Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

Search results for: Computer-aided design

15 The Low-Cost Design and 3D Printing of Structural Knee Orthotics for Athletic Knee Injury Patients

Authors: Alexander Hendricks, Sean Nevin, Clayton Wikoff, Melissa Dougherty, Jacob Orlita, Rafiqul Noorani

Abstract:

Knee orthotics play an important role in aiding in the recovery of those with knee injuries, especially athletes. However, structural knee orthotics is often very expensive, ranging between $300 and $800. The primary reason for this project was to answer the question: can 3D printed orthotics represent a viable and cost-effective alternative to present structural knee orthotics? The primary objective for this research project was to design a knee orthotic for athletes with knee injuries for a low-cost under $100 and evaluate its effectiveness. The initial design for the orthotic was done in SolidWorks, a computer-aided design (CAD) software available at Loyola Marymount University. After this design was completed, finite element analysis (FEA) was utilized to understand how normal stresses placed upon the knee affected the orthotic. The knee orthotic was then adjusted and redesigned to meet a specified factor-of-safety of 3.25 based on the data gathered during FEA and literature sources. Once the FEA was completed and the orthotic was redesigned based from the data gathered, the next step was to move on to 3D-printing the first design of the knee brace. Subsequently, physical therapy movement trials were used to evaluate physical performance. Using the data from these movement trials, the CAD design of the brace was refined to accommodate the design requirements. The final goal of this research means to explore the possibility of replacing high-cost, outsourced knee orthotics with a readily available low-cost alternative.

Keywords: Knee Orthotics, 3D printing, finite element analysis.

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14 The Fracture Resistance of Zirconia Based Dental Crowns from Cyclic Loading: A Function of Relative Wear Depth

Authors: T. Qasim, B. El Masoud, D. Ailabouni

Abstract:

This in vitro study focused on investigating the fatigue resistance of veneered zirconia molar crowns with different veneering ceramic thicknesses, simulating the relative wear depths under simulated cyclic loading. A mandibular first molar was prepared and then scanned using computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology to fabricate 32 zirconia copings of uniform 0.5 mm thickness. The manufactured copings then veneered with 1.5 mm, 1.0 mm, 0.5 mm, and 0.0 mm representing 0%, 33%, 66%, and 100% relative wear of a normal ceramic thickness of 1.5 mm. All samples were thermally aged to 6000 thermo-cycles for 2 minutes with distilled water between 5 ˚C and 55 ˚C. The samples subjected to cyclic fatigue and fracture testing using SD Mechatronik chewing simulator. These samples are loaded up to 1.25x10⁶ cycles or until they fail. During fatigue, testing, extensive cracks were observed in samples with 0.5 mm veneering layer thickness. Veneering layer thickness 1.5-mm group and 1.0-mm group were not different in terms of resisting loads necessary to cause an initial crack or final failure. All ceramic zirconia-based crown restorations with varying occlusal veneering layer thicknesses appeared to be fatigue resistant. Fracture load measurement for all tested groups before and after fatigue loading exceeded the clinical chewing forces in the posterior region. In general, the fracture loads increased after fatigue loading and with the increase in the thickness of the occlusal layering ceramic.

Keywords: All ceramic, dental crowns, relative wear, chewing simulator, cyclic loading, thermally ageing.

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13 Impact of Ownership Structure on Provision of Staff and Infrastructure for Implementing Computer Aided Design Curriculum in Universities in South-East Nigeria

Authors: Kelechi E. Ezeji

Abstract:

Instruction towards acquiring skills in the use of Computer Aided Design technologies has become a vital part of architectural education curriculum in the digital era. Its implementation, however, requires deployment of extra resources to build new infrastructure, acquisition and maintenance of new equipment, retraining of staff and recruitment of new ones who are knowledgeable in this area. This study sought to examine the impact that ownership structure of Nigerian universities had on provision of staff and infrastructure for implementing computer aided design curriculum with a view to developing a framework for the evaluation for appropriate implementation by the institutions. Survey research design was employed. The focus was on departments of architecture in universities in south-east Nigeria accredited by the National Universities Commission. Data were obtained in the areas of infrastructure and personnel for CAD implementation. A multi-stage stratified random sampling method was adopted. The first stage of stratification involved the accredited departments. Random sampling by balloting was then carried out. At the second stage, sampling size formulae was applied to obtain respondents’ number. For data analysis, analysis of variance tool for testing differences of means was used. With ρ < 0.5, the study found that there was significant difference between private-funded, state-funded and federal-funded departments of architecture in the provision of personnel and infrastructure. The implications of these findings were that for successful implementation leading to attainment of CAD proficiency to occur in every institution regardless of ownership structure, minimum evaluation guidelines needed to be set. A regular comparison of implementation in institutions was recommended as a means of rating performance. This will inform better interaction with those who consistently show weakness to challenge them towards improvement.

