Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 522

Search results for: hydraulic form loss coefficient

522 Effect of Modeling of Hydraulic Form Loss Coefficient to Break on Emergency Core Coolant Bypass

Authors: Young S. Bang, Dong H. Yoon, Seung H. Yoo

Abstract:

Emergency Core Coolant Bypass (ECC Bypass) has been regarded as an important phenomenon to peak cladding temperature of large-break loss-of-coolant-accidents (LBLOCA) in nuclear power plants (NPP). A modeling scheme to address the ECC Bypass phenomena and the calculation of LBLOCA using that scheme are discussed in the present paper. A hydraulic form loss coefficient (HFLC) from the reactor vessel downcomer to the broken cold leg is predicted by the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code with a variation of the void fraction incoming from the downcomer. The maximum, mean, and minimum values of FLC are derived from the CFD results and are incorporated into the LBLOCA calculation using a system thermal-hydraulic code, MARS-KS. As a relevant parameter addressing the ECC Bypass phenomena, the FLC to the break and its range are proposed.

Keywords: CFD analysis, ECC Bypass, hydraulic form loss coefficient, system thermal-hydraulic code.

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521 Energy Loss at Drops using Neuro Solutions

Authors: Farzin Salmasi

Abstract:

Energy dissipation in drops has been investigated by physical models. After determination of effective parameters on the phenomenon, three drops with different heights have been constructed from Plexiglas. They have been installed in two existing flumes in the hydraulic laboratory. Several runs of physical models have been undertaken to measured required parameters for determination of the energy dissipation. Results showed that the energy dissipation in drops depend on the drop height and discharge. Predicted relative energy dissipations varied from 10.0% to 94.3%. This work has also indicated that the energy loss at drop is mainly due to the mixing of the jet with the pool behind the jet that causes air bubble entrainment in the flow. Statistical model has been developed to predict the energy dissipation in vertical drops denotes nonlinear correlation between effective parameters. Further an artificial neural networks (ANNs) approach was used in this paper to develop an explicit procedure for calculating energy loss at drops using NeuroSolutions. Trained network was able to predict the response with R2 and RMSE 0.977 and 0.0085 respectively. The performance of ANN was found effective when compared to regression equations in predicting the energy loss.

Keywords: Air bubble, drop, energy loss, hydraulic jump, NeuroSolutions

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520 Estimation of the Upper Tail Dependence Coefficient for Insurance Loss Data Using an Empirical Copula-Based Approach

Authors: Adrian O’Hagan, Robert McLoughlin

Abstract:

Considerable focus in the world of insurance risk quantification is placed on modeling loss values from lines of business (LOBs) that possess upper tail dependence. Copulas such as the Joe, Gumbel and Student-t copula may be used for this purpose. The copula structure imparts a desired level of tail dependence on the joint distribution of claims from the different LOBs. Alternatively, practitioners may possess historical or simulated data that already exhibit upper tail dependence, through the impact of catastrophe events such as hurricanes or earthquakes. In these circumstances, it is not desirable to induce additional upper tail dependence when modeling the joint distribution of the loss values from the individual LOBs. Instead, it is of interest to accurately assess the degree of tail dependence already present in the data. The empirical copula and its associated upper tail dependence coefficient are presented in this paper as robust, efficient means of achieving this goal.

Keywords: Empirical copula, extreme events, insurance loss reserving, upper tail dependence coefficient.

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519 Calculation Analysis of an Axial Compressor Supersonic Stage Impeller

Authors: Y. B. Galerkin, E. Y. Popova, K. V. Soldatova

Abstract:

There is an evident trend to elevate pressure ratio of a single stage of a turbo compressors - axial compressors in particular. Whilst there was an opinion recently that a pressure ratio 1,9 was a reasonable limit, later appeared information on successful modeling tested of stages with pressure ratio up to 2,8. The authors recon that lack of information on high pressure stages makes actual a study of rational choice of design parameters before high supersonic flow problems solving. The computer program of an engineering type was developed. Below is presented a sample of its application to study possible parameters of the impeller of the stage with pressure ratio 3,0. Influence of two main design parameters on expected efficiency, periphery blade speed and flow structure is demonstrated. The results had lead to choose a variant for further analysis and improvement by CFD methods.

Keywords: Supersonic stage, impeller, efficiency, flow rate coefficient, work coefficient, loss coefficient, oblique shock, direct shock.

