Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 614

Search results for: nodal calculation

614 Improved Neutron Leakage Treatment on Nodal Expansion Method for PWR Reactors

Authors: Antonio Carlos Marques Alvim, Fernando Carvalho da Silva, Aquilino Senra Martinez

Abstract:

For a quick and accurate calculation of spatial neutron distribution in nuclear power reactors 3D nodal codes are usually used aiming at solving the neutron diffusion equation for a given reactor core geometry and material composition. These codes use a second order polynomial to represent the transverse leakage term. In this work, a nodal method based on the well known nodal expansion method (NEM), developed at COPPE, making use of this polynomial expansion was modified to treat the transverse leakage term for the external surfaces of peripheral reflector nodes. The proposed method was implemented into a computational system which, besides solving the diffusion equation, also solves the burnup equations governing the gradual changes in material compositions of the core due to fuel depletion. Results confirm the effectiveness of this modified treatment of peripheral nodes for practical purposes in PWR reactors.

Keywords: Transverse leakage, nodal expansion method, power density, PWR reactors

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613 A Nodal Transmission Pricing Model based on Newly Developed Expressions of Real and Reactive Power Marginal Prices in Competitive Electricity Markets

Authors: Ashish Saini, A.K. Saxena

Abstract:

In competitive electricity markets all over the world, an adoption of suitable transmission pricing model is a problem as transmission segment still operates as a monopoly. Transmission pricing is an important tool to promote investment for various transmission services in order to provide economic, secure and reliable electricity to bulk and retail customers. The nodal pricing based on SRMC (Short Run Marginal Cost) is found extremely useful by researchers for sending correct economic signals. The marginal prices must be determined as a part of solution to optimization problem i.e. to maximize the social welfare. The need to maximize the social welfare subject to number of system operational constraints is a major challenge from computation and societal point of views. The purpose of this paper is to present a nodal transmission pricing model based on SRMC by developing new mathematical expressions of real and reactive power marginal prices using GA-Fuzzy based optimal power flow framework. The impacts of selecting different social welfare functions on power marginal prices are analyzed and verified with results reported in literature. Network revenues for two different power systems are determined using expressions derived for real and reactive power marginal prices in this paper.

Keywords: Deregulation, electricity markets, nodal pricing, social welfare function, short run marginal cost.

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612 A Comparison of Energy Calculations for a Single-Family Detached Home with Two Energy Simulation Methods

Authors: Amir Sattari

Abstract:

For newly produced houses and energy renovations, an energy calculation needs to be conducted. This is done to verify whether the energy consumption criteria of the house -to reach the energy targets by 2020 and 2050- are in-line with the norms. The main purpose of this study is to confirm whether easy to use energy calculation software or hand calculations used by small companies or individuals give logical results compared to advanced energy simulation program used by researchers or bigger companies. There are different methods for calculating energy consumption. In this paper, two energy calculation programs are used and the relation of energy consumption with solar radiation is compared. A hand calculation is also done to validate whether the hand calculations are still reasonable. The two computer programs which have been used are TMF Energi (the easy energy calculation variant used by small companies or individuals) and IDA ICE - Indoor Climate and Energy (the advanced energy simulation program used by researchers or larger companies). The calculations are done for a standard house from the Swedish house supplier Fiskarhedenvillan. The method is based on having the same conditions and inputs in the different calculation forms so that the results can be compared and verified. The house has been faced differently to see how the orientation affects energy consumption in different methods. The results for the simulations are close to each other and the hand calculation differs from the computer programs by only 5%. Even if solar factors differ due to the orientation of the house, energy calculation results from different computer programs and even hand calculation methods are in line with each other.

Keywords: Energy calculation, energy consumption, energy simulation, IDA ICE, TMF Energi.

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611 On the Use of Correlated Binary Model in Social Network Analysis

Authors: Elsayed A. Habib Elamir

Abstract:

In social network analysis the mean nodal degree and density of the graph can be considered as a measure of the activity of all actors in the network and this is an important property of a graph and for making comparisons among networks. Since subjects in a family or organization are subject to common environment factors, it is prime interest to study the association between responses. Therefore, we study the distribution of the mean nodal degree and density of the graph under correlated binary units. The cross product ratio is used to capture the intra-units association among subjects. Computer program and an application are given to show the benefits of the method.

