Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1995

Search results for: Additive white Gaussian noise channel

1995 A Compact Pi Network for Reducing Bit Error Rate in Dispersive FIR Channel Noise Model

Authors: Kavita Burse, R.N. Yadav, S.C. Shrivastava, Vishnu Pratap Singh Kirar

Abstract:

During signal transmission, the combined effect of the transmitter filter, the transmission medium, and additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) are included in the channel which distort and add noise to the signal. This causes the well defined signal constellation to spread causing errors in bit detection. A compact pi neural network with minimum number of nodes is proposed. The replacement of summation at each node by multiplication results in more powerful mapping. The resultant pi network is tested on six different channels.

Keywords: Additive white Gaussian noise, digitalcommunication system, multiplicative neuron, Pi neural network.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1337
1994 Effect of Different BER Performance Comparison of MAP and ML Detection

Authors: Naveed Ur Rehman, Rehan Jamil, Irfan Jamil

Abstract:

In this paper, we regard as a coded transmission over a frequency-selective channel. We plan to study analytically the convergence of the turbo-detector using a maximum a posteriori (MAP) equalizer and a MAP decoder. We demonstrate that the densities of the maximum likelihood (ML) exchanged during the iterations are e-symmetric and output-symmetric. Under the Gaussian approximation, this property allows to execute a one-dimensional scrutiny of the turbo-detector. By deriving the analytical terminology of the ML distributions under the Gaussian approximation, we confirm that the bit error rate (BER) performance of the turbo-detector converges to the BER performance of the coded additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel at high signal to noise ratio (SNR), for any frequency selective channel.

Keywords: MAP, ML, SNR, Decoder, BER, Coded transmission.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1951
1993 A Comparison of Real Valued Transforms for Image Compression

Authors: Shivali D. Kulkarni, Ameya K. Naik, Nitin S. Nagori

Abstract:

In this paper we present simulation results for the application of a bandwidth efficient algorithm (mapping algorithm) to an image transmission system. This system considers three different real valued transforms to generate energy compact coefficients. First results are presented for gray scale and color image transmission in the absence of noise. It is seen that the system performs its best when discrete cosine transform is used. Also the performance of the system is dominated more by the size of the transform block rather than the number of coefficients transmitted or the number of bits used to represent each coefficient. Similar results are obtained in the presence of additive white Gaussian noise. The varying values of the bit error rate have very little or no impact on the performance of the algorithm. Optimum results are obtained for the system considering 8x8 transform block and by transmitting 15 coefficients from each block using 8 bits.

Keywords: Additive white Gaussian noise channel, mapping algorithm, peak signal to noise ratio, transform encoding.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1270
1992 Analysis of Joint Source Channel LDPC Coding for Correlated Sources Transmission over Noisy Channels

Authors: Marwa Ben Abdessalem, Amin Zribi, Ammar Bouallègue

Abstract:

In this paper, a Joint Source Channel coding scheme based on LDPC codes is investigated. We consider two concatenated LDPC codes, one allows to compress a correlated source and the second to protect it against channel degradations. The original information can be reconstructed at the receiver by a joint decoder, where the source decoder and the channel decoder run in parallel by transferring extrinsic information. We investigate the performance of the JSC LDPC code in terms of Bit-Error Rate (BER) in the case of transmission over an Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel, and for different source and channel rate parameters. We emphasize how JSC LDPC presents a performance tradeoff depending on the channel state and on the source correlation. We show that, the JSC LDPC is an efficient solution for a relatively low Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) channel, especially with highly correlated sources. Finally, a source-channel rate optimization has to be applied to guarantee the best JSC LDPC system performance for a given channel.

Keywords: AWGN channel, belief propagation, joint source channel coding, LDPC codes.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 634
1991 Cyclostationary Gaussian Linearization for Analyzing Nonlinear System Response under Sinusoidal Signal and White Noise Excitation

Authors: R. J. Chang

Abstract:

A cyclostationary Gaussian linearization method is formulated for investigating the time average response of nonlinear system under sinusoidal signal and white noise excitation. The quantitative measure of cyclostationary mean, variance, spectrum of mean amplitude, and mean power spectral density of noise are analyzed. The qualitative response behavior of stochastic jump and bifurcation are investigated. The validity of the present approach in predicting the quantitative and qualitative statistical responses is supported by utilizing Monte Carlo simulations. The present analysis without imposing restrictive analytical conditions can be directly derived by solving non-linear algebraic equations. The analytical solution gives reliable quantitative and qualitative prediction of mean and noise response for the Duffing system subjected to both sinusoidal signal and white noise excitation.

