Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 115

Search results for: religious extremism

115 The Role of State in Combating Religious Extremism and Terrorism

Authors: Kadyrzhan Smagulov, Mukhtar Senggirbay, Sholpan Zhandossova, Lyaila Ivatova, Gulnar Nassimova

Abstract:

terrorism and extremism are among the most dangerous and difficult to forecast the phenomena of our time, which are becoming more diverse forms and rampant. Terrorist attacks often produce mass casualties, involve the destruction of material and spiritual values, beyond the recovery times, sow hatred among nations, provoke war, mistrust and hatred between the social and national groups, which sometimes can not be overcome within a generation. Currently, the countries of Central Asia are a topical issue – the threat of terrorism and religious extremism, which grow not only in our area, but throughout the world. Of course, in each of the terrorist threat is assessed differently. In our country the problem of terrorism should not be acutely. Thus, after independence and sovereignty of Kazakhstan has chosen the path of democracy, progress and free economy. With the policy of the President of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev and well-organized political and economic reforms, there has been economic growth and rising living standards, socio-political stability, ensured civil peace and accord in society [1].

Keywords: Kazakhstan, national security, religious extremism and terrorism, ethnic conflict

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114 The U.S. and Western Europe Role in Resolving the Religious Conflicts in Central Asia

Authors: Zhanar Aldubasheva, Mukhtar Senggirbay, Elnura Assyltayeva

Abstract:

The modern world is experiencing fundamental and dynamic changes. The transformation of international relations; the end of confrontation and successive overcoming of the Cold War consequences have expanded possible international cooperation. The global nuclear conflict threat has been minimized, while a tendency to establish a unipolar world structure with the U.S. economic and power domination is growing. The current world system of international relations, apparently is secular. However, the religious beliefs of one or another nations play a certain (sometimes a key) role, both in the domestic affairs of the individual countries and in the development of bilateral ties. Political situation in Central Asia has been characterized by new factors such as international terrorism; religious extremism and radicalism; narcotrafficking and illicit arms trade of a global character immediately threaten to peace and political stability in Central Asia. The role and influence of Islamic fundamentalism is increasing; political ethnocentrism and the associated aggravation of inter-ethnic relations, the ambiguity of national interests and objectives of major geo-political groups in the Central Asian region regarding the division the political influence, emerge. This article approaches the following issues: the role of Islam in Central Asia; destabilizing factors in Central Asia; Islamic movements in Central Asia, Western Europe and the United States; the United States, Western Europe and Central Asia: religion, politics, ideology, and the US-Central Asia antiterrorism and religious extremism cooperation.

Keywords: USA, Central Asia, religious conflict, terrorism, regional security.

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113 Islam and Values of Kazakh Culture

Authors: Kairat Zatov, Tursun Gabitov, Maral Botaeva, Moldagaliyev Bauyrzhan, Saira Shamahay

Abstract:

Unlike Christianity and Buddhism, Islam, being one of the three universal world religions, actively penetrates into people-s everyday life. The main reason for this is that in Islam the religion and ideology, philosophy, religious organizations and state bodies are closely interrelated. In order to analyze the state of being of interrelations of religion and civil society in Kazakhstan, it is necessary to study Islam and its relations with spiritual culture of the society. According to the Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan the religion is separated from the state, i.e. each performs its own function without interfering into each other-s affairs. The right of the citizens of our republic to freedom of thinking and faith is based on the Constitution of the RK, Civil Code, Law “On freedom of faith and religious unions in the Republic of Kazakhstan". Legislatively secured separation of the mosque and church from the state does not mean that religion has no influence on the latter. The state, consisting of citizens with their own beliefs, including religious ones, cannot be isolated from the influence of religion. Nowadays it is commonly accepted that it is not possible to understand and forecast key social processes without taking into account the religious factor.

Keywords: Kazakhstan, Islam, Shamanism, tradition and innovation, fundamentalism, religious culture, spirit worship, tolerance, sectarianism, extremism and civilization.

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112 A Comparative Cross-sectional Study of Religious Behavior in High School and University Students

Authors: Bahram Esmaeili, Hossein Hosseini, Mohammad Sharifi Bohloli, Hamid Reza Imani Far, Sohrab Sadeghi

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to investigate the religious behavior of students in high school and universality in Lamerd , a town in the south of Iran, with respect to increase in their level of education and age. The participants were 450 high school and university students in all levels from first year of junior high school to the senior university students who were chosen through multistage cluster sampling method and their religious behavior was studied. Through the revised questionnaire by Nezar Alany from the University of Bahrain (r = 0/797), the religious behavior of the subjects were analyzed. Results showed that students in high school in religious behavior were superior to the students of university (003/0>p) and there was a decline of religious behavior in junior high school third year students to second students of the same school (042/0>p). More important is that the decrease in religious behavior was associated with increase in educational levels (017/0>p) and age (043/0>p).