Keywords: Correlated Binary data, cross product ratio, densityof the graph, multiplicative binomial distribution.

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610 High Order Accurate Runge Kutta Nodal Discontinuous Galerkin Method for Numerical Solution of Linear Convection Equation

Authors: Faheem Ahmed, Fareed Ahmed, Yongheng Guo, Yong Yang

Abstract:

This paper deals with a high-order accurate Runge Kutta Discontinuous Galerkin (RKDG) method for the numerical solution of the wave equation, which is one of the simple case of a linear hyperbolic partial differential equation. Nodal DG method is used for a finite element space discretization in 'x' by discontinuous approximations. This method combines mainly two key ideas which are based on the finite volume and finite element methods. The physics of wave propagation being accounted for by means of Riemann problems and accuracy is obtained by means of high-order polynomial approximations within the elements. High order accurate Low Storage Explicit Runge Kutta (LSERK) method is used for temporal discretization in 't' that allows the method to be nonlinearly stable regardless of its accuracy. The resulting RKDG methods are stable and high-order accurate. The L1 ,L2 and L∞ error norm analysis shows that the scheme is highly accurate and effective. Hence, the method is well suited to achieve high order accurate solution for the scalar wave equation and other hyperbolic equations.

Keywords: Nodal Discontinuous Galerkin Method, RKDG, Scalar Wave Equation, LSERK

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609 Numerical Calculation of Heat Transfer in Water Heater

Authors: Michal Spilacek, Martin Lisy, Marek Balas, Zdenek Skala

Abstract:

This article is trying to determine the status of flue gas that is entering the KWH heat exchanger from combustion chamber in order to calculate the heat transfer ratio of the heat exchanger. Combination of measurement, calculation and computer simulation was used to create a useful way to approximate the heat transfer rate. The measurements were taken by a number of sensors that are mounted on the experimental device and by a thermal imaging camera. The results of the numerical calculation are in a good correspondence with the real power output of the experimental device. That result shows that the research has a good direction and can be used to propose changes in the construction of the heat exchanger, but still needs enhancements.

Keywords: Heat exchanger, heat transfer rate, numerical calculation, thermal images.

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608 An Investigation on Hot-Spot Temperature Calculation Methods of Power Transformers

Authors: Ahmet Y. Arabul, Ibrahim Senol, Fatma Keskin Arabul, Mustafa G. Aydeniz, Yasemin Oner, Gokhan Kalkan

Abstract:

In the standards of IEC 60076-2 and IEC 60076-7, three different hot-spot temperature estimation methods are suggested. In this study, the algorithms which used in hot-spot temperature calculations are analyzed by comparing the algorithms with the results of an experimental set-up made by a Transformer Monitoring System (TMS) in use. In tested system, TMS uses only top oil temperature and load ratio for hot-spot temperature calculation. And also, it uses some constants from standards which are on agreed statements tables. During the tests, it came out that hot-spot temperature calculation method is just making a simple calculation and not uses significant all other variables that could affect the hot-spot temperature.

Keywords: Hot-spot temperature, monitoring system, power transformer, smart grid.

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607 The Problem of Using the Calculation of the Critical Path to Solver Instances of the Job Shop Scheduling Problem

Authors: Marco Antonio Cruz-Chávez, Juan Frausto-Solís, Fernando Ramos-Quintana

Abstract:

A procedure commonly used in Job Shop Scheduling Problem (JSSP) to evaluate the neighborhoods functions that use the non-deterministic algorithms is the calculation of the critical path in a digraph. This paper presents an experimental study of the cost of computation that exists when the calculation of the critical path in the solution for instances in which a JSSP of large size is involved. The results indicate that if the critical path is use in order to generate neighborhoods in the meta-heuristics that are used in JSSP, an elevated cost of computation exists in spite of the fact that the calculation of the critical path in any digraph is of polynomial complexity.

Keywords: Job Shop, CPM, critical path, neighborhood, meta-heuristic.

