Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 2324

Search results for: oxidation potential

2324 Carotenoid Potential to Protect Cow-s Milk Fat Against Oxidative Deterioration

Authors: U. Antone, V. Sterna, J. Zagorska

Abstract:

Milk from differently fed cows (supplemented with carotenoids from carrots or palm oil product Carotino CAF 100) was obtained in a conventional dairy farm to assess the carotenoid potential to protect milk fat against oxidation. The extracted anhydrous milk fat (AMF) was tested by peroxide value, and Rancimat tests. Temperature, and light stimulation for reaction acceleration was used. The oxidative stability enhancement by carotenoids was detected in peroxide value test – the strongest effect was observed in palm oil, following by carrot supplemented group, compared to control group, whose feed was unchanged. Rancimat accelerated oxidation test results did not show any superiority of the oxidative stability of the AMF samples from milk of the carotenoidsupplemented cow groups. The average oxidation stability of AMF dark-stored samples was 12.59 ± 0.294 h, and it was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than that of AMF light-affected samples, i.e. 2.60 ± 0.191 h.

Keywords: antioxidants, dairy products, forages, lipid aging, peroxide

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2323 Recovery of Cu, Zn, Ni and Cr from Plating Sludge by Combined Sulfidation and Oxidation Treatment

Authors: D. Kuchar, T. Fukuta, M. Kubota, H. Matsuda

Abstract:

The selective recovery of heavy metals of Cu, Zn, Ni and Cr from a mixed plating sludge by sulfidation and oxidation treatment was targeted in this study. At first, the mixed plating sludge was simultaneously subjected to an extraction and Cu sulfidation process at pH=1.5 to dissolve heavy metals and to precipitate Cu2+ as CuS. In the next step, the sulfidation treatment of Zn was carried out at pH=4.5 and the residual solution was subjected to an oxidation treatment of chromium with H2O2 at pH=10.0. After the experiments, the selectivity of metal precipitation and the chromium oxidation ratio were evaluated. As results, it was found that the filter cake obtained after selective sulfidation of Cu was composed of 96.6% of Cu (100% equals to the sum of Cu, Zn, Ni and Cr contents). Such findings confirmed that almost complete extraction of heavy metals was achieved at pH=1.5 and also that Cu could be selectively recovered as CuS. Further, the filter cake obtained at pH=4.5 was composed of 91.5% Zn and 6.83% of Cr. Regarding the chromium oxidation step, the chromium oxidation ratio was found to increase with temperature and the addition of oxidation agent of H2O2, but only oxidation ratio of 59% was achieved at a temperature of 60°C and H2O2 to Cr3+ equivalent ratio of 180.

Keywords: Chromium recovery, oxidation, plating sludge, sulfidation.

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2322 Performance of Phytogreen Zone for BOD5 and SS Removal for Refurbishment Conventional Oxidation Pond in an Integrated Phytogreen System

Authors: A. R. Abdul Syukor, A. W. Zularisam, Z. Ideris, M. S. Mohd Ismid, H. M. Nakmal, S. Sulaiman, A. H. Hasmanie, M. R. Siti Norsita, M. Nasrullah

Abstract:

In this study, the effectiveness of an integrated aquatic plants in phytogreen zone was studied and statistical analysis for the promotional integrated phytogreen system approached was discussed. It was found that's the effectiveness of using aquatic plant such as Typha angustifolia sp., Lepironia articulata sp., Limnocharis flava sp., Monochoria vaginalis sp., Pistia stratiotes sp., and Eichhornia crassipes sp., in the conventional oxidation pond process in order to comply the standard A according to Malaysia Environmental Quality Act 1974 (Act 127); Environmental Quality (Sewage) Regulation 2009 for effluent discharge into inland water near the residential area was successfully shown. It was concluded that the integrated phtogreen system developed in this study has great potential for refurbishment wastewater in conventional oxidation pond.

Keywords: Phytoremediation, integrated phytogreen system, sewage treatment plant, oxidation pond, aquatic plants.

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2321 SWNT Sensors for Monitoring the Oxidation of Edible Oils

Authors: Keun-soo Lee, Kyongsoo Lee, Vincent Lau, Kyeong Shin, Byeong-Kwon Ju

Abstract:

There are several means to measure the oxidation of edible oils, such as the acid value, the peroxide value, and the anisidine value. However, these means require large quantities of reagents and are time-consuming tasks. Therefore, a more convenient and time-saving way to measure the oxidation of edible oils is required. In this report, an edible oil condition sensor was fabricated by using single-walled nanotubes (SWNT). In order to test the sensor, oxidized edible oils, each one at a different acid value, were prepared. The SWNT sensors were immersed into these oxidized oils and the resistance changes in the sensors were measured. It was found that the conductivity of the sensors decreased as the oxidation level of oil increased. This result suggests that a change of the oil components induced by the oxidation process in edible oils is related to the conductivity change in the SWNT sensor.

