Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31

Search results for: LED lighting

31 The Performance of Natural Light by Roof Systems in Cultural Buildings

Authors: Ana Paula Esteves, Diego S. Caetano, Louise L. B. Lomardo

Abstract:

This paper presents an approach to the performance of the natural lighting, when the use of appropriated solar lighting systems on the roof is applied in cultural buildings such as museums and foundations. The roofs, as a part of contact between the building and the external environment, require special attention in projects that aim at energy efficiency, being an important element for the capture of natural light in greater quantity, but also for being the most important point of generation of photovoltaic solar energy, even semitransparent, allowing the partial passage of light. Transparent elements in roofs, as well as superior protection of the building, can also play other roles, such as: meeting the needs of natural light for the accomplishment of the internal tasks, attending to the visual comfort; to bring benefits to the human perception and about the interior experience in a building. When these resources are well dimensioned, they also contribute to the energy efficiency and consequent character of sustainability of the building. Therefore, when properly designed and executed, a roof light system can bring higher quality natural light to the interior of the building, which is related to the human health and well-being dimension. Furthermore, it can meet the technologic, economic and environmental yearnings, making possible the more efficient use of that primordial resource, which is the light of the Sun. The article presents the analysis of buildings that used zenith light systems in search of better lighting performance in museums and foundations: the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in the United States, the Iberê Camargo Foundation in Brazil, the Museum of Fine Arts in Castellón in Spain and the Pinacoteca of São Paulo.

Keywords: Natural lighting, roof lighting systems, natural lighting in museums, comfort lighting.

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30 Development of Rotational Smart Lighting Control System for Plant Factory

Authors: Won-Sub Lee, Sung-Gaun Kim

Abstract:

Rotational Smart Lighting Control System can supply the quantity of lighting which is required to run plants by rotating few LED and Fluorescent instead of that are used in the existing plant factories.The initial installation of the existing plants factory is expensive, so in order to solve the problem with smart lighting control system was developed. The beam required intensity for the growth of crops, Photosynthetic Photon Flux Density(PPFD)is calculated; and the number of LED, are installed on the blades, set; using the Lighting Simulation Program.Relux, it is able to confirm that the difference of the beam intensity between the center and the outer of lighting system when the lighting device is rotating.

Keywords: Plant Factory, Lighting Control System, Rotational Lighting System, Lighting Equipment

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29 Lighting Consumption Analysis in Retail Industry: Comparative Study

Authors: Elena C. Tamaş, Grațiela M. Țârlea, Gianni Flamaropol, Dragoș Hera

Abstract:

This article is referring to a comparative study regarding the electrical energy consumption for lighting on diverse types of big sizes commercial buildings built in Romania after 2007, having 3, 4, 5 versus 8, 9, 10 operational years. Some buildings have installed building management systems (BMS) to monitor also the lighting performances starting with the opening days till the present days but some have chosen only local meters to implement. Firstly, for each analyzed building, the total required energy power and the energy power consumption for lighting were calculated depending on the lamps number, the unit power and the average daily running hours. All objects and installations were chosen depending on the destination/location of the lighting (exterior parking or access, interior or covering parking, building interior and building perimeter). Secondly, to all lighting objects and installations, mechanical counters were installed, and to the ones linked to BMS there were installed the digital meters as well for a better monitoring. Some efficient solutions are proposed to improve the power consumption, for example the 1/3 lighting functioning for the covered and exterior parking lighting to those buildings if can be done. This type of lighting share can be performed on each level, especially on the night shifts. Another example is to use the dimmers to reduce the light level, depending on the executed work in the respective area, and a 30% power energy saving can be achieved. Using the right BMS to monitor, the energy consumption depending on the average operational daily hours and changing the non-performant unit lights with the ones having LED technology or economical ones might increase significantly the energy performances and reduce the energy consumption of the buildings.

Keywords: Lighting consumption, commercial buildings, maintenance, energy performances.