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606 Preliminary Study on Fixture Layout Optimization Using Element Strain Energy

Authors: Zeshan Ahmad, Matteo Zoppi, Rezia Molfino

Abstract:

The objective of positioning the fixture elements in the fixture is to make the workpiece stiff, so that geometric errors in the manufacturing process can be reduced. Most of the work for optimal fixture layout used the minimization of the sum of the nodal deflection normal to the surface as objective function. All deflections in other direction have been neglected. We propose a new method for fixture layout optimization in this paper, which uses the element strain energy. The deformations in all the directions have been considered in this way. The objective function in this method is to minimize the sum of square of element strain energy. Strain energy and stiffness are inversely proportional to each other. The optimization problem is solved by the sequential quadratic programming method. Three different kinds of case studies are presented, and results are compared with the method using nodal deflections as objective function to verify the propose method.

Keywords: Fixture layout, optimization, strain energy, quadratic programming.

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605 Proposal for Cost Calculation of Warehouse Processes and Its Usage for Setting Standards for Performance Evaluation

Authors: Tomas Cechura, Michal Simon

Abstract:

This paper describes a proposal for cost calculation of warehouse processes and its usage for setting standards for performance evaluation. One of the most common options of monitoring process performance is benchmarking. The typical outcome is whether the monitored object is better or worse than an average or standard. Traditional approaches, however, cannot find any specific opportunities to improve performance or eliminate inefficiencies in processes. Higher process efficiency can be achieved for example by cost reduction assuming that the same output is generated. However, costs can be reduced only if we know their structure and we are able to calculate them accurately. In the warehouse process area it is rather difficult because in most cases we have available only aggregated values with low explanatory ability. The aim of this paper is to create a suitable method for calculating the storage costs. At the end is shown a practical example of process calculation.

Keywords: Calculation, Costs, Performance, Process, Warehouse.

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604 Callusing in Stevia rebaudiana (Natural Sweetener) for Steviol Glycoside Production

Authors: Pratibha Gupta, Satyawati Sharma, Sanjay Saxena

Abstract:

Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni (natural sweetener) belongs to Asteraceae family and can be used as substitute of artificial sweeteners for diabetic patients. Conventionally, it is cultivated by seeds or stem cutting, but seed viability rate is poor. A protocol for callus induction and multiplication was developed to produce large no. of calli in short period. Surface sterilized nodal, leaf and root explants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with different concentrations of plant hormone like, IBA, kinetin, NAA, 2,4-D, and NAA in combination with 2,4-D. 100% callusing was observed from leaf explants cultured on combination of NAA and 2,4-D after three weeks while with 2,4-D, only 10% callusing was observed. Calli obtained from leaf and root explants were shiny green while with nodal explants it was hard and brown. The present findings deal with induction of callusing in Stevia to achieve the rapid callus multiplication for study of steviol glycosides in callus culture.

Keywords: 2, 4-D, Callusing, NAA, Stevia, Steviol glycosides

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603 Improvement of Parallel Compressor Model in Dealing Outlet Unequal Pressure Distribution

Authors: Kewei Xu, Jens Friedrich, Kevin Dwinger, Wei Fan, Xijin Zhang

Abstract:

Parallel Compressor Model (PCM) is a simplified approach to predict compressor performance with inlet distortions. In PCM calculation, it is assumed that the sub-compressors’ outlet static pressure is uniform and therefore simplifies PCM calculation procedure. However, if the compressor’s outlet duct is not long and straight, such assumption frequently induces error ranging from 10% to 15%. This paper provides a revised calculation method of PCM that can correct the error. The revised method employs energy equation, momentum equation and continuity equation to acquire needed parameters and replace the equal static pressure assumption. Based on the revised method, PCM is applied on two compression system with different blades types. The predictions of their performance in non-uniform inlet conditions are yielded through the revised calculation method and are employed to evaluate the method’s efficiency. Validating the results by experimental data, it is found that although little deviation occurs, calculated result agrees well with experiment data whose error ranges from 0.1% to 3%. Therefore, this proves the revised calculation method of PCM possesses great advantages in predicting the performance of the distorted compressor with limited exhaust duct.

Keywords: Parallel Compressor Model (PCM), Revised Calculation Method, Inlet Distortion, Outlet Unequal Pressure Distribution.

