Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6948

Search results for: Streaming Data

6948 Fast Fourier Transform-Based Steganalysis of Covert Communications over Streaming Media

Authors: Jinghui Peng, Shanyu Tang, Jia Li

Abstract:

Steganalysis seeks to detect the presence of secret data embedded in cover objects, and there is an imminent demand to detect hidden messages in streaming media. This paper shows how a steganalysis algorithm based on Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) can be used to detect the existence of secret data embedded in streaming media. The proposed algorithm uses machine parameter characteristics and a network sniffer to determine whether the Internet traffic contains streaming channels. The detected streaming data is then transferred from the time domain to the frequency domain through FFT. The distributions of power spectra in the frequency domain between original VoIP streams and stego VoIP streams are compared in turn using t-test, achieving the p-value of 7.5686E-176 which is below the threshold. The results indicate that the proposed FFT-based steganalysis algorithm is effective in detecting the secret data embedded in VoIP streaming media.

Keywords: Steganalysis, security, fast Fourier transform, streaming media.

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6947 Unsupervised Outlier Detection in Streaming Data Using Weighted Clustering

Authors: Yogita, Durga Toshniwal

Abstract:

Outlier detection in streaming data is very challenging because streaming data cannot be scanned multiple times and also new concepts may keep evolving. Irrelevant attributes can be termed as noisy attributes and such attributes further magnify the challenge of working with data streams. In this paper, we propose an unsupervised outlier detection scheme for streaming data. This scheme is based on clustering as clustering is an unsupervised data mining task and it does not require labeled data, both density based and partitioning clustering are combined for outlier detection. In this scheme partitioning clustering is also used to assign weights to attributes depending upon their respective relevance and weights are adaptive. Weighted attributes are helpful to reduce or remove the effect of noisy attributes. Keeping in view the challenges of streaming data, the proposed scheme is incremental and adaptive to concept evolution. Experimental results on synthetic and real world data sets show that our proposed approach outperforms other existing approach (CORM) in terms of outlier detection rate, false alarm rate, and increasing percentages of outliers.

Keywords: Concept Evolution, Irrelevant Attributes, Streaming Data, Unsupervised Outlier Detection.

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6946 An Integrated Software Architecture for Bandwidth Adaptive Video Streaming

Authors: T. Arsan

Abstract:

Video streaming over lossy IP networks is very important issues, due to the heterogeneous structure of networks. Infrastructure of the Internet exhibits variable bandwidths, delays, congestions and time-varying packet losses. Because of variable attributes of the Internet, video streaming applications should not only have a good end-to-end transport performance but also have a robust rate control, furthermore multipath rate allocation mechanism. So for providing the video streaming service quality, some other components such as Bandwidth Estimation and Adaptive Rate Controller should be taken into consideration. This paper gives an overview of video streaming concept and bandwidth estimation tools and then introduces special architectures for bandwidth adaptive video streaming. A bandwidth estimation algorithm – pathChirp, Optimized Rate Controllers and Multipath Rate Allocation Algorithm are considered as all-in-one solution for video streaming problem. This solution is directed and optimized by a decision center which is designed for obtaining the maximum quality at the receiving side.

Keywords: Adaptive Video Streaming, Bandwidth Estimation, QoS, Software Architecture.

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6945 Secure Low-Bandwidth Video Streaming through Reliable Multipath Propagation in MANETs

Authors: S. Mohideen Badhusha, K. Duraiswamy

Abstract:

Most of the existing video streaming protocols provide video services without considering security aspects in decentralized mobile ad-hoc networks. The security policies adapted to the currently existing non-streaming protocols, do not comply with the live video streaming protocols resulting in considerable vulnerability, high bandwidth consumption and unreliability which cause severe security threats, low bandwidth and error prone transmission respectively in video streaming applications. Therefore a synergized methodology is required to reduce vulnerability and bandwidth consumption, and enhance reliability in the video streaming applications in MANET. To ensure the security measures with reduced bandwidth consumption and improve reliability of the video streaming applications, a Secure Low-bandwidth Video Streaming through Reliable Multipath Propagation (SLVRMP) protocol architecture has been proposed by incorporating the two algorithms namely Secure Low-bandwidth Video Streaming Algorithm and Reliable Secure Multipath Propagation Algorithm using Layered Video Coding in non-overlapping zone routing network topology. The performances of the proposed system are compared to those of the other existing secure multipath protocols Sec-MR, SPREAD using NS 2.34 and the simulation results show that the performances of the proposed system get considerably improved.

