Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7746

Search results for: Levenberg Marquardt method

7746 Modified Levenberg-Marquardt Method for Neural Networks Training

Authors: Amir Abolfazl Suratgar, Mohammad Bagher Tavakoli, Abbas Hoseinabadi

Abstract:

In this paper a modification on Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm for MLP neural network learning is proposed. The proposed algorithm has good convergence. This method reduces the amount of oscillation in learning procedure. An example is given to show usefulness of this method. Finally a simulation verifies the results of proposed method.

Keywords: Levenberg-Marquardt, modification, neural network, variable learning rate.

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7745 Levenberg-Marquardt Algorithm for Karachi Stock Exchange Share Rates Forecasting

Authors: Syed Muhammad Aqil Burney, Tahseen Ahmed Jilani, C. Ardil

Abstract:

Financial forecasting is an example of signal processing problems. A number of ways to train/learn the network are available. We have used Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm for error back-propagation for weight adjustment. Pre-processing of data has reduced much of the variation at large scale to small scale, reducing the variation of training data.

Keywords: Gradient descent method, jacobian matrix.Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm, quadratic error surfaces,

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7744 Inverse Heat Transfer Analysis of a Melting Furnace Using Levenberg-Marquardt Method

Authors: Mohamed Hafid, Marcel Lacroix

Abstract:

This study presents a simple inverse heat transfer procedure for predicting the wall erosion and the time-varying thickness of the protective bank that covers the inside surface of the refractory brick wall of a melting furnace. The direct problem is solved by using the Finite-Volume model. The melting/solidification process is modeled using the enthalpy method. The inverse procedure rests on the Levenberg-Marquardt method combined with the Broyden method. The effect of the location of the temperature sensors and of the measurement noise on the inverse predictions is investigated. Recommendations are made concerning the location of the temperature sensor.

Keywords: Melting furnace, inverse heat transfer, enthalpy method, Levenberg–Marquardt Method.

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7743 Analysis of Gamma-Ray Spectra Using Levenberg-Marquardt Method

Authors: A. H. Fatah, A. H. Ahmed

Abstract:

Levenberg-Marquardt method (LM) was proposed to be applied as a non-linear least-square fitting in the analysis of a natural gamma-ray spectrum that was taken by the Hp (Ge) detector. The Gaussian function that composed of three components, main Gaussian, a step background function and tailing function in the lowenergy side, has been suggested to describe each of the y-ray lines mathematically in the spectrum. The whole spectrum has been analyzed by determining the energy and relative intensity for the strong y-ray lines.

Keywords: Gamma-Ray, Spectrum analysis, Non-linear leastsquare fitting.

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7742 Prediction of the Thermal Parameters of a High-Temperature Metallurgical Reactor Using Inverse Heat Transfer

Authors: Mohamed Hafid, Marcel Lacroix

Abstract:

This study presents an inverse analysis for predicting the thermal conductivities and the heat flux of a high-temperature metallurgical reactor simultaneously. Once these thermal parameters are predicted, the time-varying thickness of the protective phase-change bank that covers the inside surface of the brick walls of a metallurgical reactor can be calculated. The enthalpy method is used to solve the melting/solidification process of the protective bank. The inverse model rests on the Levenberg-Marquardt Method (LMM) combined with the Broyden method (BM). A statistical analysis for the thermal parameter estimation is carried out. The effect of the position of the temperature sensors, total number of measurements and measurement noise on the accuracy of inverse predictions is investigated. Recommendations are made concerning the location of temperature sensors.

Keywords: Inverse heat transfer, phase change, metallurgical reactor, Levenberg–Marquardt method, Broyden method, bank thickness.

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7741 An Inverse Heat Transfer Algorithm for Predicting the Thermal Properties of Tumors during Cryosurgery

Authors: Mohamed Hafid, Marcel Lacroix

Abstract:

This study aimed at developing an inverse heat transfer approach for predicting the time-varying freezing front and the temperature distribution of tumors during cryosurgery. Using a temperature probe pressed against the layer of tumor, the inverse approach is able to predict simultaneously the metabolic heat generation and the blood perfusion rate of the tumor. Once these parameters are predicted, the temperature-field and time-varying freezing fronts are determined with the direct model. The direct model rests on one-dimensional Pennes bioheat equation. The phase change problem is handled with the enthalpy method. The Levenberg-Marquardt Method (LMM) combined to the Broyden Method (BM) is used to solve the inverse model. The effect (a) of the thermal properties of the diseased tissues; (b) of the initial guesses for the unknown thermal properties; (c) of the data capture frequency; and (d) of the noise on the recorded temperatures is examined. It is shown that the proposed inverse approach remains accurate for all the cases investigated.