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28 A Study of the Lighting Control System for a Daylit Office

Authors: Chih-Jian Hu, Chung-Chih Cheng, Hsiao-Yuan Wu., Nien-Tzu Chao

Abstract:

Increasing user comfort and reducing operation costs have always been primary objectives of lighting control strategies in a building. This paper proposes an architecture of the lighting control system for a daylit office. The system consists of the lighting controller, A/D & D/A converter, dimmable LED lights, and the lighting management software. Verification tests are conducted using the proposed system specialized for the interior lighting of a open-plan office. The results showed the proposed architecture of the lighting system would improve the overall system reliability, lower the system cost, and provide ease of installation and maintenance.

Keywords: control, dimming, LED, lighting.

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27 Changes of Poultry Meat Chemical Composition, in Relationship with Lighting Schedule

Authors: P. C. Boisteanu, M. G. Usturoi, Roxana Lazar, B. V. Avarvarei

Abstract:

The paper is included within the framework of a complex research program, which was initiated from the hypothesis arguing on the existence of a correlation between pineal indolic and peptide hormones and the somatic development rhythm, including thus the epithalamium-epiphysis complex involvement. At birds, pineal gland contains a circadian oscillator, playing a main role in the temporal organization of the cerebral functions. The secretion of pineal indolic hormones is characterized by a high endogenous rhythmic alternation, modulated by the light/darkness (L/D) succession and by temperature as well. The research has been carried out using 100 chicken broilers - “Ross" commercial hybrid, randomly allocated in two experimental batches: Lc batch, reared under a 12L/12D lighting schedule and Lexp batch, which was photic pinealectomised through continuous exposition to light (150 lux, 24 hours, 56 days). Chemical and physical features of the meat issued from breast fillet and thighs muscles have been studied, determining the dry matter, proteins, fat, collagen, salt content and pH value, as well. Besides the variations of meat chemical composition in relation with lighting schedule, other parameters have been studied: live weight dynamics, feed intake and somatic development degree. The achieved results became significant since chickens have 7 days of age, some variations of the studied parameters being registered, revealing that the pineal gland physiologic activity, in relation with the lighting schedule, could be interpreted through the monitoring of the somatic development technological parameters, usually studied within the chicken broilers rearing aviculture practice.

Keywords: lighting schedule, physic-chemical characteristics ofmeat, pineal gland at birds.

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26 Design of Smart Urban Lighting by Using Social Sustainability Approach

Authors: Mohsen Noroozi, Maryam Khalili

Abstract:

Creating cities, objects and spaces that are economically, environmentally and socially sustainable and which meet the challenge of social interaction and generation change will be one of the biggest tasks of designers. Social sustainability is about how individuals, communities and societies live with each other and set out to achieve the objectives of development model which they have chosen for themselves. Urban lightning as one of the most important elements of urban furniture that people constantly interact with it in public spaces; can be a significant object for designers. Using intelligence by internet of things for urban lighting makes it more interactive in public environments. It can encourage individuals to carry out appropriate behaviors and provides them the social awareness through new interactions. The greatest strength of this technology is its strong impact on many aspects of everyday life and users' behaviors. The analytical phase of the research is based on a multiple method survey strategy. Smart lighting proposed in this paper is an urban lighting designed on results obtained from a collective point of view about the social sustainability. In this paper, referring to behavioral design methods, the social behaviors of the people has been studied. Data show that people demands for a deeper experience of social participation, safety perception and energy saving with the meaningful use of interactive and colourful lighting effects. By using intelligent technology, some suggestions are provided in the field of future lighting to consider the new forms of social sustainability.

Keywords: Behavior model, internet of things, social sustainability, urban lighting.

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25 Analysis of the Long-term Effect of Office Lighting Environment on Human Reponses

Authors: D.Y. Su, C.C. Liu, C.M. Chiang, W. Wang

Abstract:

This study aims to discuss the effect of illumination and the color temperature of the lighting source under the office lighting environment on human psychological and physiological responses. In this study, 21 healthy participants were selected, and the Ryodoraku measurement system was utilized to measure their skin resistance change.The findings indicated that the effect of the color temperature of the lighting source on human physiological responses is significant within 90 min after turning the lights on; while after 90 min the effect of illumination on human physiological responses is higher than that of the color temperature. Moreover, the cardiovascular, digestive and endocrine systems are prone to be affected by the indoor lighting environment. During the long-term exposure to high intensity of illumination and high color temperature (2000Lux -6500K), the effect on the psychological responses turned moderate after the human visual system adopted to the lighting environment. However, the effect of the Ryodoraku value on human physiological responses was more significant with the increase of perceptive time. The effect of long time exposure to a lighting environment on the physiological responses is greater than its effect on the psychological responses. This conclusion is different from the traditional public viewpoint that the effect on the psychological responses is greater.

