Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 72

Search results for: Ethnic

72 The Effect of Parents' Ethnic Socialization Practices on Ethnic Identity, Self-Esteem and Psychological Adjustment of Multi Ethnic Children in Malaysia

Authors: Chua Bee Seok, Rosnah Ismail, Jasmine Adela Mutang, Shaziah Iqbal, Nur Farhana Ardillah Aftar, Alfred Chan Huan Zhi, Ferlis Bin Bahari, Lailawati Madlan, Hon Kai Yee

Abstract:

The present study aims to explore the role of parents' ethnic socialization practices contributes to the ethnic identity development, self-esteem and psychological adjustment of multi ethnic children in Sabah, Malaysia. A total of 342 multi ethnic children (age range = 10 years old to 14 years old; mean age = 12.65 years, SD = 0.88) and their parents participated in the present study. The modified version of Multi group Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM), The Familial Ethnic Socialization Measure (FESM). The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE) and Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale Edition 2 (BERS-2) were used in this study. The results showed that: i) parents' ethnic socialization practice was a strong predictor of ethnic identity development of multi ethnic children; ii) parents' ethnic socialization practice also was a significant predictor of self-esteem of multi ethnic children; iii) parents' ethnic socialization practice was not a significant predictor of psychological adjustment of multi ethnic children. The results of this study showed the implications parents' ethnic socialization practices and ethnic identity development in successful multi ethnic families.

Keywords: Ethnic Identity development, multi ethnic children Parents' Ethnic Socialization Practices, psychological adjustment, self-esteem.

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71 The Implicit Methods for the Study of Tolerance

Authors: M. Bambulyakа

Abstract:

Tolerance is a tool for achieving a social cohesion, particularly, among individuals and groups with different values. The aim is to study the characteristics of the ethnic tolerance, the inhabitants of Latvia. The ethnic tolerance is taught as a set of conscious and unconscious orientations of the individual in social interaction and inter-ethnic communication. It uses the tools of empirical studies of the ethnic tolerance which allows to identify the explicitly and implicitly levels of the emotional component of Latvia's residents. Explicit measurements were made using the techniques of self-report which revealed the index of the ethnic tolerance and the ethnic identity of the participants. The implicit component was studied using methods based on the effect of the emotional priming. During the processing of the results, there were calculated indicators of the positive and negative implicit attitudes towards members of their own and other ethnicity as well as the explicit parameters of the ethnic tolerance and the ethnic identity of Latvia-s residents. The implicit measurements of the ratio of neighboring ethnic groups against each other showed a mutual negative attitude whereas the explicit measurements indicate a neutral attitude. The data obtained contribute to a further study of the ethnic tolerance of Latvia's residents.

Keywords: ethnic tolerance, implicit measure, priming, ethnic attitudes

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70 Common Acceptable Cuisine in Multicultural Countries: Towards Building the National Food Identity

Authors: Mohd Zulhilmi Suhaimi, Mohd Salehuddin Mohd Zahari

Abstract:

Common acceptable cuisine usually discussed in the multicultural/ethnic nation as it represents the process of sharing it among the ethnic groups. The common acceptable cuisine is also considered as a precursor in the process of constructing the national food identity within ethnic groups in the multicultural countries. The adaptation of certain ethnic cuisines through its types of food, methods of cooking, ingredients and eating decorum by ethnic groups is believed creating or enhancing the process of formation on common acceptable cuisines in a multicultural country. Malaysia as the multicultural country without doubt is continuing to experience cross-culturing processes among the ethnic groups including cuisine. This study empirically investigates the adaptation level of Malay, Chinese and Indian chefs on each other ethnic cuisine attributes toward the formation on common acceptable cuisines and national food identity.

Keywords: Common acceptable cuisine, adaptation, ethnic, food, identity.

