Search results for: peak signal to noise ratio
3637 Recovering the Clipped OFDM Figurebased on the Conic Function
Authors: Linjun Wu, Shihua Zhu, Xingle Feng
In Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) systems, the peak to average power ratio (PAR) is much high. The clipping signal scheme is a useful method to reduce PAR. Clipping the OFDM signal, however, increases the overall noise level by introducing clipping noise. It is necessary to recover the figure of the original signal at receiver in order to reduce the clipping noise. Considering the continuity of the signal and the figure of the peak, we obtain a certain conic function curve to replace the clipped signal module within the clipping time. The results of simulation show that the proposed scheme can reduce the systems? BER (bit-error rate) 10 times when signal-to-interference-and noise-ratio (SINR) equals to 12dB. And the BER performance of the proposed scheme is superior to that of kim's scheme, too.
Keywords: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing, Peak-to-Average Power Ratio, clipping time, conic function.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1396
3636 Mitigating the Clipping Noise by Using the Oversampling Scheme in OFDM Systems
Authors: Linjun Wu, Shihua Zhu, Xingle Feng
In an Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) systems, the Peak to Average power Ratio (PAR) is high. The clipping signal scheme is a useful and simple method to reduce the PAR. However, it introduces additional noise that degrades the systems performance. We propose an oversampling scheme to deal with the received signal in order to reduce the clipping noise by using Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filter. Coefficients of filter are obtained by correlation function of the received signal and the oversampling information at receiver. The performance of the proposed technique is evaluated for frequency selective channel. Results show that the proposed scheme can mitigate the clipping noise significantly for OFDM systems and in order to maintain the system's capacity, the clipping ratio should be larger than 2.5.
Keywords: Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing, peak-to-average power ratio, oversampling.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1545
3635 Adaptive Noise Reduction Algorithm for Speech Enhancement
Authors: M. Kalamani, S. Valarmathy, M. Krishnamoorthi
In this paper, Least Mean Square (LMS) adaptive noise reduction algorithm is proposed to enhance the speech signal from the noisy speech. In this, the speech signal is enhanced by varying the step size as the function of the input signal. Objective and subjective measures are made under various noises for the proposed and existing algorithms. From the experimental results, it is seen that the proposed LMS adaptive noise reduction algorithm reduces Mean square Error (MSE) and Log Spectral Distance (LSD) as compared to that of the earlier methods under various noise conditions with different input SNR levels. In addition, the proposed algorithm increases the Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and Segmental SNR improvement (ΔSNRseg) values; improves the Mean Opinion Score (MOS) as compared to that of the various existing LMS adaptive noise reduction algorithms. From these experimental results, it is observed that the proposed LMS adaptive noise reduction algorithm reduces the speech distortion and residual noise as compared to that of the existing methods.
Keywords: LMS, speech enhancement, speech quality, residual noise.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2665
3634 Denosing ECG using Translation Invariant Multiwavelet
Authors: Jeong Yup Han, Su Kyung Lee, Hong Bae Park
Abstract:In this paper, we propose a method to reduce the various kinds of noise while gathering and recording the electrocardiogram (ECG) signal. Because of the defects of former method in the noise elimination of ECG signal, we use translation invariant (TI) multiwavelet denoising method to the noise elimination. The advantage of the proposed method is that it may not only remain the geometrical characteristics of the original ECG signal and keep the amplitudes of various ECG waveforms efficiently, but also suppress impulsive noise to some extent. The simulation results indicate that the proposed method are better than former removing noise method in aspects of remaining geometrical characteristics of ECG signal and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR).