Keywords: Bandwidth consumption, layered video coding, multipath propagation, reliability, security threats, video streaming applications, vulnerability.

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6944 High Level Synthesis of Kahn Process Networks(KPN) for Streaming Applications

Authors: Attiya Mahmood, Syed Ali Abbas, Shoab A. Khan

Abstract:

Streaming Applications usually run in parallel or in series that incrementally transform a stream of input data. It poses a design challenge to break such an application into distinguishable blocks and then to map them into independent hardware processing elements. For this, there is required a generic controller that automatically maps such a stream of data into independent processing elements without any dependencies and manual considerations. In this paper, Kahn Process Networks (KPN) for such streaming applications is designed and developed that will be mapped on MPSoC. This is designed in such a way that there is a generic Cbased compiler that will take the mapping specifications as an input from the user and then it will automate these design constraints and automatically generate the synthesized RTL optimized code for specified application.

Keywords: KPN, DFG, FPGA

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6943 Analysis of the Secondary Stationary Flow Around an Oscillating Circular Cylinder

Authors: Artem Nuriev, Olga Zaitseva

Abstract:

This paper is devoted to the study of a viscous incompressible flow around a circular cylinder performing harmonic oscillations, especially the steady streaming phenomenon. The research methodology is based on the asymptotic explanation method combined with the computational bifurcation analysis. The research approach develops Schlichting and Wang decomposition method. Present studies allow to identify several regimes of the secondary streaming with different flow structures. The results of the research are in good agreement with experimental and numerical simulation data.

Keywords: Oscillating cylinder, Secondary Streaming, Flow Regimes, Asymptotic and Bifurcation Analysis.

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6942 Visual Text Analytics Technologies for Real-Time Big Data: Chronological Evolution and Issues

Authors: Siti Azrina B. A. Aziz, Siti Hafizah A. Hamid

Abstract:

New approaches to analyze and visualize data stream in real-time basis is important in making a prompt decision by the decision maker. Financial market trading and surveillance, large-scale emergency response and crowd control are some example scenarios that require real-time analytic and data visualization. This situation has led to the development of techniques and tools that support humans in analyzing the source data. With the emergence of Big Data and social media, new techniques and tools are required in order to process the streaming data. Today, ranges of tools which implement some of these functionalities are available. In this paper, we present chronological evolution evaluation of technologies for supporting of real-time analytic and visualization of the data stream. Based on the past research papers published from 2002 to 2014, we gathered the general information, main techniques, challenges and open issues. The techniques for streaming text visualization are identified based on Text Visualization Browser in chronological order. This paper aims to review the evolution of streaming text visualization techniques and tools, as well as to discuss the problems and challenges for each of identified tools.

Keywords: Information visualization, visual analytics, text mining, visual text analytics tools, big data visualization.

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6941 Performance Evaluation of Data Transfer Protocol GridFTP for Grid Computing

Authors: Hiroyuki Ohsaki, Makoto Imase

Abstract:

In Grid computing, a data transfer protocol called GridFTP has been widely used for efficiently transferring a large volume of data. Currently, two versions of GridFTP protocols, GridFTP version 1 (GridFTP v1) and GridFTP version 2 (GridFTP v2), have been proposed in the GGF. GridFTP v2 supports several advanced features such as data streaming, dynamic resource allocation, and checksum transfer, by defining a transfer mode called X-block mode. However, in the literature, effectiveness of GridFTP v2 has not been fully investigated. In this paper, we therefore quantitatively evaluate performance of GridFTP v1 and GridFTP v2 using mathematical analysis and simulation experiments. We reveal the performance limitation of GridFTP v1, and quantitatively show effectiveness of GridFTP v2. Through several numerical examples, we show that by utilizing the data streaming feature, the average file transfer time of GridFTP v2 is significantly smaller than that of GridFTP v1.