Keywords: Single-walled carbon nanotubes, edible oil oxidation, chemical sensor.

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2320 Fenton’s Oxidation as Post-Treatment of a Mature Municipal Landfill Leachate

Authors: Susana Cortez, Pilar Teixeira, Rosário Oliveira, Manuel Mota

Abstract:

Mature landfill leachates contain some macromolecular organic substances that are resistant to biological degradation. Recently, Fenton-s oxidation has been investigated for chemical treatment or pre-treatment of mature landfill leachates. The aim of this study was to reduce the recalcitrant organic load still remaining after the complete treatment of a mature landfill leachate by Fenton-s oxidation post-treatment. The effect of various parameters such as H2O2 to Fe2+ molar ratio, dosage of Fe2+ reagent, initial pH, reaction time and initial chemical oxygen demand (COD) strength, that have an important role on the oxidation, was analysed. A molar ratio H2O2/Fe2+ = 3, a Fe2+ dosage of 4 mmol·L-1, pH 3, and a reaction time of 40 min were found to achieve better oxidation performances. At these favorable conditions, COD removal efficiency was 60.9% and 31.1% for initial COD of 93 and 743 mg·L-1 respectively (diluted and non diluted leachate). Fenton-s oxidation also presented good results for color removal. In spite of being extremely difficult to treat this leachate, the above results seem rather encouraging on the application of Fenton-s oxidation.

Keywords: Fenton's oxidation, mature landfill leachate, recalcitrant organic matter.

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2319 The Coupling of Photocatalytic Oxidation Processes with Activated Carbon Technologies and the Comparison of the Treatment Methods for Organic Removal from Surface Water

Authors: N. Areerachakul

Abstract:

The surface water used in this study was collected from the Chao Praya River at the lower part at the Nonthaburi bridge. It was collected and used throughout the experiment. TOC (also known as DOC) in the range between 2.5 to 5.6 mg/l were investigated in this experiment. The use of conventional treatment methods such as FeCl3 and PAC showed that TOC removal was 65% using FeCl3 and 78% using PAC (powder activated carbon). The advanced oxidation process alone showed only 35% removal of TOC. Coupling advanced oxidation with a small amount of PAC (0.05g/L) increased efficiency by upto 55%. The combined BAC with advanced oxidation process and small amount of PAC demonstrated the highest efficiency of up to 95% of TOC removal and lower sludge production compared with other methods.

Keywords: Advanced oxidation process, TOC, PAC

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2318 Study of the Oxidation Resistance of Coated AISI 441 Ferritic Stainless Steel for SOFCs

Authors: M. B. Limooei, Hadi Ebrahimifar, Sh. Hosseini

Abstract:

Protective coatings that resist oxide scale growth and decrease chromium evaporation are necessary to make stainless steel interconnect materials for long-term durable operation of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). In this study a layer of cobalt was electroplated on the surface of AISI 441 ferritic stainless steel which is used in solid oxide fuel cells for interconnect applications. The oxidation behavior of coated substrates was studied as a function of time at operating conditions of SOFCs. Cyclic oxidation has been also tested at 800ºC for 100 cycles. Cobalt coating during isothermal oxidation caused to the oxide growth resistance by limiting the outward diffusion of Cr cation and the inward diffusion of oxygen anion. Results of cyclic oxidation exhibited that coated substrates demonstrate an excellent resistance against the spallation and cracking.

Keywords: Oxidation resistance, full cell, Cobalt coating, ferritic stainless steel.

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2317 Isolation of Soil Thiobacterii and Determination of Their Bio-Oxidation Activity

Authors: A. Kistaubayeva, I. Savitskaya, D. Ibrayeva, M. Abdulzhanova, N. Voronova

Abstract:

36 strains of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria were isolated in Southern Kazakhstan soda-saline soils and identified. Screening of strains according bio-oxidation (destruction thiosulfate to sulfate) and enzymatic (Thiosulfate dehydrogenises and thiosulfate reductase) activity was conducted. There were selected modes of aeration and culture conditions (pH, temperature), which provide optimum harvest cells. These strains can be used in bio-melioration technology.

Keywords: Elemental sulfur, oxidation activity, Тhiobacilli, fertilizers, heterotrophic S-oxidizers.