Keywords: ECG, TI multiwavelet, denoise.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1635
3633 Effect Comparison of Speckle Noise Reduction Filters on 2D-Echocardigraphic Images
Authors: Faten A. Dawood, Rahmita W. Rahmat, Suhaini B. Kadiman, Lili N. Abdullah, Mohd D. Zamrin
Echocardiography imaging is one of the most common diagnostic tests that are widely used for assessing the abnormalities of the regional heart ventricle function. The main goal of the image enhancement task in 2D-echocardiography (2DE) is to solve two major anatomical structure problems; speckle noise and low quality. Therefore, speckle noise reduction is one of the important steps that used as a pre-processing to reduce the distortion effects in 2DE image segmentation. In this paper, we present the common filters that based on some form of low-pass spatial smoothing filters such as Mean, Gaussian, and Median. The Laplacian filter was used as a high-pass sharpening filter. A comparative analysis was presented to test the effectiveness of these filters after being applied to original 2DE images of 4-chamber and 2-chamber views. Three statistical quantity measures: root mean square error (RMSE), peak signal-to-ratio (PSNR) and signal-tonoise ratio (SNR) are used to evaluate the filter performance quantitatively on the output enhanced image.
Keywords: Gaussian operator, median filter, speckle texture, peak signal-to-ratioProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1875
3632 CT Medical Images Denoising Based on New Wavelet Thresholding Compared with Curvelet and Contourlet
Authors: Amir Moslemi, Amir Movafeghi, Shahab Moradi
Abstract:One of the most important challenging factors in medical images is nominated as noise. Image denoising refers to the improvement of a digital medical image that has been infected by Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN). The digital medical image or video can be affected by different types of noises. They are impulse noise, Poisson noise and AWGN. Computed tomography (CT) images are subjects to low quality due to the noise. Quality of CT images is dependent on absorbed dose to patients directly in such a way that increase in absorbed radiation, consequently absorbed dose to patients (ADP), enhances the CT images quality. In this manner, noise reduction techniques on purpose of images quality enhancement exposing no excess radiation to patients is one the challenging problems for CT images processing. In this work, noise reduction in CT images was performed using two different directional 2 dimensional (2D) transformations; i.e., Curvelet and Contourlet and Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) thresholding methods of BayesShrink and AdaptShrink, compared to each other and we proposed a new threshold in wavelet domain for not only noise reduction but also edge retaining, consequently the proposed method retains the modified coefficients significantly that result good visual quality. Data evaluations were accomplished by using two criterions; namely, peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) and Structure similarity (Ssim).
Keywords: Computed Tomography (CT), noise reduction, curve-let, contour-let, Signal to Noise Peak-Peak Ratio (PSNR), Structure Similarity (Ssim), Absorbed Dose to Patient (ADP).Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2522
3631 Wavelet-Based ECG Signal Analysis and Classification
Authors: Madina Hamiane, May Hashim Ali
This paper presents the processing and analysis of ECG signals. The study is based on wavelet transform and uses exclusively the MATLAB environment. This study includes removing Baseline wander and further de-noising through wavelet transform and metrics such as signal-to noise ratio (SNR), Peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and the mean squared error (MSE) are used to assess the efficiency of the de-noising techniques. Feature extraction is subsequently performed whereby signal features such as heart rate, rise and fall levels are extracted and the QRS complex was detected which helped in classifying the ECG signal. The classification is the last step in the analysis of the ECG signals and it is shown that these are successfully classified as Normal rhythm or Abnormal rhythm. The final result proved the adequacy of using wavelet transform for the analysis of ECG signals.
Keywords: ECG Signal, QRS detection, thresholding, wavelet decomposition, feature extraction.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 959
3630 New Efficient Method for Coding Color Images
Authors: Walaa M.Abd-Elhafiez, Wajeb Gharibi
In this paper a novel color image compression technique for efficient storage and delivery of data is proposed. The proposed compression technique started by RGB to YCbCr color transformation process. Secondly, the canny edge detection method is used to classify the blocks into the edge and non-edge blocks. Each color component Y, Cb, and Cr compressed by discrete cosine transform (DCT) process, quantizing and coding step by step using adaptive arithmetic coding. Our technique is concerned with the compression ratio, bits per pixel and peak signal to noise ratio, and produce better results than JPEG and more recent published schemes (like CBDCT-CABS and MHC). The provided experimental results illustrate the proposed technique that is efficient and feasible in terms of compression ratio, bits per pixel and peak signal to noise ratio.