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602 Forming the Differential-Algebraic Model of Radial Power Systems for Simulation of both Transient and Steady-State Conditions

Authors: Saleh A. Al-Jufout

Abstract:

This paper presents a procedure of forming the mathematical model of radial electric power systems for simulation of both transient and steady-state conditions. The research idea has been based on nodal voltages technique and on differentiation of Kirchhoff's current law (KCL) applied to each non-reference node of the radial system, the result of which the nodal voltages has been calculated by solving a system of algebraic equations. Currents of the electric power system components have been determined by solving their respective differential equations. Transforming the three-phase coordinate system into Cartesian coordinate system in the model decreased the overall number of equations by one third. The use of Cartesian coordinate system does not ignore the DC component during transient conditions, but restricts the model's implementation for symmetrical modes of operation only. An example of the input data for a four-bus radial electric power system has been calculated.

Keywords: Mathematical Modelling, Radial Power System, Steady-State, Transients

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601 Calculation of Heating Load for an Apartment Complex with Unit Building Method

Authors: Ju-Seok Kim, Sun-Ae Moon, Tae-Gu Lee, Seung-Jae Moon, Jae-Heon Lee

Abstract:

As a simple to method estimate the plant heating energy capacity of an apartment complex, a new load calculation method has been proposed. The method which can be called as unit building method, predicts the heating load of the entire complex instead of summing up that of each apartment belonging to complex. Comparison of the unit heating load for various floor sizes between the present method and conventional approach shows a close agreement with dynamic load calculation code. Some additional calculations are performed to demonstrate it-s application examples.

Keywords: Unit Building Method, Unit Heating Load, TFMLoad.

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600 Configuration and the Calculation of Link Budget for a Connection via a Geostationary Satellite for Multimedia Application in the Ka Band

Authors: M. A. Mebrek, L.H.Abderrahmane, A. Himeur, S. Bendoukha

Abstract:

In this article, we are going to do a study that consist in the configuration of a link between an earth station to broadcast multimedia service and a user of this service via a geostationary satellite in Ka- band and the set up of the different components of this link and then to make the calculation of the link budget for this system. The application carried out in this work, allows us to calculate the link budget in both directions: the uplink and downlink, as well as all parameters used in the calculation and the development of a link budget. Finally, we will try to verify using the application developed the feasibility of implementation of this system.

Keywords: Geostationary satellite, ground station, ka band, link budget, telecommunication.

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599 Specification Requirements for a Combined Dehumidifier/Cooling Panel: A Global Scale Analysis

Authors: Damien Gondre, Hatem Ben Maad, Abdelkrim Trabelsi, Frédéric Kuznik, Joseph Virgone

Abstract:

The use of a radiant cooling solution would enable to lower cooling needs which is of great interest when the demand is initially high (hot climate). But, radiant systems are not naturally compatibles with humid climates since a low-temperature surface leads to condensation risks as soon as the surface temperature is close to or lower than the dew point temperature. A radiant cooling system combined to a dehumidification system would enable to remove humidity for the space, thereby lowering the dew point temperature. The humidity removal needs to be especially effective near the cooled surface. This requirement could be fulfilled by a system using a single desiccant fluid for the removal of both excessive heat and moisture. This task aims at providing an estimation of the specification requirements of such system in terms of cooling power and dehumidification rate required to fulfill comfort issues and to prevent any condensation risk on the cool panel surface. The present paper develops a preliminary study on the specification requirements, performances and behavior of a combined dehumidifier/cooling ceiling panel for different operating conditions. This study has been carried using the TRNSYS software which allows nodal calculations of thermal systems. It consists of the dynamic modeling of heat and vapor balances of a 5m x 3m x 2.7m office space. In a first design estimation, this room is equipped with an ideal heating, cooling, humidification and dehumidification system so that the room temperature is always maintained in between 21C and 25C with a relative humidity in between 40% and 60%. The room is also equipped with a ventilation system that includes a heat recovery heat exchanger and another heat exchanger connected to a heat sink. Main results show that the system should be designed to meet a cooling power of 42W.m−2 and a desiccant rate of 45 gH2O.h−1. In a second time, a parametric study of comfort issues and system performances has been achieved on a more realistic system (that includes a chilled ceiling) under different operating conditions. It enables an estimation of an acceptable range of operating conditions. This preliminary study is intended to provide useful information for the system design.