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2316 Application of Tocopherol as Antioxidant to Reduce Decomposition Process on Palm Oil Biodiesel

Authors: Supriyono, Sumardiyono, Rendy J. Pramono

Abstract:

Biodiesel is one of the alternative fuels promising for substituting petrodiesel as energy source which has an advantage as it is sustainable and eco-friendly. Due to the raw material that tends to decompose during storage, biodiesel also has the same characteristic that tends to decompose during storage. Biodiesel decomposition will form higher acid value as the result of oxidation to double bond on a fatty acid compound on biodiesel. Thus, free fatty acid value could be used to evaluate degradation of biodiesel due to the oxidation process. High free fatty acid on biodiesel could impact on the engine performance. Decomposition of biodiesel due to oxidation reaction could prevent by introducing a small amount of antioxidant. The origin of raw materials and the process for producing biodiesel will determine the effectiveness of antioxidant. Biodiesel made from high free fatty acid (FFA) crude palm oil (CPO) by using two steps esterification is vulnerable to oxidation process which is resulted in increasing on the FFA value. Tocopherol also known as vitamin E is one of the antioxidant that could improve the stability of biodiesel due to decomposition by the oxidation process. Tocopherol 0.5% concentration on palm oil biodiesel could reduce 13% of increasing FFA under temperature 80 °C and exposing time 180 minute.

Keywords: Antioxidant, biodiesel, decomposition, oxidation, tocopherol.

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2315 Application of Tocopherol as Antioxidant to Reduce Decomposition Process on Palm Oil Biodiesel

Authors: Supriyono, Sumardiyono, Rendy J. Pramono

Abstract:

Biodiesel is one of the alternative fuels promising for substituting petrodiesel as energy source which has an advantage as it is sustainable and eco-friendly. Due to the raw material that tends to decompose during storage, biodiesel also has the same characteristic that tends to decompose during storage. Biodiesel decomposition will form higher acid value as the result of oxidation to double bond on a fatty acid compound on biodiesel. Thus, free fatty acid value could be used to evaluate degradation of biodiesel due to the oxidation process. High free fatty acid on biodiesel could impact on the engine performance. Decomposition of biodiesel due to oxidation reaction could prevent by introducing a small amount of antioxidant. The origin of raw materials and the process for producing biodiesel will determine the effectiveness of antioxidant. Biodiesel made from high free fatty acid (FFA) crude palm oil (CPO) by using two steps esterification is vulnerable to oxidation process which is resulted in increasing on the FFA value. Tocopherol also known as vitamin E is one of the antioxidant that could improve the stability of biodiesel due to decomposition by the oxidation process. Tocopherol 0.5% concentration on palm oil biodiesel could reduce 13% of increasing FFA under temperature 80 °C and exposing time 180 minute.

Keywords: Antioxidant, biodiesel, decomposition, oxidation, tocopherol.

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2314 Formation of Protective Silicide-Aluminide Coating on Gamma-TiAl Advanced Material

Authors: S. Nouri

Abstract:

In this study, the Si-aluminide coating was prepared on gamma-TiAl [Ti-45Al-2Nb-2Mn-1B (at. %)] via liquid-phase slurry procedure. The high temperature oxidation resistance of this diffusion coating was evaluated at 1100 °C for 400 hours. The results of the isothermal oxidation showed that the formation of Si-aluminide coating can remarkably improve the high temperature oxidation of bare gamma-TiAl alloy. The identification of oxide scale microstructure showed that the formation of protective Al2O3+SiO2 mixed oxide scale along with a continuous, compact and uniform layer of Ti5Si3 beneath the surface oxide scale can act as an oxygen diffusion barrier during the high temperature oxidation. The other possible mechanisms related to the formation of Si-aluminide coating and oxide scales were also discussed.

Keywords: Gamma-TiAl alloy, Si-aluminide coating, slurry procedure, high temperature oxidation.

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2313 Thermo-chemical Characteristics of Powder Fabricated by Oxidation of Spent PWR Fuel

Authors: Geun-Il Park, Jae-Won Lee, Dou-Youn Lee, Jung-Won Lee, Kwang-Wook Kim, Kee-Chan Song

Abstract:

Thermochemcial characteristics of powder fabricated using oxidation treatment of spent PWR fuel and SIMFUEL were evaluated for recycling of spent fuel such as DUPIC process. Especially, the influence of spent fuel burn-ups on the powder fabrication characteristics was experimentally evaluated, ranging from 27,300 to 65,000 MWd/tU. Densities of powder manufactured from an oxidation, OREOX and the milling processes at the same process conditions were compared as a function of the fuel burn-ups respectively. Also, based on chemical analysis results, homogeneity of fissile elements in oxidized powder was confirmed.