Keywords: Cyclostationary, Duffing system, Gaussian linearization, sinusoidal signal and white noise.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1786
1990 Least Square-SVM Detector for Wireless BPSK in Multi-Environmental Noise

Authors: J. P. Dubois, Omar M. Abdul-Latif

Abstract:

Support Vector Machine (SVM) is a statistical learning tool developed to a more complex concept of structural risk minimization (SRM). In this paper, SVM is applied to signal detection in communication systems in the presence of channel noise in various environments in the form of Rayleigh fading, additive white Gaussian background noise (AWGN), and interference noise generalized as additive color Gaussian noise (ACGN). The structure and performance of SVM in terms of the bit error rate (BER) metric is derived and simulated for these advanced stochastic noise models and the computational complexity of the implementation, in terms of average computational time per bit, is also presented. The performance of SVM is then compared to conventional binary signaling optimal model-based detector driven by binary phase shift keying (BPSK) modulation. We show that the SVM performance is superior to that of conventional matched filter-, innovation filter-, and Wiener filter-driven detectors, even in the presence of random Doppler carrier deviation, especially for low SNR (signal-to-noise ratio) ranges. For large SNR, the performance of the SVM was similar to that of the classical detectors. However, the convergence between SVM and maximum likelihood detection occurred at a higher SNR as the noise environment became more hostile.

Keywords: Colour noise, Doppler shift, innovation filter, least square-support vector machine, matched filter, Rayleigh fading, Wiener filter.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1568
1989 Optimal Channel Equalization for MIMO Time-Varying Channels

Authors: Ehab F. Badran, Guoxiang Gu

Abstract:

We consider optimal channel equalization for MIMO (multi-input/multi-output) time-varying channels in the sense of MMSE (minimum mean-squared-error), where the observation noise can be non-stationary. We show that all ZF (zero-forcing) receivers can be parameterized in an affine form which eliminates completely the ISI (inter-symbol-interference), and optimal channel equalizers can be designed through minimization of the MSE (mean-squarederror) between the detected signals and the transmitted signals, among all ZF receivers. We demonstrate that the optimal channel equalizer is a modified Kalman filter, and show that under the AWGN (additive white Gaussian noise) assumption, the proposed optimal channel equalizer minimizes the BER (bit error rate) among all possible ZF receivers. Our results are applicable to optimal channel equalization for DWMT (discrete wavelet multitone), multirate transmultiplexers, OFDM (orthogonal frequency division multiplexing), and DS (direct sequence) CDMA (code division multiple access) wireless data communication systems. A design algorithm for optimal channel equalization is developed, and several simulation examples are worked out to illustrate the proposed design algorithm.

Keywords: Channel equalization, Kalman filtering, Time-varying systems.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1568
1988 A Degraded Practical MIMOME Channel: Issues Insecret Data Communications

Authors: Mohammad Rakibul Islam

Abstract:

In this paper, a Gaussian multiple input multiple output multiple eavesdropper (MIMOME) channel is considered where a transmitter communicates to a receiver in the presence of an eavesdropper. We present a technique for determining the secrecy capacity of the multiple input multiple output (MIMO) channel under Gaussian noise. We transform the degraded MIMOME channel into multiple single input multiple output (SIMO) Gaussian wire-tap channels and then use scalar approach to convert it into two equivalent multiple input single output (MISO) channels. The secrecy capacity model is then developed for the condition where the channel state information (CSI) for main channel only is known to the transmitter. The results show that the secret communication is possible when the eavesdropper channel noise is greater than a cutoff noise level. The outage probability is also analyzed of secrecy capacity is also analyzed. The effect of fading and outage probability is also analyzed.

