Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 112

Search results for: OFDM/OFDMA

112 Channel Sounding and PAPR Reduction in OFDM for WiMAX Using Software Defined Radio

Authors: B. Siva Kumar Reddy, B. Lakshmi

Abstract:

This paper addresses the reduction of peak to average power ratio (PAPR) for the OFDM in Mobile-WiMAX physical layer (PHY) standard. In the process, the best achievable PAPR of 0 dB is found for the OFDM spectrum using phase modulation technique which avoids the nonlinear distortion. The performance of the WiMAX PHY standard is handled by the software defined radio (SDR) prototype in which GNU Radio and USRP N210 employed as software and hardware platforms respectively. It is also found that BER performance is shown for different coding and different modulation schemes. To empathize wireless propagation in specific environments, a sliding correlator wireless channel sounding system is designed by using SDR testbed.

Keywords: BER, Channel sounding, GNU Radio, OFDM/OFDMA, USRP N210.

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111 Performance Analysis of MIMO-OFDM Using Convolution Codes with QAM Modulation

Authors: I Gede Puja Astawa, Yoedy Moegiharto, Ahmad Zainudin, Imam Dui Agus Salim, Nur Annisa Anggraeni

Abstract:

Performance of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) system can be improved by adding channel coding (error correction code) to detect and correct errors that occur during data transmission. One can use the convolution code. This paper present performance of OFDM using Space Time Block Codes (STBC) diversity technique use QAM modulation with code rate ½. The evaluation is done by analyzing the value of Bit Error Rate (BER) vs. Energy per Bit to Noise Power Spectral Density Ratio (Eb/No). This scheme is conducted 256 subcarrier transmits Rayleigh multipath channel in OFDM system. To achieve a BER of 10-3 is required 10dB SNR in SISO-OFDM scheme. For 2x2 MIMO-OFDM scheme requires 10 dB to achieve a BER of 10-3. For 4x4 MIMO-OFDM scheme requires 5 dB while adding convolution in a 4x4 MIMO-OFDM can improve performance up to 0 dB to achieve the same BER. This proves the existence of saving power by 3 dB of 4x4 MIMO-OFDM system without coding, power saving 7dB of 2x2 MIMO-OFDM and significant power savings from SISO-OFDM system

Keywords: Convolution code, OFDM, MIMO, QAM, BER.

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110 ML Detection with Symbol Estimation for Nonlinear Distortion of OFDM Signal

Authors: Somkiat Lerkvaranyu, Yoshikazu Miyanaga

Abstract:

In this paper, a new technique of signal detection has been proposed for detecting the orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) signal in the presence of nonlinear distortion.There are several advantages of OFDM communications system.However, one of the existing problems is remain considered as the nonlinear distortion generated by high-power-amplifier at the transmitter end due to the large dynamic range of an OFDM signal. The proposed method is the maximum likelihood detection with the symbol estimation. When the training data are available, the neural network has been used to learn the characteristic of received signal and to estimate the new positions of the transmitted symbol which are provided to the maximum likelihood detector. Resulting in the system performance, the nonlinear distortions of a traveling wave tube amplifier with OFDM signal are considered in this paper.Simulation results of the bit-error-rate performance are obtained with 16-QAM OFDM systems.

Keywords: OFDM, TWTA, nonlinear distortion, detection.

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109 Performance Analysis of Adaptive OFDM Pre and Post-FTT Beamforming System

Authors: S. Elnobi, Iman El-Zahaby, Amr M. Mahros

Abstract:

In mobile communication systems, performance and capacity are affected by multi-path fading, delay spread and Co-Channel Interference (CCI). For this reason Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) and adaptive antenna array are used is required. The goal of the OFDM is to improve the system performance against Inter-Symbol Interference (ISI). An array of adaptive antennas has been employed to suppress CCI by spatial technique. To suppress CCI in OFDM systems two main schemes the pre-FFT and the post-FFT have been proposed. In this paper, through a system level simulation, the behavior of the pre-FFT and post-FFT beamformers for OFDM system has been investigated based on two algorithms namely, Least Mean Squares (LMS) and Recursive Least Squares (RLS). The performance of the system is also discussed in multipath fading channel system specified by 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE).