Keywords: Grid Computing, GridFTP, Performance Evaluation, Queuing Theory.

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6940 Measurement of Steady Streaming from an Oscillating Bubble Using Particle Image Velocimetry

Authors: Yongseok Kwon, Woowon Jeong, Eunjin Cho, Sangkug Chung, Kyehan Rhee

Abstract:

Steady streaming flow fields induced by a 500 mm bubble oscillating at 12 kHz were measured using microscopic particle image velocimetry (PIV). The accuracy of velocity measurement using a micro PIV system was checked by comparing the measured velocity fields with the theoretical velocity profiles in fully developed laminar flow. The steady streaming flow velocities were measured in the sagittal plane of the bubble attached on the wall. Measured velocity fields showed upward jet flow with two symmetric counter-rotating vortices, and the maximum streaming velocity was about 12 mm/s, which was within the velocity ranges measured by other researchers. The measured streamlines were compared with the analytical solution, and they also showed a reasonable agreement.

Keywords: Oscillating bubble, Particle-Image-Velocimetry microstreaming.

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6939 SUPAR: System for User-Centric Profiling of Association Rules in Streaming Data

Authors: Sarabjeet Kaur Kochhar

Abstract:

With a surge of stream processing applications novel techniques are required for generation and analysis of association rules in streams. The traditional rule mining solutions cannot handle streams because they generally require multiple passes over the data and do not guarantee the results in a predictable, small time. Though researchers have been proposing algorithms for generation of rules from streams, there has not been much focus on their analysis. We propose Association rule profiling, a user centric process for analyzing association rules and attaching suitable profiles to them depending on their changing frequency behavior over a previous snapshot of time in a data stream. Association rule profiles provide insights into the changing nature of associations and can be used to characterize the associations. We discuss importance of characteristics such as predictability of linkages present in the data and propose metric to quantify it. We also show how association rule profiles can aid in generation of user specific, more understandable and actionable rules. The framework is implemented as SUPAR: System for Usercentric Profiling of Association Rules in streaming data. The proposed system offers following capabilities: i) Continuous monitoring of frequency of streaming item-sets and detection of significant changes therein for association rule profiling. ii) Computation of metrics for quantifying predictability of associations present in the data. iii) User-centric control of the characterization process: user can control the framework through a) constraint specification and b) non-interesting rule elimination.

Keywords: Data Streams, User subjectivity, Change detection, Association rule profiles, Predictability.

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6938 Non-Invasive Data Extraction from Machine Display Units Using Video Analytics

Authors: Ravneet Kaur, Joydeep Acharya, Sudhanshu Gaur

Abstract:

Artificial Intelligence (AI) has the potential to transform manufacturing by improving shop floor processes such as production, maintenance and quality. However, industrial datasets are notoriously difficult to extract in a real-time, streaming fashion thus, negating potential AI benefits. The main example is some specialized industrial controllers that are operated by custom software which complicates the process of connecting them to an Information Technology (IT) based data acquisition network. Security concerns may also limit direct physical access to these controllers for data acquisition. To connect the Operational Technology (OT) data stored in these controllers to an AI application in a secure, reliable and available way, we propose a novel Industrial IoT (IIoT) solution in this paper. In this solution, we demonstrate how video cameras can be installed in a factory shop floor to continuously obtain images of the controller HMIs. We propose image pre-processing to segment the HMI into regions of streaming data and regions of fixed meta-data. We then evaluate the performance of multiple Optical Character Recognition (OCR) technologies such as Tesseract and Google vision to recognize the streaming data and test it for typical factory HMIs and realistic lighting conditions. Finally, we use the meta-data to match the OCR output with the temporal, domain-dependent context of the data to improve the accuracy of the output. Our IIoT solution enables reliable and efficient data extraction which will improve the performance of subsequent AI applications.