Keywords: Secrecy capacity, MIMO, wiretap channel, covariance matrix, fading.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1271
1987 Quality Estimation of Video Transmitted overan Additive WGN Channel based on Digital Watermarking and Wavelet Transform

Authors: Mohamed S. El-Mahallawy, Attalah Hashad, Hazem Hassan Ali, Heba Sami Zaky

Abstract:

This paper presents an evaluation for a wavelet-based digital watermarking technique used in estimating the quality of video sequences transmitted over Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel in terms of a classical objective metric, such as Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) without the need of the original video. In this method, a watermark is embedded into the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) domain of the original video frames using a quantization method. The degradation of the extracted watermark can be used to estimate the video quality in terms of PSNR with good accuracy. We calculated PSNR for video frames contaminated with AWGN and compared the values with those estimated using the Watermarking-DWT based approach. It is found that the calculated and estimated quality measures of the video frames are highly correlated, suggesting that this method can provide a good quality measure for video frames transmitted over AWGN channel without the need of the original video.

Keywords: AWGN, DWT, PSNR, Watermarking, VideoQuality.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1622
1986 Performance Comparison and Analysis of Serial Concatenated Convolutional Codes

Authors: Dongwon Lee, Eon Kyeong Joo

Abstract:

In this paper, the performance of three types of serial concatenated convolutional codes (SCCC) is compared and analyzed in additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel. In Type I, only the parity bits of outer encoder are passed to inner encoder. In Type II and Type III, both the information bits and the parity bits of outer encoder are transferred to inner encoder. As results of simulation, Type I shows the best bit error rate (BER) performance at low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). On the other hand, Type III shows the best BER performance at high SNR in AWGN channel. The simulation results are analyzed using the distance spectrum.

Keywords: Distance spectrum, MAP algorithm, SCCC.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1531
1985 Method to Improve Channel Coding Using Cryptography

Authors: Ayyaz Mahmood

Abstract:

A new approach for the improvement of coding gain in channel coding using Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) and Maximum A Posteriori (MAP) algorithm is proposed. This new approach uses the avalanche effect of block cipher algorithm AES and soft output values of MAP decoding algorithm. The performance of proposed approach is evaluated in the presence of Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN). For the verification of proposed approach, computer simulation results are included.

Keywords: Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), Avalanche Effect, Maximum A Posteriori (MAP), Soft Input Decryption (SID).

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1742
1984 A Robust Reception of IEEE 802.15.4a IR-TH UWB in Dense Multipath and Gaussian Noise

Authors: Farah Haroon, Haroon Rasheed, Kazi M Ahmed

Abstract:

IEEE 802.15.4a impulse radio-time hopping ultra wide band (IR-TH UWB) physical layer, due to small duty cycle and very short pulse widths is robust against multipath propagation. However, scattering and reflections with the large number of obstacles in indoor channel environments, give rise to dense multipath fading. It imposes serious problem to optimum Rake receiver architectures, for which very large number of fingers are needed. Presence of strong noise also affects the reception of fine pulses having extremely low power spectral density. A robust SRake receiver for IEEE 802.15.4a IRTH UWB in dense multipath and additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) is proposed to efficiently recover the weak signals with much reduced complexity. It adaptively increases the signal to noise (SNR) by decreasing noise through a recursive least square (RLS) algorithm. For simulation, dense multipath environment of IEEE 802.15.4a industrial non line of sight (NLOS) is employed. The power delay profile (PDF) and the cumulative distribution function (CDF) for the respective channel environment are found. Moreover, the error performance of the proposed architecture is evaluated in comparison with conventional SRake and AWGN correlation receivers. The simulation results indicate a substantial performance improvement with very less number of Rake fingers.

Keywords: Adaptive noise cancellation, dense multipath propoagation, IEEE 802.15.4a, IR-TH UWB, industrial NLOS environment, SRake receiver

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1532
1983 Centralized Cooperative Spectrum Sensing with MIMO in the Reporting Network over κ − μ Fading Channel

Authors: S Hariharan, K Chaitanya, P Muthuchidambaranathan

Abstract:

The IEEE 802.22 working group aims to drive the Digital Video Broadcasting-Terrestrial (DVB-T) bands for data communication to the rural area without interfering the TV broadcast. In this paper, we arrive at a closed-form expression for average detection probability of Fusion center (FC) with multiple antenna over the κ − μ fading channel model. We consider a centralized cooperative multiple antenna network for reporting. The DVB-T samples forwarded by the secondary user (SU) were combined using Maximum ratio combiner at FC, an energy detection is performed to make the decision. The fading effects of the channel degrades the detection probability of the FC, a generalized independent and identically distributed (IID) κ − μ and an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel is considered for reporting and sensing respectively. The proposed system performance is verified through simulation results.

Keywords: IEEE 802.22, Cooperative spectrum sensing, Multiple antenna, κ − μ .