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518 CFD Prediction of the Round Elbow Fitting Loss Coefficient

Authors: Ana Paula P. dos Santos, Claudia R. Andrade, Edson L. Zaparoli

Abstract:

Pressure loss in ductworks is an important factor to be considered in design of engineering systems such as power-plants, refineries, HVAC systems to reduce energy costs. Ductwork can be composed by straight ducts and different types of fittings (elbows, transitions, converging and diverging tees and wyes). Duct fittings are significant sources of pressure loss in fluid distribution systems. Fitting losses can be even more significant than equipment components such as coils, filters, and dampers. At the present work, a conventional 90o round elbow under turbulent incompressible airflow is studied. Mass, momentum, and k-e turbulence model equations are solved employing the finite volume method. The SIMPLE algorithm is used for the pressure-velocity coupling. In order to validate the numerical tool, the elbow pressure loss coefficient is determined using the same conditions to compare with ASHRAE database. Furthermore, the effect of Reynolds number variation on the elbow pressure loss coefficient is investigated. These results can be useful to perform better preliminary design of air distribution ductworks in air conditioning systems.

Keywords: Duct fitting, Pressure loss, Elbow.

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517 Modern State of the Universal Modeling for Centrifugal Compressors

Authors: Y. Galerkin, K. Soldatova, A. Drozdov

Abstract:

The 6th version of Universal modeling method for centrifugal compressor stage calculation is described. Identification of the new mathematical model was made. As a result of identification the uniform set of empirical coefficients is received. The efficiency definition error is 0,86 % at a design point. The efficiency definition error at five flow rate points (except a point of the maximum flow rate) is 1,22 %. Several variants of the stage with 3D impellers designed by 6th version program and quasi threedimensional calculation programs were compared by their gas dynamic performances CFD (NUMECA FINE TURBO). Performance comparison demonstrated general principles of design validity and leads to some design recommendations.

Keywords: Compressor design, loss model, performance prediction, test data, model stages, flow rate coefficient, work coefficient.

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516 Analytical Formulae for the Approach Velocity Head Coefficient

Authors: Abdulrahman Abdulrahman

Abstract:

Critical depth meters, such as abroad crested weir, Venture Flume and combined control flume are standard devices for measuring flow in open channels. The discharge relation for these devices cannot be solved directly, but it needs iteration process to account for the approach velocity head. In this paper, analytical solution was developed to calculate the discharge in a combined critical depth-meter namely, a hump combined with lateral contraction in rectangular channel with subcritical approach flow including energy losses. Also analytical formulae were derived for approach velocity head coefficient for different types of critical depth meters. The solution was derived by solving a standard cubic equation considering energy loss on the base of trigonometric identity. The advantage of this technique is to avoid iteration process adopted in measuring flow by these devices. Numerical examples are chosen for demonstration of the proposed solution.

Keywords: Broad crested weir, combined control meter, control structures, critical flow, discharge measurement, flow control, hydraulic engineering, hydraulic structures, open channel flow.

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515 Hydraulic Unbalance in Oil Injected Twin Rotary Screw Compressor Vibration Analysis (A Case History Related to Iran Oil Industries)

Authors: Omid A. Zargar

Abstract:

Vibration analysis of screw compressors is one of the most challenging cases in preventive maintenance. This kind of equipment considered as vibration bad actor facilities in industrial plants. On line condition monitoring systems developed too much in recent years. The high frequency vibration of ball bearings, gears, male and female caused complex fast Fourier transform (FFT) and time wave form (TWF) in screw compressors. The male and female randomly are sent to balance shop for balancing operation. This kind of operation usually caused some bending in rotors during the process that could cause further machining in such equipment. This kind of machining operation increased the vibration analysis complexity beside some process characteristic abnormality like inlet and out let pressure and temperature. In this paper mechanical principal and different type of screw compressors explained. Besides, some new condition monitoring systems and techniques for screw compressors discussed. Finally, one of the common behavior of oil injected twin rotary screw compressors called hydraulic unbalance that usually occurred after machining operation of male or female and have some specific characteristics in FFT and TWF discussed in details through a case history related to Iran oil industries.

Keywords: Vibration analysis, twin screw compressor, oil injected screw compressor, time wave form (TWF), fast Fourier transform (FFT), Hydraulic unbalance and rotor unbalance.