Keywords: Image compression, color image, Q-coder, quantization, edge-detection.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1557
3629 Performance Analysis of Chrominance Red and Chrominance Blue in JPEG
Authors: Mamta Garg
Abstract:While compressing text files is useful, compressing still image files is almost a necessity. A typical image takes up much more storage than a typical text message and without compression images would be extremely clumsy to store and distribute. The amount of information required to store pictures on modern computers is quite large in relation to the amount of bandwidth commonly available to transmit them over the Internet and applications. Image compression addresses the problem of reducing the amount of data required to represent a digital image. Performance of any image compression method can be evaluated by measuring the root-mean-square-error & peak signal to noise ratio. The method of image compression that will be analyzed in this paper is based on the lossy JPEG image compression technique, the most popular compression technique for color images. JPEG compression is able to greatly reduce file size with minimal image degradation by throwing away the least “important" information. In JPEG, both color components are downsampled simultaneously, but in this paper we will compare the results when the compression is done by downsampling the single chroma part. In this paper we will demonstrate more compression ratio is achieved when the chrominance blue is downsampled as compared to downsampling the chrominance red in JPEG compression. But the peak signal to noise ratio is more when the chrominance red is downsampled as compared to downsampling the chrominance blue in JPEG compression. In particular we will use the hats.jpg as a demonstration of JPEG compression using low pass filter and demonstrate that the image is compressed with barely any visual differences with both methods.
Keywords: JPEG, Discrete Cosine Transform, Quantization, Color Space Conversion, Image Compression, Peak Signal to Noise Ratio & Compression Ratio.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1575
3628 An Approach to Noise Variance Estimation in Very Low Signal-to-Noise Ratio Stochastic Signals
Authors: Miljan B. Petrović, Dušan B. Petrović, Goran S. Nikolić
This paper describes a method for AWGN (Additive White Gaussian Noise) variance estimation in noisy stochastic signals, referred to as Multiplicative-Noising Variance Estimation (MNVE). The aim was to develop an estimation algorithm with minimal number of assumptions on the original signal structure. The provided MATLAB simulation and results analysis of the method applied on speech signals showed more accuracy than standardized AR (autoregressive) modeling noise estimation technique. In addition, great performance was observed on very low signal-to-noise ratios, which in general represents the worst case scenario for signal denoising methods. High execution time appears to be the only disadvantage of MNVE. After close examination of all the observed features of the proposed algorithm, it was concluded it is worth of exploring and that with some further adjustments and improvements can be enviably powerful.
Keywords: Noise, signal-to-noise ratio, stochastic signals, variance estimation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1980
3627 EPR Hiding in Medical Images for Telemedicine
Authors: K. A. Navas, S. Archana Thampy, M. Sasikumar
Abstract:Medical image data hiding has strict constrains such as high imperceptibility, high capacity and high robustness. Achieving these three requirements simultaneously is highly cumbersome. Some works have been reported in the literature on data hiding, watermarking and stegnography which are suitable for telemedicine applications. None is reliable in all aspects. Electronic Patient Report (EPR) data hiding for telemedicine demand it blind and reversible. This paper proposes a novel approach to blind reversible data hiding based on integer wavelet transform. Experimental results shows that this scheme outperforms the prior arts in terms of zero BER (Bit Error Rate), higher PSNR (Peak Signal to Noise Ratio), and large EPR data embedding capacity with WPSNR (Weighted Peak Signal to Noise Ratio) around 53 dB, compared with the existing reversible data hiding schemes.
Keywords: Biomedical imaging, Data security, Datacommunication, Teleconferencing.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2570
3626 Adaptive Non-linear Filtering Technique for Image Restoration
Authors: S. K. Satpathy, S. Panda, K. K. Nagwanshi, S. K. Nayak, C. Ardil
Removing noise from the any processed images is very important. Noise should be removed in such a way that important information of image should be preserved. A decisionbased nonlinear algorithm for elimination of band lines, drop lines, mark, band lost and impulses in images is presented in this paper. The algorithm performs two simultaneous operations, namely, detection of corrupted pixels and evaluation of new pixels for replacing the corrupted pixels. Removal of these artifacts is achieved without damaging edges and details. However, the restricted window size renders median operation less effective whenever noise is excessive in that case the proposed algorithm automatically switches to mean filtering. The performance of the algorithm is analyzed in terms of Mean Square Error [MSE], Peak-Signal-to-Noise Ratio [PSNR], Signal-to-Noise Ratio Improved [SNRI], Percentage Of Noise Attenuated [PONA], and Percentage Of Spoiled Pixels [POSP]. This is compared with standard algorithms already in use and improved performance of the proposed algorithm is presented. The advantage of the proposed algorithm is that a single algorithm can replace several independent algorithms which are required for removal of different artifacts.