Keywords: OFDM, Beamforming, Adaptive Antennas Array.

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108 A Performance Comparison of Golay and Reed-Muller Coded OFDM Signal for Peak-to-Average Power Ratio Reduction

Authors: Sanjay Singh, M Sathish Kumar, H. S Mruthyunjaya

Abstract:

Multicarrier transmission system such as Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is a promising technique for high bit rate transmission in wireless communication systems. OFDM is a spectrally efficient modulation technique that can achieve high speed data transmission over multipath fading channels without the need for powerful equalization techniques. A major drawback of OFDM is the high Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR) of the transmit signal which can significantly impact the performance of the power amplifier. In this paper we have compared the PAPR reduction performance of Golay and Reed-Muller coded OFDM signal. From our simulation it has been found that the PAPR reduction performance of Golay coded OFDM is better than the Reed-Muller coded OFDM signal. Moreover, for the optimum PAPR reduction performance, code configuration for Golay and Reed-Muller codes has been identified.

Keywords: OFDM, PAPR, Perfect Codes, Golay Codes, Reed-Muller Codes

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107 Analysis of Codebook Based Channel Feedback Techniques for MIMO-OFDM Systems

Authors: Muhammad Rehan Khalid, Ahmed Farhan Hanif, Adnan Ahmed Khan

Abstract:

This paper investigates the performance of Multiple- Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) feedback system combined with Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM). Two types of codebook based channel feedback techniques are used in this work. The first feedback technique uses a combination of both the long-term and short-term channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter, whereas the second technique uses only the short term CSI. The long-term and short-term CSI at the transmitter is used for efficient channel utilization. OFDM is a powerful technique employed in communication systems suffering from frequency selectivity. Combined with multiple antennas at the transmitter and receiver, OFDM proves to be robust against delay spread. Moreover, it leads to significant data rates with improved bit error performance over links having only a single antenna at both the transmitter and receiver. The effectiveness of these techniques has been demonstrated through the simulation of a MIMO-OFDM feedback system. The results have been evaluated for 4x4 MIMO channels. Simulation results indicate the benefits of the MIMO-OFDM channel feedback system over the one without incorporating OFDM. Performance gain of about 3 dB is observed for MIMO-OFDM feedback system as compared to the one without employing OFDM. Hence MIMO-OFDM becomes an attractive approach for future high speed wireless communication systems.

Keywords: MIMO systems, OFDM, Codebooks, Channel Feedback

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106 Adaptive Radio Resource Allocation for Multiple Traffic OFDMA Broadband Wireless Access System

Authors: Lu Yanhui, Zhang Lizhi, Yin Changchuan, Yue Guangxin

Abstract:

In this paper, an adaptive radio resource allocation (RRA) algorithm applying to multiple traffic OFDMA system is proposed, which distributes sub-carrier and loading bits among users according to their different QoS requirements and traffic class. By classifying and prioritizing the users based on their traffic characteristic and ensuring resource for higher priority users, the scheme decreases tremendously the outage probability of the users requiring a real time transmission without impact on the spectrum efficiency of system, as well as the outage probability of data users is not increased compared with the RRA methods published.

Keywords: OFDMA, adaptive radio resource allocation, QoS.

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105 BER Analysis of Energy Detection Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio Using GNU Radio

Authors: B. Siva Kumar Reddy, B. Lakshmi

Abstract:

Cognitive Radio is a turning out technology that empowers viable usage of the spectrum. Energy Detector-based Sensing is the most broadly utilized spectrum sensing strategy. Besides, it's a lot of generic as receivers doesn't would like any information on the primary user's signals, channel data, of even the sort of modulation. This paper puts forth the execution of energy detection sensing for AM (Amplitude Modulated) signal at 710 KHz, FM (Frequency Modulated) signal at 103.45 MHz (local station frequency), Wi-Fi signal at 2.4 GHz and WiMAX signals at 6 GHz. The OFDM/OFDMA based WiMAX physical layer with convolutional channel coding is actualized utilizing USRP N210 (Universal Software Radio Peripheral) and GNU Radio based Software Defined Radio (SDR). Test outcomes demonstrated the BER (Bit Error Rate) augmentation with channel noise and BER execution is dissected for different Eb/N0 (the energy per bit to noise power spectral density ratio) values.