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514 Vector Control Using Series Iron Loss Model of Induction, Motors and Power Loss Minimization

Authors: Kheldoun Aissa, Khodja Djalal Eddine

Abstract:

The iron loss is a source of detuning in vector controlled induction motor drives if the classical rotor vector controller is used for decoupling. In fact, the field orientation will not be satisfied and the output torque will not truck the reference torque mostly used by Loss Model Controllers (LMCs). In addition, this component of loss, among others, may be excessive if the vector controlled induction motor is driving light loads. In this paper, the series iron loss model is used to develop a vector controller immune to iron loss effect and then an LMC to minimize the total power loss using the torque generated by the speed controller.

Keywords: Field Oriented Controller, Induction Motor, Loss ModelController, Series Iron Loss.

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513 Transmission Loss Allocation via Loss Function Decomposition and Current Projection Concept

Authors: M.R. Ebrahimi, Z. Ghofrani, M. Ehsan

Abstract:

One of the major problems in liberalized power markets is loss allocation. In this paper, a different method for allocating transmission losses to pool market participants is proposed. The proposed method is fundamentally based on decomposition of loss function and current projection concept. The method has been implemented and tested on several networks and one sample summarized in the paper. The results show that the method is comprehensive and fair to allocating the energy losses of a power market to its participants.

Keywords: Transmission loss, loss allocation, current projectionconcept, loss function decomposition.

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512 Investigation and Perfection of Centrifugal Compressor Stages by CFD Methods

Authors: Y. Galerkin, L. Marenina

Abstract:

Stator elements «Vane diffuser + crossover + return channel» of stages with different specific speed were investigated by CFD calculations. The regime parameter was introduced to present efficiency and loss coefficient performance of all elements together. Flow structure demonstrated advantages and disadvantages of design. Flow separation in crossovers was eliminated by its shape modification. Efficiency increased visibly. Calculated CFD performances are in acceptable correlation with predicted ones by engineering design method. The information obtained is useful for design method better calibration.

Keywords: Vane diffuser, return channel, crossover, efficiency, loss coefficient, inlet flow angle.

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511 Differences in the Perception of Behavior Problems in Pre-school Children among the Teachers and Parents

Authors: Jana Kožárová

Abstract:

Even the behavior problems in pre-school children might be considered as a transitional problem which may disappear by their transition into elementary school; it is an issue that needs a lot of attention because of the fact that the behavioral patterns are adopted in the children especially in this age. Common issue in the process of elimination of the behavior problems in the group of pre-school children is a difference in the perception of the importance and gravity of the symptoms. The underestimation of the children's problems by parents often result into conflicts with kindergarten teachers. Thus, the child does not get the support that his/her problems require and this might result into a school failure and can negatively influence his/her future school performance and success. The research sample consisted of 4 children with behavior problems, their teachers and parents. To determine the most problematic area in the child's behavior, Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) filled by parents and Caregiver/Teacher Form (CTF-R) filled by teachers were used. Scores from the CBCL and the CTR-F were compared with Pearson correlation coefficient in order to find the differences in the perception of behavior problems in pre-school children.

Keywords: Behavior problems, child behavior checklist, caregiver/teacher form, Pearson correlation coefficient, pre-school age.

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510 Evaluation of Expected Annual Loss Probabilities of RC Moment Resisting Frames

Authors: Saemee Jun, Dong-Hyeon Shin, Tae-Sang Ahn, Hyung-Joon Kim

Abstract:

Building loss estimation methodologies which have been advanced considerably in recent decades are usually used to estimate socio and economic impacts resulting from seismic structural damage. In accordance with these methods, this paper presents the evaluation of an annual loss probability of a reinforced concrete moment resisting frame designed according to Korean Building Code. The annual loss probability is defined by (1) a fragility curve obtained from a capacity spectrum method which is similar to a method adopted from HAZUS, and (2) a seismic hazard curve derived from annual frequencies of exceedance per peak ground acceleration. Seismic fragilities are computed to calculate the annual loss probability of a certain structure using functions depending on structural capacity, seismic demand, structural response and the probability of exceeding damage state thresholds. This study carried out a nonlinear static analysis to obtain the capacity of a RC moment resisting frame selected as a prototype building. The analysis results show that the probability of being extensive structural damage in the prototype building is expected to 0.01% in a year.