Keywords: Academic achievement, education level, religion

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111 Work and Religion: Artificial Dichotomy or Competing Interests?

Authors: Philip T. Roundy

Abstract:

Prior research has examined the relationship between religiosity, religious involvement, and involvement in secular, civic organizations. However, research has not examined the influence of religious involvement on secular, non-civic organizations (i.e. work organizations). This study examines the link between religiosity, religious involvement, and the three-component model of organizational commitment. More specifically, the author hypothesizes that individuals high in religiosity (and religious involvement) will have lower affective, continuance, and normative commitment than less religious (or non-religious) individuals. In addition, it is hypothesized that this relationship is moderated by a third factor: organizational spirituality. Further, the author hypothesizes that for organizations that are spiritual the negative relationship between religiosity and job commitment will be weakened or even negated.

Keywords: Job Commitment, Organizational Spirituality, Religiosity.

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110 The U.S. and Central Asia: Religion, Politics, Ideology

Authors: Zhanar Aldubasheva, Elnura Assyltayeva, Mukhtar Senggirbay, Gаzizа Aldubаshovа

Abstract:

Numerous facts evidence the increasing religiosity of the population and the intensification of religious movements in various countries in the last decade of the 20th century. The number of international religious institutions and foundations; religious movements; parties and sects operating worldwide is increasing as well. Some ethnic and inter-state conflicts are obviously of a religious origin. All of this make a number of analysts to conclude that the religious factor is becoming an important part of international life, including the formation and activities of terrorist organizations. Most of all is said and written about Islam, the second, after Christianity, world religions professed according to various estimates by 1.5 bln. individuals in 127 countries.

Keywords: USA, Central Asia, Religion, Politics, Ideology Terrorism, Regional Security

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109 Towards Good Accountability: The Role of Accounting in Islamic Religious Organisations

Authors: Hasan Basri Afifuddin, A.K Siti-Nabiha

Abstract:

Non-profit organizations, especially religious-based institutions, have long played a very important role in society. Nevertheless, scandals such as inefficient management and the use of unlawful fundraising activities have raised questions regarding the governance and accountability of these organizations. As such, the issues have attracted considerable research interest. However, there is still limited research on accountability in religious based organizations, especially in the context of Islamic religious organizations. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to discuss the issues of accounting and accountability in religious organizations, specifically in Islamic religious establishments. The paper starts by looking at the conventional meaning and concept of accountability. This is followed by a discussion of the principles of accountability within the Islamic framework. In so doing, the history of the role of accounting within Muslim society and also the differences between the Islamic and conventional view of accountability are reviewed. Insights gained from previous research on accountability in faith based organizations are also discussed

Keywords: Accountability, accounting, Islam, religiousorganization.

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108 The Challenges of Hyper-Textual Learning Approach for Religious Education

Authors: Elham Shirvani–Ghadikolaei, Seyed Mahdi Sajjadi

Abstract:

State of the art technology has the tremendous impact on our life, in this situation education system have been influenced as well as. In this paper, tried to compare two space of learning text and hypertext with each other, and some challenges of using hypertext in religious education. Regarding the fact that, hypertext is an undeniable part of learning in this world and it has highly beneficial for the education process from class to office and home. In this paper tried to solve this question: the consequences and challenges of applying hypertext in religious education. Also, the consequences of this survey demonstrate the role of curriculum designer and planner of education to solve this problem.

Keywords: Hyper-textual, education, religious text, religious education.

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107 The Relationship of Emotional Intelligence, Perceived Stress, Religious Coping with Psychological Distress among Afghan Students

Authors: Mustafa Jahanara

Abstract:

The aim of present research was to study of the relationship between emotional intelligence, perceived stress, positive religious coping with psychological distress to in a sample of undergraduate students in Polytechnic University in Kabul. One hundred and fifty-tow students (102 male, 50 female) were included in this study. All participants completed the Emotional Intelligence Scale (EIS), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ 12), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10), and the Brief RCOPE. The results revealed that EI was negatively associated with perceived stress and psychological distress. Also emotional intelligence was positively correlated with positive religious coping. Perceived stress was positive related with psychological distress and negatively correlated with positive religious coping. Eventually positive religious coping was significantly and negatively correlated with psychological distress. However, emotional intelligence and positive religious coping could influence on mental health.