Keywords: Cryosurgery, inverse heat transfer, Levenberg-Marquardt method, thermal properties, Pennes model, enthalpy method.

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7740 Prediction the Limiting Drawing Ratio in Deep Drawing Process by Back Propagation Artificial Neural Network

Authors: H.Mohammadi Majd, M.Jalali Azizpour, M. Goodarzi

Abstract:

In this paper back-propagation artificial neural network (BPANN) with Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm is employed to predict the limiting drawing ratio (LDR) of the deep drawing process. To prepare a training set for BPANN, some finite element simulations were carried out. die and punch radius, die arc radius, friction coefficient, thickness, yield strength of sheet and strain hardening exponent were used as the input data and the LDR as the specified output used in the training of neural network. As a result of the specified parameters, the program will be able to estimate the LDR for any new given condition. Comparing FEM and BPANN results, an acceptable correlation was found.

Keywords: BPANN, deep drawing, prediction, limiting drawingratio (LDR), Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm

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7739 Refitting Equations for Peak Ground Acceleration in Light of the PF-L Database

Authors: M. Breška, I. Peruš, V. Stankovski

Abstract:

The number of Ground Motion Prediction Equations (GMPEs) used for predicting peak ground acceleration (PGA) and the number of earthquake recordings that have been used for fitting these equations has increased in the past decades. The current PF-L database contains 3550 recordings. Since the GMPEs frequently model the peak ground acceleration the goal of the present study was to refit a selection of 44 of the existing equation models for PGA in light of the latest data. The algorithm Levenberg-Marquardt was used for fitting the coefficients of the equations and the results are evaluated both quantitatively by presenting the root mean squared error (RMSE) and qualitatively by drawing graphs of the five best fitted equations. The RMSE was found to be as low as 0.08 for the best equation models. The newly estimated coefficients vary from the values published in the original works.

Keywords: Ground Motion Prediction Equations, Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm, refitting PF-L database.

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7738 Performance Analysis of Reconstruction Algorithms in Diffuse Optical Tomography

Authors: K. Uma Maheswari, S. Sathiyamoorthy, G. Lakshmi

Abstract:

Diffuse Optical Tomography (DOT) is a non-invasive imaging modality used in clinical diagnosis for earlier detection of carcinoma cells in brain tissue. It is a form of optical tomography which produces gives the reconstructed image of a human soft tissue with by using near-infra-red light. It comprises of two steps called forward model and inverse model. The forward model provides the light propagation in a biological medium. The inverse model uses the scattered light to collect the optical parameters of human tissue. DOT suffers from severe ill-posedness due to its incomplete measurement data. So the accurate analysis of this modality is very complicated. To overcome this problem, optical properties of the soft tissue such as absorption coefficient, scattering coefficient, optical flux are processed by the standard regularization technique called Levenberg - Marquardt regularization. The reconstruction algorithms such as Split Bregman and Gradient projection for sparse reconstruction (GPSR) methods are used to reconstruct the image of a human soft tissue for tumour detection. Among these algorithms, Split Bregman method provides better performance than GPSR algorithm. The parameters such as signal to noise ratio (SNR), contrast to noise ratio (CNR), relative error (RE) and CPU time for reconstructing images are analyzed to get a better performance.

Keywords: Diffuse optical tomography, ill-posedness, Levenberg Marquardt method, Split Bregman, the Gradient projection for sparse reconstruction.

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7737 Multi-Layer Perceptron Neural Network Classifier with Binary Particle Swarm Optimization Based Feature Selection for Brain-Computer Interfaces

Authors: K. Akilandeswari, G. M. Nasira

Abstract:

Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) measure brain signals activity, intentionally and unintentionally induced by users, and provides a communication channel without depending on the brain’s normal peripheral nerves and muscles output pathway. Feature Selection (FS) is a global optimization machine learning problem that reduces features, removes irrelevant and noisy data resulting in acceptable recognition accuracy. It is a vital step affecting pattern recognition system performance. This study presents a new Binary Particle Swarm Optimization (BPSO) based feature selection algorithm. Multi-layer Perceptron Neural Network (MLPNN) classifier with backpropagation training algorithm and Levenberg-Marquardt training algorithm classify selected features.

