Search results for: knowledge required for parsing.
Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 3276

Search results for: knowledge required for parsing.

3276 Study of Syntactic Errors for Deep Parsing at Machine Translation

Authors: Yukiko Sasaki Alam, Shahid Alam

Abstract:

Syntactic parsing is vital for semantic treatment by many applications related to natural language processing (NLP), because form and content coincide in many cases. However, it has not yet reached the levels of reliable performance. By manually examining and analyzing individual machine translation output errors that involve syntax as well as semantics, this study attempts to discover what is required for improving syntactic and semantic parsing.

Keywords: Machine translation, error analysis, syntactic errors, knowledge required for parsing.

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3275 An Effective Framework for Chinese Syntactic Parsing

Authors: Xing Li, Chengqing Zong

Abstract:

This paper presents an effective framework for Chinesesyntactic parsing, which includes two parts. The first one is a parsing framework, which is based on an improved bottom-up chart parsingalgorithm, and integrates the idea of the beam search strategy of N bestalgorithm and heuristic function of A* algorithm for pruning, then get multiple parsing trees. The second is a novel evaluation model, which integrates contextual and partial lexical information into traditional PCFG model and defines a new score function. Using this model, the tree with the highest score is found out as the best parsing tree. Finally,the contrasting experiment results are given. Keywords?syntactic parsing, PCFG, pruning, evaluation model.

Keywords: syntactic parsing, PCFG, pruning, evaluation model.

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3274 Chinese Event Detection Technique Based on Dependency Parsing and Rule Matching

Authors: Weitao Lin

Abstract:

To quickly extract adequate information from large-scale unstructured text data, this paper studies the representation of events in Chinese scenarios and performs the regularized abstraction. It proposes a Chinese event detection technique based on dependency parsing and rule matching. The method first performs dependency parsing on the original utterance, then performs pattern matching at the word or phrase granularity based on the results of dependent syntactic analysis, filters out the utterances with prominent non-event characteristics, and obtains the final results. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the method.

Keywords: Natural Language Processing, Chinese event detection, rules matching, dependency parsing.

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3273 Structural Parsing of Natural Language Text in Tamil Using Phrase Structure Hybrid Language Model

Authors: Selvam M, Natarajan. A M, Thangarajan R

Abstract:

Parsing is important in Linguistics and Natural Language Processing to understand the syntax and semantics of a natural language grammar. Parsing natural language text is challenging because of the problems like ambiguity and inefficiency. Also the interpretation of natural language text depends on context based techniques. A probabilistic component is essential to resolve ambiguity in both syntax and semantics thereby increasing accuracy and efficiency of the parser. Tamil language has some inherent features which are more challenging. In order to obtain the solutions, lexicalized and statistical approach is to be applied in the parsing with the aid of a language model. Statistical models mainly focus on semantics of the language which are suitable for large vocabulary tasks where as structural methods focus on syntax which models small vocabulary tasks. A statistical language model based on Trigram for Tamil language with medium vocabulary of 5000 words has been built. Though statistical parsing gives better performance through tri-gram probabilities and large vocabulary size, it has some disadvantages like focus on semantics rather than syntax, lack of support in free ordering of words and long term relationship. To overcome the disadvantages a structural component is to be incorporated in statistical language models which leads to the implementation of hybrid language models. This paper has attempted to build phrase structured hybrid language model which resolves above mentioned disadvantages. In the development of hybrid language model, new part of speech tag set for Tamil language has been developed with more than 500 tags which have the wider coverage. A phrase structured Treebank has been developed with 326 Tamil sentences which covers more than 5000 words. A hybrid language model has been trained with the phrase structured Treebank using immediate head parsing technique. Lexicalized and statistical parser which employs this hybrid language model and immediate head parsing technique gives better results than pure grammar and trigram based model.

Keywords: Hybrid Language Model, Immediate Head Parsing, Lexicalized and Statistical Parsing, Natural Language Processing, Parts of Speech, Probabilistic Context Free Grammar, Tamil Language, Tree Bank.

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3272 Thematic Role Extraction Using Shallow Parsing

Authors: Mehrnoush Shamsfard, Maryam Sadr Mousavi

Abstract:

Extracting thematic (semantic) roles is one of the major steps in representing text meaning. It refers to finding the semantic relations between a predicate and syntactic constituents in a sentence. In this paper we present a rule-based approach to extract semantic roles from Persian sentences. The system exploits a twophase architecture to (1) identify the arguments and (2) label them for each predicate. For the first phase we developed a rule based shallow parser to chunk Persian sentences and for the second phase we developed a knowledge-based system to assign 16 selected thematic roles to the chunks. The experimental results of testing each phase are shown at the end of the paper.