Keywords: Human machine interface, industrial internet of things, internet of things, optical character recognition, video analytic.

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6937 Comparative Analysis of Diverse Collection of Big Data Analytics Tools

Authors: S. Vidhya, S. Sarumathi, N. Shanthi

Abstract:

Over the past era, there have been a lot of efforts and studies are carried out in growing proficient tools for performing various tasks in big data. Recently big data have gotten a lot of publicity for their good reasons. Due to the large and complex collection of datasets it is difficult to process on traditional data processing applications. This concern turns to be further mandatory for producing various tools in big data. Moreover, the main aim of big data analytics is to utilize the advanced analytic techniques besides very huge, different datasets which contain diverse sizes from terabytes to zettabytes and diverse types such as structured or unstructured and batch or streaming. Big data is useful for data sets where their size or type is away from the capability of traditional relational databases for capturing, managing and processing the data with low-latency. Thus the out coming challenges tend to the occurrence of powerful big data tools. In this survey, a various collection of big data tools are illustrated and also compared with the salient features.

Keywords: Big data, Big data analytics, Business analytics, Data analysis, Data visualization, Data discovery.

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6936 Linux based Embedded Node for Capturing, Compression and Streaming of Digital Audio and Video

Authors: F.J. Suárez, J.C. Granda, J. Molleda, D.F. García

Abstract:

A prototype for audio and video capture and compression in real time on a Linux platform has been developed. It is able to visualize both the captured and the compressed video at the same time, as well as the captured and compressed audio with the goal of comparing their quality. As it is based on free code, the final goal is to run it in an embedded system running Linux. Therefore, we would implement a node to capture and compress such multimedia information. Thus, it would be possible to consider the project within a larger one aimed at live broadcast of audio and video using a streaming server which would communicate with our node. Then, we would have a very powerful and flexible system with several practical applications.

Keywords: Audio and video compression, Linux platform, live streaming, real time, visualization of captured and compressed video.

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6935 Towards an Enhanced Quality of IPTV Media Server Architecture over Software Defined Networking

Authors: Esmeralda Hysenbelliu

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to present the QoE (Quality of Experience) IPTV SDN-based media streaming server enhanced architecture for configuring, controlling, management and provisioning the improved delivery of IPTV service application with low cost, low bandwidth, and high security. Furthermore, it is given a virtual QoE IPTV SDN-based topology to provide an improved IPTV service based on QoE Control and Management of multimedia services functionalities. Inside OpenFlow SDN Controller there are enabled in high flexibility and efficiency Service Load-Balancing Systems; based on the Loading-Balance module and based on GeoIP Service. This two Load-balancing system improve IPTV end-users Quality of Experience (QoE) with optimal management of resources greatly. Through the key functionalities of OpenFlow SDN controller, this approach produced several important features, opportunities for overcoming the critical QoE metrics for IPTV Service like achieving incredible Fast Zapping time (Channel Switching time) < 0.1 seconds. This approach enabled Easy and Powerful Transcoding system via FFMPEG encoder. It has the ability to customize streaming dimensions bitrates, latency management and maximum transfer rates ensuring delivering of IPTV streaming services (Audio and Video) in high flexibility, low bandwidth and required performance. This QoE IPTV SDN-based media streaming architecture unlike other architectures provides the possibility of Channel Exchanging between several IPTV service providers all over the word. This new functionality brings many benefits as increasing the number of TV channels received by end –users with low cost, decreasing stream failure time (Channel Failure time < 0.1 seconds) and improving the quality of streaming services.

Keywords: Improved QoE, OpenFlow SDN controller, IPTV service application, softwarization.