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69 The Taste of Native Land in Everyday Practices of Repatriates – Variations by the Countries of Origin (by Field Materials)

Authors: Amanzhol Kalysh, Didar Kassymova, Aliya Isaeva

Abstract:

Practices of food sharing as part of the brotherhood and hospitality interpretation have been essential part of the Kazakh ethnic culture since early times. Dialogue in time and space between Kazakhs through differences in food interpretation among the ethnic repatriates may become a link connecting them and platform for stable relations with the host society or serious barrier on the way of their integration in the Kazakhstani society. The article elucidates by the field materials how some aspects of food culture differences among ethnic Kazakhs living abroad (XUAR of China) and ethnic repatriates in Kazakhstan may influence their integration path.

Keywords: Ethnic repatriation, food canon, Kazakh identity, oralman.

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68 Malaysian Multi-Ethnic Discrimination Scale: Preliminary Factor and Psychometric Analysis

Authors: Chua Bee Seok, Shamsul Amri Baharuddin, Rosnah Ismail, Ferlis Bahari, Jasmine Adela Mutang, Lailawati Madlan, Asong Joseph

Abstract:

The aims of this study were to determine the factor structure and psychometric properties (i.e., reliability and convergent validity) of the Malaysian Multi-Ethnic Discrimination Scale (MMEDS). It consists of 71-items measure experience, strategies used and consequences of ethnic discrimination. A sample of 649 university students from one of the higher education institution in Malaysia was asked to complete MMEDS, as well as Perceived Ethnic and Racial Discrimination. The exploratory factor analysis on ethnic discrimination experience extracted two factors labeled ‘unfair treatment’ (15 items) and ‘Denial of the ethnic right’ (12 items) which accounted for 60.92% of the total variance. The two sub scales demonstrated clear reliability with internal consistency above .70. The convergent validity of the Scale was supported by an expected pattern of correlations (positive and significant correlation) between the score of unfair treatment and denial of the ethnic right and the score of Perceived Ethnic and Racial Discrimination by Peers Scale. The results suggest that the MMEDS is a reliable and valid measure. However, further studies need to be carried out in other groups of sample as to validate the Scale.

Keywords: Factor structure, psychometric properties, exploratory factor analysis.

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67 Psychological Research of Ethnic Prejudices

Authors: A.A Issahanova, S. M. Jakupov, Z. B. Madalieva, A.A. Tolegenova

Abstract:

In the article the experience of principle new technology development of ethnopsychological experiment on the basis of using other virtual independent experimental variables is presented. It is shown that ethnic prejudices are the result of forming and development of specific semantic barriers, arising up in the conditions of interethnic co-operation and people-s communication. Their overcoming is more successful in the conditions of the special organized process of teaching in a polyethnic environment, characteristic for the modern institute

Keywords: virtual monoethnic group, semantic barrier, general fund of semantic notions, polyethnic environment, ethnic prejudices

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66 Under the ‘Fourth World’: A Discussion to the Transformation of Character-Settings in Chinese Ethnic Minority Films

Authors: Sicheng Liu

Abstract:

Based on the key issue of the current fourth world studies, the article aims to analyze the features of character-settings in Chinese ethnic minority films. As a generalizable transformation, this feature progresses from a microcosmic representation. It argues that, as the mediation, films note down the current state of people and their surroundings, while the ‘fourth world’ theorization (or the fourth cinema) provides a new perspective to ethnic minority topics in China. Like the ‘fourth cinema’ focusing on the depiction of indigeneity groups, the ethnic minority films portrait the non-Han nationalities in China. Both types possess the motif of returning history-writing to the minority members’ own hand. In this article, the discussion entirely involves three types of cinematic role-settings in Chinese minority themed films, which illustrates that, similar to the creative principle of the fourth film, the themes and narratives of these films are becoming more individualized, with more concern to minority grassroots.

Keywords: Fourth world, Chinese ethnic minority films, ethnicity and culture reflection, mother tongue (muyu), highlighting to individual spirits.