Keywords: Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI), Feature Selection (FS), Walsh–Hadamard Transform (WHT), Binary Particle Swarm Optimization (BPSO), Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP), Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm.

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7736 Blind Identification and Equalization of CDMA Signals Using the Levenvberg-Marquardt Algorithm

Authors: Mohammed Boutalline, Imad Badi, Belaid Bouikhalene, Said Safi

Abstract:

In this paper we describe the Levenvberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm for identification and equalization of CDMA signals received by an antenna array in communication channels. The synthesis explains the digital separation and equalization of signals after propagation through multipath generating intersymbol interference (ISI). Exploiting discrete data transmitted and three diversities induced at the reception, the problem can be composed by the Block Component Decomposition (BCD) of a tensor of order 3 which is a new tensor decomposition generalizing the PARAFAC decomposition. We optimize the BCD decomposition by Levenvberg-Marquardt method gives encouraging results compared to classical alternating least squares algorithm (ALS). In the equalization part, we use the Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE) to perform the presented method. The simulation results using the LM algorithm are important.

Keywords: Identification and equalization, communication channel, Levenvberg-Marquardt, tensor decomposition

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7735 Investigation of Some Technical Indexes inStock Forecasting Using Neural Networks

Authors: Myungsook Klassen

Abstract:

Training neural networks to capture an intrinsic property of a large volume of high dimensional data is a difficult task, as the training process is computationally expensive. Input attributes should be carefully selected to keep the dimensionality of input vectors relatively small. Technical indexes commonly used for stock market prediction using neural networks are investigated to determine its effectiveness as inputs. The feed forward neural network of Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm is applied to perform one step ahead forecasting of NASDAQ and Dow stock prices.

Keywords: Stock Market Prediction, Neural Networks, Levenberg-Marquadt Algorithm, Technical Indexes

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7734 System Identification with General Dynamic Neural Networks and Network Pruning

Authors: Christian Endisch, Christoph Hackl, Dierk Schröder

Abstract:

This paper presents an exact pruning algorithm with adaptive pruning interval for general dynamic neural networks (GDNN). GDNNs are artificial neural networks with internal dynamics. All layers have feedback connections with time delays to the same and to all other layers. The structure of the plant is unknown, so the identification process is started with a larger network architecture than necessary. During parameter optimization with the Levenberg- Marquardt (LM) algorithm irrelevant weights of the dynamic neural network are deleted in order to find a model for the plant as simple as possible. The weights to be pruned are found by direct evaluation of the training data within a sliding time window. The influence of pruning on the identification system depends on the network architecture at pruning time and the selected weight to be deleted. As the architecture of the model is changed drastically during the identification and pruning process, it is suggested to adapt the pruning interval online. Two system identification examples show the architecture selection ability of the proposed pruning approach.

Keywords: System identification, dynamic neural network, recurrentneural network, GDNN, optimization, Levenberg Marquardt, realtime recurrent learning, network pruning, quasi-online learning.

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7733 Optimization of the Input Layer Structure for Feed-Forward Narx Neural Networks

Authors: Zongyan Li, Matt Best

Abstract:

This paper presents an optimization method for reducing the number of input channels and the complexity of the feed-forward NARX neural network (NN) without compromising the accuracy of the NN model. By utilizing the correlation analysis method, the most significant regressors are selected to form the input layer of the NN structure. An application of vehicle dynamic model identification is also presented in this paper to demonstrate the optimization technique and the optimal input layer structure and the optimal number of neurons for the neural network is investigated.

Keywords: Correlation analysis, F-ratio, Levenberg-Marquardt, MSE, NARX, neural network, optimisation.