Keywords: Expected annual loss, Loss estimation, RC structure, Fragility analysis.

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509 Closed Form Solution to problem of Calcium Diffusion in Cylindrical Shaped Neuron Cell

Authors: Amrita Tripathi, Neeru Adlakha

Abstract:

Calcium [Ca2+] dynamics is studied as a potential form of neuron excitability that can control many irregular processes like metabolism, secretion etc. Ca2+ ion enters presynaptic terminal and increases the synaptic strength and thus triggers the neurotransmitter release. The modeling and analysis of calcium dynamics in neuron cell becomes necessary for deeper understanding of the processes involved. A mathematical model has been developed for cylindrical shaped neuron cell by incorporating physiological parameters like buffer, diffusion coefficient, and association rate. Appropriate initial and boundary conditions have been framed. The closed form solution has been developed in terms of modified Bessel function. A computer program has been developed in MATLAB 7.11 for the whole approach.

Keywords: Laplace Transform, Modified Bessel function, reaction diffusion equation, diffusion coefficient, excess buffer, calcium influx

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508 Flow Behavior and Performances of Centrifugal Compressor Stage Vaneless Diffusers

Authors: Y. Galerkin, O. Solovieva

Abstract:

Parameters of flow are calculated in vaneless diffusers with relative width 0,014–0,10. Inlet angles of flow and similarity criteria were varied. There is information on flow separation, boundary layer development, configuration of streamlines. Polytrophic efficiency, loss coefficient and recovery coefficient are used to compare effectiveness of diffusers. The sample of optimization of narrow diffuser with conical walls is presented. Three wide diffusers with narrowing walls are compared. The work is made in the R&D laboratory “Gas dynamics of turbo machines” of the TU SPb.

Keywords: Vaneless diffuser, relative width, flow angle, flow separation, loss coefficient, similarity criteria.

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507 Applications of AUSM+ Scheme on Subsonic, Supersonic and Hypersonic Flows Fields

Authors: Muhammad Yamin Younis, Muhammad Amjad Sohail, Tawfiqur Rahman, Zaka Muhammad, Saifur Rahman Bakaul

Abstract:

The performance of Advection Upstream Splitting Method AUSM schemes are evaluated against experimental flow fields at different Mach numbers and results are compared with experimental data of subsonic, supersonic and hypersonic flow fields. The turbulent model used here is SST model by Menter. The numerical predictions include lift coefficient, drag coefficient and pitching moment coefficient at different mach numbers and angle of attacks. This work describes a computational study undertaken to compute the Aerodynamic characteristics of different air vehicles configurations using a structured Navier-Stokes computational technique. The CFD code bases on the idea of upwind scheme for the convective (convective-moving) fluxes. CFD results for GLC305 airfoil and cone cylinder tail fined missile calculated on above mentioned turbulence model are compared with the available data. Wide ranges of Mach number from subsonic to hypersonic speeds are simulated and results are compared. When the computation is done by using viscous turbulence model the above mentioned coefficients have a very good agreement with the experimental values. AUSM scheme is very efficient in the regions of very high pressure gradients like shock waves and discontinuities. The AUSM versions simulate the all types of flows from lower subsonic to hypersonic flow without oscillations.

Keywords: Subsonic, supersonic, Hypersonic, AUSM+, Drag Coefficient, lift Coefficient, Pitching moment coefficient, pressure Coefficient, turbulent flow.

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506 Performance of Soft Handover Algorithm in Varied Propagation Environments

Authors: N. P. Singh, Brahmjit Singh

Abstract:

CDMA cellular networks support soft handover, which guarantees the continuity of wireless services and enhanced communication quality. Cellular networks support multimedia services under varied propagation environmental conditions. In this paper, we have shown the effect of characteristic parameters of the cellular environments on the soft handover performance. We consider path loss exponent, standard deviation of shadow fading and correlation coefficient of shadow fading as the characteristic parameters of the radio propagation environment. A very useful statistical measure for characterizing the performance of mobile radio system is the probability of outage. It is shown through numerical results that above parameters have decisive effect on the probability of outage and hence the overall performance of the soft handover algorithm.

Keywords: CDMA, Correlation coefficient, Path loss exponent, Probability of outage, Soft handover.