Keywords: Autonomic nervous system, Human responses, Office Lighting Environment, Ryodoraku, Meridian

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24 Geographic Information System Mapping of Roadway Lighting and Traffic Accidents

Authors: Riad Saraiji, Scott Sizer, Emily Yance-Houser, Felix Bermejo

Abstract:

The use of a Geographic Information System (GIS) in roadway lighting to show the state of street-lighting and nighttime accident is demonstrated. Geographical maps were generated showing colored streets based on how much of the street's length is illuminated. The night to daytime accidents ratio at intersections were found along with the state of lighting at those intersections. The result is a method to show the state of street-lighting at roads and intersections and a quick guide for decision makers to implement strategies for better street-lighting to reduce night time traffic accidents in a particular district.

Keywords: GIS. Roadway lighting, Traffic Accidents

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23 Highly Efficient Low Power Consumption Tracking Solar Cells for White LED-Based Lighting System

Authors: Theerawut Jinayim, Somchai Arunrungrasmi, Tanes Tanitteerapan, Narong Mungkung

Abstract:

Although White LED lighting systems powered by solar cells have presented for many years, they are not widely used in today application because of their cost and low energy conversion efficiency. The proposed system use the dc power generated by fixed solar cells module to energize White LED light sources that are operated by directly connected White LED with current limitation resistors, resulting in much more power consumption. This paper presents the use of white LED as a general lighting application powered by tracking solar cells module and using pulse to apply the electrical power to the White LED. These systems resulted in high efficiency power conversion, low power consumption, and long light of the white LED.

Keywords: Efficiency, lighting, light-emitting diode, pulse, Solar, white LED.

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22 Effects of LED Lighting on Visual Comfort with Respect to the Reading Task

Authors: Ayşe Nihan Avcı, İpek Memikoğlu

Abstract:

Lighting systems in interior architecture need to be designed according to the function of the space, the type of task within the space, user comfort and needs. Desired and comfortable lighting levels increase task efficiency. When natural lighting is inadequate in a space, artificial lighting is additionally used to support the level of light. With the technological developments, the characteristics of light are being researched comprehensively and several business segments have focused on its qualitative and quantitative characteristics. These studies have increased awareness and usage of artificial lighting systems and researchers have investigated the effects of lighting on physical and psychological aspects of human in various ways. The aim of this study is to research the effects of illuminance levels of LED lighting on user visual comfort. Eighty participants from the Department of Interior Architecture of Çankaya University participated in three lighting scenarios consisting of 200 lux, 500 lux and 800 lux that are created with LED lighting. Each lighting scenario is evaluated according to six visual comfort criteria in which a reading task is performed. The results of the study indicated that LED lighting with three different illuminance levels affect visual comfort in different ways. The results are limited to the participants and questions that are attended and used in this study.

Keywords: Illuminance levels, LED lighting, reading task, visual comfort criteria.

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21 Potential of Energy Conservation of Daylight Linked Lighting System in India

Authors: Biswajit Biswas

Abstract:

Demand of energy is increasing faster than the generation. It leads shortage of power in all sectors of society. At peak hours this shortage is higher. Unless we utilize energy efficient technology, it is very difficult to minimize the shortage of energy. So energy efficiency program and energy conservation has an important role. Energy efficient technologies are cost intensive hence it is always not possible to implement in country like India. In the recent study, an educational building with operating hours from 10:00 a.m. to 05:00 p.m. has been selected to quantify the possibility of lighting energy conservation. As the operating hour is in daytime, integration of daylight with artificial lighting system will definitely reduce the lighting energy consumption. Moreover the initial investment has been given priority and hence the existing lighting installation was unaltered. An automatic controller has been designed which will be operated as a function of daylight through windows and the lighting system of the room will function accordingly. The result of the study of integrating daylight gave quite satisfactory for visual comfort as well as energy conservation.