Keywords: Natural Language Processing, Semantic RoleLabeling, Shallow parsing, Thematic Roles.

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3271 Greek Compounds: A Challenging Case for the Parsing Techniques of PC-KIMMO v.2

Authors: Angela Ralli, Eleni Galiotou

Abstract:

In this paper we describe the recognition process of Greek compound words using the PC-KIMMO software. We try to show certain limitations of the system with respect to the principles of compound formation in Greek. Moreover, we discuss the computational processing of phenomena such as stress and syllabification which are indispensable for the analysis of such constructions and we try to propose linguistically-acceptable solutions within the particular system.

Keywords: Morpho-phonological parsing, compound words, two-level morphology, natural language processing.

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3270 Syntactic Recognition of Distorted Patterns

Authors: Marek Skomorowski

Abstract:

In syntactic pattern recognition a pattern can be represented by a graph. Given an unknown pattern represented by a graph g, the problem of recognition is to determine if the graph g belongs to a language L(G) generated by a graph grammar G. The so-called IE graphs have been defined in [1] for a description of patterns. The IE graphs are generated by so-called ETPL(k) graph grammars defined in [1]. An efficient, parsing algorithm for ETPL(k) graph grammars for syntactic recognition of patterns represented by IE graphs has been presented in [1]. In practice, structural descriptions may contain pattern distortions, so that the assignment of a graph g, representing an unknown pattern, to a graph language L(G) generated by an ETPL(k) graph grammar G is rejected by the ETPL(k) type parsing. Therefore, there is a need for constructing effective parsing algorithms for recognition of distorted patterns. The purpose of this paper is to present a new approach to syntactic recognition of distorted patterns. To take into account all variations of a distorted pattern under study, a probabilistic description of the pattern is needed. A random IE graph approach is proposed here for such a description ([2]).

Keywords: Syntactic pattern recognition, Distorted patterns, Random graphs, Graph grammars.

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3269 Syntax Sensitive and Language Independent Detection of Code Clones

Authors: Kazuaki Maeda

Abstract:

This paper proposes a new technique to detect code clones from the lexical and syntactic point of view, which is based on PALEX source code representation. The PALEX code contains the recorded parsing actions and also lexical formatting information including white spaces and comments. We can record a list of parsing actions (shift, reduce, and reading a token) during a compiling process after a compiler finishes analyzing the source code. The proposed technique has advantages for syntax sensitive approach and language independency.

Keywords: Code Clones, Source Code Representation, XML, Parser, Parser Generator

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3268 Pattern Matching Based on Regular Tree Grammars

Authors: Riad S. Jabri

Abstract:

Pattern matching based on regular tree grammars have been widely used in many areas of computer science. In this paper, we propose a pattern matcher within the framework of code generation, based on a generic and a formalized approach. According to this approach, parsers for regular tree grammars are adapted to a general pattern matching solution, rather than adapting the pattern matching according to their parsing behavior. Hence, we first formalize the construction of the pattern matches respective to input trees drawn from a regular tree grammar in a form of the so-called match trees. Then, we adopt a recently developed generic parser and tightly couple its parsing behavior with such construction. In addition to its generality, the resulting pattern matcher is characterized by its soundness and efficient implementation. This is demonstrated by the proposed theory and by the derived algorithms for its implementation. A comparison with similar and well-known approaches, such as the ones based on tree automata and LR parsers, has shown that our pattern matcher can be applied to a broader class of grammars, and achieves better approximation of pattern matches in one pass. Furthermore, its use as a machine code selector is characterized by a minimized overhead, due to the balanced distribution of the cost computations into static ones, during parser generation time, and into dynamic ones, during parsing time.

Keywords: Bottom-up automata, Code selection, Pattern matching, Regular tree grammars, Match trees.