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505 A Practical Scheme for Transmission Loss Allocation to Generators and Loads in Restructured Power Systems

Authors: M.R. Ebrahimi, M. Ehsan

Abstract:

This paper presents a practical scheme that can be used for allocating the transmission loss to generators and loads. In this scheme first the share of a generator or load on the current through a branch is determined using Z-bus modified matrix. Then the current components are decomposed and the branch loss allocation is obtained. A motivation of proposed scheme is to improve the results of Z-bus method and to reach more fair allocation. The proposed scheme has been implemented and tested on several networks. To achieve practical and applicable results, the proposed scheme is simulated and compared on the transmission network (400kv) of Khorasan region in Iran and the 14-bus standard IEEE network. The results show that the proposed scheme is comprehensive and fair to allocating the energy losses of a power market to its participants.

Keywords: Transmission Loss, Loss Allocation, Z-bus modifiedmatrix, current Components Decomposition and Restructured PowerSystems

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504 Characteristics of Hydraulic Jump

Authors: Sumit Gandhi

Abstract:

The effect of an abruptly expanding channel on the main characteristics of hydraulic jump is considered experimentally. The present study was made for supercritical flow of Froude number varying between 2 to 9 and approach to expanded channel width ratios 0.4, 0.5, 0.6 and 0.8. Physical explanations of the variation of these characteristics under varying flow conditions are discussed based on the observation drawn from experimental results. The analytical equation for the sequent depth ratio in an abruptly expanding channel as given by eminent hydraulic engineers are verified well with the experimental data for all expansion ratios, and the empirical relation was also verified with the present experimental data.

Keywords: Abruptly Expanding Channel, Hydraulic Jump, Efficiency, Sequent Depth Ratio.

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503 Economic Loss due to Ganoderma Disease in Oil Palm

Authors: K. Assis, K. P. Chong, A. S. Idris, C. M. Ho

Abstract:

Oil palm or Elaeis guineensis is considered as the golden crop in Malaysia. But oil palm industry in this country is now facing with the most devastating disease called as Ganoderma Basal Stem Rot disease. The objective of this paper is to analyze the economic loss due to this disease. There were three commercial oil palm sites selected for collecting the required data for economic analysis. Yield parameter used to measure the loss was the total weight of fresh fruit bunch in six months. The predictors include disease severity, change in disease severity, number of infected neighbor palms, age of palm, planting generation, topography, and first order interaction variables. The estimation model of yield loss was identified by using backward elimination based regression method. Diagnostic checking was conducted on the residual of the best yield loss model. The value of mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) was used to measure the forecast performance of the model. The best yield loss model was then used to estimate the economic loss by using the current monthly price of fresh fruit bunch at mill gate.

Keywords: Ganoderma, oil palm, regression model, yield loss, economic loss.

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502 Assessment of Path Loss Prediction Models for Wireless Propagation Channels at L-Band Frequency over Different Micro-Cellular Environments of Ekiti State, Southwestern Nigeria

Authors: C. I. Abiodun, S. O. Azi, J. S. Ojo, P. Akinyemi

Abstract:

The design of accurate and reliable mobile communication systems depends majorly on the suitability of path loss prediction methods and the adaptability of the methods to various environments of interest. In this research, the results of the adaptability of radio channel behavior are presented based on practical measurements carried out in the 1800 MHz frequency band. The measurements are carried out in typical urban, suburban and rural environments in Ekiti State, Southwestern part of Nigeria. A total number of seven base stations of MTN GSM service located in the studied environments were monitored. Path loss and break point distances were deduced from the measured received signal strength (RSS) and a practical path loss model is proposed based on the deduced break point distances. The proposed two slope model, regression line and four existing path loss models were compared with the measured path loss values. The standard deviations of each model with respect to the measured path loss were estimated for each base station. The proposed model and regression line exhibited lowest standard deviations followed by the Cost231-Hata model when compared with the Erceg Ericsson and SUI models. Generally, the proposed two-slope model shows closest agreement with the measured values with a mean error values of 2 to 6 dB. These results show that, either the proposed two slope model or Cost 231-Hata model may be used to predict path loss values in mobile micro cell coverage in the well-considered environments. Information from this work will be useful for link design of microwave band wireless access systems in the region.

Keywords: Break-point distances, path loss models, path loss exponent, received signal strength.