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7732 A Study on Barreling Behavior during Upsetting Process using Artificial Neural Networks with Levenberg Algorithm

Authors: H.Mohammadi Majd, M.Jalali Azizpour

Abstract:

In this paper back-propagation artificial neural network (BPANN )with Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm is employed to predict the deformation of the upsetting process. To prepare a training set for BPANN, some finite element simulations were carried out. The input data for the artificial neural network are a set of parameters generated randomly (aspect ratio d/h, material properties, temperature and coefficient of friction). The output data are the coefficient of polynomial that fitted on barreling curves. Neural network was trained using barreling curves generated by finite element simulations of the upsetting and the corresponding material parameters. This technique was tested for three different specimens and can be successfully employed to predict the deformation of the upsetting process

Keywords: Back-propagation artificial neural network(BPANN), prediction, upsetting

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7731 A Family Cars- Life Cycle Cost (LCC)-Oriented Hybrid Modelling Approach Combining ANN and CBR

Authors: Xiaochuan Chen, Jianguo Yang, Beizhi Li

Abstract:

Design for cost (DFC) is a method that reduces life cycle cost (LCC) from the angle of designers. Multiple domain features mapping (MDFM) methodology was given in DFC. Using MDFM, we can use design features to estimate the LCC. From the angle of DFC, the design features of family cars were obtained, such as all dimensions, engine power and emission volume. At the conceptual design stage, cars- LCC were estimated using back propagation (BP) artificial neural networks (ANN) method and case-based reasoning (CBR). Hamming space was used to measure the similarity among cases in CBR method. Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm and genetic algorithm (GA) were used in ANN. The differences of LCC estimation model between CBR and artificial neural networks (ANN) were provided. ANN and CBR separately each method has its shortcomings. By combining ANN and CBR improved results accuracy was obtained. Firstly, using ANN selected some design features that affect LCC. Then using LCC estimation results of ANN could raise the accuracy of LCC estimation in CBR method. Thirdly, using ANN estimate LCC errors and correct errors in CBR-s estimation results if the accuracy is not enough accurate. Finally, economically family cars and sport utility vehicle (SUV) was given as LCC estimation cases using this hybrid approach combining ANN and CBR.

Keywords: case-based reasoning, life cycle cost (LCC), artificialneural networks (ANN), family cars

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7730 Development of Gas Chromatography Model: Propylene Concentration Using Neural Network

Authors: Areej Babiker Idris Babiker, Rosdiazli Ibrahim

Abstract:

Gas chromatography (GC) is the most widely used technique in analytical chemistry. However, GC has high initial cost and requires frequent maintenance. This paper examines the feasibility and potential of using a neural network model as an alternative whenever GC is unvailable. It can also be part of system verification on the performance of GC for preventive maintenance activities. It shows the performance of MultiLayer Perceptron (MLP) with Backpropagation structure. Results demonstrate that neural network model when trained using this structure provides an adequate result and is suitable for this purpose. cm.

Keywords: Analyzer, Levenberg-Marquardt, Gas chromatography, Neural network

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7729 Kinetics of Palm Oil Cracking in Batch Reactor

Authors: Farouq Twaiq, Ishaq Al-Anbari, Mustafa Nasser

Abstract:

The kinetics of palm oil catalytic cracking over aluminum containing mesoporous silica Al-MCM-41 (5% Al) was investigated in a batch autoclave reactor at the temperatures range of 573 – 673 K. The catalyst was prepared by using sol-gel technique and has been characterized by nitrogen adsorption and x-ray diffraction methods. Surface area of 1276 m2/g with average pore diameter of 2.54 nm and pore volume of 0.811 cm3/g was obtained. The experimental catalytic cracking runs were conducted using 50 g of oil and 1 g of catalyst. The reaction pressure was recorded at different time intervals and the data were analyzed using Levenberg- Marquardt (LM) algorithm using polymath software. The results show that the reaction order was found to be -1.5 and activation energy of 3200 J/gmol.

Keywords: Batch Reactor, Catalytic Cracking, Kinetics, Palm Oil.

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7728 Global Kinetics of Direct Dimethyl Ether Synthesis Process from Syngas in Slurry Reactor over a Novel Cu-Zn-Al-Zr Slurry Catalyst

Authors: Zhen Chen, Haitao Zhang, Weiyong Ying, Dingye Fang

Abstract:

The direct synthesis process of dimethyl ether (DME) from syngas in slurry reactors is considered to be promising because of its advantages in caloric transfer. In this paper, the influences of operating conditions (temperature, pressure and weight hourly space velocity) on the conversion of CO, selectivity of DME and methanol were studied in a stirred autoclave over Cu-Zn-Al-Zr slurry catalyst, which is far more suitable to liquid phase dimethyl ether synthesis process than bifunctional catalyst commercially. A Langmuir- Hinshelwood mechanism type global kinetics model for liquid phase DME direct synthesis based on methanol synthesis models and a methanol dehydration model has been investigated by fitting our experimental data. The model parameters were estimated with MATLAB program based on general Genetic Algorithms and Levenberg-Marquardt method, which is suitably fitting experimental data and its reliability was verified by statistical test and residual error analysis.