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65 The Measurement of Latvian and Russian Ethnic Attitudes, Using Evaluative Priming Task and Self-Report Methods

Authors: Maria Bambulyaka, Irina Plotka, Nina Blumenau, Dmitry Igonin, Elena Ozola, Laura Shimane

Abstract:

The purposes of researches - to estimate implicit ethnic attitudes by direct and indirect methods, to determine the accordance of two types measuring, to investigate influence of task type used in an experiment, on the results of measuring, as well as to determine a presence or communication between recent episodic events and chronologic correlations of ethnic attitudes. Method of the implicit measuring - an evaluative priming (EPT) carried out with the use of different SOA intervals, explicit methods of research are G.Soldatova-s types of ethnic identity, G.Soldatova-s index of tolerance, E.Bogardus scale of social distance. During five stages of researches received results open some aspects of implicit measuring, its correlation with the results of self-reports on different SOA intervals, connection of implicit measuring with emotional valence of episodic events of participants and other indexes, presenting a contribution to the decision of implicit measuring application problem for study of different social constructs

Keywords: Ethnic attitudes, explicit method, implicit method, priming.

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64 The Preservation of Cultural Heritage: Continuity and Memory

Authors: Andrey R. Khazbulatov, Moldir Nurpeiis

Abstract:

Contemporary science and technologies largely widen the gap between the spiritual and rational of the society. Industrial and technological breakthroughs might radically affect most processes in the society, thus losing the cultural heritage. The thinkers recognized the dangers of the decadence in the first place. In the present article the ways of preserving cultural heritage have been investigated. Memory has always been a necessary condition for selfidentification, - continuity is based on this. The authors have supported the hypothesis that continuity and ethnic memory are the very mechanisms that preserve cultural heritage. Such problemformulating will facilitate another, new look at the material, spiritual and arts spheres of the cultural heritage of numerous ethnic groups. The fundamental works by major European and Kazakh scientists have been taken as a basis for the research done.

Keywords: Continuity, cultural heritage, ethnic memory

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63 The Relationship between Depression Interpersonal Communication and Media Using Among International Students

Authors: Birol Gülnar, Hacer Aker

Abstract:

Student-s movements have been going increasing in last decades. International students can have different psychological and sociological problems in their adaptation process. Depression is one of the most important problems in this procedure. This research purposed to reveal level of foreign students- depression, kinds of interpersonal communication networks (host/ethnic interpersonal communication) and media usage (host/ethnic media usage). Additionally study aimed to display the relationship between depression and communication (host/ethnic interpersonal communication and host/ethnic media usage) among foreign university students. A field research was performed among 283 foreign university students who have been attending 8 different universities in Turkey. A purposeful sampling technique was used in this research cause of data collect facilities. Results indicated that 58.3% of foreign students- depression stage was “intermediate" while 33.2% of foreign students- depression level was “low". Add to this, host interpersonal communication behaviors and Turkish web sites usages were negatively and significantly correlated with depression.

Keywords: International students, depression, interpersonal communication behaviors, media using.

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62 Gender Component in the National Project of Kazakhstan

Authors: D.Nuketaeva, A.Kanagatova, I.Khan, B.Kylyshbayeva, G.Bektenova

Abstract:

This article describes the aspects of the formation of the national idea and national identity through the prism of gender control and its contradistinction to the obsolete, Soviet component. The role of females in ethnic and national projects is considered from the point of view of Dr. Nira Yuval-Davis: as biological reproducers of the ethnic communities- members; as reproducers of the boarders of ethnic/national groups; as central participants in the ideological reproduction of community and transducers of its culture; as symbols in ideology, reproduction and transformation of ethnic/national categories; and as participants of national, economical, political and military combats. The society of the transitional type uses the symbolic resources of the formation of gender component in the national project. The gender patterns act like cultural codes, executing the important ideological function in formation of the national female- image, i.e. the discussion on hijab - it-s not just the discussion on control over the female body, it-s the discussion on the metaphor of social order.