Keywords: Filtering, Decision Based Algorithm, noise, imagerestoration.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2029
3625 Algorithm of Measurement of Noise Signal Power in the Presence of Narrowband Interference
Authors: Alexey V. Klyuev, Valery P. Samarin, Viktor F. Klyuev
A power measurement algorithm of the input mix components of the noise signal and narrowband interference is considered using functional transformations of the input mix in the postdetection processing channel. The algorithm efficiency analysis has been carried out for different interference-to-signal ratio. Algorithm performance features have been explored by numerical experiment results.
Keywords: Noise signal, continuous narrowband interference, signal power, spectrum width, detection.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1270
3624 Adaptive Line Enhancement of Narrowband Signal
Authors: Young-Seok Choi
Abstract:The Adaptive Line Enhancer (ALE) is widely used for enhancing narrowband signals corrupted by broadband noise. In this paper, we propose novel ALE methods to improve the enhancing capability. The proposed methods are motivated by the fact that the output of the ALE is a fine estimate of the desired narrowband signal with the broadband noise component suppressed. The proposed methods preprocess the input signal using ALE filter to regenerate a finer input signal. Thus the proposed ALE is driven by the input signal with higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The analysis and simulation results are presented to demonstrate that the proposed ALE has better performance than conventional ALE’s.
Keywords: Adaptive filter, adaptive line enhancer, noise, feedback.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1912
3623 Increased Signal to Noise Ratio in P300 Potentials by the Method of Coherent Self-Averaging in BCI Systems
Authors: Ricardo Espinosa
The coherent Self-Averaging (CSA), is a new method proposed in this work; applied to simulated signals evoked potentials related to events (ERP) to find the wave P300, useful systems in the brain computer interface (BCI). The CSA method cleans signal in the time domain of white noise through of successive averaging of a single signal. The method is compared with the traditional method, coherent averaging or synchronized (CA), showing optimal results in the improvement of the signal to noise ratio (SNR). The method of CSA is easy to implement, robust and applicable to any physiological time series contaminated with white noise
Keywords: Evoked potentials, wave P300, Coherent Self-averaging, brain - computer interface (BCI).Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2045
3622 Nonlinear Power Measurement Algorithm of the Input Mix Components of the Noise Signal and Pulse Interference
Authors: Alexey V. Klyuev, Valery P. Samarin, Viktor F. Klyuev, Andrey V. Klyuev
A power measurement algorithm of the input mix components of the noise signal and pulse interference is considered. The algorithm efficiency analysis has been carried out for different interference-to-signal ratio. Algorithm performance features have been explored by numerical experiment results.
Keywords: Noise signal, pulse interference, signal power, spectrum width, detection.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1358
3621 Use of Fuzzy Edge Image in Block Truncation Coding for Image Compression
Authors: Amarunnishad T.M., Govindan V.K., Abraham T. Mathew
Abstract:An image compression method has been developed using fuzzy edge image utilizing the basic Block Truncation Coding (BTC) algorithm. The fuzzy edge image has been validated with classical edge detectors on the basis of the results of the well-known Canny edge detector prior to applying to the proposed method. The bit plane generated by the conventional BTC method is replaced with the fuzzy bit plane generated by the logical OR operation between the fuzzy edge image and the corresponding conventional BTC bit plane. The input image is encoded with the block mean and standard deviation and the fuzzy bit plane. The proposed method has been tested with test images of 8 bits/pixel and size 512×512 and found to be superior with better Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) when compared to the conventional BTC, and adaptive bit plane selection BTC (ABTC) methods. The raggedness and jagged appearance, and the ringing artifacts at sharp edges are greatly reduced in reconstructed images by the proposed method with the fuzzy bit plane.