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3267 Facilitating Cooperative Knowledge Support by Role-Based Knowledge-Flow Views

Authors: Chih-Wei Lin, Duen-Ren Liu, Hui-Fang Chen

Abstract:

Effective knowledge support relies on providing operation-relevant knowledge to workers promptly and accurately. A knowledge flow represents an individual-s or a group-s knowledge-needs and referencing behavior of codified knowledge during operation performance. The flow has been utilized to facilitate organizational knowledge support by illustrating workers- knowledge-needs systematically and precisely. However, conventional knowledge-flow models cannot work well in cooperative teams, which team members usually have diverse knowledge-needs in terms of roles. The reason is that those models only provide one single view to all participants and do not reflect individual knowledge-needs in flows. Hence, we propose a role-based knowledge-flow view model in this work. The model builds knowledge-flow views (or virtual knowledge flows) by creating appropriate virtual knowledge nodes and generalizing knowledge concepts to required concept levels. The customized views could represent individual role-s knowledge-needs in teamwork context. The novel model indicates knowledge-needs in condensed representation from a roles perspective and enhances the efficiency of cooperative knowledge support in organizations.

Keywords: cooperative knowledge support, knowledge flow, knowledge-flow view, role-based models

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3266 Natural Language Database Interface for Selection of Data Using Grammar and Parsing

Authors: N. D. Karande, G. A. Patil

Abstract:

Databases have become ubiquitous. Almost all IT applications are storing into and retrieving information from databases. Retrieving information from the database requires knowledge of technical languages such as Structured Query Language (SQL). However majority of the users who interact with the databases do not have a technical background and are intimidated by the idea of using languages such as SQL. This has led to the development of a few Natural Language Database Interfaces (NLDBIs). A NLDBI allows the user to query the database in a natural language. This paper highlights on architecture of new NLDBI system, its implementation and discusses on results obtained. In most of the typical NLDBI systems the natural language statement is converted into an internal representation based on the syntactic and semantic knowledge of the natural language. This representation is then converted into queries using a representation converter. A natural language query is translated to an equivalent SQL query after processing through various stages. The work has been experimented on primitive database queries with certain constraints.

Keywords: Natural language database interface, representation converter, syntactic and semantic knowledge

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3265 Web portal As A Knowledge Management System In The Universities

Authors: Marjan Mansourvar, Norizan Mohd Yasin

Abstract:

The development of Web has affected different aspects of our lives, such as communication, sharing knowledge, searching for jobs, social activities, etc. The web portal as a gateway in the World Wide Web is a starting point for people who are connecting to the Internet. The web portal as the type of knowledge management system provides a rich space to share and search information as well as communication services like free email or content provision for the users. This research aims to discover the university needs to the web portal as a necessary tool for students in the universities to help them in getting the required information. A survey was conducted to gather students' requirements which can be incorporated in to portal to be developed.

Keywords: Knowledge, Knowledge management system, Knowledge sharing, web portal.

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3264 Multi Task Scheme to Monitor Multivariate Environments Using Artificial Neural Network

Authors: K. Atashgar

Abstract:

When an assignable cause(s) manifests itself to a multivariate process and the process shifts to an out-of-control condition, a root-cause analysis should be initiated by quality engineers to identify and eliminate the assignable cause(s) affected the process. A root-cause analysis in a multivariate process is more complex compared to a univariate process. In the case of a process involved several correlated variables an effective root-cause analysis can be only experienced when it is possible to identify the required knowledge including the out-of-control condition, the change point, and the variable(s) responsible to the out-of-control condition, all simultaneously. Although literature addresses different schemes to monitor multivariate processes, one can find few scientific reports focused on all the required knowledge. To the best of the author’s knowledge this is the first time that a multi task model based on artificial neural network (ANN) is reported to monitor all the required knowledge at the same time for a multivariate process with more than two correlated quality characteristics. The performance of the proposed scheme is evaluated numerically when different step shifts affect the mean vector. Average run length is used to investigate the performance of the proposed multi task model. The simulated results indicate the multi task scheme performs all the required knowledge effectively.

Keywords: Artificial neural network, Multivariate process, Statistical process control, Change point.

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3263 Deep Web Content Mining

Authors: Shohreh Ajoudanian, Mohammad Davarpanah Jazi

Abstract:

The rapid expansion of the web is causing the constant growth of information, leading to several problems such as increased difficulty of extracting potentially useful knowledge. Web content mining confronts this problem gathering explicit information from different web sites for its access and knowledge discovery. Query interfaces of web databases share common building blocks. After extracting information with parsing approach, we use a new data mining algorithm to match a large number of schemas in databases at a time. Using this algorithm increases the speed of information matching. In addition, instead of simple 1:1 matching, they do complex (m:n) matching between query interfaces. In this paper we present a novel correlation mining algorithm that matches correlated attributes with smaller cost. This algorithm uses Jaccard measure to distinguish positive and negative correlated attributes. After that, system matches the user query with different query interfaces in special domain and finally chooses the nearest query interface with user query to answer to it.