Keywords: nation, gender, hijab, Islam, ideology, politics, national idea, national identity, society of the transitional type

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61 The Relationship between Citizenship Acquisition and Ethnic Identity of Immigrant Women in Taiwan

Authors: Yuan-Yu Chiang, Yu-Han Tseng, Chin-Chen Wen

Abstract:

In the last few decades, many southeast-Asia women migrate to Taiwan by marriage, and it usually takes several years for them to acquire Taiwanese citizenship. This study investigates the relationship between their citizenship acquisition and whether they develop Taiwanese identities, and how does it affect their ethnical identity towards their original ethnics. Furthermore, the present study also explores that whether citizenship acquisition help the immigrant women to explore the host society further and make commitment to it, or the identification towards mainstream Taiwanese society is only symbolic and superficial? One hundred and ninety-two immigrant women were measured using Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure-Revised and a global 10-point ethnic identity question. Correlation tests, t-test, and hierarchical regression were performed to answer the above questions. The results revealed that citizenship acquisition does help immigrant women to identify with Taiwanese society, but it does not affect how they identify with their own ethnics. Furthermore, the results also indicated that acquiring citizenship would not help these immigrant women become involved in deeper cultural exploration of Taiwan nor would it encourage them to make commitments to the host society.

Keywords: Immigrants, international marriage, ethnic identity, Taiwan.

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60 N. A. Nazarbayev and Peculiar Features of Ethnic Language Processes in Kazakhstan

Authors: Aliya Isaeva, Anar Sultaniarova

Abstract:

The report focuses on such an important indicator of the nature and direction of development of ethnic and cultural processes in the Republic of Kazakhstan, as ethno linguistic situation. It is shown that, in essence, on the one hand, expresses the degree of the actual propagation and the level of use of the languages of the various ethnic communities. On the other hand, reflects the important patterns, trends and prospects of ethno-cultural and ethnodemographic processes in the Republic. It is important to note that the ethno linguistic situation in different regions of Kazakhstan, due to its more dynamic and much more difficult to demonstrate a much greater variety of options when compared with the ethnic situation in the country. For the two major ethnic groups of the republic – Kazakh and Russian language ethno differentiating retains its value, while for the other ethnic groups observed decline in the importance of this indicator. As you know, the language of international communication in the country is Russian. As the censuses of population, the Russian language in many areas of Northern, Central and Eastern Kazakhstan becomes a means of ethno linguistic development for most of the non-Russian population. This is most clearly illustrated by the Germans, and the Slavic ethnic groups. In this case, the Russian language is not just a means of international communication for a number of ethnic groups, and ethnic groups, it becomes a factor of ethnic self-expression. The value of the Kazakh language as their mother tongue for the other groups of the population is small. More clearly it can be traced only to the Turkic-speaking population of the republic – Uzbeks, Uighurs, Tatars, Turks, etc. The state Kazakh language is a means of international communication in the Western and Southern Kazakhstan, with a predominance of the Kazakh population. The report shows that the most important factor in the development of ethno-linguistic and ethno-cultural processes is bilingualism. Comparative analysis of materials census shows, first, on the increase of the proportion of bilingual population among Kazakhs and Russian, and second, to reduce the proportion of bilingual population of other ethnic groups living in Kazakhstan, and third, a higher proportion bilingual population among residents than rural residents, regardless of their ethnicity. Bilingualism is mainly of a "national Kazakh", "national Russian" or "Kazakh-national" or "Russian-national" character. The President N.A. Nazarbayev said that the Kazakh language is the most important factor in the consolidation of the people of Kazakhstan. He therefore called on government and other state and local representative bodies fully develop the state language, to create all the necessary organizational, material and technical conditions for free and open learning the state language by all citizens of the Republic of Kazakhstan.