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6934 Performance Analysis of a WiMax/Wi-Fi System Whilst Streaming a Video Conference Application

Authors: Patrice Obinna Umenne, Marcel O. Odhiambo

Abstract:

WiMAX and Wi-Fi are considered as the promising broadband access solutions for wireless MAN’s and LANs, respectively. In the recent works WiMAX is considered suitable as a backhaul service to connect multiple dispersed Wi-Fi ‘hotspots’. Hence a new integrated WiMAX/Wi-Fi architecture has been proposed in literatures. In this paper the performance of an integrated WiMAX/Wi-Fi network has been investigated by streaming a video conference application. The difference in performance between the two protocols is compared with respect to video conferencing. The Heterogeneous network was simulated in the OPNET simulator.

Keywords: Throughput, delay, delay variance, packet loss, Quality of Service (QoS).

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6933 Adaptive Image Transmission with P-V Diversity in Multihop Wireless Mesh Networks

Authors: Wei Wang, Dongming Peng, Honggang Wang, Hamid Sharif

Abstract:

Multirate multimedia delivery applications in multihop Wireless Mesh Network (WMN) are data redundant and delay-sensitive, which brings a lot of challenges for designing efficient transmission systems. In this paper, we propose a new cross layer resource allocation scheme to minimize the receiver side distortion within the delay bound requirements, by exploring application layer Position and Value (P-V) diversity as well as the multihop Effective Capacity (EC). We specifically consider image transmission optimization here. First of all, the maximum supportable source traffic rate is identified by exploring the multihop Effective Capacity (EC) model. Furthermore, the optimal source coding rate is selected according to the P-V diversity of multirate media streaming, which significantly increases the decoded media quality. Simulation results show the proposed approach improved media quality significantly compared with traditional approaches under the same QoS requirements.

Keywords: Multirate Multimedia Streaming, Effective CapacityMultihop Wireless Mesh Network

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6932 Numerical and Experimental Study of Heat Transfer Enhancement with Metal Foams and Ultrasounds

Authors: L. Slimani, A. Bousri, A. Hamadouche, H. Ben Hamed

Abstract:

The aim of this experimental and numerical study is to analyze the effects of acoustic streaming generated by 40 kHz ultrasonic waves on heat transfer in forced convection, with and without 40 PPI aluminum metal foam. Preliminary dynamic and thermal studies were done with COMSOL Multiphase, to see heat transfer enhancement degree by inserting a 40PPI metal foam (10 × 2 × 3 cm) on a heat sink, after having determined experimentally its permeability and Forchheimer's coefficient. The results obtained numerically are in accordance with those obtained experimentally, with an enhancement factor of 205% for a velocity of 0.4 m/s compared to an empty channel. The influence of 40 kHz ultrasound on heat transfer was also tested with and without metallic foam. Results show a remarkable increase in Nusselt number in an empty channel with an enhancement factor of 37,5%, while no influence of ultrasound on heat transfer in metal foam presence.

Keywords: Enhancing heat transfer, metal foam, ultrasound, acoustic streaming, laminar flow.

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6931 Optimising Data Transmission in Heterogeneous Sensor Networks

Authors: M. Hammerton, J. Trevathan, T. Myers, W. Read

Abstract:

The transfer rate of messages in distributed sensor network applications is a critical factor in a system's performance. The Sensor Abstraction Layer (SAL) is one such system. SAL is a middleware integration platform for abstracting sensor specific technology in order to integrate heterogeneous types of sensors in a network. SAL uses Java Remote Method Invocation (RMI) as its connection method, which has unsatisfying transfer rates, especially for streaming data.  This paper analyses different connection methods to optimize data transmission in SAL by replacing RMI.  Our results show that the most promising Java-based connections were frameworks for Java New Input/Output (NIO) including Apache MINA, JBoss Netty, and xSocket. A test environment was implemented to evaluate each respective framework based on transfer rate, resource usage, and scalability. Test results showed the most suitable connection method to improve data transmission in SAL JBoss Netty as it provides a performance enhancement of 68%.