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501 Aerodynamic Designing of Supersonic Centrifugal Compressor Stages

Authors: Y. Galerkin, A. Rekstin, K. Soldatova

Abstract:

Universal modeling method well proven for industrial compressors was applied for design of the high flow rate supersonic stage. Results were checked by ANSYS CFX and NUMECA Fine Turbo calculations. The impeller appeared to be very effective at transonic flow velocities. Stator elements efficiency is acceptable at design Mach numbers too. Their loss coefficient versus inlet flow angle performances correlates well with Universal modeling prediction. The impeller demonstrates ability of satisfactory operation at design flow rate. Supersonic flow behavior in the impeller inducer at the shroud blade to blade surface Φ des deserves additional study.

Keywords: Centrifugal compressor stage, supersonic impeller, inlet flow angle, loss coefficient, return channel, shock wave, vane diffuser.

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500 A Study on the Determinants of Earnings Response Coefficient in an Emerging Market

Authors: Bita Mashayekhi, Zeynab Lotfi Aghel

Abstract:

The determinants of Earnings Response Coefficient (ERC), including firm size, earnings growth, and earnings persistence are studied in this research. These determinants are supposed to be moderator variables that affect ERC and Return Response Coefficient. The research sample contains 82 Iranian listed companies in Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE) from 2001 to 2012. Gathered data have been processed by EVIEWS Software. Results show a significant positive relation between firm size and ERC, and also between earnings growth and ERC; however, there is no significant relation between earnings persistence and ERC. Also, the results show that ERC will be increased by firm size and earnings growth, but there is no relation between earnings persistence and ERC.

Keywords: Earnings response coefficient, return response coefficient, firm size, earnings growth, earnings persistence.

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499 Investigation of Undular Hydraulic Jump over Smooth Beds

Authors: F. Rostami, M. Shahrokhi, M. A. Md Said, S.R. Sabbagh-Yazdi

Abstract:

Undular hydraulic jumps are illustrated by a smooth rise of the free surface followed by a train of stationary waves. They are sometimes experienced in natural waterways and rivers. The characteristics of undular hydraulic jumps are studied here. The height, amplitude and the main characteristics of undular jump is depended on the upstream Froude number and aspect ratio. The experiments were done on the smooth bed flume. These results compared with other researches and the main characteristics of the undular hydraulic jump were studied in this article.

Keywords: Undular Hydraulic Jump, low Froude Number, wave characteristics

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498 Influence of Hydraulic Hysteresis on Effective Stress in Unsaturated Clay

Authors: Anuchit Uchaipichat

Abstract:

A comprehensive program of laboratory testing on a compacted kaolin in a modified triaxial cell was perform to investigate the influence of hydraulic hysteresis on effective stress in unsaturated soils. The test data are presented on a range of constant suction shear tests along wetting and drying paths. The values of effective stress parameter χ at different matric suction were determined using the test results. The effect of hydraulic hysteresis phenomenon on the effective stress was observed. The values of effective stress parameter χ obtained from the experiments were compared with those obtained from the expressions proposed in literature.

Keywords: Unsaturated soils, Hydraulic hysteresis, Effectivestress

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497 Optimization of Multi-Zone Unconventional (Shale) Gas Reservoir Using Hydraulic Fracturing Technique

Authors: F.C. Amadi, G. C. Enyi, G. G. Nasr

Abstract:

Hydraulic fracturing is one of the most important stimulation techniques available to the petroleum engineer to extract hydrocarbons in tight gas sandstones. It allows more oil and gas production in tight reservoirs as compared to conventional means. The main aim of the study is to optimize the hydraulic fracturing as technique and for this purpose three multi-zones layer formation is considered and fractured contemporaneously. The three zones are named as Zone1 (upper zone), Zone2 (middle zone) and Zone3 (lower zone) respectively and they all occur in shale rock. Simulation was performed with Mfrac integrated software which gives a variety of 3D fracture options. This simulation process yielded an average fracture efficiency of 93.8%for the three respective zones and an increase of the average permeability of the rock system. An average fracture length of 909 ft with net height (propped height) of 210 ft (average) was achieved. Optimum fracturing results was also achieved with maximum fracture width of 0.379 inches at an injection rate of 13.01 bpm with 17995 Mscf of gas production.

Keywords: Hydraulic fracturing, Mfrac, Optimisation, Tight reservoir.