Keywords: alcohol/ether fuel, Cu-Zn-Al-Zr slurry catalyst, global kinetics, slurry reactor

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7727 A Comparison of First and Second Order Training Algorithms for Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: Syed Muhammad Aqil Burney, Tahseen Ahmed Jilani, C. Ardil

Abstract:

Minimization methods for training feed-forward networks with Backpropagation are compared. Feedforward network training is a special case of functional minimization, where no explicit model of the data is assumed. Therefore due to the high dimensionality of the data, linearization of the training problem through use of orthogonal basis functions is not desirable. The focus is functional minimization on any basis. A number of methods based on local gradient and Hessian matrices are discussed. Modifications of many methods of first and second order training methods are considered. Using share rates data, experimentally it is proved that Conjugate gradient and Quasi Newton?s methods outperformed the Gradient Descent methods. In case of the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm is of special interest in financial forecasting.

Keywords: Backpropagation algorithm, conjugacy condition, line search, matrix perturbation

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7726 Binary Mixture of Copper-Cobalt Ions Uptake by Zeolite using Neural Network

Authors: John Kabuba, Antoine Mulaba-Bafubiandi, Kim Battle

Abstract:

In this study a neural network (NN) was proposed to predict the sorption of binary mixture of copper-cobalt ions into clinoptilolite as ion-exchanger. The configuration of the backpropagation neural network giving the smallest mean square error was three-layer NN with tangent sigmoid transfer function at hidden layer with 10 neurons, linear transfer function at output layer and Levenberg-Marquardt backpropagation training algorithm. Experiments have been carried out in the batch reactor to obtain equilibrium data of the individual sorption and the mixture of coppercobalt ions. The obtained modeling results have shown that the used of neural network has better adjusted the equilibrium data of the binary system when compared with the conventional sorption isotherm models.

Keywords: Adsorption isotherm, binary system, neural network; sorption

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7725 Artificial Neural Network Models of the Ruminal pH in Holstein Steers

Authors: Alireza Vakili, Mohsen Danesh Mesgaran, Majid Abdollazade

Abstract:

In this study four Holstein steers with rumen fistula fed 7 kg of dry matter (DM) of diets differing in concentrate to alfalfa hay ratios as 60:40, 70:30, 80:20, and 90:10 in a 4 × 4 latin square design. The pH of the ruminal fluid was measured before the morning feeding (0.0 h) to 8 h post feeding. In this study, a two-layered feed-forward neural network trained by the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm was used for modelling of ruminal pH. The input variables of the network were time, concentrate to alfalfa hay ratios (C/F), non fiber carbohydrate (NFC) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF). The output variable was the ruminal pH. The modeling results showed that there was excellent agreement between the experimental data and predicted values, with a high determination coefficient (R2 >0.96). Therefore, we suggest using these model-derived biological values to summarize continuously recorded pH data.

Keywords: Ruminal pH, Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Non Fiber Carbohydrate, Neutral Detergent Fiber.

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7724 Development of Neural Network Prediction Model of Energy Consumption

Authors: Maryam Jamela Ismail, Rosdiazli Ibrahim, Idris Ismail

Abstract:

In the oil and gas industry, energy prediction can help the distributor and customer to forecast the outgoing and incoming gas through the pipeline. It will also help to eliminate any uncertainties in gas metering for billing purposes. The objective of this paper is to develop Neural Network Model for energy consumption and analyze the performance model. This paper provides a comprehensive review on published research on the energy consumption prediction which focuses on structures and the parameters used in developing Neural Network models. This paper is then focused on the parameter selection of the neural network prediction model development for energy consumption and analysis on the result. The most reliable model that gives the most accurate result is proposed for the prediction. The result shows that the proposed neural network energy prediction model is able to demonstrate an adequate performance with least Root Mean Square Error.