Keywords: Wireless sensor networks, remote method invocation, transmission time.

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6930 H.263 Based Video Transceiver for Wireless Camera System

Authors: Won-Ho Kim

Abstract:

In this paper, a design of H.263 based wireless video transceiver is presented for wireless camera system. It uses standard WIFI transceiver and the covering area is up to 100m. Furthermore the standard H.263 video encoding technique is used for video compression since wireless video transmitter is unable to transmit high capacity raw data in real time and the implemented system is capable of streaming at speed of less than 1Mbps using NTSC 720x480 video.

Keywords: Digital signal processing, H.263 video encoder, surveillance camera, wireless video transceiver.

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6929 Real Time Force Sensing Mat for Human Gait Analysis

Authors: Darwin Gouwanda, S. M. N. Arosha Senanayake, M. M. Danushka Ranjana Marasinghe, Mervin Chandrapal, Jeya Mithra Kumar, Tung Mun Hon, Yulius

Abstract:

This paper presents a real time force sensing instrument that is designed for human gait analysis purposes. This instrument mainly consists of three main elements: the force sensing mat, signal conditioning and switching circuit and data acquisition device. In order to control and to process the incoming signals from the force sensing mat, Force-Logger and Force-Reloader program are developed using Labview 8.0. This paper describes the architecture of the force sensing mat, signal conditioning and switching circuit and the real time streaming of the incoming data from the force sensing mat.

Keywords: Force platform, Force sensing resistor, human gait analysis

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6928 The Impact of Temporal Impairment on Quality of Experience (QoE) in Video Streaming: A No Reference (NR) Subjective and Objective Study

Authors: Muhammad Arslan Usman, Muhammad Rehan Usman, Soo Young Shin

Abstract:

Live video streaming is one of the most widely used service among end users, yet it is a big challenge for the network operators in terms of quality. The only way to provide excellent Quality of Experience (QoE) to the end users is continuous monitoring of live video streaming. For this purpose, there are several objective algorithms available that monitor the quality of the video in a live stream. Subjective tests play a very important role in fine tuning the results of objective algorithms. As human perception is considered to be the most reliable source for assessing the quality of a video stream subjective tests are conducted in order to develop more reliable objective algorithms. Temporal impairments in a live video stream can have a negative impact on the end users. In this paper we have conducted subjective evaluation tests on a set of video sequences containing temporal impairment known as frame freezing. Frame Freezing is considered as a transmission error as well as a hardware error which can result in loss of video frames on the reception side of a transmission system. In our subjective tests, we have performed tests on videos that contain a single freezing event and also for videos that contain multiple freezing events. We have recorded our subjective test results for all the videos in order to give a comparison on the available No Reference (NR) objective algorithms. Finally, we have shown the performance of no reference algorithms used for objective evaluation of videos and suggested the algorithm that works better. The outcome of this study shows the importance of QoE and its effect on human perception. The results for the subjective evaluation can serve the purpose for validating objective algorithms.

Keywords: Objective evaluation, subjective evaluation, quality of experience (QoE), video quality assessment (VQA).

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6927 An Evaluation of Software Connection Methods for Heterogeneous Sensor Networks

Authors: M. Hammerton, J. Trevathan, T. Myers, W. Read

Abstract:

The transfer rate of messages in distributed sensor network applications is a critical factor in a system's performance. The Sensor Abstraction Layer (SAL) is one such system. SAL is a middleware integration platform for abstracting sensor specific technology in order to integrate heterogeneous types of sensors in a network. SAL uses Java Remote Method Invocation (RMI) as its connection method, which has unsatisfying transfer rates, especially for streaming data. This paper analyses different connection methods to optimize data transmission in SAL by replacing RMI. Our results show that the most promising Java-based connections were frameworks for Java New Input/Output (NIO) including Apache MINA, JBoss Netty, and xSocket. A test environment was implemented to evaluate each respective framework based on transfer rate, resource usage, and scalability. Test results showed the most suitable connection method to improve data transmission in SAL JBoss Netty as it provides a performance enhancement of 68%.