Keywords: Ethnos, ethno cultural processes, ethnolinguistic situation, mother tongue, bilingualism.

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59 1Malaysia: National Education Challenge and Nation Building

Authors: Mohd Ridhuan Tee Abdullah, Ong Hai Liaw, Wan Norhasniah Wan Husin

Abstract:

The main issue discussed is on the role of education system in the process of nation building as a means in uniting different community ethnics which later on, hoped to shape the future ethnic relation of this country. It is generally known that political socialization experienced by each ethnic community has given birth to a vernacular education system, separated along the ethnic line. Every community shapes their own education system based on their respective mother tongue language, however all are based on the same curriculum. As a result the role of education as a uniting force is not significantly effective. Historically, it has been shown that government efforts to unite the country education system under the wing of national education system (national school) is not that successful since every community (Chinese) will defend the existence of their community education system because they want to spur their mother tongue language. The clash between national education system and vernacular education system is the root cause of stalemate in the ethnic relation in Malaysia and it always becomes a flash point when the issue is raised. The question now is what is the best solution to enhance the national education system in multiethnic Malaysia?

Keywords: Political socialization, education, national unity, national school, vernacular school and 1Malaysia

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58 Identifying the Traditional Color Scheme in Decorative Patterns Used by the Bahnar Ethnic Group in the Central Highlands of Vietnam

Authors: Nguyen Viet Tan

Abstract:

The Bahnar is one of 11 indigenous groups living in the Central Highlands of Vietnam. It is one among the four most popular groups in this area, including the Mnong who speak the same language of Mon Khmer family, while both groups of the Jrai and the Rhade belong to the Malayo-Polynesian language family. These groups once captured fertile plateaus, left their cultural and artistic heritage which affected the remaining small groups. Despite the difference in ethnic origins, these groups seem to share similar beliefs, customs and related folk arts after a very long time living beside each other. However, through an in-depth study, this paper points out the fact that the decorative patterns used by the Bahnar are different from the other ethnic groups, especially in color. Based on historical materials from the local museums and some studies in 1980s when all of the ethnic groups in this area had still lived in self-sufficient condition, this paper characterizes the traditional color scheme used by the Bahnar and identifies the difference in decorative motifs of this group compared to the others by pointing out they do not use green in their usual decorative patterns. Moreover, combined with some field surveys recently, through comparative analysis, it also discovers stylistic variations of these patterns in the process of cultural exchange with the other ethnic groups, both in and out of the region, in modern living conditions. This study helps to preserve and promote the traditional values and cultural identity of the Bahnar people in the Central Highlands of Vietnam, avoiding the fusion of styles among groups during the cultural exchange.

Keywords: Bahnar ethic group, decorative patterns, the central highland of Vietnam, traditional color scheme.

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57 Kazakhstani Koreans- Conflict of Linguistic Identity: In–between the Sovietized and Kazakhstani Citizens

Authors: Soon-ok Myong, Byong-soon Chun

Abstract:

This paper intends to identify the ethnic Kazakhstani Koreans- political process of identity formation by exploring their narrative and practice about the state language represented in the course of their becoming the new citizens of a new independent state. The Russophone Kazakhstani Koreans- inability to speak the official language of their affiliated state is considered there as dissatisfying the basic requirement of citizens of the independent state, so that they are becoming marginalized from the public sphere. Their contradictory attitude that at once demonstrates nominal reception and practical rejection of the obligatory state language unveils a high barrier inside between their self-language and other-language. In this paper, the ethnic Korean group-s conflicting linguistic identity is not seen as a free and simple choice, but as a dynamic struggle and political process in which the subject-s past experiences and memories intersect with the external elements of pressure.

Keywords: Ethnic Kazakhstani Koreans, Soviet Korean's Russification, Linguistic Identity, Russian-Kazakh Dichotomy.