Keywords: Spent PWR fuel, DUPIC, Oxidation, OREOX, Powder, Chemical analysis

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2312 Treatment of Cutting Oily-Wastewater by Sono Fenton Process: Experimental Approach and Combined Process

Authors: P. Painmanakul, T. Chintateerachai, S. Lertlapwasin, N. Rojvilavan, T. Chalermsinsuwan, N. Chawaloesphonsiya, O. Larpparisudthi

Abstract:

Conventional coagulation, advance oxidation process (AOPs), and the combined process were evaluated and compared for its suitability to treat the stabilized cutting-oil wastewater. The 90% efficiency was obtained from the coagulation at Al2(SO4)3 dosage of 150 mg/L and pH 7. On the other hands, efficiencies of AOPs for 30 minutes oxidation time were 10% for acoustic oxidation, 12% for acoustic oxidation with hydrogen peroxide, 76% for Fenton, and 92% sono-Fenton processes. The highest efficiency for effective oil removal of AOPs required large amount of chemical. Therefore, AOPs were studied as a post-treatment after conventional separation process. The efficiency was considerable as the effluent COD can pass the standard required for industrial wastewater discharge with less chemical and energy consumption.

 

Keywords: Cutting oily-wastewater, Advance oxidation process, Sono-Fenton, Combined process.

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2311 NiO-CeO2 Nano-Catalyst for the Removal of Priority Organic Pollutants from Wastewater through Catalytic Wet Air Oxidation at Mild Conditions

Authors: Anushree, Chhaya Sharma, Satish Kumar

Abstract:

Catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) is normally carried out at elevated temperature and pressure. This work investigates the potential of NiO-CeO2 nano-catalyst in CWAO of paper industry wastewater under milder operating conditions of 90 °C and 1 atm. The NiO-CeO2 nano-catalysts were synthesized by a simple co-precipitation method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), before and after use, in order to study any crystallographic change during experiment. The extent of metal-leaching from the catalyst was determined using the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The catalytic activity of nano-catalysts was studied in terms of total organic carbon (TOC), adsorbable organic halides (AOX) and chlorophenolics (CHPs) removal. Interestingly, mixed oxide catalysts exhibited higher activity than the corresponding single-metal oxides. The maximum removal efficiency was achieved with Ce40Ni60 catalyst. The results indicate that the CWAO process is efficient in removing the priority organic pollutants from wastewater, as it exhibited up to 59% TOC, 55% AOX, and 54 % CHPs removal.

Keywords: Nano-materials, NiO-CeO2, wastewater, wet air oxidation.

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2310 Ozone Assisted Low Temperature Catalytic Benzene Oxidation over Al2O3, SiO2, AlOOH Supported Ni/Pd Catalytic

Authors: V. Georgiev

Abstract:

Catalytic oxidation of benzene assisted by ozone, on alumina, silica, and boehmite-supported Ni/Pd catalysts was investigated at 353 K to assess the influence of the support on the reaction. Three bimetallic Ni/Pd nanosized samples with loading 4.7% of Ni and 0.17% of Pd supported on SiO2, AlOOH and Al2O3 were synthesized by the extractive-pyrolytic method. The phase composition was characterized by means of XRD and the surface area and pore size were estimated using Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) and Barrett–Joyner–Halenda (BJH) methods. At the beginning of the reaction, catalysts were significantly deactivated due to the accumulation of intermediates on the catalyst surface and after 60 minutes it turned stable. Ni/Pd/AlOOH catalyst showed the highest steady-state activity in comparison with the Ni/Pd/SiO2 and Ni/Pd/Al2O3 catalysts. Their activity depends on the ozone decomposition potential of the catalysts because of generating oxidizing active species. The sample with the highest ozone decomposition ability which correlated to the surface area of the support oxidizes benzene to the highest extent.

Keywords: Ozone, catalysts, oxidation, Volatile organic compounds, VOCs.

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2309 In-situ Chemical Oxidation of Residual TCE by Permanganate in Epikarst

Authors: Nihat Hakan Akyol, Irfan Yolcubal

Abstract:

In-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) has been widely used for source zone remediation of Dense Nonaqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPLs) in subsurface environments. DNAPL source zones for karst aquifers are generally located in epikarst where the DNAPL mass is trapped either in karst soil or at the regolith contact with carbonate bedrock. This study aims to investigate the performance of oxidation of residual trichloroethylene found in such environments by potassium permanganate. Batch and flow cell experiments were conducted to determine the kinetics and the mass removal rate of TCE. pH change, Cl production, TCE and MnO4 destruction were monitored routinely during experiments. Nonreactive tracer tests were also conducted prior and after the oxidation process to determine the influence of oxidation on flow conditions. The results show that oxidant consumption rate of the calcareous epikarst soil was significant and the oxidant demand was determined to be 20 g KMnO4/kg soil. Oxidation rate of residual TCE (1.26x10-3 s-1) was faster than the oxidant consumption rate of the soil (2.54 - 2.92x10-4 s-1) at only high oxidant concentrations (> 40 mM KMnO4). Half life of TCE oxidation ranged from 7.9 to 10.7 min. Although highly significant fraction of residual TCE mass in the system was destroyed by permanganate oxidation, TCE concentration in the effluent remained above its MCL. Flow interruption tests indicate that efficiency of ISCO was limited by the rate of TCE dissolution and the rate-limited desorption of TCE. The residence time and the initial concentration of the oxidant in the source zone also controlled the efficiency of ISCO in epikarst.