Keywords: Dehumidification, nodal calculation, radiant cooling panel, system sizing.

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598 Solver for a Magnetic Equivalent Circuit and Modeling the Inrush Current of a 3-Phase Transformer

Authors: Markus G. Ortner, Christian Magele, Klaus Krischan

Abstract:

Knowledge about the magnetic quantities in a magnetic circuit is always of great interest. On the one hand, this information is needed for the simulation of a transformer. On the other hand, parameter studies are more reliable, if the magnetic quantities are derived from a well established model. One possibility to model the 3-phase transformer is by using a magnetic equivalent circuit (MEC). Though this is a well known system, it is often not an easy task to set up such a model for a large number of lumped elements which additionally includes the nonlinear characteristic of the magnetic material. Here we show the setup of a solver for a MEC and the results of the calculation in comparison to measurements taken. The equations of the MEC are based on a rearranged system of the nodal analysis. Thus it is possible to achieve a minimum number of equations, and a clear and simple structure. Hence, it is uncomplicated in its handling and it supports the iteration process. Additional helpful tasks are implemented within the solver to enhance the performance. The electric circuit is described by an electric equivalent circuit (EEC). Our results for the 3-phase transformer demonstrate the computational efficiency of the solver, and show the benefit of the application of a MEC.

Keywords: Inrush current, magnetic equivalent circuit, nonlinear behavior, transformer.

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597 Simplified Models to Determine Nodal Voltagesin Problems of Optimal Allocation of Capacitor Banks in Power Distribution Networks

Authors: A. Pereira, S. Haffner, L. V. Gasperin

Abstract:

This paper presents two simplified models to determine nodal voltages in power distribution networks. These models allow estimating the impact of the installation of reactive power compensations equipments like fixed or switched capacitor banks. The procedure used to develop the models is similar to the procedure used to develop linear power flow models of transmission lines, which have been widely used in optimization problems of operation planning and system expansion. The steady state non-linear load flow equations are approximated by linear equations relating the voltage amplitude and currents. The approximations of the linear equations are based on the high relationship between line resistance and line reactance (ratio R/X), which is valid for power distribution networks. The performance and accuracy of the models are evaluated through comparisons with the exact results obtained from the solution of the load flow using two test networks: a hypothetical network with 23 nodes and a real network with 217 nodes.

Keywords: Distribution network models, distribution systems, optimization, power system planning.

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596 Numerical Study of Fatigue Crack Growth at a Web Stiffener of Ship Structural Details

Authors: Wentao He, Jingxi Liu, De Xie

Abstract:

It is necessary to manage the fatigue crack growth (FCG) once those cracks are detected during in-service inspections. In this paper, a simulation program (FCG-System) is developed utilizing the commercial software ABAQUS with its object-oriented programming interface to simulate the fatigue crack path and to compute the corresponding fatigue life. In order to apply FCG-System in large-scale marine structures, the substructure modeling technique is integrated in the system under the consideration of structural details and load shedding during crack growth. Based on the nodal forces and nodal displacements obtained from finite element analysis, a formula for shell elements to compute stress intensity factors is proposed in the view of virtual crack closure technique. The cracks initiating from the intersection of flange and the end of the web-stiffener are investigated for fatigue crack paths and growth lives under water pressure loading and axial force loading, separately. It is found that the FCG-System developed by authors could be an efficient tool to perform fatigue crack growth analysis on marine structures.

Keywords: Crack path, Fatigue crack, Fatigue live, FCG-System, Virtual crack closure technique.

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595 Calculating the Efficiency of Steam Boilers Based on Its Most Effecting Factors: A Case Study

Authors: Nabil M. Muhaisen, Rajab Abdullah Hokoma

Abstract:

This paper is concerned with calculating boiler efficiency as one of the most important types of performance measurements in any steam power plant. That has a key role in determining the overall effectiveness of the whole system within the power station. For this calculation, a Visual-Basic program was developed, and a steam power plant known as El-Khmus power plant, Libya was selected as a case study. The calculation of the boiler efficiency was applied by using heating balance method. The findings showed how the maximum heat energy which produced from the boiler increases the boiler efficiency through increasing the temperature of the feed water, and decreasing the exhaust temperature along with humidity levels of the of fuel used within the boiler.