Keywords: Content mining, complex matching, correlation mining, information extraction.

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3262 Knowledge Based Model for Power Transformer Life Cycle Management Using Knowledge Engineering

Authors: S. S. Bhandari, N. Chakpitak, K. Meksamoot, T. Chandarasupsang

Abstract:

Under the limitation of investment budget, a utility company is required to maximize the utilization of their existing assets during their life cycle satisfying both engineering and financial requirements. However, utility does not have knowledge about the status of each asset in the portfolio neither in terms of technical nor financial values. This paper presents a knowledge based model for the utility companies in order to make an optimal decision on power transformer with their utilization. CommonKADS methodology, a structured development for knowledge and expertise representation, is utilized for designing and developing knowledge based model. A case study of One MVA power transformer of Nepal Electricity Authority is presented. The results show that the reusable knowledge can be categorized, modeled and utilized within the utility company using the proposed methodologies. Moreover, the results depict that utility company can achieve both engineering and financial benefits from its utilization.

Keywords: CommonKADS, Knowledge Engineering, LifeCycle Management, Power Transformer.

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3261 A Game-Based Product Modelling Environment for Non-Engineer

Authors: Guolong Zhong, Venkatesh Chennam Vijay, Ilias Oraifige

Abstract:

In the last 20 years, Knowledge Based Engineering (KBE) has shown its advantages in product development in different engineering areas such as automation, mechanical, civil and aerospace engineering in terms of digital design automation and cost reduction by automating repetitive design tasks through capturing, integrating, utilising and reusing the existing knowledge required in various aspects of the product design. However, in primary design stages, the descriptive information of a product is discrete and unorganized while knowledge is in various forms instead of pure data. Thus, it is crucial to have an integrated product model which can represent the entire product information and its associated knowledge at the beginning of the product design. One of the shortcomings of the existing product models is a lack of required knowledge representation in various aspects of product design and its mapping to an interoperable schema. To overcome the limitation of the existing product model and methodologies, two key factors are considered. First, the product model must have well-defined classes that can represent the entire product information and its associated knowledge. Second, the product model needs to be represented in an interoperable schema to ensure a steady data exchange between different product modelling platforms and CAD software. This paper introduced a method to provide a general product model as a generative representation of a product, which consists of the geometry information and non-geometry information, through a product modelling framework. The proposed method for capturing the knowledge from the designers through a knowledge file provides a simple and efficient way of collecting and transferring knowledge. Further, the knowledge schema provides a clear view and format on the data that needed to be gathered in order to achieve a unified knowledge exchange between different platforms. This study used a game-based platform to make product modelling environment accessible for non-engineers. Further the paper goes on to test use case based on the proposed game-based product modelling environment to validate the effectiveness among non-engineers.

Keywords: Game-based learning, knowledge based engineering, product modelling, design automation.

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3260 Knowledge Management Strategies within a Corporate Environment of Papers

Authors: Daniel J. Glauber

Abstract:

Knowledge transfer between personnel could benefit an organization’s improved competitive advantage in the marketplace from a strategic approach to knowledge management. The lack of information sharing between personnel could create knowledge transfer gaps while restricting the decision-making processes. Knowledge transfer between personnel can potentially improve information sharing based on an implemented knowledge management strategy. An organization’s capacity to gain more knowledge is aligned with the organization’s prior or existing captured knowledge. This case study attempted to understand the overall influence of a KMS within the corporate environment and knowledge exchange between personnel. The significance of this study was to help understand how organizations can improve the Return on Investment (ROI) of a knowledge management strategy within a knowledge-centric organization. A qualitative descriptive case study was the research design selected for this study. The lack of information sharing between personnel may create knowledge transfer gaps while restricting the decision-making processes. Developing a knowledge management strategy acceptable at all levels of the organization requires cooperation in support of a common organizational goal. Working with management and executive members to develop a protocol where knowledge transfer becomes a standard practice in multiple tiers of the organization. The knowledge transfer process could be measurable when focusing on specific elements of the organizational process, including personnel transition to help reduce time required understanding the job. The organization studied in this research acknowledged the need for improved knowledge management activities within the organization to help organize, retain, and distribute information throughout the workforce. Data produced from the study indicate three main themes including information management, organizational culture, and knowledge sharing within the workforce by the participants. These themes indicate a possible connection between an organizations KMS, the organizations culture, knowledge sharing, and knowledge transfer.