Keywords: Epikarst, in-situ chemical oxidation, permanganate.

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2308 Preparation of Heterogeneous Ferrite Catalysts and Their Application for Fenton-Like Oxidation of Radioactive Organic Wastewater

Authors: Hsien T. Hsieh, Chao R. Chen, Li C. Chuang, Chin C. Shen

Abstract:

Fenton oxidation technology is the general strategy for the treatment of organic compounds-contained wastewater. However, a considerable amount of ferric sludge was produced during the Fenton process as secondary wastes, which were needed to be further removed from the effluent and treated. In this study, heterogeneous catalysts based on ferrite oxide (Cu-Fe-Ce-O) were synthesized and characterized, and their application for Fenton-like oxidation of simulated and actual radioactive organic wastewater was investigated. The results of TOC decomposition efficiency around 54% ~ 99% were obtained when the catalyst loading, H2O2 loading, pH, temperature, and reaction time were controlled. In this case, no secondary wastes formed and the given catalysts were able to be separated by magnetic devices and reused again.

Keywords: Fenton, oxidation, heterogeneous catalyst, wastewater.

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2307 Alumina Supported Copper-Manganese Catalysts for Combustion of Exhaust Gases: Catalysts Characterization

Authors: Krasimir I. Ivanov, Elitsa N. Kolentsova, Dimitar Y. Dimitrov, Georgi V. Avdeev, Tatyana T. Tabakova

Abstract:

In recent research copper and manganese systems were found to be the most active in CO and organic compounds oxidation among the base catalysts. The mixed copper manganese oxide has been widely studied in oxidation reactions because of their higher activity at low temperatures in comparison with single oxide catalysts. The results showed that the formation of spinel CuxMn3−xO4 in the oxidized catalyst is responsible for the activity even at room temperature. That is why the most of the investigations are focused on the hopcalite catalyst (CuMn2O4) as the best coppermanganese catalyst. Now it’s known that this is true only for CO oxidation, but not for mixture of CO and VOCs. The purpose of this study is to investigate the alumina supported copper-manganese catalysts with different Cu/Mn molar ratio in terms of oxidation of CO, methanol and dimethyl ether. The catalysts were prepared by impregnation of γ-Al2O3 with copper and manganese nitrates and the catalytic activity measurements were carried out in two stage continuous flow equipment with an adiabatic reactor for simultaneous oxidation of all compounds under the conditions closest possible to the industrial. Gas mixtures on the input and output of the reactor were analyzed with a gas chromatograph, equipped with FID and TCD detectors. The texture characteristics were determined by low-temperature (- 196oС) nitrogen adsorption in a Quantachrome Instruments NOVA 1200e (USA) specific surface area & pore analyzer. Thermal, XRD and TPR analyses were performed. It was established that the active component of the mixed Cu- Mn/γ–alumina catalysts strongly depends on the Cu/Mn molar ratio. Highly active alumina supported Cu-Mn catalysts for CO, methanol and DME oxidation were synthesized. While the hopcalite is the best catalyst for CO oxidation, the best compromise for simultaneous oxidation of all components is the catalyst with Cu/Mn molar ratio 1:5.

Keywords: Supported copper-manganese catalysts, CO and VOCs oxidation.

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2306 Low NOx Combustion Technology for Minimizing NOx

Authors: Sewon Kim, Changyeop Lee, Minjun Kwon

Abstract:

A noble low NOx combustion technology, based on partial oxidation combustion concept in a fuel rich combustion zone, is successfully applied in this research. The burner is designed such that a portion of fuel is heated and pre-vaporized in the furnace then injected into a fuel rich combustion zone so that a partial oxidation reaction occurs. The effects of equivalence ratio, thermal load, and fuel distribution ratio on the emissions of NOx and CO are experimentally investigated. This newly developed combustion technology showed very low NOx emission level, about 12 ppm, when light oil is used as a fuel.

Keywords: Burner, low NOx, liquid fuel, partial oxidation, fuel rich.