Keywords: Computer-aided design, curriculum, funding, infrastructure.

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12 The Use of Computer-Aided Design in Small Contractors in a Local Area of Korea

Authors: Myunghoun Jang

Abstract:

A survey of small-size contractors in Jeju was conducted to investigate college graduate's computer-aided design (CAD) competence. Most of small-size contractors use CAD software to review and update drawings submitted from an architect. This research analyzed the curriculum of the architectural engineering in several national universities. The CAD classes have 4 or 6 hours per week and use AutoCAD primarily. This paper proposes that a CAD class needs 6 hours per week, 2D drawing is the main theme in the curriculum, and exercises to make 3D models are also included in the CAD class. An improved method, for example Internet cafe and real time feedbacks using smartphones, to evaluate the reports and exercise results is necessary.

Keywords: Computer-aided design, CAD education, education improvement, small-size contractor.

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11 A Study on the Impacts of Computer Aided Design on the Architectural Design Process

Authors: Halleh Nejadriahi, Kamyar Arab

Abstract:

Computer-aided design (CAD) tools have been extensively used by the architects for the several decades. It has evolved from being a simple drafting tool to being an intelligent architectural software and a powerful means of communication for architects. CAD plays an essential role in the profession of architecture and is a basic tool for any architectural firm. It is not possible for an architectural firm to compete without taking the advantage of computer software, due to the high demand and competition in the architectural industry. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impacts of CAD on the architectural design process from conceptual level to final product, particularly in architectural practice. It examines the range of benefits of integrating CAD into the industry and discusses the possible defects limiting the architects. Method of this study is qualitatively based on data collected from the professionals’ perspective. The identified benefits and limitations of CAD on the architectural design process will raise the awareness of professionals on the potentials of CAD and proper utilization of that in the industry, which would result in a higher productivity along with a better quality in the architectural offices.

Keywords: Architecture, architectural practice, computer aided design, CAD, design process.

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10 Operation Planning of Concrete Box Girder Bridge by 4D CAD Visualization Techniques

Authors: Mohammad Rohani, Gholamali Shafabakhsh, Abdolhosein Haddad, Ehsan Asnaashari

Abstract:

Visual simulation has emerged as a key planning tool in built environment because it enables architects, engineers and project managers to visualize construction process evolution before the project actual commences. This provides an efficient technology for reducing time and cost through planning and controlling resources, machines and materials. With the development of infrastructure projects and the massive civil constructions such as bridges, urban tunnels and highways as well as sensitivity of their construction operations, it is very necessary to apply proper planning methods. Implementation of visual techniques into management of construction projects can provide a fundamental foundation for projects with massive activities and duplicate items. So, the purpose of this paper is to develop visual simulation management techniques for infrastructure projects such as highways bridges by the use of Four-Dimensional Computer-Aided design Models. This project simulates operational assembly-line for Box-Girder Concrete Bridges which it would be able to optimize the sequence and interaction of project activities and on the other hand, it would minimize any unintended conflicts prior to project start. In this paper, after introducing the various planning methods by building information model and concrete bridges in highways, an executive case study is demonstrated and then a visual technique (4D CAD) will be applied for the case. In the final step, the user feedback for interacting by this system evaluated according to six criteria.

Keywords: 4D application area, Box-Girder concrete bridges, CAD model, visual planning.