Keywords: Lighting energy, energy efficiency, daylight, illumination, energy conservation.

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20 Color Lighting Efficiency of Light Emitting Diode Tube to Lure the Adult Coconut Hispine Beetle

Authors: Nichanant Sermsri, Chonmapat Torasa

Abstract:

The objective of this research was to investigate the efficiency of the light emitting diode (LED) tube in various color lights used to lure the adult coconut hispine beetle. The research was conducted by setting the forward bias on LED tubes, and the next step was to test luminous efficacy and quantity of electricity used to power each LED tube in different color lights. Finally, the researcher examined the efficiency of each color-light LED tube to lure the adult coconut hispine beetle.

The results showed that the ultraviolet LED tubes had the most capacity to allure the adult coconut hispine beetles with the percentage of 82.92, followed by the blue LED tubes with the percentage of 59.76. Whereas the yellow, pink, red and warm white LED tubes had no influence to the adult coconut hispine beetles.

Keywords: Coconut Hispine Beetle, Color Lights, Lighting Efficiency, LED Tubes.

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19 Measurement and Evaluation of Outdoor Lighting Environment at Night in Residential Community in China: A Case Study of Hangzhou

Authors: Jiantao Weng, Yujie Zhao

Abstract:

With the improvement of living quality and demand for nighttime activities in China, the current situation of outdoor lighting environment at night needs to be assessed. Lighting environment at night plays an important role to guarantee night safety. Two typical residential communities in Hangzhou were selected. A comprehensive test method of outdoor lighting environment at night was established. The road, fitness area, landscape, playground and entrance were included. Field measurements and questionnaires were conducted in these two residential communities. The characteristics of residents’ habits and the subjective evaluation on different aspects of outdoor lighting environment at night were collected via questionnaire. A safety evaluation system on the outdoor lighting environment at night in the residential community was established. The results show that there is a big difference in illumination in different areas. The lighting uniformities of roads cannot meet the requirement of lighting standard in China. Residents pay more attention to the lighting environment of the fitness area and road than others. This study can provide guidance for the design and management of outdoor lighting environment at night.

Keywords: Residential community, lighting environment, night, field measurement.

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18 Contribution to the Success of the Energy Audit in the Industrial Environment: A Case Study about Audit of Interior Lighting for an Industrial Site in Morocco

Authors: Abdelkarim Ait Brik, Abdelaziz Khoukh, Mustapha Jammali, Hamid Chaikhy

Abstract:

The energy audit is the essential initial step to ensure a good definition of energy control actions. The in-depth study of the various energy-consuming equipments makes it possible to determine the actions and investments with best cost for the company. The analysis focuses on the energy consumption of production equipment and utilities (lighting, heating, air conditioning, ventilation, transport). Successful implementation of this approach requires, however, to take into account a number of prerequisites. This paper proposes a number of useful recommendations concerning the energy audit in order to achieve better results, and a case study concerning the lighting audit of a Moroccan company by showing the gains that can be made through this audit.

Keywords: Energy audit, energy diagnosis, consumption, electricity, energy efficiency, lighting audit.

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17 Security in Crosswalks

Authors: A. Gutiérrez, A. Castillo, J.M. Gómez, J.M. Gutiérrez, A. García-Cabot

Abstract:

Lighting is not only important for the safety of traffic, but also it is very important for the protection of pedestrians. Improvement on visibility in a long distance, lighting, signing, reduces considerably the risk of accidents in crosswalks. This paper evaluates different aspects of crosswalks including signing and lighting to improve road safety.

Keywords: In pavement flashing warning lights, street lighting, signing, visibility.

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16 Blackout on Outdoor Light

Authors: A. Castillo, A. Gutiérrez, J.M. Gutiérrez, J.M. Gómez, E. García-López

Abstract:

The continued growth of the cities is causing an increase of the amount of surface to illuminate. However, this rise into lighting brings some unintended consequences such as increased of energy consumption or the light pollution. To make these effects less intrusive as possible some councils have chosen to perform a part-night lighting in some areas. Nonetheless, this kind of shutdown may cause serious problems which we intend to highlight in this paper.