Keywords: BER, Cognitive Radio, GNU Radio, OFDM, SDR, WiMAX.

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104 Investigation of I/Q Imbalance in Coherent Optical OFDM System

Authors: R. S. Fyath, Mustafa A. B. Al-Qadi

Abstract:

The inphase/quadrature (I/Q) amplitude and phase imbalance effects are studied in coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (CO-OFDM) systems. An analytical model for the I/Q imbalance is developed and supported by simulation results. The results indicate that the I/Q imbalance degrades the BER performance considerably.

Keywords: Coherent detection, I/Q imbalance, OFDM, optical communications

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103 Distributed Frequency Synchronization for Global Synchronization in Wireless Mesh Networks

Authors: Jung-Hyun Kim, Jihyung Kim, Kwangjae Lim, Dong Seung Kwon

Abstract:

In this paper, our focus is to assure a global frequency synchronization in OFDMA-based wireless mesh networks with local information. To acquire the global synchronization in distributed manner, we propose a novel distributed frequency synchronization (DFS) method. DFS is a method that carrier frequencies of distributed nodes converge to a common value by repetitive estimation and averaging step and sharing step. Experimental results show that DFS achieves noteworthy better synchronization success probability than existing schemes in OFDMA-based mesh networks where the estimation error is presented.

Keywords: OFDMA systems, Frequency synchronization, Distributed networks, Multiple groups.

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102 Comparison of BER Performances for Conventional and Non-Conventional Mapping Schemes Used in OFDM

Authors: Riddhi Parmar, Shilpi Gupta, Upena Dalal

Abstract:

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is one of the techniques for high speed data rate communication with main consideration for 4G and 5G systems. In OFDM, there are several mapping schemes which provide a way of parallel transmission. In this paper, comparisons of mapping schemes used by some standards have been made and also has been discussed about the performance of the non-conventional modulation technique. The Comparisons of Bit Error Rate (BER) performances for conventional and non-conventional modulation schemes have been done using MATLAB software. Mentioned schemes used in OFDM system can be selected on the basis of the requirement of power or spectrum efficiency and BER analysis.

Keywords: BER, π/4 differential quadrature phase shift keying (Pi/4 DQPSK), OFDM, phase shift keying, quadrature phase shift keying.

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101 A Novel Pilot Scheme for Frequency Offset and Channel Estimation in 2x2 MIMO-OFDM

Authors: N. Promsuwanna, P. Uthansakul, M. Uthansakul

Abstract:

The Carrier Frequency Offset (CFO) due to timevarying fading channel is the main cause of the loss of orthogonality among OFDM subcarriers which is linked to inter-carrier interference (ICI). Hence, it is necessary to precisely estimate and compensate the CFO. Especially for mobile broadband communications, CFO and channel gain also have to be estimated and tracked to maintain the system performance. Thus, synchronization pilots are embedded in every OFDM symbol to track the variations. In this paper, we present the pilot scheme for both channel and CFO estimation where channel estimation process can be carried out with only one OFDM symbol. Additional, the proposed pilot scheme also provides better performance in CFO estimation comparing with the conventional orthogonal pilot scheme due to the increasing of signal-tointerference ratio.

Keywords: MIMO, OFDM, carrier frequency offset, channel, estimation.

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100 OFDM and Fingerprint Authentication for Efficient Airport Security

Authors: K.Amrithavarshini, S.Chandrachudeswaran

Abstract:

This paper presents an idea to improve the efficiency of security checks in airports through the active tracking and monitoring of passengers and staff using OFDM modulation technique and Finger print authentication. The details of the passenger are multiplexed using OFDM .To authenticate the passenger, the fingerprint along with important identification information is collected. The details of the passenger can be transmitted after necessary modulation, and received using various transceivers placed within the premises of the airport, and checked at the appropriate check points, thereby increasing the efficiency of checking. OFDM has been employed for spectral efficiency.