Keywords: Knowledge management strategies, knowledge transfer, knowledge management, knowledge capacity.

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3259 Knowledge Relationship Model among User in Virtual Community

Authors: Fariba Haghbin, Othman Bin Ibrahim, Mohammad Reza Attarzadeh Niaki

Abstract:

With the development of virtual communities, there is an increase in the number of members in Virtual Communities (VCs). Many join VCs with the objective of sharing their knowledge and seeking knowledge from others. Despite the eagerness of sharing knowledge and receiving knowledge through VCs, there is no standard of assessing ones knowledge sharing capabilities and prospects of knowledge sharing. This paper developed a vector space model to assess the knowledge sharing prospect of VC users.

Keywords: Knowledge sharing network, Virtual community, knowledge relationship, Vector Space Model.

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3258 Analysis of Investment in Knowledge inside OECD Countries

Authors: JunSeok Hwang, Mohsen Gerami

Abstract:

Knowledge is the foundation for growth and development. Investment in knowledge improves new method for originate knowledge society and knowledge economy. Investment in knowledge embraces expenditure on education and R&D and software. Measuring of investment in knowledge is characteristically complicated. We examine the influence of investment in knowledge in multifactor productivity growth and numbers of patent. We analyze the annual growth of investment in knowledge and we estimate portion of each country intended for produce total investment in knowledge on the whole OECD. We determine the relative efficiency of average patent numbers with average investment in knowledge and we compare GDP growth rates and growth of knowledge investment. The main purpose in this paper is to study to evaluate different aspect, influence and output of investment in knowledge in OECD countries.

Keywords: Knowledge, GDP, Multifactor productivity, Investment, efficiency.

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3257 An Owl Ontology for Commonkads Template Knowledge Models

Authors: B. A. Gobin, R. K. Subramanian

Abstract:

This paper gives an overview of how an OWL ontology has been created to represent template knowledge models defined in CML that are provided by CommonKADS. CommonKADS is a mature knowledge engineering methodology which proposes the use of template knowledge model for knowledge modelling. The aim of developing this ontology is to present the template knowledge model in a knowledge representation language that can be easily understood and shared in the knowledge engineering community. Hence OWL is used as it has become a standard for ontology and also it already has user friendly tools for viewing and editing.

Keywords: Ontology, OWL, Template Knowledge Models, CommonKADS

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3256 Knowledge Modelling for a Hotel Recommendation System

Authors: B. A. Gobin, R. K. Subramanian

Abstract:

Knowledge modelling, a main activity for the development of Knowledge Based Systems, have no set standards and are mostly done in an ad hoc way. There is a lack of support for the transition from abstract level to implementation. In this paper, a methodology for the development of the knowledge model, which is inspired by both Software and Knowledge Engineering, is proposed. Use of UML which is the de-facto standard for modelling in the software engineering arena is explored for knowledge modelling. The methodology proposed, is used to develop a knowledge model of a knowledge based system for recommending suitable hotels for tourists visiting Mauritius.

Keywords: Domain Modelling, Knowledge Based Systems, Knowledge Modelling, UML.

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3255 Knowledge Management Model for Modern Retail Business: A Conceptual Framework

Authors: M. W. Yip, H. H. Ng, S. Din, N. Abu Bakar

Abstract:

This paper reviewed the relationships between the Knowledge Management (KM) activities and its perceived benefits in the knowledge based organisations. KM activities include: knowledge identification, knowledge acquisition, knowledge application, knowledge sharing, knowledge creation and knowledge preservation. And the perceived benefits of KM are fast customer responsiveness, operation excellence and high innovative intensity.  Based on the above review, a conceptual framework for KM implementation in retail business organisations has been proposed. Finally the paper forwarded some limitations of the framework and based on which, directions for future research had been suggested.

Keywords: Knowledge Management, Knowledge Management Activities, Retail Business, Knowledge Economy.