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496 A Case Study of Reactive Focus on Form through Negotiation on Spoken Errors: Does It Work for All Learners?

Authors: Vahid Parvaresh, Zohre Kassaian, Saeed Ketabi, Masoud Saeedi

Abstract:

This case study investigates the effects of reactive focus on form through negotiation on the linguistic development of an adult EFL learner in an exclusive private EFL classroom. The findings revealed that in this classroom negotiated feedback occurred significantly more often than non-negotiated feedback. However, it was also found that in the long run the learner was significantly more successful in correcting his own errors when he had received nonnegotiated feedback than negotiated feedback. This study, therefore, argues that although negotiated feedback seems to be effective for some learners in the short run, it is non-negotiated feedback which seems to be more effective in the long run. This long lasting effect might be attributed to the impact of schooling system which is itself indicative of the dominant culture, or to the absence of other interlocutors in the course of interaction.

Keywords: error, feedback, focus on form, interaction, schooling.

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495 Comparative Analysis of Different Control Strategies for Electro-hydraulic Servo Systems

Authors: Ismail Algelli Sassi Ehtiwesh, Željko Đurović

Abstract:

The main goal of the study is to analyze all relevant properties of the electro hydraulic systems and based on that to make a proper choice of the control strategy that may be used for the control of the servomechanism system. A combination of electronic and hydraulic systems is widely used since it combines the advantages of both. Hydraulic systems are widely spread because of their properties as accuracy, flexibility, high horsepower-to-weight ratio, fast starting, stopping and reversal with smoothness and precision, and simplicity of operations. On the other hand, the modern control of hydraulic systems is based on control of the circuit fed to the inductive solenoid that controls the position of the hydraulic valve. Since this circuit may be easily handled by PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) signal with a proper frequency, the combination of electrical and hydraulic systems became very fruitful and usable in specific areas as airplane and military industry. The study shows and discusses the experimental results obtained by the control strategy (classical feedback (PID) & neural network) using MATLAB and SIMULINK [1]. Finally, the special attention was paid to the possibility of neuro-controller design and its application to control of electro-hydraulic systems and to make comparative with classical control.

Keywords: Electro-hydraulic systems, PID, Neural network controller.

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494 Monomial Form Approach to Rectangular Surface Modeling

Authors: Taweechai Nuntawisuttiwong, Natasha Dejdumrong

Abstract:

Geometric modeling plays an important role in the constructions and manufacturing of curve, surface and solid modeling. Their algorithms are critically important not only in the automobile, ship and aircraft manufacturing business, but are also absolutely necessary in a wide variety of modern applications, e.g., robotics, optimization, computer vision, data analytics and visualization. The calculation and display of geometric objects can be accomplished by these six techniques: Polynomial basis, Recursive, Iterative, Coefficient matrix, Polar form approach and Pyramidal algorithms. In this research, the coefficient matrix (simply called monomial form approach) will be used to model polynomial rectangular patches, i.e., Said-Ball, Wang-Ball, DP, Dejdumrong and NB1 surfaces. Some examples of the monomial forms for these surface modeling are illustrated in many aspects, e.g., construction, derivatives, model transformation, degree elevation and degress reduction.

Keywords: Monomial form, rectangular surfaces, CAGD curves, monomial matrix applications.

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493 Thermal Hydraulic Analysis of the IAEA 10MW Benchmark Reactor under Normal Operating Condition

Authors: Hamed Djalal

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to perform a thermal-hydraulic analysis of the IAEA 10 MW benchmark reactor solving analytically and numerically, by mean of the finite volume method, respectively the steady state and transient forced convection in rectangular narrow channel between two parallel MTR-type fuel plates, imposed under a cosine shape heat flux. A comparison between both solutions is presented to determine the minimal coolant velocity which can ensure a safe reactor core cooling, where the cladding temperature should not reach a specific safety limit 90 °C. For this purpose, a computer program is developed to determine the principal parameter related to the nuclear core safety, such as the temperature distribution in the fuel plate and in the coolant (light water) as a function of the inlet coolant velocity. Finally, a good agreement is noticed between the both analytical and numerical solutions, where the obtained results are displayed graphically.

Keywords: Forced convection, friction factor pressure drop thermal hydraulic analysis, vertical heated rectangular channel.

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