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2305 Investigation of Titanium Oxide Layer in Thermal-Electrochemical Anodizing of Ti6Al4V Alloy

Authors: Z. Abdolldhi, A. A. Ziaee M., A. Afshar

Abstract:

In this paper the combination of thermal oxidation and electrochemical anodizing processes is used to produce titanium oxide layers. The response of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V to oxidation processes at various temperatures and electrochemical anodizing in various voltages are investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM); X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and porosity determination have been used to characterize the oxide layer thickness, surface morphology, oxide layer-substrate adhesion and porosity. In the first experiment, samples modified by thermal oxidation process then followed by electrochemical anodizing. Second experiment consists of surfaces modified by electrochemical anodizing process and then followed by thermal oxidation. The first method shows better properties than other one. In second experiment, Surfaces modified were achieved by thicker and more adherent thick oxide layers on titanium surface. The existence of an electrochemical anodized oxide layer did not improve the adhesion of thermal oxide layer. The high temperature, thermal formation of an oxide layer leads to a coarse oxide grain morphology and a complete oxidative particle. In addition, in high temperature oxidation porosity content is increased. The oxide layer of thermal oxidation and electrochemical anodizing processes; on Ti–6Al–4V substrate was covered with different colored oxide layers.

Keywords: Electrochemically anodizing, Porosity, Thermaloxidation, Ti6Al4 alloy.

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2304 Application of Ti/RuO2-SnO2-Sb2O5 Anode for Degradation of Reactive Black-5 Dye

Authors: Jayesh P. Ruparelia, Bhavna D. Soni

Abstract:

Electrochemical-oxidation of Reactive Black-5 (RB- 5) was conducted for degradation using DSA type Ti/RuO2-SnO2- Sb2O5 electrode. In the study, for electro-oxidation, electrode was indigenously fabricated in laboratory using titanium as substrate. This substrate was coated using different metal oxides RuO2, Sb2O5 and SnO2 by thermal decomposition method. Laboratory scale batch reactor was used for degradation and decolorization studies at pH 2, 7 and 11. Current density (50mA/cm2) and distance between electrodes (8mm) were kept constant for all experiments. Under identical conditions, removal of color, COD and TOC at initial pH 2 was 99.40%, 55% and 37% respectively for initial concentration of 100 mg/L RB-5. Surface morphology and composition of the fabricated electrode coatings were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) respectively. Coating microstructure was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Results of this study further revealed that almost 90% of oxidation occurred within 5-10 minutes.

Keywords: Electrochemical-oxidation, RB- dye, Decolorization.

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2303 Synthesis and Application of an Organic Dye in Nanostructure Solar Cells Device

Authors: M. Hoseinnezhad, K. Gharanjig

Abstract:

Two organic dyes comprising carbazole as the electron donors and cyanoacetic acid moieties as the electron acceptors were synthesized. The organic dye was prepared by standard reaction from carbazole as the starting material. To this end, carbazole was reacted with bromobenzene and further oxidation and reacted with cyanoacetic acid. The obtained organic dye was purified and characterized using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1HNMR), carbon nuclear magnetic resonance (13CNMR) and elemental analysis. The influence of heteroatom on carbazole donors and cyno substitution on the acid acceptor is evidenced by spectral and electrochemical photovoltaic experiments. Finally, light fastness properties for organic dye were investigated.

Keywords: Dye-sensitized solar cells, Indoline dye, nanostructure, oxidation potential, solar energy.

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2302 Effect of Different Configurations of Mechanical Aerators on Oxygen Transfer and Aeration Efficiency with respect to Power Consumption

Authors: S.B. Thakre, L.B. Bhuyar, S.J. Deshmukh

Abstract:

This paper examines the use of mechanical aerator for oxidation-ditch process. The rotor, which controls the aeration, is the main component of the aeration process. Therefore, the objective of this study is to find out the variations in overall oxygen transfer coefficient (KLa) and aeration efficiency (AE) for different configurations of aerator by varying the parameters viz. speed of aerator, depth of immersion, blade tip angles so as to yield higher values of KLa and AE. Six different configurations of aerator were developed and fabricated in the laboratory and were tested for abovementioned parameters. The curved blade rotor (CBR) emerged as a potential aerator with blade tip angle of 47°. The mathematical models are developed for predicting the behaviour of CBR w.r.t kLa and power. In laboratory studies, the optimum value of KLa and AE were observed to be 10.33 h-1 and 2.269 kg O2/ kWh.

Keywords: Aerator, Aeration efficiency, Dissolve Oxygen, Overall oxygen transfer coefficient, Oxidation ditch.