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 5143
1982 Self-tuned LMS Algorithm for Sinusoidal Time Delay Tracking

Authors: Jonah Gamba

Abstract:

In this paper the problem of estimating the time delay between two spatially separated noisy sinusoidal signals by system identification modeling is addressed. The system is assumed to be perturbed by both input and output additive white Gaussian noise. The presence of input noise introduces bias in the time delay estimates. Normally the solution requires a priori knowledge of the input-output noise variance ratio. We utilize the cascade of a self-tuned filter with the time delay estimator, thus making the delay estimates robust to input noise. Simulation results are presented to confirm the superiority of the proposed approach at low input signal-to-noise ratios.

Keywords: LMS algorithm, Self-tuned filter, Systemidentification, Time delay estimation, .

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1344
1981 Embedded Throughput Improving of Low-rate EDR Packets for Lower-latency

Authors: M. A. M. El-Bendary, A. E. Abu El-Azm, N. A. El-Fishawy, F. Shawky, F. E. El-Samie

Abstract:

With increasing utilization of the wireless devices in different fields such as medical devices and industrial fields, the paper presents a method for simplify the Bluetooth packets with throughput enhancing. The paper studies a vital issue in wireless communications, which is the throughput of data over wireless networks. In fact, the Bluetooth and ZigBee are a Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN). With taking these two systems competition consideration, the paper proposes different schemes for improve the throughput of Bluetooth network over a reliable channel. The proposition depends on the Channel Quality Driven Data Rate (CQDDR) rules, which determines the suitable packet in the transmission process according to the channel conditions. The proposed packet is studied over additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) and fading channels. The Experimental results reveal the capability of extension of the PL length by 8, 16, 24 bytes for classic and EDR packets, respectively. Also, the proposed method is suitable for the low throughput Bluetooth.

Keywords: Bluetooth, throughput, adaptive packets, EDRpackets, CQDDR, low latency. Channel condition

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1620
1980 Frequency Offset Estimation Schemes Based On ML for OFDM Systems in Non-Gaussian Noise Environments

Authors: Keunhong Chae, Seokho Yoon

Abstract:

In this paper, frequency offset (FO) estimation schemes robust to the non-Gaussian noise environments are proposed for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. First, a maximum-likelihood (ML) estimation scheme in non-Gaussian noise environments is proposed, and then, the complexity of the ML estimation scheme is reduced by employing a reduced set of candidate values. In numerical results, it is demonstrated that the proposed schemes provide a significant performance improvement over the conventional estimation scheme in non-Gaussian noise environments while maintaining the performance similar to the estimation performance in Gaussian noise environments.

Keywords: Frequency offset estimation, maximum-likelihood, non-Gaussian noise environment, OFDM, training symbol.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1666
1979 Volterra Filtering Techniques for Removal of Gaussian and Mixed Gaussian-Impulse Noise

Authors: M. B. Meenavathi, K. Rajesh

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a new class of Volterra series based filters for image enhancement and restoration. Generally the linear filters reduce the noise and cause blurring at the edges. Some nonlinear filters based on median operator or rank operator deal with only impulse noise and fail to cancel the most common Gaussian distributed noise. A class of second order Volterra filters is proposed to optimize the trade-off between noise removal and edge preservation. In this paper, we consider both the Gaussian and mixed Gaussian-impulse noise to test the robustness of the filter. Image enhancement and restoration results using the proposed Volterra filter are found to be superior to those obtained with standard linear and nonlinear filters.

Keywords: Gaussian noise, Image enhancement, Imagerestoration, Linear filters, Nonlinear filters, Volterra series.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2436
1978 An Approach to Noise Variance Estimation in Very Low Signal-to-Noise Ratio Stochastic Signals

Authors: Miljan B. Petrović, Dušan B. Petrović, Goran S. Nikolić

Abstract:

This paper describes a method for AWGN (Additive White Gaussian Noise) variance estimation in noisy stochastic signals, referred to as Multiplicative-Noising Variance Estimation (MNVE). The aim was to develop an estimation algorithm with minimal number of assumptions on the original signal structure. The provided MATLAB simulation and results analysis of the method applied on speech signals showed more accuracy than standardized AR (autoregressive) modeling noise estimation technique. In addition, great performance was observed on very low signal-to-noise ratios, which in general represents the worst case scenario for signal denoising methods. High execution time appears to be the only disadvantage of MNVE. After close examination of all the observed features of the proposed algorithm, it was concluded it is worth of exploring and that with some further adjustments and improvements can be enviably powerful.

