Commenced in January 2007
Paper Count: 30069
Fast Fourier Transform-Based Steganalysis of Covert Communications over Streaming Media
Abstract:Steganalysis seeks to detect the presence of secret data embedded in cover objects, and there is an imminent demand to detect hidden messages in streaming media. This paper shows how a steganalysis algorithm based on Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) can be used to detect the existence of secret data embedded in streaming media. The proposed algorithm uses machine parameter characteristics and a network sniffer to determine whether the Internet traffic contains streaming channels. The detected streaming data is then transferred from the time domain to the frequency domain through FFT. The distributions of power spectra in the frequency domain between original VoIP streams and stego VoIP streams are compared in turn using t-test, achieving the p-value of 7.5686E-176 which is below the threshold. The results indicate that the proposed FFT-based steganalysis algorithm is effective in detecting the secret data embedded in VoIP streaming media.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3299971Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
 X. Niu, Y. Yang (2006). Study on the Frame of Information Steganography and Steganalysis. Acta Electonica Sinica, 34(12A), 2421-2424.
 J. Lubacz, W. Mazurczyk, and K. Szczypiorski (2010). Voice over IP. IEEE Spectrum, 40-45.
 C. Kraetzer, and J. Dittmann (Jan. 2007). Mel-Cepstrum based steganalysis for VoIP-steganography. Proc. IS&T/SPIE Symposium on Electronic Imaging, Security, Steganography, and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents VIII, San Jose, USA, pp. 650-661.
 C. Kraetzer, and J. Dittmann (2007). Pros and cons of Mel-Cepstrum based audio steganalysis using SVM classification. Information Hiding, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 359-377.
 Q. Liu, A. H. Sung, and M. Qiao (2009). Temporal derivative-based spectrum and mel-cepstrum audio steganalysis. IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, 4(3), 359-368.
 Q. Liu, A. H. Sung, and M. Qiao (2011). Derivative-based audio steganalysis. ACM Transactions on Multimedia Computing, Communications and Applications, 7(3), 1-19.
 T. Takahashi T, and W. Lee (2007). An assessment of VoIP covert channel threats. Proc. 3rd Int Conf Security and Privacy in Communication Networks, Nice, France, 371-380.
 G. Garateguy, G. Arce, and J. Pelaez (2011). Covert channel detection in VoIP streams. Proc. 45th Annual Conference on Information Sciences and Systems, Baltimore, Maryland, 1-6.
 C. Arackaparambil, G. Yan, S. Bratus, and A. Caglayan (2012). On tuning the knobs of distribution-based methods for detecting VoIP covert channels. Proc. Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Hawaii, 2431-2440.
 S. Li, H. Tao, and Y. Huang (2012). Detection of quantization index modulation steganography in G. 723.1-bit stream based on quantization index sequence analysis. Journal of Zhejiang University Science C, 13(8), 624-634.
 M. Li, M. K. Kulhandjian, D. A. Pados, S. N. Batalama, and M. J. Medley (2013). Extracting spread-spectrum hidden data from digital media. IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, 8(7) 1201-1210.
 A. Janicki, W. Mazurczyk, and K. Szczypiorski (2014). Steganalysis of transcoding steganography. Ann. Telecommun., vol. 69, 449-460.
 Y. Ren, T. Cai, M. Tang, and L. Wang (2015) AMR steganalysis based on the probability of same pulse position. IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, 10(9), 1801-1811.
 Y. F. Huang, S. Tang, and Y. Zhang (2011). Detection of covert Voice over Internet Protocol communications using sliding window-based steganalysis. IET Communications, vol. 5, iss. 7, 929-936.
 Y. Huang, S. Tang, C. Bao, and Y. J. Yip (2011). Steganalysis of compressed speech to detect covert Voice over Internet Protocol channels. IET Information Security, 5(1), 26-32.
 E.O. Brigham, (1988). The Fast Fourier Transform and Its Applications. Prentice-Hall Inc., NJ, USA.
 S. Tang, Y. Jiang, L. Zhang, Z. Zhou, Audio steganography with AES for real-time covert voice over Internet protocol communications, Science China Information Sciences. 57 (3)(2014) 1-14.
 Box, J. F. (1987). Guinness, Gosset, Fisher, and small samples. Statistical science, 2(1), 45-52.