Keywords: Emotional intelligence, perceived stress, positive religious coping, psychological distress.

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106 Religion and the Constitutional Regulation

Authors: Valbona Metaj

Abstract:

The relationship between the state and the religion is different based on the fact that how powerful is the religion faith in a state and of the influences that affected the views of the constitution drafters according to the constitutional system they were based to draft their constitution. This paper aims at providing, through a comparative methodology, how it is regulated by the constitution the relationship between the state and the religion. The object of this study are the constitutions of Italy as a nation with catholic religious tradition, Greece as a nation with orthodox religion tradition, and Turkey as a nation which represents Muslim religion, while Albania as a nation known for its religious plurality. In particular, the analysis will be focused on the secular or religious principle provided in the constitution of each respective state. This comparative overview intends to discern which of the states analyzed is more tolerant and fully respects the freedom of religion. It results that most of the states subject of this study, despite their religious tradition have chosen the secular principle in their constitutions, but the religious freedom is differently guaranteed.

Keywords: Constitution, religion, religious freedom, secular.

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105 Women's Religiosity as a Factor in the Persistence of Religious Traditions: Kazakhstan, the XX Century

Authors: G. E. Nadirova, B. Zh. Aktaulova

Abstract:

The main question of the research is - how did the Kazakhs manage to keep their religious thinking in the period of active propaganda of Soviet atheism, for seventy years of struggle against religion with the involvement of the scientific worldview as the primary means of proving the absence of the divine nature and materiality of the world?

Our hypothesis is that In case of Kazakhstan the conservative female religious consciousness seems to have been a factor that helped to preserve the “everyday” religiousness of Kazakhs, which was far from deep theological contents of Islam, but able to revive in a short time after the decennia of proclaimed atheism.

Keywords: Woman, Religious thinking, Kazakhstan, Soviet ideology, Rituals, Family.

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104 The Arab Spring and Extremism: Case Study to the Evolution of Extreme-Islamism in Egypt

Authors: Ayman M. Mottaleb

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In conducting a case study to analyze the status-quo of the extremists’ dominance in Egypt, the author of this paper uses qualitative research method to analyze the evolution of extreme Islamist groups in Egypt. In conducting this qualitative research, the author of this paper intends to use several lenses to understand the rise and the evolution of the hegemony of extremist groups, such as the Muslim Brotherhood and other groups in Egypt. Therefore, unless he intends to show an important nexus between the Egyptian groups and their sister-groups in other countries, he will intentionally exclude analyzing extreme Islamism of non-Egyptian origins. This case study relies on the moral disengagement theory to shed light on the ideological evolution of extremism in Egypt. The goal of this case study is to help in understanding extreme-Islamism adverse to the mainstream Islam; therefore, understanding the concept here should help in preventing similar groups from threatening the international community.

Keywords: Extremism, International Terrorism, Islamists, Middle East, Muslim Brotherhood.

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103 The Effect of Religious Tourist Motivation and Satisfaction on Behavioral Intention

Authors: Tao Zhang, Nan Yan

Abstract:

In recent years, the Chaoshan area, a special place located in the southeast of Guangdong province in China, actively protects religious heritage and is developing religious tourism, which is attracting many expatriate Chinese who are coming back for travel and to worship. This paper discussed three questions. Firstly, what is the current situation about the different social background of tourists’ motivation, satisfaction and behavioral intention? Secondly, is there a relationship between the motivation, satisfaction and behavioral intention and the different social backgrounds of tourists? Thirdly, what is the relationship between religious tourists’ motivation, satisfaction and behavioral intention? The research methods use a combination of qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis. Qualitative analysis uses the method of observation and interviews. Convenient sampling technique was used for quantitative analysis. The study showed that the different social backgrounds of tourists’ forms diverse cognition and experiences about religious tourism, and their motivations, satisfaction and behavioral intention as tourists vary. Tourists’ motivation and satisfaction has a positive phase relation. Tourists’ motivation with satisfaction as the intervening variable also has a positive phase effect on tourists’ behavior intention. The result shows that religious tourists’ motivations include experiencing a religious atmosphere, and having a rest and recreation. The result also shows that religious tourists want to travel with their family members and friends. While traveling, religious tourists like to talk with Buddhist monks or nuns. Compared to other tourism types, religious tourists have higher expectations about temple environment, traveling experience, peripheral service and temple management.