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9 A Genetic-Neural-Network Modeling Approach for Self-Heating in GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors

Authors: Anwar Jarndal

Abstract:

In this paper, a genetic-neural-network (GNN) based large-signal model for GaN HEMTs is presented along with its parameters extraction procedure. The model is easy to construct and implement in CAD software and requires only DC and S-parameter measurements. An improved decomposition technique is used to model self-heating effect. Two GNN models are constructed to simulate isothermal drain current and power dissipation, respectively. The two model are then composed to simulate the drain current. The modeling procedure was applied to a packaged GaN-on-Si HEMT and the developed model is validated by comparing its large-signal simulation with measured data. A very good agreement between the simulation and measurement is obtained.

Keywords: GaN HEMT, computer-aided design & modeling, neural networks, genetic optimization.

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8 Magnet Position Variation of the Electromagnetic Actuation System in a Torsional Scanner

Authors: Loke Kean Koay, Mani Maran Ratnam

Abstract:

A mechanically-resonant torsional spring scanner was developed in a recent study. Various methods were developed to improve the angular displacement of the scanner while maintaining the scanner frequency. However the effects of rotor magnet radial position on scanner characteristics were not well investigated. In this study, the relationships between the magnet position and the scanner characteristics such as natural frequency, angular displacement and stress level were studied. A finite element model was created and an average deviation of 3.18% was found between the simulation and experimental results, qualifying the simulation results as a guide for further investigations. Three magnet positions on the transverse oscillating suspended plate were investigated by finite element analysis (FEA) and one of the positions were selected as the design position. The magnet position with the longest distance from the twist axis of mirror was selected since it attains minimum stress level, while exceeding the minimum critical flicker frequency and delivering the targeted angular displacement to the scanner.

Keywords: Computer-aided design, design optimization, torsional scanner.

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7 Implementing ALD in Product Development: The Effect of Geometrical Dimensions on Tubular Member Deformation

Authors: Shigeyuki Haruyama, Aidil Khaidir Bin Muhamad, Tadayuki Kyoutani, Dai-Heng Chen, Ken Kaminishi

Abstract:

The product development process has undergone many changes concomitant with world progress in order to produce products that meet customer needs quickly and inexpensively. Analysis-Led Design (ALD) is one of the latest methods in the product development process. It focuses more on up-front engineering, a product quality optimization process that starts early in the conceptual design stage. Product development and manufacturing through ALD utilizes digital tools extensively for design, analysis and product optimization. This study uses computer-aided design (CAD) and finite element method (FEM) simulation to examine the modes of deformation of tubular members under axial loading. A multiple-combination impact absorption tubular member, referred to as a compress–expand member, is proposed as a substitute for the conventional thin-walled cylindrical tube to be used as a vehicle’s crash box. The study of deformation modes is crucial for evaluating the geometrical dimension limits by which a member can absorb energy efficiently.

Keywords: Analysis-led design, axial collapse, tubular member, finite element method, thin-walled cylindrical tube, compress-expand member, deformation modes.

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6 Computer-aided Sequence Planning of Shearing Operations in Progressive Dies

Authors: Alan C. Lin, Dean K. Sheu

Abstract:

This paper aims to study the methodology of building the knowledge of planning adequate punches in order to complete the task of strip layout for shearing processes, using progressive dies. The proposed methodology uses die design rules and characteristics of different types of punches to classify them into five groups: prior use (the punches must be used first), posterior use (must be used last), compatible use (may be used together), sequential use (certain punches must precede some others) and simultaneous use (must be used together). With these five groups of punches, the searching space of feasible designs will be greatly reduced, and superimposition becomes a more effective method of punch layout. The superimposition scheme will generate many feasible solutions, an evaluation function based on number of stages, moment balancing and strip stability is developed for helping designers to find better solutions.

Keywords: Manufacturing systems, advances in metal forming, computer-aided design, progressive die.