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3254 Eliciting and Confirming Data, Information, Knowledge and Wisdom in a Specialist Health Care Setting: The WICKED Method

Authors: S. Impey, D. Berry, S. Furtado, M. Galvin, L. Grogan, O. Hardiman, L. Hederman, M. Heverin, V. Wade, L. Douris, D. O'Sullivan, G. Stephens

Abstract:

Healthcare is a knowledge-rich environment. This knowledge, while valuable, is not always accessible outside the borders of individual clinics. This research aims to address part of this problem (at a study site) by constructing a maximal data set (knowledge artefact) for motor neurone disease (MND). This data set is proposed as an initial knowledge base for a concurrent project to develop an MND patient data platform. It represents the domain knowledge at the study site for the duration of the research (12 months). A knowledge elicitation method was also developed from the lessons learned during this process - the WICKED method. WICKED is an anagram of the words: eliciting and confirming data, information, knowledge, wisdom. But it is also a reference to the concept of wicked problems, which are complex and challenging, as is eliciting expert knowledge. The method was evaluated at a second site, and benefits and limitations were noted. Benefits include that the method provided a systematic way to manage data, information, knowledge and wisdom (DIKW) from various sources, including healthcare specialists and existing data sets. Limitations surrounded the time required and how the data set produced only represents DIKW known during the research period. Future work is underway to address these limitations.

Keywords: Healthcare, knowledge acquisition, maximal data sets, action design science.

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3253 Knowledge Management as Tool for Environmental Management System Implementation in Higher Education Institutions

Authors: Natalia Marulanda Grisales

Abstract:

The most significant changes in the characteristics of consumers have contributed to the development and adoption of methodologies and tools that enable organizations to be more competitive in the marketplace. One of these methodologies is the integration of Knowledge Management (KM) phases and Environmental Management Systems (EMS). This integration allows companies to manage and share the required knowledge for EMS adoption, from the place where it is generated to the place where it is going to be exploited. The aim of this paper is to identify the relationship between KM phases as a tool for the adoption of EMS in HEI. The methodology has a descriptive scope and a qualitative approach. It is based on a case study and a review of the literature about KM and EMS. We conducted 266 surveys to students, professors and staff at Minuto de Dios University (Colombia). Data derived from the study indicate that if a HEI wants to achieve an adequate knowledge acquisition and knowledge transfer, it must have clear goals for implementing an EMS. Also, HEI should create empowerment and training spaces for students, professors and staff. In the case study, HEI must generate alternatives that enhance spaces of knowledge appropriation. It was found that 85% of respondents have not received any training from HEI about EMS. 88% of respondents believe that the actions taken by the university are not efficient to knowledge transfer in order to develop an EMS.

Keywords: Environmental management systems, higher education institutions, knowledge management. training.

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3252 The Effect of Social Capital on Creativity in Information Systems Development Projects: The Mediating Effect of Knowledge Integration

Authors: Hsiu-Hua Cheng

Abstract:

This study analyzed the creativity of student teams participating in an exploratory information system development project (ISDP) and examined antecedents of their creativity. By using partial least squares (PLS) to analyze a sample of thirty-six teams enrolled in an information system department project training course that required three semesters of project-based lessons, the results found social capitals (structural, relational and cognitive social capital) positively influence knowledge integration. However, relational social capital does not significantly influence knowledge integration. Knowledge integration positively affects team creativity. This study also demonstrated that social capitals significantly influence team creativity through knowledge integration. The implications of our findings for future research are discussed.

Keywords: Information system development project (ISDP), Social capital, Knowledge integration, Team creativity.

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3251 Courses Pre-Required Visualization Using Force Directed Placement Technique

Authors: Imen Ammari, Mourad Elloumi, Ala Eddine Barouni

Abstract:

Visualizing “Courses – Pre – Required - Architecture" on the screen has proven to be useful and helpful for university actors and specially for students. In fact, these students can easily identify courses and their pre required, perceive the courses to follow in the future, and then can choose rapidly the appropriate course to register in. Given a set of courses and their prerequired, we present an algorithm for visualization a graph entitled “Courses-Pre-Required-Graph" that present courses and their prerequired in order to help students to recognize, lonely, what courses to take in the future and perceive the contain of all courses that they will study. Our algorithm using “Force Directed Placement" technique visualizes the “Courses-Pre-Required-Graph" in such way that courses are easily identifiable. The time complexity of our drawing algorithm is O (n2), where n is the number of courses in the “Courses-Pre-Required-Graph".

Keywords: Courses–Pre-Required-Architecture, Courses-Pre- Required-Graph, Courses-Pre-Required-Visualization, Force directed Placement, Resolution.

