Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Search results for: air stripping

An Empirical Model to Calculate the Threads Stripping of a Bolt Installed in a Tapped Part

Authors: Manuel Martínez Martínez, Daniel Zavala Ríos

Abstract:

To determine the length of engagement threads of a bolt installed in a tapped part in order to avoid the threads stripping remains a very current problem in the design of the thread assemblies. It does not exist a calculation method formalized for the cases where the bolt is screwed directly in a ductile material. In this article, we study the behavior of the threads stripping of a loaded assembly by using a modelling by finite elements and a rupture criterion by damage. This modelling enables us to study the different parameters likely to influence the behavior of this bolted connection. We study in particular, the influence of couple of materials constituting the connection, of the bolt-s diameter and the geometrical characteristics of the tapped part, like the external diameter and the length of engagement threads. We established an experiments design to know the most significant parameters. That enables us to propose a simple expression making possible to calculate the resistance of the threads whatever the metallic materials of the bolt and the tapped part. We carried out stripping tests in order to validate our model. The estimated results are very close to those obtained by the tests.

Keywords: Bolt, damage, plasticity, stripping, thread assemblies.

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Removal of Volatile Organic Compounds from Contaminated Surfactant Solution using Co-Curren Vacuum Stripping

Authors: Pornchai Suriya-Amrit, Suratsawadee Kungsanant, Boonyarach Kitiyanan

Abstract:

There has been a growing interest in utilizing surfactants in remediation processes to separate the hydrophobic volatile organic compounds (HVOCs) from aqueous solution. One attractive process is cloud point extraction (CPE), which utilizes nonionic surfactants as a separating agent. Since the surfactant cost is a key determination of the economic viability of the process, it is important that the surfactants are recycled and reused. This work aims to study the performance of the co-current vacuum stripping using a packed column for HVOCs removal from contaminated surfactant solution. Six types HVOCs are selected as contaminants. The studied surfactant is the branched secondary alcohol ethoxylates (AEs), Tergitol TMN-6 (C14H30O2). The volatility and the solubility of HVOCs in surfactant system are determined in terms of an apparent Henry’s law constant and a solubilization constant, respectively. Moreover, the HVOCs removal efficiency of vacuum stripping column is assessed in terms of percentage of HVOCs removal and the overall liquid phase volumetric mass transfer coefficient. The apparent Henry’s law constant of benzenz , toluene, and ethyl benzene were 7.00×10-5, 5.38×10-5, 3.35× 10-5 respectively. The solubilization constant of benzene, toluene, and ethyl benzene were 1.71, 2.68, 7.54 respectively. The HVOCs removal for all solute were around 90 percent.

Keywords: Apparent Henry’s law constant, Branched secondary alcohol ethoxylates, Vacuum Stripping.

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Evaluation of Physicochemical Pretreatment Methods on COD and Ammonia Removal from Landfill Leachate

Authors: M. Poveda, S. Lozecznik, J. Oleszkiewicz, Q. Yuan

Abstract:

The goal of this experiment is to evaluate the effectiveness of different leachate pre-treatment options in terms of COD and ammonia removal. This research focused on the evaluation of physical-chemical methods for pre-treatment of leachate that would be effective and rapid in order to satisfy the requirements of the sewer discharge by-laws. The four pre-treatment options evaluated were: air stripping, chemical coagulation, electrocoagulation and advanced oxidation with sodium ferrate. Chemical coagulation reported the best COD removal rate at 43%, compared to 18% for both air stripping and electro-coagulation, and 20% for oxidation with sodium ferrate. On the other hand, air stripping was far superior to the other treatment options in terms of ammonia removal with 86%. Oxidation with sodium ferrate reached only 16%, while chemical coagulation and electro-coagulation removed less than 10%. When combined, air stripping and chemical coagulation removed up to 50% COD and 85% ammonia.

Keywords: Leachate pretreatment, air stripping, chemical coagulation, electro-coagulation, oxidation.

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Effect of Aggregate Gradation on Moisture Susceptibility and Creep in HMA

Authors: Haider H. Aodah, Yassir Nashaat A. Kareem, Satish Chandra

Abstract:

The present study explains the effect of aggregate gradation on moisture damage in bituminous mixes. Three types of aggregate gradation and two types of binder; VG-30 and Polymer modified bitumen (PMB-40) are used. Moisture susceptibility tests like retained stability and tensile strength ratio (TSR) and static creep test are conducted on Marshall specimens. The creep test was also conducted for conditioned and unconditioned specimens to observe the effect of moisture on creep behaviour. The results indicate that Marshall stability value is higher in PMB-40 mix than VG-30 mixes. Moisture susceptibility of PMB-40 mixes is low when compared with mix using VG-30. The reduction in retained stability, and indirect tensile strength and increase in creep are evaluated for finer, coarser and normal gradation of aggregate to observe the effect of gradation on moisture susceptibility of mixes. The retained stability is least affected when compared with other moisture susceptibility parameters

Keywords: Aggregate gradation, Creep ratio, Retained stability, Stripping, Tensile strength ratio.

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The Extraction and Stripping of Hg (II) from Produced Water via Hollow Fiber Contactor

Authors: Dolapop Sribudda, Ura Pancharoen

Abstract:

The separation of Hg (II) from produced water by hollow fiber contactors (HFC) was investigation. This system included of two hollow fiber modules in the series connecting. The first module used for the extraction reaction and the second module for stripping reaction. Aliquat336 extractant was fed from the organic reservoirs into the shell side of the first hollow fiber module and continuous to the shell side of the second module. The organic liquid was continuously feed recirculate and back to the reservoirs. The feed solution was pumped into the lumen (tube side) of the first hollow fiber module. Simultaneously, the stripping solution was pumped in the same way in tube side of the second module. The feed and stripping solution was fed which had a countercurrent flow. Samples were kept in the outlet of feed and stripping solution at 1 hour and characterized concentration of Hg (II) by Inductively Couple Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Feed solution was produced water from natural gulf of Thailand. The extractant was Aliquat336 dissolved in kerosene diluent. Stripping solution used was nitric acid (HNO3) and thiourea (NH2CSNH2). The effect of carrier concentration and type of stripping solution were investigated. Results showed that the best condition were 10 % (v/v) Aliquat336 and 1.0 M NH2CSNH2. At the optimum condition, the extraction and stripping of Hg (II) were 98% and 44.2%, respectively.

Keywords: Hg (II), hollow fiber contactor, produced water, wastewater treatment.

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