Keywords: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing, FFT Algorithm, Fingerprint Authentication, Airport Security

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99 MIMO-OFDM Coded for Digital Terrestrial Television Broadcasting Systems

Authors: El Miloud A.R. Reyouchi, Kamal Ghoumid, Koutaiba Amezian, Otman Mrabet

Abstract:

This paper proposes and analyses the wireless telecommunication system with multiple antennas to the emission and reception MIMO (multiple input multiple output) with space diversity in a OFDM context. In particular it analyses the performance of a DTT (Digital Terrestrial Television) broadcasting system that includes MIMO-OFDM techniques. Different propagation channel models and configurations are considered for each diversity scheme. This study has been carried out in the context of development of the next generation DVB-T/H and WRAN.

Keywords: MIMO, MISO, OFDM, DVB-/H/T2, WRAN.

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98 Performance Analysis of Wavelet Based Multiuser MIMO OFDM

Authors: Md. Mahmudul Hasan

Abstract:

Wavelet analysis has some strong advantages over Fourier analysis, as it allows a time-frequency domain analysis, allowing optimal resolution and flexibility. As a result, they have been satisfactorily applied in almost all the fields of communication systems including OFDM which is a strong candidate for next generation of wireless technology. In this paper, the performances of wavelet based Multiuser Multiple Input and Multiple Output Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (MU-MIMO OFDM) systems are analyzed in terms of BER. It has been shown that the wavelet based systems outperform the classical FFT based systems. This analysis also unfolds an interesting result, where wavelet based OFDM system will have a constant error performance using Regularized Channel Inversion (RCI) beamforming for any number of users, and outperforms in all possible scenario in a multiuser environment. An extensive computer simulations show that a PAPR reduction of up to 6.8dB can be obtained with M=64.

Keywords: Wavelet Based OFDM, Optimal Beam-forming, Multiuser MIMO OFDM, Signal to Leakage Ratio.

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97 Capacity and Performance Analysis of Space-Time Block Coded MIMO-OFDM Systems over Rician Fading Channel

Authors: Imran Khan, Shujaat Ali Khan Tanoli, Nandana Rajatheva

Abstract:

This paper presents an analysis on the capacity and performance of MIMO-OFDM systems. The work is focused on the capacity of MIMO-OFDM systems over rician fading channel, in the case of the channel being known at the receiver only, which is more practical case of the channel. Simple expression for capacity is derived for the case of correlated rician fading. The performance of some MIMO-OFDM implementations with rician fading model is presented using an Alamouti coding scheme and Simulation results are obtained for both capacity and performance analysis.

Keywords: MIMO, OFDM, rician distribution, space time blockcodes (STBC).

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96 An Improved STBC Structure and Transmission Scheme for High Rate and Reliability in OFDMA Cooperative Communication

Authors: Hyoung-Muk Lim, Won-Jun Choi, Jae-Seon Yoon, Hyoung-Kyu Song

Abstract:

Space-time block code(STBC) has been studied to get full diversity and full rate in multiple input multiple output(MIMO) system. Achieving full rate is difficult in cooperative communications due to the each user consumes the time slots for transmitting information in cooperation phase. So combining MIMO systems with cooperative communications has been researched for full diversity and full rate. In orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) system, it is an alternative way that each user shares their allocated subchannels instead of using the MIMO system to improve the transmission rate. In this paper, a Decode-and-forward (DF) based cooperative communication scheme is proposed. The proposed scheme has improved transmission rate and reliability in multi-path fading channel of the OFDMA up-link condition by modified STBC structure and subchannel sharing.

Keywords: cooperation, improved rate, OFDMA, STBC.