Keywords: Noise, signal-to-noise ratio, stochastic signals, variance estimation.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1822
1977 Combined Source and Channel Coding for Image Transmission Using Enhanced Turbo Codes in AWGN and Rayleigh Channel

Authors: N. S. Pradeep, M. Balasingh Moses, V. Aarthi

Abstract:

Any signal transmitted over a channel is corrupted by noise and interference. A host of channel coding techniques has been proposed to alleviate the effect of such noise and interference. Among these Turbo codes are recommended, because of increased capacity at higher transmission rates and superior performance over convolutional codes. The multimedia elements which are associated with ample amount of data are best protected by Turbo codes. Turbo decoder employs Maximum A-posteriori Probability (MAP) and Soft Output Viterbi Decoding (SOVA) algorithms. Conventional Turbo coded systems employ Equal Error Protection (EEP) in which the protection of all the data in an information message is uniform. Some applications involve Unequal Error Protection (UEP) in which the level of protection is higher for important information bits than that of other bits. In this work, enhancement to the traditional Log MAP decoding algorithm is being done by using optimized scaling factors for both the decoders. The error correcting performance in presence of UEP in Additive White Gaussian Noise channel (AWGN) and Rayleigh fading are analyzed for the transmission of image with Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) as source coding technique. This paper compares the performance of log MAP, Modified log MAP (MlogMAP) and Enhanced log MAP (ElogMAP) algorithms used for image transmission. The MlogMAP algorithm is found to be best for lower Eb/N0 values but for higher Eb/N0 ElogMAP performs better with optimized scaling factors. The performance comparison of AWGN with fading channel indicates the robustness of the proposed algorithm. According to the performance of three different message classes, class3 would be more protected than other two classes. From the performance analysis, it is observed that ElogMAP algorithm with UEP is best for transmission of an image compared to Log MAP and MlogMAP decoding algorithms.

Keywords: AWGN, BER, DCT, Fading, MAP, UEP.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1412
1976 Impact of Modeling Different Fading Channels on Wireless MAN Fixed IEEE802.16d OFDM System with Diversity Transmission Technique

Authors: Shanar Askar, Shahzad Memon, LachhmanDas, MSKalhoro

Abstract:

Wimax (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) is a promising technology which can offer high speed data, voice and video service to the customer end, which is presently, dominated by the cable and digital subscriber line (DSL) technologies. The performance assessment of Wimax systems is dealt with. The biggest advantage of Broadband wireless application (BWA) over its wired competitors is its increased capacity and ease of deployment. The aims of this paper are to model and simulate the fixed OFDM IEEE 802.16d physical layer under variant combinations of digital modulation (BPSK, QPSK, and 16-QAM) over diverse combination of fading channels (AWGN, SUIs). Stanford University Interim (SUI) Channel serial was proposed to simulate the fixed broadband wireless access channel environments where IEEE 802.16d is to be deployed. It has six channel models that are grouped into three categories according to three typical different outdoor Terrains, in order to give a comprehensive effect of fading channels on the overall performance of the system.

Keywords: WIMAX, OFDM, Additive White Gaussian Noise, Fading Channel, SUI, Doppler Effect.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1855
1975 Tests for Gaussianity of a Stationary Time Series

Authors: Adnan Al-Smadi

Abstract:

One of the primary uses of higher order statistics in signal processing has been for detecting and estimation of non- Gaussian signals in Gaussian noise of unknown covariance. This is motivated by the ability of higher order statistics to suppress additive Gaussian noise. In this paper, several methods to test for non- Gaussianity of a given process are presented. These methods include histogram plot, kurtosis test, and hypothesis testing using cumulants and bispectrum of the available sequence. The hypothesis testing is performed by constructing a statistic to test whether the bispectrum of the given signal is non-zero. A zero bispectrum is not a proof of Gaussianity. Hence, other tests such as the kurtosis test should be employed. Examples are given to demonstrate the performance of the presented methods.

