thus, the performance monitoring solution can be deployed at a low installation cost. Moreover only a minimum of contextual information is required, which also substantially reduces time and cost of the deployment process.

Keywords: Condition monitoring, energy baselining, fault detection and diagnostics, commercial refrigeration.

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