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2301 A Review of Methanol Production from Methane Oxidation via Non-Thermal Plasma Reactor

Authors: M. Khoshtinat, N. A. S. Amin, I. Noshadi

Abstract:

Direct conversion of methane to methanol by partial oxidation in a thermal reactor has a poor yield of about 2% which is less than the expected economical yield of about 10%. Conventional thermal catalytic reactors have been proposed to be superseded by plasma reactors as a promising approach, due to strength of the electrical energy which can break C-H bonds of methane. Among the plasma techniques, non-thermal dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma chemical process is one of the most future promising technologies in synthesizing methanol. The purpose of this paper is presenting a brief review of CH4 oxidation with O2 in DBD plasma reactors based on the recent investigations. For this reason, the effect of various parameters of reactor configuration, feed ratio, applied voltage, residence time (gas flow rate), type of applied catalyst, pressure and reactor wall temperature on methane conversion and methanol selectivity are discussed.

Keywords: Dielectric barrier discharge, methane, methanol, partial oxidation, Plasma.

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2300 Oxidation of Amitriptyline by Bromamine-T in Acidic Buffer Medium: A Kinetic and Mechanistic Approach

Authors: Chandrashekar, R. T. Radhika, B. M. Venkatesha, S. Ananda, Shivalingegowda, T. S. Shashikumar, H. Ramachandra

Abstract:

The kinetics of the oxidation of amitriptyline (AT) by sodium N-bromotoluene sulphonamide (C6H5SO2NBrNa) has been studied in an acidic buffer medium of pH 1.2 at 303 K. The oxidation reaction of AT was followed spectrophotometrically at maximum wavelength, 410 nm. The reaction rate shows a first order dependence each on concentration of AT and concentration of sodium N-bromotoluene sulphonamide. The reaction also shows an inverse fractional order dependence at low or high concentration of HCl. The dielectric constant of the solvent shows negative effect on the rate of reaction. The addition of halide ions and the reduction product of BAT have no significant effect on the rate. The rate is unchanged with the variation in the ionic strength (NaClO4) of the medium. Addition of reaction mixtures to be aqueous acrylamide solution did not initiate polymerization, indicating the absence of free radical species. The stoichiometry of the reaction was found to be 1:1 and oxidation product of AT is identified. The Michaelis-Menton type of kinetics has been proposed. The CH3C6H5SO2NHBr has been assumed to be the reactive oxidizing species. Thermodynamical parameters were computed by studying the reactions at different temperatures. A mechanism consistent with observed kinetics is presented.

Keywords: Amitriptyline, bromamine-T, kinetics, oxidation.

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2299 Assessment of Sediment Remediation Potential using Microbial Fuel Cell Technology

Authors: S. W. Hong, Y. S. Choi, T. H. Chung, J. H. Song, H. S. Kim

Abstract:

Bio-electrical responses obtained from freshwater sediments by employing microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology were investigated in this experimental study. During the electricity generation, organic matter in the sediment was microbially oxidized under anaerobic conditions with an electrode serving as a terminal electron acceptor. It was found that the sediment organic matter (SOM) associated with electrochemically-active electrodes became more humified, aromatic, and polydispersed, and had a higher average molecular weight, together with the decrease in the quantity of SOM. The alteration of characteristics of the SOM was analogous to that commonly observed in the early stage of SOM diagenetic process (i.e., humification). These findings including an elevation of the sediment redox potential present a possibility of the MFC technology as a new soil/sediment remediation technique based on its potential benefits: non-destructive electricity generation and bioremediation.

Keywords: Anaerobic oxidation, microbial fuel cell, remediation, sediment.

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2298 Carbon-Based Electrochemical Detection of Pharmaceuticals from Water

Authors: M. Ardelean, F. Manea, A. Pop, J. Schoonman

Abstract:

The presence of pharmaceuticals in the environment and especially in water has gained increasing attention. They are included in emerging class of pollutants, and for most of them, legal limits have not been set-up due to their impact on human health and ecosystem was not determined and/or there is not the advanced analytical method for their quantification. In this context, the development of various advanced analytical methods for the quantification of pharmaceuticals in water is required. The electrochemical methods are known to exhibit the great potential for high-performance analytical methods but their performance is in direct relation to the electrode material and the operating techniques. In this study, two types of carbon-based electrodes materials, i.e., boron-doped diamond (BDD) and carbon nanofiber (CNF)-epoxy composite electrodes have been investigated through voltammetric techniques for the detection of naproxen in water. The comparative electrochemical behavior of naproxen (NPX) on both BDD and CNF electrodes was studied by cyclic voltammetry, and the well-defined peak corresponding to NPX oxidation was found for each electrode. NPX oxidation occurred on BDD electrode at the potential value of about +1.4 V/SCE (saturated calomel electrode) and at about +1.2 V/SCE for CNF electrode. The sensitivities for NPX detection were similar for both carbon-based electrode and thus, CNF electrode exhibited superiority in relation to the detection potential. Differential-pulsed voltammetry (DPV) and square-wave voltammetry (SWV) techniques were exploited to improve the electroanalytical performance for the NPX detection, and the best results related to the sensitivity of 9.959 µA·µM-1 were achieved using DPV. In addition, the simultaneous detection of NPX and fluoxetine -a very common antidepressive drug, also present in water, was studied using CNF electrode and very good results were obtained. The detection potential values that allowed a good separation of the detection signals together with the good sensitivities were appropriate for the simultaneous detection of both tested pharmaceuticals. These results reclaim CNF electrode as a valuable tool for the individual/simultaneous detection of pharmaceuticals in water.