Keywords: Non-Gaussian, bispectrum, kurtosis, hypothesistesting, histogram.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1631
1974 Analysis of Linear Equalizers for Cooperative Multi-User MIMO Based Reporting System

Authors: S. Hariharan, P. Muthuchidambaranathan

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider a multi user multiple input multiple output (MU-MIMO) based cooperative reporting system for cognitive radio network. In the reporting network, the secondary users forward the primary user data to the common fusion center (FC). The FC is equipped with linear equalizers and an energy detector to make the decision about the spectrum. The primary user data are considered to be a digital video broadcasting - terrestrial (DVB-T) signal. The sensing channel and the reporting channel are assumed to be an additive white Gaussian noise and an independent identically distributed Raleigh fading respectively. We analyzed the detection probability of MU-MIMO system with linear equalizers and arrived at the closed form expression for average detection probability. Also the system performance is investigated under various MIMO scenarios through Monte Carlo simulations.

Keywords: Cooperative MU-MIMO, DVB-T, Linear Equalizers.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1788
1973 A Novel SVM-Based OOK Detector in Low SNR Infrared Channels

Authors: J. P. Dubois, O. M. Abdul-Latif

Abstract:

Support Vector Machine (SVM) is a recent class of statistical classification and regression techniques playing an increasing role in applications to detection problems in various engineering problems, notably in statistical signal processing, pattern recognition, image analysis, and communication systems. In this paper, SVM is applied to an infrared (IR) binary communication system with different types of channel models including Ricean multipath fading and partially developed scattering channel with additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) at the receiver. The structure and performance of SVM in terms of the bit error rate (BER) metric is derived and simulated for these channel stochastic models and the computational complexity of the implementation, in terms of average computational time per bit, is also presented. The performance of SVM is then compared to classical binary signal maximum likelihood detection using a matched filter driven by On-Off keying (OOK) modulation. We found that the performance of SVM is superior to that of the traditional optimal detection schemes used in statistical communication, especially for very low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) ranges. For large SNR, the performance of the SVM is similar to that of the classical detectors. The implication of these results is that SVM can prove very beneficial to IR communication systems that notoriously suffer from low SNR at the cost of increased computational complexity.

Keywords: Least square-support vector machine, on-off keying, matched filter, maximum likelihood detector, wireless infrared communication.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1706
1972 Modelling of Electron States in Quantum -Wire Systems - Influence of Stochastic Effects on the Confining Potential

Authors: Mikhail Vladimirovich Deryabin, Morten Willatzen

Abstract:

In this work, we address theoretically the influence of red and white Gaussian noise for electronic energies and eigenstates of cylindrically shaped quantum dots. The stochastic effect can be imagined as resulting from crystal-growth statistical fluctuations in the quantum-dot material composition. In particular we obtain analytical expressions for the eigenvalue shifts and electronic envelope functions in the k . p formalism due to stochastic variations in the confining band-edge potential. It is shown that white noise in the band-edge potential leaves electronic properties almost unaffected while red noise may lead to changes in state energies and envelopefunction amplitudes of several percentages. In the latter case, the ensemble-averaged envelope function decays as a function of distance. It is also shown that, in a stochastic system, constant ensembleaveraged envelope functions are the only bounded solutions for the infinite quantum-wire problem and the energy spectrum is completely discrete. In other words, the infinite stochastic quantum wire behaves, ensemble-averaged, as an atom.

Keywords: cylindrical quantum dots, electronic eigen energies, red and white Gaussian noise, ensemble averaging effects.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1255
1971 Optimal Power Allocation for the Proposed Asymmetric Turbo Code for 3G Systems

Authors: K. Ramasamy, B. Balamuralithara, Mohammad Umar Siddiqi

Abstract:

We proposed a new class of asymmetric turbo encoder for 3G systems that performs well in both “water fall" and “error floor" regions in [7]. In this paper, a modified (optimal) power allocation scheme for the different bits of new class of asymmetric turbo encoder has been investigated to enhance the performance. The simulation results and performance bound for proposed asymmetric turbo code with modified Unequal Power Allocation (UPA) scheme for the frame length, N=400, code rate, r=1/3 with Log-MAP decoder over Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel are obtained and compared with the system with typical UPA and without UPA. The performance tests are extended over AWGN channel for different frame size to verify the possibility of implementation of the modified UPA scheme for the proposed asymmetric turbo code. From the performance results, it is observed that the proposed asymmetric turbo code with modified UPA performs better than the system without UPA and with typical UPA and it provides a coding gain of 0.4 to 0.52dB.