Keywords: Behavioral intension, motivation, religious tourism, satisfaction.

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102 Towards a Deeper Understanding of 21st Century Global Terrorism

Authors: Francis Jegede

Abstract:

This paper examines essential issues relating to the rise and nature of violent extremism involving non-state actors and groups in the early 21st century. The global trends in terrorism and violent extremism are examined in relation to Western governments’ counter terror operations. The paper analyses the existing legal framework for fighting violent extremism and terrorism and highlights the inherent limitations of the current International Law of War in dealing with the growing challenges posed by terrorists and violent extremist groups. The paper discusses how terrorist groups use civilians, women and children as tools and weapon of war to fuel their campaign of terror and suggests ways in which the international community could deal with the challenge of fighting terrorist groups without putting civilians, women and children in harm way. The paper emphasises the need to uphold human rights values and respect for the law of war in our response to global terrorism. The paper poses the question as to whether the current legal framework for dealing with terrorist groups is sufficient without contravening the essential provisions and ethos of the International Law of War and Human Rights. While the paper explains how terrorist groups flagrantly disregard the rule of law and disrespect human rights in their campaign of terror, it also notes instances in which the current Western strategy in fighting terrorism may be viewed or considered as conflicting with human rights and international law.

Keywords: Terrorism, law of war, international law, violent extremism.

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101 Extremism among College and High School Students in Moscow: Diagnostics Features

Authors: Puzanova Zhanna Vasilyevna, Larina Tatiana Igorevna, Tertyshnikova Anastasia Gennadyevna

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In this day and age, extremism in various forms of its manifestation is a real threat to the world community, the national security of a state and its territorial integrity, as well as to the constitutional rights and freedoms of citizens. Extremism, as it is known, in general terms described as a commitment to extreme views and actions, radically denying the existing social norms and rules. Supporters of extremism in the ideological and political struggles often adopt methods and means of psychological warfare, appeal not to reason and logical arguments, but to emotions and instincts of the people, to prejudices, biases, and a variety of mythological designs. They are dissatisfied with the established order and aim at increasing this dissatisfaction among the masses. Youth extremism holds a specific place among the existing forms and types of extremism. In this context in 2015, we conducted a survey among Moscow college and high school students. The aim of this study was to determine how great or small is the difference in understanding and attitudes towards extremism manifestations, inclination and readiness to take part in extremist activities and what causes this predisposition, if it exists. We performed multivariate analysis and found the Russian college and high school students' opinion about the extremism and terrorism situation in our country and also their cognition on these topics. Among other things, we showed, that the level of aggressiveness of young people were not above the average for the whole population. The survey was conducted using the questionnaire method. The sample included college and high school students in Moscow (642 and 382, respectively) by method of random selection. The questionnaire was developed by specialists of RUDN University Sociological Laboratory and included both original questions (projective questions, the technique of incomplete sentences), and the standard test Dayhoff S. to determine the level of internal aggressiveness. It is also used as an experiment, the technique of study option using of FACS and SPAFF to determine the psychotypes and determination of non-verbal manifestations of emotions. The study confirmed the hypothesis that in respondents’ opinion, the level of aggression is higher today than a few years ago. Differences were found in the understanding of and respect for such social phenomena as extremism, terrorism, and their danger and appeal for the two age groups of young people. Theory of psychotypes, SPAFF (specific affect cording system) and FACS (facial action cording system) are considered as additional techniques for the diagnosis of a tendency to extreme views. Thus, it is established that diagnostics of acceptance of extreme views among young people is possible thanks to simultaneous use of knowledge from the different fields of socio-humanistic sciences. The results of the research can be used in a comparative context with other countries and as a starting point for further research in the field, taking into account its extreme relevance.

Keywords: Extremism, youth extremism, diagnostics of extremist manifestations, forecast of behavior, Sociological polls, theory of psychotypes, FACS, SPAFF.

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100 The Employee's Right to Observe the Religious Worship Day: Position of the Portuguese Constitutional Court

Authors: Susana Sousa Machado

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The present article seeks to carry out along the lines of interpretation of the recent Portuguese Constitutional Court case law on the possibility of an employee to observe a worship day imposed by religious beliefs. In this approach to the question, considerations on the subject of the relationship between religious freedom and labour relations will inevitably arise. We intend to draw conclusions of practical application from the court decisions on the matter of freedom of religion.