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95 Reduction of Impulsive Noise in OFDM System Using Adaptive Algorithm

Authors: Alina Mirza, Sumrin M. Kabir, Shahzad A. Sheikh

Abstract:

The Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) with high data rate, high spectral efficiency and its ability to mitigate the effects of multipath makes them most suitable in wireless application. Impulsive noise distorts the OFDM transmission and therefore methods must be investigated to suppress this noise. In this paper, a State Space Recursive Least Square (SSRLS) algorithm based adaptive impulsive noise suppressor for OFDM communication system is proposed. And a comparison with another adaptive algorithm is conducted. The state space model-dependent recursive parameters of proposed scheme enables to achieve steady state mean squared error (MSE), low bit error rate (BER), and faster convergence than that of some of existing algorithm.

Keywords: OFDM, Impulsive Noise, SSRLS, BER.

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94 Downlink Scheduling and Radio Resource Allocation in Adaptive OFDMA Wireless Communication Systems for User-Individual QoS

Authors: Lu Yanhui, Wang Chunming, Yin Changchuan, Yue Guangxin

Abstract:

In this paper, we address the problem of adaptive radio resource allocation (RRA) and packet scheduling in the downlink of a cellular OFDMA system, and propose a downlink multi-carrier proportional fair (MPF) scheduler and its joint with adaptive RRA algorithm to distribute radio resources among multiple users according to their individual QoS requirements. The allocation and scheduling objective is to maximize the total throughput, while at the same time maintaining the fairness among users. The simulation results demonstrate that the methods presented provide for user more explicit fairness relative to RRA algorithm, but the joint scheme achieves the higher sum-rate capacity with flexible parameters setting compared with MPF scheduler.

Keywords: OFDMA, adaptive radio resource allocation, scheduling, QoS.

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93 An Improved Algorithm for Channel Estimations of OFDM System based Pilot Signal

Authors: Ahmed N. H. Alnuaimy, Mahamod Ismail, Mohd. A. M. Ali, Kasmiran Jumari, Ayman A. El-Saleh

Abstract:

This paper presents a new algorithm for the channel estimation of the OFDM system based on a pilot signal for the new generation of high data rate communication systems. In orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems over fast-varying fading channels, channel estimation and tracking is generally carried out by transmitting known pilot symbols in given positions of the frequency-time grid. In this paper, we propose to derive an improved algorithm based on the calculation of the mean and the variance of the adjacent pilot signals for a specific distribution of the pilot signals in the OFDM frequency-time grid then calculating of the entire unknown channel coefficients from the equation of the mean and the variance. Simulation results shows that the performance of the OFDM system increase as the length of the channel increase where the accuracy of the estimated channel will be increased using this low complexity algorithm, also the number of the pilot signal needed to be inserted in the OFDM signal will be reduced which lead to increase in the throughput of the signal over the OFDM system in compared with other type of the distribution such as Comb type and Block type channel estimation.

Keywords: Channel estimation, orthogonal frequency divisionmultiplexing (OFDM), comb type channel estimation, block typechannel estimation.

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92 A Low Complexity Frequency Offset Estimation for MB-OFDM based UWB Systems

Authors: Wang Xue, Liu Dan, Liu Ying, Wang Molin, Qian Zhihong

Abstract:

A low-complexity, high-accurate frequency offset estimation for multi-band orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MB-OFDM) based ultra-wide band systems is presented regarding different carrier frequency offsets, different channel frequency responses, different preamble patterns in different bands. Utilizing a half-cycle Constant Amplitude Zero Auto Correlation (CAZAC) sequence as the preamble sequence, the estimator with a semi-cross contrast scheme between two successive OFDM symbols is proposed. The CRLB and complexity of the proposed algorithm are derived. Compared to the reference estimators, the proposed method achieves significantly less complexity (about 50%) for all preamble patterns of the MB-OFDM systems. The CRLBs turn out to be of well performance.

Keywords: CAZAC, Frequency Offset, Semi-cross Contrast, MB-OFDM, UWB

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91 A Novel Frequency Offset Estimation Scheme for OFDM Systems

Authors: Youngpo Lee, Seokho Yoon

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a novel frequency offset estimation scheme for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. By correlating the OFDM signals within the coherence phase bandwidth and employing a threshold in the frequency offset estimation process, the proposed scheme is not only robust to the timing offset but also has a reduced complexity compared with that of the conventional scheme. Moreover, a timing offset estimation scheme is also proposed as the next stage of the proposed frequency offset estimation. Numerical results show that the proposed scheme can estimate frequency offset with lower computational complexity and does not require additional memory while maintaining the same level of estimation performance.