Keywords: Wireless sensor networks, remote method invocation, transmission time.

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6926 Interference Reduction Technique in Multistage Multiuser Detector for DS-CDMA System

Authors: Lokesh Tharani, R.P.Yadav

Abstract:

This paper presents the results related to the interference reduction technique in multistage multiuser detector for asynchronous DS-CDMA system. To meet the real-time requirements for asynchronous multiuser detection, a bit streaming, cascade architecture is used. An asynchronous multiuser detection involves block-based computations and matrix inversions. The paper covers iterative-based suboptimal schemes that have been studied to decrease the computational complexity, eliminate the need for matrix inversions, decreases the execution time, reduces the memory requirements and uses joint estimation and detection process that gives better performance than the independent parameter estimation method. The stages of the iteration use cascaded and bits processed in a streaming fashion. The simulation has been carried out for asynchronous DS-CDMA system by varying one parameter, i.e., number of users. The simulation result exhibits that system gives optimum bit error rate (BER) at 3rd stage for 15-users.

Keywords: Multi-user detection (MUD), multiple accessinterference (MAI), near-far effect, decision feedback detector, successive interference cancellation detector (SIC) and parallelinterference cancellation (PIC) detector.

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6925 Real Time Multi-Sensory Force Sensing Mat for Sports Biomechanics and Human Gait Analysis

Authors: D. Gouwanda, S. M. N. A. Senanayake

Abstract:

This paper presents a real time force sensing instrument that is designed for human gait analysis purposes. It is capable of recording and monitoring ground reaction forces exerted by human foot during various activities such as walking, running and jumping in real time. In overall, force sensing mat mainly consists of three elements: the force sensing mat, signal conditioning circuit and data acquisition device. Force sensing mat is the mat that contains an array of force sensing elements. To control and process the incoming signal from the force sensing mat, Force-Logger and Force-Reloader are developed using National Instrument Labview. This paper describes the architecture of the force sensing mat, signal conditioning circuit and the real time streaming of the incoming data from the force sensing mat. Additionally, a preliminary experiment dataset is presented in this paper.

Keywords: Force platform, force sensing resistor, human gait analysis.

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6924 Bitrate Reduction Using FMO for Video Streaming over Packet Networks

Authors: Le Thanh Ha, Hye-Soo Kim, Chun-Su Park, Seung-Won Jung, Sung-Jea Ko

Abstract:

Flexible macroblock ordering (FMO), adopted in the H.264 standard, allows to partition all macroblocks (MBs) in a frame into separate groups of MBs called Slice Groups (SGs). FMO can not only support error-resilience, but also control the size of video packets for different network types. However, it is well-known that the number of bits required for encoding the frame is increased by adopting FMO. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm that can reduce the bitrate overhead caused by utilizing FMO. In the proposed algorithm, all MBs are grouped in SGs based on the similarity of the transform coefficients. Experimental results show that our algorithm can reduce the bitrate as compared with conventional FMO.

Keywords: Data Partition, Entropy Coding, Greedy Algorithm, H.264/AVC, Slice Group.

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6923 Implementation of a Motion Detection System

Authors: Asif Ansari, T.C.Manjunath, C. Ardil

Abstract:

In today-s competitive environment, the security concerns have grown tremendously. In the modern world, possession is known to be 9/10-ths of the law. Hence, it is imperative for one to be able to safeguard one-s property from worldly harms such as thefts, destruction of property, people with malicious intent etc. Due to the advent of technology in the modern world, the methodologies used by thieves and robbers for stealing have been improving exponentially. Therefore, it is necessary for the surveillance techniques to also improve with the changing world. With the improvement in mass media and various forms of communication, it is now possible to monitor and control the environment to the advantage of the owners of the property. The latest technologies used in the fight against thefts and destruction are the video surveillance and monitoring. By using the technologies, it is possible to monitor and capture every inch and second of the area in interest. However, so far the technologies used are passive in nature, i.e., the monitoring systems only help in detecting the crime but do not actively participate in stopping or curbing the crime while it takes place. Therefore, we have developed a methodology to detect the motion in a video stream environment and this is an idea to ensure that the monitoring systems not only actively participate in stopping the crime, but do so while the crime is taking place. Hence, a system is used to detect any motion in a live streaming video and once motion has been detected in the live stream, the software will activate a warning system and capture the live streaming video.