Keywords: Freedom of Religion, Religion Beliefs, Workplace, Worship Day.

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99 Promoting Open Educational Resources (OER) in Theological/Religious Education in Nigeria

Authors: Miracle Ajah

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One of the biggest challenges facing Theological/ Religious Education in Nigeria is access to quality learning materials. For instance at the Trinity (Union) Theological College, Umuahia, it was difficult for lecturers to access suitable and qualitative materials for instruction especially the ones that would suit the African context and stimulate a deep rooted interest among the students. Some textbooks written by foreign authors were readily available in the School Library, but were lacking in the College bookshops for students to own copies. Even when the College was able to order some of the books from abroad, it did not usher in the needed enthusiasm expected from the students because they were either very expensive or very difficult to understand during private studies. So it became necessary to develop contextual materials which were affordable and understandable, though with little success. The National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN)’s innovation in the development and sharing of learning resources through its Open Courseware is a welcome development and of great assistance to students. Apart from NOUN students who could easily access the materials, many others from various theological/religious institutes across the nation have benefited immensely. So, the thesis of this paper is that the promotion of open educational resources in theological/religious education in Nigeria would facilitate a better informed/equipped religious leadership, which would in turn impact its adherents for a healthier society and national development. Adopting a narrative and historical approach within the context of Nigeria’s educational system, the paper discusses: educational traditions in Nigeria; challenges facing theological/religious education in Nigeria; and benefits of open educational resources. The study goes further to making recommendations on how OER could positively influence theological/religious education in Nigeria. It is expected that theologians, religious educators, and ODL practitioners would find this work very useful.

Keywords: Nigeria, OER, religious education, theological education.

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98 Countering Radicalization to Violent Extremism: A Comparative Study of Canada, the UK and South East Asia

Authors: Daniel Alati

Abstract:

Recent high-profile terrorist events in Canada, the United Kingdom and Europe – the London Bridge attacks, the terrorist attacks in Nice, France and Barcelona, Spain, the 2014 Ottawa Parliament attacks and the 2017 attacks in Edmonton – have all raised levels of public and academic concern with so-called “lone-wolf” and “radicalized” terrorism. Similarly, several countries outside of the “Western” world have been dealing with radicalization to violent extremism for several years. Many South East Asian countries, including Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and the Philippines have all had experience with what might be described as ISIS or extremist-inspired acts of terrorism. Indeed, it appears the greatest strength of groups such as ISIS has been their ability to spread a global message of violent extremism that has led to radicalization in markedly different jurisdictions throughout the world. These markedly different jurisdictions have responded with counter-radicalization strategies that warrant further comparative analysis. This paper utilizes an inter-disciplinary legal methodology. In doing so, it compares legal, political, cultural and historical aspects of the counter-radicalization strategies employed by Canada, the United Kingdom and several South East Asian countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and the Philippines). Whilst acknowledging significant legal and political differences between these jurisdictions, the paper engages in these analyses with an eye towards understanding which best practices might be shared between the jurisdictions. In doing so, it presents valuable findings of a comparative nature that are useful to both academic and practitioner audiences in several jurisdictions.

Keywords: Canada, United Kingdom, South East Asia, comparative law and politics, radicalization to violent extremism, terrorism.

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97 The National Security Assurance of the Republic of Kazakhstan

Authors: Sholpan Zhandossova, Erden Ordabek, Yelbolsyn Nazarov

Abstract:

the article analyzes the national security as a scientific and practical problem, characterized by the state's political institutions to ensure effective action to maintain optimal conditions for the existence and development of the individual and society. National security, as a category of political science reflects the relationship between the security to the nation, including public relations and social consciousness, social institutions and their activities, ensuring the realization of national interests in a particular historical situation. In national security are three security levels: individual, society and state. Their role and place determined by the nature of social relations, political systems, the presence of internal and external threats. In terms of content in the concept of national security is taken to provide political, economic, military, environmental, information security and safety of the cultural development of the nation.

Keywords: Kazakhstan, national security, religious extremism

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96 Stop Forced Child Marriage: A Comparative Global Law Analysis

Authors: Michelle J. Miller

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Millions of girls are forcibly married during the transitional period between puberty and adulthood. At a stage of vulnerability cultural practices, religious rights and social standards place her in a position where she is catapult into womanhood. An advocate against forced child marriage could argue that child rights, cultural rights, religious rights, right to marry, right to life, right to health, right to education, right to be free from slavery, right to be free from torture, right to consent to marriage are all violated by the practice of child marriage. The author is this advocate and this paper will present how some of these rights are violated and establish the need for change.