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5 A Case Study of Applying Virtual Prototyping in Construction

Authors: Stephen C. W. Kong

Abstract:

The use of 3D computer-aided design (CAD) models to support construction project planning has been increasing in the previous year. 3D CAD models reveal more planning ideas by visually showing the construction site environment in different stages of the construction process. Using 3D CAD models together with scheduling software to prepare construction plan can identify errors in process sequence and spatial arrangement, which is vital to the success of a construction project. A number of 4D (3D plus time) CAD tools has been developed and utilized in different construction projects due to the awareness of their importance. Virtual prototyping extends the idea of 4D CAD by integrating more features for simulating real construction process. Virtual prototyping originates from the manufacturing industry where production of products such as cars and airplanes are virtually simulated in computer before they are built in the factory. Virtual prototyping integrates 3D CAD, simulation engine, analysis tools (like structural analysis and collision detection), and knowledgebase to streamline the whole product design and production process. In this paper, we present the application of a virtual prototyping software which has been used in a few construction projects in Hong Kong to support construction project planning. Specifically, the paper presents an implementation of virtual prototyping in a residential building project in Hong Kong. The applicability, difficulties and benefits of construction virtual prototyping are examined based on this project.

Keywords: construction project planning, prefabrication, simulation, virtual prototyping.

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4 The Experiences of South-African High-School Girls in a Fab Lab Environment

Authors: Nomusa Dlodlo, Ronald Noel Beyers

Abstract:

This paper reports on an effort to address the issue of inequality in girls- and women-s access to science, engineering and technology (SET) education and careers through raising awareness on SET among secondary school girls in South Africa. Girls participated in hands-on high-tech rapid prototyping environment of a fabrication laboratory that was aimed at stimulating creativity and innovation as part of a Fab Kids initiative. The Fab Kids intervention is about creating a SET pipeline as part of the Young Engineers and Scientists of Africa Initiative.The methodology was based on a real world situation and a hands-on approach. In the process, participants acquired a number of skills including computer-aided design, research skills, communication skills, teamwork skills, technical drawing skills, writing skills and problem-solving skills. Exposure to technology enhanced the girls- confidence in being able to handle technology-related tasks.

Keywords: Girls, design engineering, gender, science, women.

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3 Estimating Shortest Circuit Path Length Complexity

Authors: Azam Beg, P. W. Chandana Prasad, S.M.N.A Senenayake

Abstract:

When binary decision diagrams are formed from uniformly distributed Monte Carlo data for a large number of variables, the complexity of the decision diagrams exhibits a predictable relationship to the number of variables and minterms. In the present work, a neural network model has been used to analyze the pattern of shortest path length for larger number of Monte Carlo data points. The neural model shows a strong descriptive power for the ISCAS benchmark data with an RMS error of 0.102 for the shortest path length complexity. Therefore, the model can be considered as a method of predicting path length complexities; this is expected to lead to minimum time complexity of very large-scale integrated circuitries and related computer-aided design tools that use binary decision diagrams.

Keywords: Monte Carlo circuit simulation data, binary decision diagrams, neural network modeling, shortest path length estimation

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2 Modeling Concave Globoidal Cam with Swinging Roller Follower : A Case Study

Authors: Nguyen Van Tuong, Premysl Pokorny

Abstract:

This paper describes a computer-aided design for design of the concave globoidal cam with cylindrical rollers and swinging follower. Four models with different modeling methods are made from the same input data. The input data are angular input and output displacements of the cam and the follower and some other geometrical parameters of the globoidal cam mechanism. The best cam model is the cam which has no interference with the rollers when their motions are simulated in assembly conditions. The angular output displacement of the follower for the best cam is also compared with that of in the input data to check errors. In this study, Pro/ENGINEER® Wildfire 2.0 is used for modeling the cam, simulating motions and checking interference and errors of the system.

Keywords: Globoidal cam, sweep, pitch surface, modeling.

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1 Learning Monte Carlo Data for Circuit Path Length

Authors: Namal A. Senanayake, A. Beg, Withana C. Prasad

Abstract:

This paper analyzes the patterns of the Monte Carlo data for a large number of variables and minterms, in order to characterize the circuit path length behavior. We propose models that are determined by training process of shortest path length derived from a wide range of binary decision diagram (BDD) simulations. The creation of the model was done use of feed forward neural network (NN) modeling methodology. Experimental results for ISCAS benchmark circuits show an RMS error of 0.102 for the shortest path length complexity estimation predicted by the NN model (NNM). Use of such a model can help reduce the time complexity of very large scale integrated (VLSI) circuitries and related computer-aided design (CAD) tools that use BDDs.

Keywords: Monte Carlo data, Binary decision diagrams, Neural network modeling, Shortest path length estimation.

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