Keywords: Asymmetric turbo code, Generator polynomial, Interleaver, UPA, WCDMA, cdma2000.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1562
1970 ML-Based Blind Frequency Offset Estimation Schemes for OFDM Systems in Non-Gaussian Noise Environments

Authors: Keunhong Chae, Seokho Yoon

Abstract:

This paper proposes frequency offset (FO) estimation schemes robust to the non-Gaussian noise for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. A maximum-likelihood (ML) scheme and a low-complexity estimation scheme are proposed by applying the probability density function of the cyclic prefix of OFDM symbols to the ML criterion. From simulation results, it is confirmed that the proposed schemes offer a significant FO estimation performance improvement over the conventional estimation scheme in non-Gaussian noise environments.

Keywords: Frequency offset, cyclic prefix, maximum-likelihood, non-Gaussian noise, OFDM.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1691
1969 Multiuser Detection in CDMA Fast Fading Multipath Channel using Heuristic Genetic Algorithms

Authors: Muhammad Naeem, Syed Ismail Shah, Habibullah Jamal

Abstract:

In this paper, a simple heuristic genetic algorithm is used for Multistage Multiuser detection in fast fading environments. Multipath channels, multiple access interference (MAI) and near far effect cause the performance of the conventional detector to degrade. Heuristic Genetic algorithms, a rapidly growing area of artificial intelligence, uses evolutionary programming for initial search, which not only helps to converge the solution towards near optimal performance efficiently but also at a very low complexity as compared with optimal detector. This holds true for Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) and multipath fading channels. Experimental results are presented to show the superior performance of the proposed techque over the existing methods.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithm (GA), Multiple AccessInterference (MAI), Multistage Detectors (MSD), SuccessiveInterference Cancellation.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1742
1968 Impact of the Decoder Connection Schemes on Iterative Decoding of GPCB Codes

Authors: Fouad Ayoub, Mohammed Lahmer, Mostafa Belkasmi, El Houssine Bouyakhf

Abstract:

In this paper we present a study of the impact of connection schemes on the performance of iterative decoding of Generalized Parallel Concatenated block (GPCB) constructed from one step majority logic decodable (OSMLD) codes and we propose a new connection scheme for decoding them. All iterative decoding connection schemes use a soft-input soft-output threshold decoding algorithm as a component decoder. Numerical result for GPCB codes transmitted over Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel are provided. It will show that the proposed scheme is better than Hagenauer-s scheme and Lucas-s scheme [1] and slightly better than the Pyndiah-s scheme.

Keywords: Generalized parallel concatenated block codes, OSMLD codes, threshold decoding, iterative decoding scheme, and performance.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1500
1967 Extended Study on Removing Gaussian Noise in Mechanical Engineering Drawing Images using Median Filters

Authors: Low Khong Teck, Hasan S. M. Al-Khaffaf, Abdullah Zawawi Talib, Tan Kian Lam

Abstract:

In this paper, an extended study is performed on the effect of different factors on the quality of vector data based on a previous study. In the noise factor, one kind of noise that appears in document images namely Gaussian noise is studied while the previous study involved only salt-and-pepper noise. High and low levels of noise are studied. For the noise cleaning methods, algorithms that were not covered in the previous study are used namely Median filters and its variants. For the vectorization factor, one of the best available commercial raster to vector software namely VPstudio is used to convert raster images into vector format. The performance of line detection will be judged based on objective performance evaluation method. The output of the performance evaluation is then analyzed statistically to highlight the factors that affect vector quality.

Keywords: Performance Evaluation, Vectorization, Median Filter, Gaussian Noise.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1471
1966 An Efficient Gaussian Noise Removal Image Enhancement Technique for Gray Scale Images

Authors: V. Murugan, R. Balasubramanian

Abstract:

Image enhancement is a challenging issue in many applications. In the last two decades, there are various filters developed. This paper proposes a novel method which removes Gaussian noise from the gray scale images. The proposed technique is compared with Enhanced Fuzzy Peer Group Filter (EFPGF) for various noise levels. Experimental results proved that the proposed filter achieves better Peak-Signal-to-Noise-Ratio PSNR than the existing techniques. The proposed technique achieves 1.736dB gain in PSNR than the EFPGF technique.

Keywords: Gaussian noise, adaptive bilateral filter, fuzzy peer group filter, switching bilateral filter, PSNR

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2067