Keywords: Child marriage, forced child marriage, child rights, protection, religious rights, cultural rights, right to life, human rights.

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95 A Comparative Study of Costumes for Religious Festivals in ASEAN Countries

Authors: Jaruphan Supprung

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Aims of this research were to study the major religious festivals of merit making and joyful celebrations (nationwide) in each country of ASEAN countries and to compare the costumes for these major religious festivals among these countries. This documentary research employed qualitative research methodology. The findings of the research disclosed that there are 28 main religious festivals in ASEAN countries: 3 Islamic festivals in Brunei Darussalam such as Hari Raya Aidiladha Festival, Mauludin Nabi Festival and Hari Raya Aidilfitri Festival; 2 Buddhist festivals in Cambodia such as Pchum Ben Festival and Khmer New Year Festival; 3 Islamic festivals in Indonesia such as Eid al-Adha Festival, Maulid Nabi Festival and Eid ul-Fitr Festival; 5 Buddhist festivals in Laos such as Boun Awk Pansa Festival, Boun Pha Vet Festival, Boun Pi Mai Festival, Boun Khao Pradabdin Festival and Boun Khao Salak Festival; 3 Islamic festivals in Malaysia such as Hari Raya Aidil Adha Festival, Maulidur Rasul Festival and Hari Raya Aidilfitri Festival; 4 Buddhist festivals in Myanmar such as Thadingyut Festival, Tazaungmon Full Moon Festival, Htamane Festival, and Thingyan Festival; 2 Christian festivals in Philippines such as Christmas Festival and Feast of the Santo Niño; Only 1 Buddhist festival in Singapore: Festival of Vesak Day; 4 Buddhist festivals in Thailand such as Songkran Festival (Thai New Year), Sart Thai Festival, Khao Pansa Festival and Awk Pansa Festival; and only 1 Buddhist festival in Vietnam: Tet Nguyen Dan Festival. For the comparison of the costumes for these major religious festivals, it can be concluded that the most popular style of male costume for religious festivals in ASEAN countries consists of stand-up collar (100%), long sleeves (100%), shirt (90%), and long pants (100%), and the most popular style of male costume for religious festivals in ASEAN countries consists of round neck (90%), long sleeves (80%), blouse (60%), and maxi tube skirt (80%).

Keywords: Costume, Religious festival, ASEAN countries.

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94 Developing Islamic Tourism in Kazakhstan: A Result of a Religious Revival or a New Trend of Tourism

Authors: A. A. Mustafayeva, G. E. Nadirova, Sh. S. Kaliyeva, B. Zh. Aktaulova

Abstract:

all of religions free towards society in Kazakhstan. Considering that Islam is more widespread religion in the region, Islamic industry is developing sector of Economy. There are some new sectors of Halal (Islamic) industry, which have importance for state developing on the whole. One of the youngest sectors of Halal industry is Islamic tourism, which became an object of disputes and led to dilemma, such as Islamic tourism is a result of a Religious revival and Islamic tourism is a new trend of Tourism. The paper was written under the research project “Islam in modern Kazakhstan: the nature and outcome of the religious revival".

Keywords: Halal industry, Islamic tourism, pillars, pilgrims.

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93 Mapping the Quotidian Life of Practitioners of Various Religious Sects in Late Medieval Bengal: Portrayals on the Front Façades of the Baranagar Temple Cluster

Authors: I. Gupta, B. Karmakar

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Bengal has a long history (8th century A.D. onwards) of decorating the wall of brick-built temples with curved terracotta plaques on a diverse range of subjects. These could be considered as one of the most significant visual archives to understand the various facets of the then contemporary societies. The temples under focus include Char-bangla temple complex (circa 1755 A.D.), Bhavanishvara temple (circa 1755 A.D.) and the Gangeshvara Shiva Jor-bangla temple (circa 1753 A.D.), located within a part of the river Bhagirathi basin in Baranagar, Murshidabad, West Bengal, India. Though, a diverse range of subjects have been intricately carved mainly on the front façades of the Baranagar temple cluster, the study specifically concentrates on depictions related to religious and non-religious acts performed by practitioners of various religious sects of late medieval Bengal with the intention to acquire knowledge about the various facets of their life. Apart from this, the paper also mapped the spatial location of these religious performers on the temples’ façades to examine if any systematic plan or arrangement had been employed for connoting a particular idea. Further, an attempt is made to provide a commentary on the attire worn by followers of various religious sects of late medieval Bengal. The primary materials for the study comprise the depictions which denote religious activities carved on the terracotta plaques. The secondary material has been collected from published and unpublished theses, journals and books. These data have been further supplemented with photographic documentation, some useful line-drawings and descriptions in table format to get a clear understanding of the concerned issues.