Keywords: Energy Prediction, Multilayer Feedforward, Levenberg-Marquardt, Root Mean Square Error (RMSE)

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7723 Numerical Simulation on Deformation Behaviour of Additively Manufactured AlSi10Mg Alloy

Authors: Racholsan Raj Nirmal, B. S. V. Patnaik, R. Jayaganthan

Abstract:

The deformation behaviour of additively manufactured AlSi10Mg alloy under low strains, high strain rates and elevated temperature conditions is essential to analyse and predict its response against dynamic loading such as impact and thermomechanical fatigue. The constitutive relation of Johnson-Cook is used to capture the strain rate sensitivity and thermal softening effect in AlSi10Mg alloy. Johnson-Cook failure model is widely used for exploring damage mechanics and predicting the fracture in many materials. In this present work, Johnson-Cook material and damage model parameters for additively manufactured AlSi10Mg alloy have been determined numerically from four types of uniaxial tensile test. Three different uniaxial tensile tests with dynamic strain rates (0.1, 1, 10, 50, and 100 s-1) and elevated temperature tensile test with three different temperature conditions (450 K, 500 K and 550 K) were performed on 3D printed AlSi10Mg alloy in ABAQUS/Explicit. Hexahedral elements are used to discretize tensile specimens and fracture energy value of 43.6 kN/m was used for damage initiation. Levenberg Marquardt optimization method was used for the evaluation of Johnson-Cook model parameters. It was observed that additively manufactured AlSi10Mg alloy has shown relatively higher strain rate sensitivity and lower thermal stability as compared to the other Al alloys.

Keywords: ABAQUS, additive manufacturing, AlSi10Mg, Johnson-Cook model.

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7722 Suspended Matter Model on Alsat-1 Image by MLP Network and Mathematical Morphology: Prototypes by K-Means

Authors: S. Loumi, H. Merrad, F. Alilat, B. Sansal

Abstract:

In this article, we propose a methodology for the characterization of the suspended matter along Algiers-s bay. An approach by multi layers perceptron (MLP) with training by back propagation of the gradient optimized by the algorithm of Levenberg Marquardt (LM) is used. The accent was put on the choice of the components of the base of training where a comparative study made for four methods: Random and three alternatives of classification by K-Means. The samples are taken from suspended matter image, obtained by analytical model based on polynomial regression by taking account of in situ measurements. The mask which selects the zone of interest (water in our case) was carried out by using a multi spectral classification by ISODATA algorithm. To improve the result of classification, a cleaning of this mask was carried out using the tools of mathematical morphology. The results of this study presented in the forms of curves, tables and of images show the founded good of our methodology.

Keywords: Classification K-means, mathematical morphology, neural network MLP, remote sensing, suspended particulate matter

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7721 An Approach for Coagulant Dosage Optimization Using Soft Jar Test: A Case Study of Bangkhen Water Treatment Plant

Authors: Ninlawat Phuangchoke, Waraporn Viyanon, Setta Sasananan

Abstract:

The most important process of the water treatment plant process is coagulation, which uses alum and poly aluminum chloride (PACL). Therefore, determining the dosage of alum and PACL is the most important factor to be prescribed. This research applies an artificial neural network (ANN), which uses the Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm to create a mathematical model (Soft Jar Test) for chemical dose prediction, as used for coagulation, such as alum and PACL, with input data consisting of turbidity, pH, alkalinity, conductivity, and, oxygen consumption (OC) of the Bangkhen Water Treatment Plant (BKWTP), under the authority of the Metropolitan Waterworks Authority of Thailand. The data were collected from 1 January 2019 to 31 December 2019 in order to cover the changing seasons of Thailand. The input data of ANN are divided into three groups: training set, test set, and validation set. The coefficient of determination and the mean absolute errors of the alum model are 0.73, 3.18 and the PACL model are 0.59, 3.21, respectively.

Keywords: Soft jar test, jar test, water treatment plant process, artificial neural network.