Keywords: OFDM, frequency offset estimation, threshold.

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90 Cross Layer Optimization for Fairness Balancing Based on Adaptively Weighted Utility Functions in OFDMA Systems

Authors: Jianwei Wang, Timo Korhonen, Yuping Zhao

Abstract:

Cross layer optimization based on utility functions has been recently studied extensively, meanwhile, numerous types of utility functions have been examined in the corresponding literature. However, a major drawback is that most utility functions take a fixed mathematical form or are based on simple combining, which can not fully exploit available information. In this paper, we formulate a framework of cross layer optimization based on Adaptively Weighted Utility Functions (AWUF) for fairness balancing in OFDMA networks. Under this framework, a two-step allocation algorithm is provided as a sub-optimal solution, whose control parameters can be updated in real-time to accommodate instantaneous QoS constrains. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm achieves high throughput while balancing the fairness among multiple users.

Keywords: OFDMA, Fairness, AWUF, QoS.

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89 A Simple Constellation Precoding Technique over MIMO-OFDM Systems

Authors: Fuh-Hsin Hwang, Tsui-Tsai Lin, Chih-Wen Chan, Cheng-Yuan Chang

Abstract:

This paper studies the design of a simple constellation precoding for a multiple-input multiple-output orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) system over Rayleigh fading channels where OFDM is used to keep the diversity replicas orthogonal and reduce ISI effects. A multi-user environment with K synchronous co-channel users is considered. The proposed scheme provides a bandwidth efficient transmission for individual users by increasing the system throughput. In comparison with the existing coded MIMO-OFDM schemes, the precoding technique is designed under the consideration of its low implementation complexity while providing a comparable error performance to the existing schemes. Analytic and simulation results have been presented to show the distinguished error performance.

Keywords: coded modulation, diversity technique, OFDM, MIMO, constellation precoding

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88 A Robust Frequency Offset Estimator for Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing

Authors: Keunhong Chae, Seokho Yoon

Abstract:

We address the integer frequency offset (IFO) estimation under the influence of the timing offset (TO) in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. Incorporating the IFO and TO into the symbol set used to represent the received OFDM symbol, we investigate the influence of the TO on the IFO, and then, propose a combining method between two consecutive OFDM correlations, reducing the influence. The proposed scheme has almost the same complexity as that of the conventional schemes, whereas it does not need the TO knowledge contrary to the conventional schemes. From numerical results it is confirmed that the proposed scheme is insensitive to the TO, consequently, yielding an improvement of the IFO estimation performance over the conventional schemes when the TO exists.

Keywords: Estimation, integer frequency offset, OFDM, timing offset.

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87 SLM Using Riemann Sequence Combined with DCT Transform for PAPR Reduction in OFDM Communication Systems

Authors: Pepin Magnangana Zoko Goyoro, Ibrahim James Moumouni, Sroy Abouty

Abstract:

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is an efficient method of data transmission for high speed communication systems. However, the main drawback of OFDM systems is that, it suffers from the problem of high Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR) which causes inefficient use of the High Power Amplifier and could limit transmission efficiency. OFDM consist of large number of independent subcarriers, as a result of which the amplitude of such a signal can have high peak values. In this paper, we propose an effective reduction scheme that combines DCT and SLM techniques. The scheme is composed of the DCT followed by the SLM using the Riemann matrix to obtain phase sequences for the SLM technique. The simulation results show PAPR can be greatly reduced by applying the proposed scheme. In comparison with OFDM, while OFDM had high values of PAPR –about 10.4dB our proposed method achieved about 4.7dB reduction of the PAPR with low complexities computation. This approach also avoids randomness in phase sequence selection, which makes it simpler to decode at the receiver. As an added benefit, the matrices can be generated at the receiver end to obtain the data signal and hence it is not required to transmit side information (SI).