Keywords: Attire, scheme of allocation, terracotta temple, various religious sect.

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92 Islam in Kazakhstan: Modern Trends and Stages of Development

Authors: B. Moldakhmet, G. Nassimova, A. Balapanova, А. Asan

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According to the majority and to stereotypes in a simple everyman religious processes in the world in general, and Kazakhstan in particular, have only negative trends. The main reason for the author's opinion is seen in the fact that the media in the pursuit of ratings and sensation, more inclined to highlight the negative aspects of events in the country and the world of processes forgetting or casually mentioning the positive initiatives and achievements. That is why the article is mainly revealed positive trends in mind that the problems of fanaticism, terrorism and the confrontation of society on various issues, a lot has been written and detailed. This article describes the stages in the development of relations between religion and state, as well as institutionalization, networking and assistance in the correct orientation of religious activities in the country.

Keywords: Islam, Kazakhstan, Organization of Islamic Cooperation, religious activities

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91 Into Insights of Contextual Governance Framework for Religious Non-Profit Organizations

Authors: Saunah Zainon, Ruhaya Atan, Nadzira Yahaya, Marshita Hashim

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Governance in business firms is a topic that has long been studied in the literature. Traditionally, governance in business firms has focused on the roles of boards of directors in representing and protecting the interests of shareholders. Governance has also been studied in the context of non-profit organizations because good governance is essential to increase the likelihood that they will comply with the regulatory requirements that best serve their multiple stakeholders. This paper provides insights on the need of governance framework for religious non-profit organizations (RNPOs) based on five underlying principles. This paper is important to help regulators to understand RNPOs’ governance framework. The regulators may use the framework suggested for the development of the RNPOs’ code of governance in the future.

Keywords: Framework, governance, religious, RNPOs.

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90 Studying Iranian Religious Minority Architecture: Differences and Commonalities in Religious and National Architecture after Safavid

Authors: Saeideh Soltanmohammadlou, Pilar M Guerrieri, Amir Kianfar, Sara Sadeghian, Yasaman Nafezi, Emily Irvin

Abstract:

Architecture is rooted in the experiences of the residents in a place. Its foundations are based on needs and circumstances of each territory in terms of climate, available materials, economics and governmental policies, and cultural ideals and ideas of the people that live there. The architectural history of Iran echoes these architectural origins and has revealed certain trends reflecting this territory and culture. However, in recent years, new architectural patterns are developing that diverge from what has previously been considered classic forms of Iranian architecture. This article investigates architectural elements that make up the architecture created by religious minorities after the Safavid dynasty (one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran (from 1501 to 1736) in Iranian cities: Isfahan, Tabriz, Kerman, and Uremia. Similarities and differences are revealed between the architecture that composes neighborhoods of religious minorities in Iran and common national architectural trends in each era after this dynasty. This dynasty is specific as a point of reference in this article because Islam was identified as the state religion of Iran during this era. This decision changed the course of architecture in the country to incorporate religious motifs and meanings. The study associated with this article was conducted as a survey that sought to find links between architecture of religious minorities with Iranian national architecture. Interestingly, a merging of architectural forms and trends occur as immigrants interact with Iranian Islamic meanings. These observations are significant within the context of modern architecture around the world and within Western discourse because what are considered religious minorities in Iran are the dominant religions in Western nations. This makes Iran’s architecture particularly unique as it creates a kind of inverse relationship, than that of Western nations, to the ways in which religion influences architectural history.

Keywords: Architecture, ethnic architecture, national architecture, religion architecture.