Keywords: Boron-doped diamond electrode, carbon nanofiber-epoxy composite electrode, emerging pollutants, pharmaceuticals.

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2297 Evaluation of Physicochemical Pretreatment Methods on COD and Ammonia Removal from Landfill Leachate

Authors: M. Poveda, S. Lozecznik, J. Oleszkiewicz, Q. Yuan

Abstract:

The goal of this experiment is to evaluate the effectiveness of different leachate pre-treatment options in terms of COD and ammonia removal. This research focused on the evaluation of physical-chemical methods for pre-treatment of leachate that would be effective and rapid in order to satisfy the requirements of the sewer discharge by-laws. The four pre-treatment options evaluated were: air stripping, chemical coagulation, electrocoagulation and advanced oxidation with sodium ferrate. Chemical coagulation reported the best COD removal rate at 43%, compared to 18% for both air stripping and electro-coagulation, and 20% for oxidation with sodium ferrate. On the other hand, air stripping was far superior to the other treatment options in terms of ammonia removal with 86%. Oxidation with sodium ferrate reached only 16%, while chemical coagulation and electro-coagulation removed less than 10%. When combined, air stripping and chemical coagulation removed up to 50% COD and 85% ammonia.

Keywords: Leachate pretreatment, air stripping, chemical coagulation, electro-coagulation, oxidation.

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2296 Preparation and Evaluation of New Nanocatalysts for Selective Oxidation of H2S to Sulfur

Authors: Mohammad Rezaee, Mohammad Kazemeini, Ali Morad Rashidi, Moslem Fattahi

Abstract:

Selective oxidation of H2S to elemental sulfur in a fixed bed reactor over newly synthesized alumina nanocatalysts was physio-chemically investigated and results compared with a commercial Claus catalyst. Amongst these new materials, Al2O3- supported sodium oxide prepared with wet chemical technique and Al2O3 nanocatalyst prepared with spray pyrolysis method were the most active catalysts for selective oxidation of H2S to elemental sulfur. Other prepared nanocatalysts were quickly deactivated, mainly due to the interaction with H2S and conversion into sulfides.

Keywords: H2S, Claus process, Al2O3, Spray pyrolysis method, Wet chemical technique

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2295 Alumina Supported Cu-Mn-Cr Catalysts for CO and VOCs Oxidation

Authors: Krasimir I. Ivanov, Elitsa N. Kolentsova, Dimitar Y. Dimitrov, Petya Ts. Petrova, Tatyana T. Tabakova

Abstract:

This work studies the effect of chemical composition on the activity and selectivity of γ–alumina supported CuO/ MnO2/Cr2O3 catalysts toward deep oxidation of CO, dimethyl ether (DME) and methanol. The catalysts were prepared by impregnation of the support with an aqueous solution of copper nitrate, manganese nitrate and CrO3 under different conditions. Thermal, XRD and TPR analysis were performed. The catalytic measurements of single compounds oxidation were carried out on continuous flow equipment with a four-channel isothermal stainless steel reactor. Flow-line equipment with an adiabatic reactor for simultaneous oxidation of all compounds under the conditions that mimic closely the industrial ones was used. The reactant and product gases were analyzed by means of on-line gas chromatographs. On the basis of XRD analysis it can be concluded that the active component of the mixed Cu-Mn-Cr/γ–alumina catalysts consists of at least six compounds – CuO, Cr2O3, MnO2, Cu1.5Mn1.5O4, Cu1.5Cr1.5O4 and CuCr2O4, depending on the Cu/Mn/Cr molar ratio. Chemical composition strongly influences catalytic properties, this influence being quite variable with regards to the different processes. The rate of CO oxidation rapidly decrease with increasing of chromium content in the active component while for the DME was observed the reverse trend. It was concluded that the best compromise are the catalysts with Cu/(Mn + Cr) molar ratio 1:5 and Mn/Cr molar ratio from 1:3 to 1:4.

Keywords: Copper-manganese-chromium oxide catalysts, CO, deep oxidation, volatile organic compounds.

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