Keywords: Energy saving, part-night lighting, switch off, vial security

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15 LED Lighting Interviews and Assessment in Forest Machines

Authors: Rauno Pääkkönen, Fabriziomaria Gobba, Leena Korpinen

Abstract:

The objective of the study is to assess the implementation of LED lighting into forest machine work in the dark. In addition, the paper includes a wide variety of important and relevant safety and health parameters. In modern, computerized work in the cab of forest machines, artificial illumination is a demanding task when performing duties, such as the visual inspections of wood and computer calculations. We interviewed entrepreneurs and gathered the following as the most pertinent themes: (1) safety, (2) practical problems, and (3) work with LED lighting. The most important comments were in regards to the practical problems of LED lighting. We found indications of technical problems in implementing LED lighting, like snow and dirt on the surfaces of lamps that dim the emission of light. Moreover, service work in the dark forest is dangerous and increases the risks of on-site accidents. We also concluded that the amount of blue light to the eyes should be assessed, especially, when the drivers are working in a semi-dark cab.

Keywords: Forest machines, health, LED, safety.

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14 Increase Energy Savings with Lighting Automation Using Light Pipes and Power LEDs

Authors: İ. Kıyak, G. Gökmen

Abstract:

Using of natural lighting has come into prominence in constructed buildings, especially in last ten years, under scope of energy efficiency. Natural lighting methods are one of the methods that aim to take advantage of day light in maximum level and decrease using of artificial lighting. Increasing of day light amount in buildings by using suitable methods will give optimum result in terms of comfort and energy saving when the daylight-artificial light integration is ensured with a suitable control system. Using of natural light in places that require lighting will ensure energy saving in great extent. With this study, it is aimed to save energy used for purpose of lighting. Under this scope, lighting of a scanning laboratory of a hospital was realized by using a lighting automation containing natural and artificial lighting. In natural lighting, light pipes were used and in artificial lighting, dimmable power LED modules were used. Necessity of lighting was followed with motion sensors. The lighting automation containing natural and artificial light was ensured with fuzzy logic control. At the scanning laboratory where this application was realized, energy saving in lighting was obtained.

Keywords: Daylight transfer, fuzzy logic controller, light pipe, Power LED.

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13 Object Tracking using MACH filter and Optical Flow in Cluttered Scenes and Variable Lighting Conditions

Authors: Waqar Shahid Qureshi, Abu-Baqar Nisar Alvi

Abstract:

Vision based tracking problem is solved through a combination of optical flow, MACH filter and log r-θ mapping. Optical flow is used for detecting regions of movement in video frames acquired under variable lighting conditions. The region of movement is segmented and then searched for the target. A template is used for target recognition on the segmented regions for detecting the region of interest. The template is trained offline on a sequence of target images that are created using the MACH filter and log r-θ mapping. The template is applied on areas of movement in successive frames and strong correlation is seen for in-class targets. Correlation peaks above a certain threshold indicate the presence of target and the target is tracked over successive frames.

Keywords: Correlation filters, optical flow, log r-θ mapping.

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12 An Investigation of Adjustment of Solar Shading Devices in Office Buildings

Authors: Jian Yao

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the adjust- ment of solar shading devices in office buildings in two different seasons by occupants, and its influence on the lighting control and indoor illuminance levels. The results show that occupants take inappropriate measures both in reducing solar radiation in summer and in admitting solar gains in winter, resulting in an increase in lighting energy and a reduction in indoor illuminance. Therefore, movable shading devices, controlled automatically, are suitable for building applications to reduce energy consumption.

Keywords: Solar shading, adjustment, lighting control, indoor illuminance.