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89 An Investigation of the Relationship between the Need for Cognitive Closure and Religious Fundamentalism

Authors: Hadi G. Altabatabaei, Nguyen L. L. Anh

Abstract:

There are positive significant relationships between the Need for Cognitive Closure (NFC) and Religious Fundamentalism (RF) among students. The preliminary assumption of the current study was: There would be a stronger pattern of association between these constructs, if the participants of the study are more exposed to the study's main concept which is religiosity. In other words, close-mindedness would be more related to homogeneous samples of practicing devotees of monotheistic religions compared to student samples. The main hypothesis was that concerning the Muslim sample, there will be a significant and positive correlation between the need for closure (and all facets of it, except decisiveness) and RF. Both the student sample (n=88), and the Muslim practicing mosque attending sample (n=40), were administrated three scales of Need for Closure (NFCS), Religious Fundamentalism (RFS), and Four Basic Dimensions of Religiousness (FBDRS). The results of the study moderately confirmed the hypothesis and showed a positive correlation between NFCS and RFS with the Muslim sample. Specifically, preference for order, preference for predictability and discomfort with ambiguity facets of the NFCS positively correlated with RFS. However, with regards to the student sample such relationships between the constructs were not found.

Keywords: Religiosity, close-mindedness, religious fundamentalism, need for closure, monotheistic religions.

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88 Islam in the Context of Political Processes in Modern Kazakhstan

Authors: Duissenbayeva Albina, Rysbekova Shamshiya, Borbassova Karlygash

Abstract:

Religion revival including Islam in Kazakhstan represents reaction, first of all on internal social and political change, events after disintegration of the USSR. Process of revival of Kazakhstan Islam was accompanied as positive, so by negative tendencies. Old mosques were restored, were under construction new, Islamic schools and high schools were created, was widely studied religious the dogmatic person, the corresponding literature was published, expanded contacts with foreign Muslim brothers in the faith, the centers of the Arab-Muslim culture extended. At the same time in Kazakhstan, there are religious-political parties and movements, pursuing radical goals down to change the spiritual and cultural identity of Muslims of Kazakhstan by the forcible introduction of non-traditional religious and political, ethnic and cultural values.

Keywords: Terrorist act, Islamic factor, national tasks, radical Islam, the role of Islam.

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87 Psychometric Examination of the QUEST-25: An Online Assessment of Intellectual Curiosity and Scientific Epistemology

Authors: Matthew J. Zagumny

Abstract:

The current study reports an examination of the QUEST-25 (Q-Assessment of Undergraduate Epistemology and Scientific Thinking) online version for assessing the dispositional attitudes toward scientific thinking and intellectual curiosity among undergraduate students. The QUEST-25 consists of scientific thinking (SIQ-25) and intellectual curiosity (ICIQ-25), which were correlated in hypothesized directions with the Religious Commitment Inventory, Curiosity and Exploration Inventory, Belief in Science scale, and measures of academic self-efficacy. Additionally, concurrent validity was established by the resulting significant differences between those identifying the centrality of religious belief in their lives and those who do not self-identify as being guided daily by religious beliefs. This study demonstrates the utility of the QUEST-25 for research, evaluation, and theory development.

Keywords: Guided-inquiry learning, intellectual curiosity, psychometric assessment, scientific thinking.

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86 Maintenance of Philosophical, Humanistic and Religious Values of Security of the Kazakh Nation

Authors: K. K. Kaldybay, T. K. Abdrassilov, G. K. Abdygalieva, P. M. Suleymenov, M. O. Nassimov

Abstract:

People have always needed to believe in some supernatural power, which could explain nature phenomena. Different kinds of religions like Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Buddhism have thought believers in all world, how to behave themselves. We think the most important role of religion in modern society most important role of religion in modern society is safety of the People. World and traditional religion played a prominent role in the socio-cultural progress, and in the development of man as a spiritual being. At the heart of religious morals the belief in god and responsibility before it lies and specifies religious and ethical values and categories . The religion is based on ethical standards historically developed by society, requirements and concepts, but it puts all social and moral relations of the person in dependence on religious values. For everything that the believer makes on a debt or a duty, he bears moral responsibility before conscience, people and god. The concept of value of religious morals takes the central place because the religion from all forms of public consciousness most values is painted as it is urged to answer vital questions. Any religion not only considers questions of creation of the world, sense of human existence, relationship of god and the person, but also offers the ethical concept, develops rules of behavior of people. The religion a long time dominated in the history of culture, and during this time created a set of cultural and material values. The identity of Kazakh culture can be defined as a Cultural identity traditional ,national identity and the identity values developed by Kazakh people in process of cultural-historical development, promoting formation of Kazakh culture identity on public consciousness. Identity is the historical process but always the tradition exists in it as a component of stability, as a component of self that what this identity formed .

Keywords: Philosophy, religion, education, culture, human, national value, security, religious value.

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