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3250 Barriers to Knowledge Management: A Theoretical Framework and a Review of Industrial Cases

Authors: Chihab BenMoussa

Abstract:

Firms have invested heavily in knowledge management (KM) with the aim to build a knowledge capability and use it to achieve a competitive advantage. Research has shown, however, that not all knowledge management projects succeed. Some studies report that about 84% of knowledge management projects fail. This paper has integrated studies on the impediments to knowledge management into a theoretical framework. Based on this framework, five cases documenting failed KM initiatives were analysed. The analysis gave us a clear picture about why certain KM projects fail. The high failure rate of KM can be explained by the gaps that exist between users and management in terms of KM perceptions and objectives

Keywords: Knowledge management, barriers to knowledge management, Knowledge-gaps, supply-driven approach to knowledge management.

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3249 The Use Management of the Knowledge Management and the Information Technologies in the Competitive Strategy of a Self-Propelling Industry

Authors: Guerrero Ramírez Sandra, Ramos Salinas Norma Maricela, Muriel Amezcua Vanesa

Abstract:

This article presents the beginning of a wider study that intends to demonstrate how within organizations of the automotive industry from the city of Querétaro. Knowledge management and technological management are required, as well as people’s initiative and the interaction embedded at the interior of it, with the appropriate environment that facilitates information conversion with wide information technologies management (ITM) range. A company was identified for the pilot study of this research, where descriptive and inferential research information was obtained. The results of the pilot suggest that some respondents did noted entity the knowledge management topic, even if staffs have access to information technology (IT) that serve to enhance access to knowledge (through internet, email, databases, external and internal company personnel, suppliers, customers and competitors) data, this implicates that there are Knowledge Management (KM) problems. The data shows that academically well-prepared organizations normally do not recognize the importance of knowledge in the business, nor in the implementation of it, which at the end is a great influence on how to manage it, so that it should guide the company to greater in sight towards a competitive strategy search, given that the company has an excellent technological infrastructure and KM was not exploited. Cultural diversity is another factor that was observed by the staff.

Keywords: Knowledge management, technological knowledge management, technology information management.

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3248 Corporate Knowledge Communication and Knowledge Communication Difficulties

Authors: H. Buluthan Cetintas, M. Nejat Ozupek

Abstract:

Communication is an important factor and a prop in directing corporate activities efficiently, in ensuring the flow of knowledge which is necessary for the continuity of the institution, in creating a common language in the institution, in transferring corporate culture and ultimately in corporate success. The idea of transmitting the knowledge among the workers in a healthy manner has revived knowledge communication. Knowledge communication can be defined as the act of mutual creation and communication of intuitions, assessments, experiences and capabilities, as long as maintained effectively, can provide advantages such as corporate continuity, access to corporate objectives and making true administrative decisions. Although the benefits of the knowledge communication to corporations are known, and the necessary worth and care is given, some hardships may arise which makes it difficult or even block it. In this article, difficulties that prevent knowledge communication will be discussed and solutions will be proposed.

Keywords: Corporate knowledge communication, knowledge communication, knowledge communication barriers

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3247 Modeling of Knowledge-Intensive Business Processes

Authors: Eckhard M. Ammann

Abstract:

Knowledge development in companies relies on knowledge-intensive business processes, which are characterized by a high complexity in their execution, weak structuring, communication-oriented tasks and high decision autonomy, and often the need for creativity and innovation. A foundation of knowledge development is provided, which is based on a new conception of knowledge and knowledge dynamics. This conception consists of a three-dimensional model of knowledge with types, kinds and qualities. Built on this knowledge conception, knowledge dynamics is modeled with the help of general knowledge conversions between knowledge assets. Here knowledge dynamics is understood to cover all of acquisition, conversion, transfer, development and usage of knowledge. Through this conception we gain a sound basis for knowledge management and development in an enterprise. Especially the type dimension of knowledge, which categorizes it according to its internality and externality with respect to the human being, is crucial for enterprise knowledge management and development, because knowledge should be made available by converting it to more external types. Built on this conception, a modeling approach for knowledgeintensive business processes is introduced, be it human-driven,e-driven or task-driven processes. As an example for this approach, a model of the creative activity for the renewal planning of a product is given.

Keywords: Conception of knowledge, knowledge dynamics, modeling notation, knowledge-intensive business processes.

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