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11 The Importance of Zenithal Lighting Systems for Natural Light Gains and for Local Energy Generation in Brazil

Authors: Ana Paula Esteves, Diego S. Caetano, Louise L. B. Lomardo

Abstract:

This paper presents an approach on the advantages of using adequate coverage in the zenithal lighting typology in various areas of architectural production, while at the same time to encourage to the design concerns inherent in this choice of roofing in Brazil. Understanding that sustainability needs to cover several aspects, a roofing system such as zenithal lighting system can contribute to the provision of better quality natural light for the interior of the building, which is related to the good health and welfare; it will also be able to contribute for the sustainable aspects and environmental needs, when it allows the generation of energy in semitransparent or opacity photovoltaic solutions and economize the artificial lightning. When the energy balance in the building is positive, that is, when the building generates more energy than it consumes, it may fit into the Net Zero Energy Building concept. The zenithal lighting systems could be an important ally in Brazil, when solved the burden of heat gains, participate in the set of pro-efficiency actions in search of "zero energy buildings". The paper presents comparative three cases of buildings that have used this feature in search of better environmental performance, both in light comfort and sustainability as a whole. Two of these buildings are examples in Europe: the Notley Green School in the UK and the Isofóton factory in Spain. The third building with these principles of shed´s roof is located in Brazil: the Ipel´s factory in São Paulo.

Keywords: Natural lightning, net zero energy building, sheds, semi-transparent photovoltaics.

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10 Flowering Response of a Red Pitaya Germplasm Collection to Lighting Addition

Authors: Dinh-Ha Tran, Chung-Ruey Yen, Yu-Kuang H. Chen

Abstract:

A collection of thirty cultivars/clones of a red pitaya was used to investigate flowering response to lighting supplementation in the winter season of 2013-2014 in southern Taiwan. The night-breaking treatment was conducted during the period of 10 Oct. 2013 to 5 Mar. 2014 with 4-continuous hours (22.00 – 02.00 hrs) of additional lighting daily using incandescent bulbs (100W). Among cultivars and clones tested, twenty-three genotypes, most belonging to the red-magenta flesh type, were found to have positively flowering response to the lighting treatment. The duration of night-breaking treatment for successful flowering initiation varied from 33- 48 days. The lighting-sensitive genotypes bore 1-2 flowering flushes. Floral and fruiting stages took 21-26 and 46-59 days, respectively. Among sixteen fruiting genotypes, the highest fruit set rates were found in Damao 9, D4, D13, Chaozou large, Chaozhou 5, Small Nick and F22. Five cultivars and clones (Orejona, D4, Chaozhou large, Chaozhou 5 and Small Nick) produced fruits with an average weight of more than 300 g per fruit which were higher than those of the fruits formed in the summer of 2013. Fruits produced during off-season containing total soluble solids (TSS) from 17.5 to 20.7oBrix, which were higher than those produced inseason.

Keywords: Flowering response, long-day plant, night-breaking treatment, off-season production, pitaya.

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9 Optical Wireless Sensor Networks Based on VLC with PLC-Ethernet Interface

Authors: Heejin Lee, Yeonjoo Kim, Kyungrak Sohn

Abstract:

We present a white LED-based optical wireless communication systems for indoor ubiquitous sensor networks. Each sensor node could access to the server through the PLC (Power Line Communication)-Ethernet interface. The proposed system offers a full-duplex wireless link by using different wavelengths to reduce the inter-symbol interference between uplink and downlink. Through the 1-to-n optical wireless sensor network and PLC modem, the mobile terminals send a temperature data to server. The data transmission speed and distance are 115.2kbps and about 60cm, respectively.

Keywords: Visible light communications, LED lighting, powerline communications, ubiquitous sensor networks, full-duplex links

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8 Experimental Investigation of Visual Comfort Requirement in Garment Factories and Identify the Cost Saving Opportunities

Authors: M. A. Wijewardane, S. A. N. C. Sudasinghe, H. K. G. Punchihewa, W. K. D. L. Wickramasinghe, S. A. Philip, M. R. S. U. Kumara

Abstract:

Visual comfort is one of the major parameters that can be taken to measure the human comfort in any environment. If the provided illuminance level in a working environment does not meet the workers visual comfort, it will lead to eye-strain, fatigue, headache, stress, accidents and finally, poor productivity. However, improvements in lighting do not necessarily mean that the workplace requires more light. Unnecessarily higher illuminance levels will also cause poor visual comfort and health risks. In addition, more power consumption on lighting will also result in higher energy costs. So, during this study, visual comfort and the illuminance requirement for the workers in textile/apparel industry were studied to perform different tasks (i.e. cutting, sewing and knitting) at their workplace. Experimental studies were designed to identify the optimum illuminance requirement depending upon the varied fabric colour and type and finally, energy saving potentials due to controlled illuminance level depending on the workforce requirement were analysed. Visual performance of workers during the sewing operation was studied using the ‘landolt ring experiment’. It was revealed that around 36.3% of the workers would like to work if the illuminance level varies from 601 lux to 850 lux illuminance level and 45.9% of the workers are not happy to work if the illuminance level reduces less than 600 lux and greater than 850 lux. Moreover, more than 65% of the workers who do not satisfy with the existing illuminance levels of the production floors suggested that they have headache, eye diseases, or both diseases due to poor visual comfort. In addition, findings of the energy analysis revealed that the energy-saving potential of 5%, 10%, 24%, 8% and 16% can be anticipated for fabric colours, red, blue, yellow, black and white respectively, when the 800 lux is the prevailing illuminance level for sewing operation.

Keywords: Landolt ring experiment, lighting energy consumption, illuminance, textile and apparel industry, visual comfort.

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7 Study of Integrated Vehicle Image System Including LDW, FCW, and AFS

Authors: Yi-Feng Su, Chia-Tseng Chen, Hsueh-Lung Liao

Abstract:

The objective of this research is to develop an advanced driver assistance system characterized with the functions of lane departure warning (LDW), forward collision warning (FCW) and adaptive front-lighting system (AFS). The system is mainly configured a CCD/CMOS camera to acquire the images of roadway ahead in association with the analysis made by an image-processing unit concerning the lane ahead and the preceding vehicles. The input image captured by a camera is used to recognize the lane and the preceding vehicle positions by image detection and DROI (Dynamic Range of Interesting) algorithms. Therefore, the system is able to issue real-time auditory and visual outputs of warning when a driver is departing the lane or driving too close to approach the preceding vehicle unwittingly so that the danger could be prevented from occurring. During the nighttime, in addition to the foregoing warning functions, the system is able to control the bending light of headlamp to provide an immediate light illumination when making a turn at a curved lane and adjust the level automatically to reduce the lighting interference against the oncoming vehicles driving in the opposite direction by the curvature of lane and the vanishing point estimations. The experimental results show that the integrated vehicle image system is robust to most environments such as the lane detection and preceding vehicle detection average accuracy performances are both above 90 %.

Keywords: Lane mark detection, lane departure warning (LDW), dynamic range of interesting (DROI), forward collision warning (FCW), adaptive front-lighting system (AFS).

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6 Modeling and Simulation of Photovoltaic based LED Lighting System

Authors: Ankit R Patel, Ankit A Patel, Mahesh A Patel, Dhaval R Vyas

Abstract:

Although lighting systems powered by Photovoltaic (PV) cells have existed for many years, they are not widely used, especially in lighting for buildings, due to their high initial cost and low conversion efficiency. One of the technical challenges facing PV powered lighting systems has been how to use dc power generated by the PV module to energize common light sources that are designed to operate efficiently under ac power. Usually, the efficiency of the dc light sources is very poor compared to ac light sources. Rapid developments in LED lighting systems have made this technology a potential candidate for PV powered lighting systems. This study analyzed the efficiency of each component of PV powered lighting systems to identify optimum system configurations for different applications.

Keywords: Energy Efficiency, LED, Modeling of systems, Photovoltaic.

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5 Effect of Architecture and Operating Conditions of Vehicle on Bulb Lifetime in Automotive

Authors: Hatice Özbek, Caner Çil, Ahmet Rodoplu

Abstract:

Automotive lighting is the leading function in the configuration of vehicle architecture. Especially headlights and taillights from external lighting functions are among the structures that determine the stylistic character of the vehicle. At the same time, the fact that lighting functions are related to many other functions brings along difficulties in design. Customers expect maximum quality from the vehicle. In these circumstances, it is necessary to make designs that aim to keep the performance of bulbs with limited working lives at the highest level. With this study, the factors that influence the working lives of filament lamps were examined and bulb explosions that can occur sooner than anticipated in the future were prevented while the vehicle was still in the design phase by determining the relations with electrical, dynamical and static variables. Especially the filaments of the bulbs used in the front lighting of the vehicle are deformed in a shorter time due to the high voltage requirement. In addition to this, rear lighting lamps vibrate as a result of the tailgate opening and closing and cause the filaments to be exposed to high stress. With this study, the findings that cause bulb explosions were evaluated. Among the most important findings: 1. The structure of the cables to the lighting functions of the vehicle and the effect of the voltage values are drawn; 2. The effect of the vibration to bulb throughout the life of the vehicle; 3 The effect of the loads carried to bulb while the vehicle doors are opened and closed. At the end of the study, the maximum performance was established in the bulb lifetimes with the optimum changes made in the vehicle architecture based on the findings obtained.

Keywords: Vehicle architecture, automotive lighting functions, filament lamps, bulb lifetime.

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4 Study of the Effectiveness of Solar Heat Gain and Day Light Factors on Minimizing Electricity Use in High Rise Buildings

Authors: Mansour Nikpour, Mohd Zin kandar, Mohsen Ghasemi, Hossein Fallah

Abstract:

Over half of the total electricity consumption is used in buildings. Air-conditioning and electric lighting are the two main resources of electricity consumption in high rise buildings. One way to reduce electricity consumption would be to limit heat gain into buildings, therefore reduce the demand for air-conditioning during hot summer months especially in hot regions. On the other hand natural daylight can be used to reduce the use of electricity for artificial lighting. In this paper effective factors on minimizing heat gain and achieving required day light were reviewed .As daylight always accompanied by solar heat gain. Also interactions between heat gain and daylight were discussed through previous studies and equations which are related to heat gain and day lighting especially in high rise buildings. As a result importance of building-s form and its component on energy consumption in buildings were clarified.

Keywords: High rise buildings, energy demand, day lighting, heat gain.

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3 Effect of Increasing Road Light Luminance on Night Driving Performance of Older Adults

Authors: Said M. Easa, Maureen J. Reed, Frank Russo, Essam Dabbour, Atif Mehmood, Kathryn Curtis

Abstract:

The main objective of this study was to determine if a minimal increase in road light level (luminance) could lead to improved driving performance among older adults. Older, middleaged and younger adults were tested in a driving simulator following vision and cognitive screening. Comparisons were made for the performance of simulated night driving under two road light conditions (0.6 and 2.5 cd/m2). At each light level, the effects of self reported night driving avoidance were examined along with the vision/cognitive performance. It was found that increasing road light level from 0.6 cd/m2 to 2.5 cd/m2 resulted in improved recognition of signage on straight highway segments. The improvement depends on different driver-related factors such as vision and cognitive abilities, and confidence. On curved road sections, the results showed that driver-s performance worsened. It is concluded that while increasing road lighting may be helpful to older adults especially for sign recognition, it may also result in increased driving confidence and thus reduced attention in some driving situations.

Keywords: Driving, older adults, night-time, road lighting, attention, simulation, curves, signs.

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2 The Energy Impacts of Using Top-Light Daylighting Systems for Academic Buildings in Tropical Climate

Authors: M. S. Alrubaih, M. F. M. Zain, N. L. N. Ibrahim, M.A. Alghoul, K. I. Ben Sauod

Abstract:

Careful design and selection of daylighting systems can greatly help in reducing not only artificial lighting use, but also decrease cooling energy consumption and, therefore, potential for downsizing air-conditioning systems. This paper aims to evaluate the energy performance of two types of top-light daylighting systems due to the integration of daylight together with artificial lighting in an existing examinaton hall in University Kebangsaan Malaysia, based on a hot and humid climate. Computer simulation models have been created for building case study (base case) and the two types of toplight daylighting designs for building energy performance evaluation using the VisualDOE 4.0 building energy simulation program. The finding revealed that daylighting through top-light systems is a very beneficial design strategy in reducing annual lighting energy consumption and the overall total annual energy consumption.

Keywords: Academic buildings, Daylighting, Top-lighting, Energy savings, Tropical Climate

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