Keywords: Image compression, Edge detection, Ground truth image, Peak signal to noise ratioProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1573
3620 No-Reference Image Quality Assessment using Blur and Noise
Authors: Min Goo Choi, Jung Hoon Jung, Jae Wook Jeon
Abstract:Assessment for image quality traditionally needs its original image as a reference. The conventional method for assessment like Mean Square Error (MSE) or Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) is invalid when there is no reference. In this paper, we present a new No-Reference (NR) assessment of image quality using blur and noise. The recent camera applications provide high quality images by help of digital Image Signal Processor (ISP). Since the images taken by the high performance of digital camera have few blocking and ringing artifacts, we only focus on the blur and noise for predicting the objective image quality. The experimental results show that the proposed assessment method gives high correlation with subjective Difference Mean Opinion Score (DMOS). Furthermore, the proposed method provides very low computational load in spatial domain and similar extraction of characteristics to human perceptional assessment.
Keywords: No Reference, Image Quality Assessment, blur, noise.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3535
3619 Blind Source Separation Using Modified Gaussian FastICA
Authors: V. K. Ananthashayana, Jyothirmayi M.
Abstract:This paper addresses the problem of source separation in images. We propose a FastICA algorithm employing a modified Gaussian contrast function for the Blind Source Separation. Experimental result shows that the proposed Modified Gaussian FastICA is effectively used for Blind Source Separation to obtain better quality images. In this paper, a comparative study has been made with other popular existing algorithms. The peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) and improved signal to noise ratio (ISNR) are used as metrics for evaluating the quality of images. The ICA metric Amari error is also used to measure the quality of separation.
Keywords: Amari error, Blind Source Separation, Contrast function, Gaussian function, Independent Component Analysis.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1634
3618 An Efficient Gaussian Noise Removal Image Enhancement Technique for Gray Scale Images
Authors: V. Murugan, R. Balasubramanian
Image enhancement is a challenging issue in many applications. In the last two decades, there are various filters developed. This paper proposes a novel method which removes Gaussian noise from the gray scale images. The proposed technique is compared with Enhanced Fuzzy Peer Group Filter (EFPGF) for various noise levels. Experimental results proved that the proposed filter achieves better Peak-Signal-to-Noise-Ratio PSNR than the existing techniques. The proposed technique achieves 1.736dB gain in PSNR than the EFPGF technique.
Keywords: Gaussian noise, adaptive bilateral filter, fuzzy peer group filter, switching bilateral filter, PSNRProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2233
3617 Optimum Signal-to-noise Ratio Performance of Electron Multiplying Charge Coupled Devices
Authors: Wen W. Zhang, Qian Chen
Electron multiplying charge coupled devices (EMCCDs) have revolutionized the world of low light imaging by introducing on-chip multiplication gain based on the impact ionization effect in the silicon. They combine the sub-electron readout noise with high frame rates. Signal-to-noise Ratio (SNR) is an important performance parameter for low-light-level imaging systems. This work investigates the SNR performance of an EMCCD operated in Non-inverted Mode (NIMO) and Inverted Mode (IMO). The theory of noise characteristics and operation modes is presented. The results show that the SNR of is determined by dark current and clock induced charge at high gain level. The optimum SNR performance is provided by an EMCCD operated in NIMO in short exposure and strong cooling applications. In contrast, an IMO EMCCD is preferable.