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7720 Statistics over Lyapunov Exponents for Feature Extraction: Electroencephalographic Changes Detection Case

Authors: Elif Derya UBEYLI, Inan GULER

Abstract:

A new approach based on the consideration that electroencephalogram (EEG) signals are chaotic signals was presented for automated diagnosis of electroencephalographic changes. This consideration was tested successfully using the nonlinear dynamics tools, like the computation of Lyapunov exponents. This paper presented the usage of statistics over the set of the Lyapunov exponents in order to reduce the dimensionality of the extracted feature vectors. Since classification is more accurate when the pattern is simplified through representation by important features, feature extraction and selection play an important role in classifying systems such as neural networks. Multilayer perceptron neural network (MLPNN) architectures were formulated and used as basis for detection of electroencephalographic changes. Three types of EEG signals (EEG signals recorded from healthy volunteers with eyes open, epilepsy patients in the epileptogenic zone during a seizure-free interval, and epilepsy patients during epileptic seizures) were classified. The selected Lyapunov exponents of the EEG signals were used as inputs of the MLPNN trained with Levenberg- Marquardt algorithm. The classification results confirmed that the proposed MLPNN has potential in detecting the electroencephalographic changes.

Keywords: Chaotic signal, Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals, Feature extraction/selection, Lyapunov exponents

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7719 A Critics Study of Neural Networks Applied to ion-Exchange Process

Authors: John Kabuba, Antoine Mulaba-Bafubiandi, Kim Battle

Abstract:

This paper presents a critical study about the application of Neural Networks to ion-exchange process. Ionexchange is a complex non-linear process involving many factors influencing the ions uptake mechanisms from the pregnant solution. The following step includes the elution. Published data presents empirical isotherm equations with definite shortcomings resulting in unreliable predictions. Although Neural Network simulation technique encounters a number of disadvantages including its “black box", and a limited ability to explicitly identify possible causal relationships, it has the advantage to implicitly handle complex nonlinear relationships between dependent and independent variables. In the present paper, the Neural Network model based on the back-propagation algorithm Levenberg-Marquardt was developed using a three layer approach with a tangent sigmoid transfer function (tansig) at hidden layer with 11 neurons and linear transfer function (purelin) at out layer. The above mentioned approach has been used to test the effectiveness in simulating ion exchange processes. The modeling results showed that there is an excellent agreement between the experimental data and the predicted values of copper ions removed from aqueous solutions.

Keywords: Copper, ion-exchange process, neural networks, simulation

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7718 In Search of a Suitable Neural Network Capable of Fast Monitoring of Congestion Level in Electric Power Systems

Authors: Pradyumna Kumar Sahoo, Prasanta Kumar Satpathy

Abstract:

This paper aims at finding a suitable neural network for monitoring congestion level in electrical power systems. In this paper, the input data has been framed properly to meet the target objective through supervised learning mechanism by defining normal and abnormal operating conditions for the system under study. The congestion level, expressed as line congestion index (LCI), is evaluated for each operating condition and is presented to the NN along with the bus voltages to represent the input and target data. Once, the training goes successful, the NN learns how to deal with a set of newly presented data through validation and testing mechanism. The crux of the results presented in this paper rests on performance comparison of a multi-layered feed forward neural network with eleven types of back propagation techniques so as to evolve the best training criteria. The proposed methodology has been tested on the standard IEEE-14 bus test system with the support of MATLAB based NN toolbox. The results presented in this paper signify that the Levenberg-Marquardt backpropagation algorithm gives best training performance of all the eleven cases considered in this paper, thus validating the proposed methodology.

Keywords: Line congestion index, critical bus, contingency, neural network.

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7717 Forecasting Direct Normal Irradiation at Djibouti Using Artificial Neural Network

Authors: Ahmed Kayad Abdourazak, Abderafi Souad, Zejli Driss, Idriss Abdoulkader Ibrahim

Abstract:

In this paper Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is used to predict the solar irradiation in Djibouti for the first Time that is useful to the integration of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) and sites selections for new or future solar plants as part of solar energy development. An ANN algorithm was developed to establish a forward/reverse correspondence between the latitude, longitude, altitude and monthly solar irradiation. For this purpose the German Aerospace Centre (DLR) data of eight Djibouti sites were used as training and testing in a standard three layers network with the back propagation algorithm of Lavenber-Marquardt. Results have shown a very good agreement for the solar irradiation prediction in Djibouti and proves that the proposed approach can be well used as an efficient tool for prediction of solar irradiation by providing so helpful information concerning sites selection, design and planning of solar plants.

Keywords: Artificial neural network, solar irradiation, concentrated solar power, Lavenberg-Marquardt.

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