Keywords: Motion, Detection, System, Video, Crime, Matlab, Surveillance.

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6922 Big Data: Big Challenges to Privacy and Data Protection

Authors: Abu Bakar Munir, Siti Hajar Mohd Yasin, Firdaus Muhammad-Sukki

Abstract:

This paper seeks to analyse the benefits of big data and more importantly the challenges it pose to the subject of privacy and data protection. First, the nature of big data will be briefly deliberated before presenting the potential of big data in the present days. Afterwards, the issue of privacy and data protection is highlighted before discussing the challenges of implementing this issue in big data. In conclusion, the paper will put forward the debate on the adequacy of the existing legal framework in protecting personal data in the era of big data.

Keywords: Big data, data protection, information, privacy.

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6921 The Performance of an 802.11g/Wi-Fi Network Whilst Streaming Voice Content

Authors: P. O. Umenne, Odhiambo Marcel O.

Abstract:

A simple network model is developed in OPNET to study the performance of the Wi-Fi protocol. The model is simulated in OPNET and performance factors such as load, throughput and delay are analysed from the model. Four applications such as oracle, http, ftp and voice are applied over the Wireless LAN network to determine the throughput. The voice application utilises a considerable amount of bandwidth of up to 5Mbps, as a result the 802.11g standard of the Wi-Fi protocol was chosen which can support a data rate of up to 54Mbps. Results indicate that when the load in the Wi-Fi network is increased the queuing delay on the point-to-point links in the Wi-Fi network significantly reduces until it is comparable to that of WiMAX. In conclusion, the queuing delay of the Wi-Fi protocol for the network model simulated was about 0.00001secs comparable to WiMAX network values.

Keywords: WLAN-Wireless Local Area Network, MIMO-Multiple Input Multiple Output, Queuing delay, Throughput, AP-Access Point, IP-Internet protocol, TOS-Type of Service.

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6920 Data Preprocessing for Supervised Leaning

Authors: S. B. Kotsiantis, D. Kanellopoulos, P. E. Pintelas

Abstract:

Many factors affect the success of Machine Learning (ML) on a given task. The representation and quality of the instance data is first and foremost. If there is much irrelevant and redundant information present or noisy and unreliable data, then knowledge discovery during the training phase is more difficult. It is well known that data preparation and filtering steps take considerable amount of processing time in ML problems. Data pre-processing includes data cleaning, normalization, transformation, feature extraction and selection, etc. The product of data pre-processing is the final training set. It would be nice if a single sequence of data pre-processing algorithms had the best performance for each data set but this is not happened. Thus, we present the most well know algorithms for each step of data pre-processing so that one achieves the best performance for their data set.

Keywords: Data mining, feature selection, data cleaning.

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6919 Applications of Big Data in Education

Authors: Faisal Kalota

Abstract:

Big Data and analytics have gained a huge momentum in recent years. Big Data feeds into the field of Learning Analytics (LA) that may allow academic institutions to better understand the learners’ needs and proactively address them. Hence, it is important to have an understanding of Big Data and its applications. The purpose of this descriptive paper is to provide an overview of Big Data, the technologies used in Big Data, and some of the applications of Big Data in education. Additionally, it discusses some of the concerns related to Big Data and current research trends. While Big Data can provide big benefits, it is important that institutions understand their own needs, infrastructure, resources, and limitation before jumping on the Big Data bandwagon.

Keywords: Analytics, Big Data in Education, Hadoop, Learning Analytics.

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