Keywords: electron multiplying charge coupled devices, noise characteristics, operation modes, signal-to-noise ratioperformanceProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2026
3616 An Improved Total Variation Regularization Method for Denoising Magnetocardiography
Authors: Yanping Liao, Congcong He, Ruigang Zhao
Abstract:The application of magnetocardiography signals to detect cardiac electrical function is a new technology developed in recent years. The magnetocardiography signal is detected with Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUID) and has considerable advantages over electrocardiography (ECG). It is difficult to extract Magnetocardiography (MCG) signal which is buried in the noise, which is a critical issue to be resolved in cardiac monitoring system and MCG applications. In order to remove the severe background noise, the Total Variation (TV) regularization method is proposed to denoise MCG signal. The approach transforms the denoising problem into a minimization optimization problem and the Majorization-minimization algorithm is applied to iteratively solve the minimization problem. However, traditional TV regularization method tends to cause step effect and lacks constraint adaptability. In this paper, an improved TV regularization method for denoising MCG signal is proposed to improve the denoising precision. The improvement of this method is mainly divided into three parts. First, high-order TV is applied to reduce the step effect, and the corresponding second derivative matrix is used to substitute the first order. Then, the positions of the non-zero elements in the second order derivative matrix are determined based on the peak positions that are detected by the detection window. Finally, adaptive constraint parameters are defined to eliminate noises and preserve signal peak characteristics. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that this algorithm can effectively improve the output signal-to-noise ratio and has superior performance.
Keywords: Constraint parameters, derivative matrix, magnetocardiography, regular term, total variation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 527
3615 Efficiency of Different GLR Test-statistics for Spatial Signal Detection
Authors: Olesya Bolkhovskaya, Alexander Maltsev
In this work the characteristics of spatial signal detec¬tion from an antenna array in various sample cases are investigated. Cases for a various number of available prior information about the received signal and the background noise are considered. The spatial difference between a signal and noise is only used. The performance characteristics and detecting curves are presented. All test-statistics are obtained on the basis of the generalized likelihood ratio (GLR). The received results are correct for a short and long sample.
Keywords: GLR test-statistic, detection task, generalized likelihood ratio, antenna array, detection curves, performance characteristics.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1400
3614 A Novel Machining Signal Filtering Technique: Z-notch Filter
Authors: Nuawi M. Z., Lamin F., Ismail A. R., Abdullah S., Wahid Z.
A filter is used to remove undesirable frequency information from a dynamic signal. This paper shows that the Znotch filter filtering technique can be applied to remove the noise nuisance from a machining signal. In machining, the noise components were identified from the sound produced by the operation of machine components itself such as hydraulic system, motor, machine environment and etc. By correlating the noise components with the measured machining signal, the interested components of the measured machining signal which was less interfered by the noise, can be extracted. Thus, the filtered signal is more reliable to be analysed in terms of noise content compared to the unfiltered signal. Significantly, the I-kaz method i.e. comprises of three dimensional graphical representation and I-kaz coefficient, Z∞ could differentiate between the filtered and the unfiltered signal. The bigger space of scattering and the higher value of Z∞ demonstrated that the signal was highly interrupted by noise. This method can be utilised as a proactive tool in evaluating the noise content in a signal. The evaluation of noise content is very important as well as the elimination especially for machining operation fault diagnosis purpose. The Z-notch filtering technique was reliable in extracting noise component from the measured machining signal with high efficiency. Even though the measured signal was exposed to high noise disruption, the signal generated from the interaction between cutting tool and work piece still can be acquired. Therefore, the interruption of noise that could change the original signal feature and consequently can deteriorate the useful sensory information can be eliminated.
Keywords: Digital signal filtering, I-kaz method, Machiningmonitoring, Noise Cancelling, SoundProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1767
3613 Accurate Crosstalk Analysis for RLC On-Chip VLSI Interconnect
Authors: Susmita Sahoo, Madhumanti Datta, Rajib Kar
This work proposes an accurate crosstalk noise estimation method in the presence of multiple RLC lines for the use in design automation tools. This method correctly models the loading effects of non switching aggressors and aggressor tree branches using resistive shielding effect and realistic exponential input waveforms. Noise peak and width expressions have been derived. The results obtained are at good agreement with SPICE results. Results show that average error for noise peak is 4.7% and for the width is 6.15% while allowing a very fast analysis.