Keywords: Boiler, Calculation, Efficiency, Performance. Steam

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594 Estimation of Real Power Transfer Allocation Using Intelligent Systems

Authors: H. Shareef, A. Mohamed, S. A. Khalid, Aziah Khamis

Abstract:

This paper presents application artificial intelligent (AI) techniques, namely artificial neural network (ANN), adaptive neuro fuzzy interface system (ANFIS), to estimate the real power transfer between generators and loads. Since these AI techniques adopt supervised learning, it first uses modified nodal equation method (MNE) to determine real power contribution from each generator to loads. Then the results of MNE method and load flow information are utilized to estimate the power transfer using AI techniques. The 25-bus equivalent system of south Malaysia is utilized as a test system to illustrate the effectiveness of both AI methods compared to that of the MNE method. The mean squared error of the estimate of ANN and ANFIS power transfer allocation methods are 1.19E-05 and 2.97E-05, respectively. Furthermore, when compared to MNE method, ANN and ANFIS methods computes generator contribution to loads within 20.99 and 39.37msec respectively whereas the MNE method took 360msec for the calculation of same real power transfer allocation. 

Keywords: Artificial intelligence, Power tracing, Artificial neural network, ANFIS, Power system deregulation.

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593 Fixture Layout Optimization Using Element Strain Energy and Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Zeshan Ahmad, Matteo Zoppi, Rezia Molfino

Abstract:

The stiffness of the workpiece is very important to reduce the errors in manufacturing process. The high stiffness of the workpiece can be achieved by optimal positioning of fixture elements in the fixture. The minimization of the sum of the nodal deflection normal to the surface is used as objective function in previous research. The deflection in other direction has been neglected. The 3-2-1 fixturing principle is not valid for metal sheets due to its flexible nature. We propose a new fixture layout optimization method N-3-2-1 for metal sheets that uses the strain energy of the finite elements. This method combines the genetic algorithm and finite element analysis. The objective function in this method is to minimize the sum of all the element strain energy. By using the concept of element strain energy, the deformations in all the directions have been considered. Strain energy and stiffness are inversely proportional to each other. So, lower the value of strain energy, higher will be the stiffness. Two different kinds of case studies are presented. The case studies are solved for both objective functions; element strain energy and nodal deflection. The result are compared to verify the propose method.

Keywords: Fixture layout, optimization, fixturing element, genetic algorithm.

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592 Proton Radius Calculation for Muonic Hydrogen 2S-2P Transition Experiment

Authors: Jing-Gang Xie

Abstract:

Scientists are making attempts to solve proton radius puzzle. In this paper, the calculated value matches the experiment observation within 0.1%, compared to those obtained from CODATA, and muonic hydrogen scattering experiments of 4%. The calculation is made based on the assumption that the muonic hydrogen system has (Ep – Eµ) energy state (or frequency mix state of np –nµ), which interacts resonantly with the incoming photon of energy 206.2949(32) meV. A similar calculation is also made for muonic deuterium 2S-2P transition experiment with an accuracy of 1% from the experimental observation. The paper has also explored the theoretical as well as experimentation advancements that have led towards the development of results with lesser deviations.

Keywords: 2s-2p transition, muonic hydrogen, proton radius, scattering experiment, photon, quantum, Lamb shift.

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591 The Effect of Contrived Success in Calculation Tasks on the Self-efficacy of Junior High School Students

Authors: Akitoshi Uchida, Kazuo Mori

Abstract:

This study examines whether contrived success on a task closely related to school subjects would promote students- self-efficacy. In our previous study, junior high school students who experienced contrived success on anagram tasks raised their sense of self-efficacy and kept it high for a year.We tried to replicate that study, substituting calculation tasks for the anagrams. One hundred eighteen junior high school students participated in this study, 18 of whom were surreptitiously given easier tasks than their classmates. Those students with easier tasks outperformed their peers and thereby raised their sense of self-efficacy. However, elevated self-efficacy did not persist, falling to the starting level after only three months.