Keywords: DCT transform, OFDM, PAPR, Riemann matrix, SLM.

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86 The Minimum PAPR Code for OFDM Systems

Authors: Inderjeet Kaur, M. Kulkarni, Daya Gupta, Kamal Thakur, Janki Arora

Abstract:

In this paper, a block code to minimize the peak-toaverage power ratio (PAPR) of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signals is proposed. It is shown that cyclic shift and codeword inversion cause not change to peak envelope power. The encoding rule for the proposed code comprises of searching for a seed codeword, shifting the register elements, and determining codeword inversion, eliminating the look-up table for one-to-one correspondence between the source and the coded data. Simulation results show that OFDM systems with the proposed code always have the minimum PAPR.

Keywords: Wireless communications, OFDM, peak-to averagepower ratio, peak envelope power, block codes.

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85 ML-Based Blind Frequency Offset Estimation Schemes for OFDM Systems in Non-Gaussian Noise Environments

Authors: Keunhong Chae, Seokho Yoon

Abstract:

This paper proposes frequency offset (FO) estimation schemes robust to the non-Gaussian noise for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. A maximum-likelihood (ML) scheme and a low-complexity estimation scheme are proposed by applying the probability density function of the cyclic prefix of OFDM symbols to the ML criterion. From simulation results, it is confirmed that the proposed schemes offer a significant FO estimation performance improvement over the conventional estimation scheme in non-Gaussian noise environments.

Keywords: Frequency offset, cyclic prefix, maximum-likelihood, non-Gaussian noise, OFDM.

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84 A Blind SLM Scheme for Reduction of PAPR in OFDM Systems

Authors: K. Kasiri, M. J. Dehghani

Abstract:

In this paper we propose a blind algorithm for peakto- average power ratio (PAPR) reduction in OFDM systems, based on selected mapping (SLM) algorithm as a distortionless method. The main drawback of the conventional SLM technique is the need for transmission of several side information bits, for each data block, which results in loss in data rate transmission. In the proposed method some special number of carriers in the OFDM frame is reserved to be rotated with one of the possible phases according to the number of phase sequence blocks in SLM algorithm. Reserving some limited number of carriers wont effect the reduction in PAPR of OFDM signal. Simulation results show using ML criteria at the receiver will lead to the same system-performance as the conventional SLM algorithm, while there is no need to send any side information to the receiver.

Keywords: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing(OFDM), Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR), Selected Mapping(SLM), Blind SLM (BSLM).

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83 Pilot-Assisted Direct-Current Biased Optical Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Visible Light Communication System

Authors: Ayad A. Abdulkafi, Shahir F. Nawaf, Mohammed K. Hussein, Ibrahim K. Sileh, Fouad A. Abdulkafi

Abstract:

Visible light communication (VLC) is a new approach of optical wireless communication proposed to support the congested radio frequency (RF) spectrum. VLC systems are combined with orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) to achieve high rate transmission and high spectral efficiency. In this paper, we investigate the Pilot-Assisted Channel Estimation for DC biased Optical OFDM (PACE-DCO-OFDM) systems to reduce the effects of the distortion on the transmitted signal. Least-square (LS) and linear minimum mean-squared error (LMMSE) estimators are implemented in MATLAB/Simulink to enhance the bit-error-rate (BER) of PACE-DCO-OFDM. Results show that DCO-OFDM system based on PACE scheme has achieved better BER performance compared to conventional system without pilot assisted channel estimation. Simulation results show that the proposed PACE-DCO-OFDM based on LMMSE algorithm can more accurately estimate the channel and achieves better BER performance when compared to the LS based PACE-DCO-OFDM and the traditional system without PACE. For the same signal to noise ratio (SNR) of 25 dB, the achieved BER is about 5×10-4 for LMMSE-PACE and 4.2×10-3 with LS-PACE while it is about 2×10-1 for system without PACE scheme.

Keywords: Channel estimation, OFDM, pilot-assist, VLC.

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