Keywords: Crosstalk, distributed RLC segments, On-Chip interconnect, output response, VLSI, noise peak, noise width.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1534
3612 Noise Estimation for Speech Enhancement in Non-Stationary Environments-A New Method
Authors: Ch.V.Rama Rao, Gowthami., Harsha., Rajkumar., M.B.Rama Murthy, K.Srinivasa Rao, K.AnithaSheela
Abstract:This paper presents a new method for estimating the nonstationary noise power spectral density given a noisy signal. The method is based on averaging the noisy speech power spectrum using time and frequency dependent smoothing factors. These factors are adjusted based on signal-presence probability in individual frequency bins. Signal presence is determined by computing the ratio of the noisy speech power spectrum to its local minimum, which is updated continuously by averaging past values of the noisy speech power spectra with a look-ahead factor. This method adapts very quickly to highly non-stationary noise environments. The proposed method achieves significant improvements over a system that uses voice activity detector (VAD) in noise estimation.
Keywords: Noise estimation, Non-stationary noise, Speechenhancement.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2212
3611 Union is Strength in Lossy Image Compression
Authors: Mario Mastriani
Abstract:In this work, we present a comparison between different techniques of image compression. First, the image is divided in blocks which are organized according to a certain scan. Later, several compression techniques are applied, combined or alone. Such techniques are: wavelets (Haar's basis), Karhunen-Loève Transform, etc. Simulations show that the combined versions are the best, with minor Mean Squared Error (MSE), and higher Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and better image quality, even in the presence of noise.
Keywords: Haar's basis, Image compression, Karhunen-LoèveTransform, Morton's scan, row-rafter scan.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1622
3610 The Effect of Different Compression Schemes on Speech Signals
Authors: Jalal Karam, Raed Saad
Abstract:This paper studies the effect of different compression constraints and schemes presented in a new and flexible paradigm to achieve high compression ratios and acceptable signal to noise ratios of Arabic speech signals. Compression parameters are computed for variable frame sizes of a level 5 to 7 Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) representation of the signals for different analyzing mother wavelet functions. Results are obtained and compared for Global threshold and level dependent threshold techniques. The results obtained also include comparisons with Signal to Noise Ratios, Peak Signal to Noise Ratios and Normalized Root Mean Square Error.
Keywords: Speech Compression, Wavelets.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1621
3609 Noise-Improved Signal Detection in Nonlinear Threshold Systems
Authors: Youguo Wang, Lenan Wu
Abstract:We discuss the signal detection through nonlinear threshold systems. The detection performance is assessed by the probability of error Per . We establish that: (1) when the signal is complete suprathreshold, noise always degrades the signal detection both in the single threshold system and in the parallel array of threshold devices. (2) When the signal is a little subthreshold, noise degrades signal detection in the single threshold system. But in the parallel array, noise can improve signal detection, i.e., stochastic resonance (SR) exists in the array. (3) When the signal is predominant subthreshold, noise always can improve signal detection and SR always exists not only in the single threshold system but also in the parallel array. (4) Array can improve signal detection by raising the number of threshold devices. These results extend further the applicability of SR in signal detection.
Keywords: Probability of error, signal detection, stochasticresonance, threshold system.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1267
3608 Quad Tree Decomposition Based Analysis of Compressed Image Data Communication for Lossy and Lossless Using WSN
Authors: N. Muthukumaran, R. Ravi
The Quad Tree Decomposition based performance analysis of compressed image data communication for lossy and lossless through wireless sensor network is presented. Images have considerably higher storage requirement than text. While transmitting a multimedia content there is chance of the packets being dropped due to noise and interference. At the receiver end the packets that carry valuable information might be damaged or lost due to noise, interference and congestion. In order to avoid the valuable information from being dropped various retransmission schemes have been proposed. In this proposed scheme QTD is used. QTD is an image segmentation method that divides the image into homogeneous areas. In this proposed scheme involves analysis of parameters such as compression ratio, peak signal to noise ratio, mean square error, bits per pixel in compressed image and analysis of difficulties during data packet communication in Wireless Sensor Networks. By considering the above, this paper is to use the QTD to improve the compression ratio as well as visual quality and the algorithm in MATLAB 7.1 and NS2 Simulator software tool.
Keywords: Image compression, Compression Ratio, Quad tree decomposition, Wireless sensor networks, NS2 simulator.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2292