Keywords: self-efficacy, contrived success, junior high schoolstudents, calculation tasks

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590 Optimal Calculation of Partial Transmission Ratios of Four-Step Helical Gearboxes for Getting Minimal Gearbox Length

Authors: Vu Ngoc Pi

Abstract:

This paper presents a new study on the applications of optimization and regression analysis techniques for optimal calculation of partial ratios of four-step helical gearboxes for getting minimal gearbox length. In the paper, basing on the moment equilibrium condition of a mechanic system including four gear units and their regular resistance condition, models for determination of the partial ratios of the gearboxes are proposed. In particular, explicit models for calculation of the partial ratios are proposed by using regression analysis. Using these models, the determination of the partial ratios is accurate and simple.

Keywords: Gearbox design; optimal design; helical gearbox, transmission ratio.

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589 Study of Aerodynamic Characteristics of the Unmanned Aircraft in the Wake

Authors: O. Solovyov, S. Eryomenko, V. Kobrin, V. Chmovzh

Abstract:

The methodology of numerical simulation and calculation of aerodynamic characteristics of aircraft taking into account impact of wake on it has been developed. The results of numerical experiment in comparison with the data obtained in the wind tunnel are presented. Efficiency of methodology of calculation and the reliability of the results is shown.

Keywords: Unmanned aircraft, vortex wake, aerodynamic characteristics.

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588 Representation of Power System for Electromagnetic Transient Calculation

Authors: P. Sowa

Abstract:

The new idea of analyze of power system failure with use of artificial neural network is proposed. An analysis of the possibility of simulating phenomena accompanying system faults and restitution is described. It was indicated that the universal model for the simulation of phenomena in whole analyzed range does not exist. The main classic method of search of optimal structure and parameter identification are described shortly. The example with results of calculation is shown.

Keywords: Dynamic equivalents, Network reduction, Neural networks, Power system analysis.

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587 The Use of Process-Oriented Methods of Calculation to Determine the Costs of Logistics Processes

Authors: Tomas Cechura, Michal Simon

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to create a proposal for determining the costs of logistics processes by using process-oriented calculation methods. The traditional approach is that logistics costs are part of manufacturing overhead which is usually calculated as a percentage surcharge. Therefore in the traditional approach it is not obvious where and in which activities costs were incurred. So it is impossible to trace logistics costs to products. Our point of view is trying to fix or at least improve this issue. Another benefit of applying the process approach is identification of logistics processes which are otherwise part of manufacturing overhead. In the first part this paper describes the development of process-oriented methods over time. The next part shows the possibility of implementing the process-oriented method called Prozesskostenrechnung to logistics processes. The conclusion summarizes advantages and disadvantages of using this method in logistics.

Keywords: Cost, logistics, calculation, process-oriented method.

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586 Energy Consumption and GHG Production in Railway and Road Passenger Regional Transport

Authors: Martin Kendra, Tomas Skrucany, Jozef Gnap, Jan Ponicky

Abstract:

Paper deals with the modeling and simulation of energy consumption and GHG production of two different modes of regional passenger transport – road and railway. These two transport modes use the same type of fuel – diesel. Modeling and simulation of the energy consumption in transport is often used due to calculation satisfactory accuracy and cost efficiency. Paper deals with the calculation based on EN standards and information collected from technical information from vehicle producers and characteristics of tracks. Calculation included maximal theoretical capacity of bus and train and real passenger’s measurement from operation. Final energy consumption and GHG production is calculated by using software simulation. In evaluation of the simulation is used system “well to wheel”.

Keywords: Bus, energy consumption, GHG, production, simulation, train.

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585 A Study on Optimal Determination of Partial Transmission Ratios of Helical Gearboxes with Second-Step Double Gear-Sets

Authors: Vu Ngoc Pi

Abstract:

In this paper, a study on the applications of the optimization and regression techniques for optimal calculation of partial ratios of helical gearboxes with second-step double gear-sets for minimal cross section dimension is introduced. From the condition of the moment equilibrium of a mechanic system including three gear units and their regular resistance condition, models for calculation of the partial ratios of helical gearboxes with second-step double gear-sets were given. Especially, by regression analysis, explicit models for calculation of the partial ratios are introduced. These models allow determining the partial ratios accurately and simply.

Keywords: Gearbox design, optimal design, helical gearbox, transmission ratio.

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