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56 Formation of Civic Identity in the Process of Globalization: The Example of the U.S.A. and Kazakhstan

Authors: Elnura Assyltayeva, Zhanar Aldubasheva, Zhengisbek Tolen

Abstract:

An attempt has been made several times to identify and discuss the U.S. experience on the formation of political nation in political science. The purpose of this research paper is to identify the main aspects of the formation of civic identity in the United States and Kazakhstan, through the identification of similarities and differences that can get practical application in making decisions of national policy issues in the context of globalization, as well as to answer the questions “What should unite the citizens of Kazakhstan to the nation?" and “What should be the dominant identity: civil or ethnic (national) one?" Can Kazakhstan being multiethnic country like America, adopt its experience in the formation of a civic nation? Since it is believed that the “multi-ethnic state of the population is a characteristic feature of most modern countries in the world," it states that “inter-ethnic integration is one of the most important aspects of the problem of forming a new social community (metaetnic - Kazakh people, Kazakh nation" [1].

Keywords: nation, civic identity, nation building, globalization, interethnic relations, patriotism

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55 Otherness of Roma in Inclusive Education of Roma Pupils in Slovakia

Authors: Bibiana Hlebova

Abstract:

The Slovak Republic is a democratic and plural society consisting of people differing in language and culture, and its citizens should already be well prepared for the coexistence of multiple nations, nationalities or ethnic groups. Reflection on culture, art and literature of the Roma minority has taken on a new dimension in Slovakia in the past two decades when it comes to social, cultural and arts integration of this ethnic group with the plural society. Non-Roma view Roma as a specific ethnic group with their own culture, language, customs and traditions, social norms and coexistence that has retained archetypal qualities of Roma identity (romipen) in their real lives as well as in the literary world. Roma characters in works of art are specific and distinguishable from other literary characters simply by being Roma, that is, of a different origin and social status, they represent a different way of life, a distinctive hierarchy of values. The portrayal of Roma and the life of Roma ethnic group in the most dominant genre of Roma literature for children and youth, a Roma fairy tale (paramisi), can work as a suitable means to learn about, accept and tolerate the otherness of Roma in the conditions of school inclusion of students coming from the Roma ethnic group, and to support their identification with their own ethnic group and its cultural traditions. The paper aims to point out not only the specific nature of Roma identity (romipen) through the selected Roma fairy tale (paramisa) – Children of the Sun, but also the diversity of its uses in the educational process within primary education of pupils at elementary schools, advocating the philosophy of inclusive education. Through the suggestions of multi-cultural, emotional, and language and communication education of pupils through the work with the selected Roma fairy tale (paramisa), the author is exploring ways to overcome the issues stemming from the coexistence of Roma and Non-Roma pupils, which are burdened with prejudice, intolerance, aggression and racism on both sides, in the education process.

Keywords: Inclusive education, otherness, Roma Pupils, Roma identity, Roma fairy tale.

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54 The Association between Food Security Status and Depression in Two Iranian Ethnic Groups Living in Northwest of Iran

Authors: A. Rezazadeh, N. Omidvar, H. Eini-Zinab

Abstract:

Food insecurity (FI) influences may result in poor physical and mental health outcomes. Minor ethnic group may experience higher level of FI, and this situation may be related with higher depression prevalence. The aim of this study was to determine the association of depression with food security status in major (Azeri) and minor (Kurdish) ethnicity living in Urmia, West Azerbaijan, north of Iran. In this cross-sectional study, 723 participants (427 women and 296 men) aged 20–64 years old, from two ethnic groups (445 Azeri and 278 Kurdish), were selected through a multi stage cluster systematic sampling. Depression rate was assessed by “Beck” short form questionnaire (validated in Iranians) through interviews. Household FI status (HFIS) was measured using adapted HFI access scale through face-to-face interviews at homes. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) of depression across HFIS. Higher percent of Kurds had moderate and severe depression in comparison with Azeri group (73 [17.3%] vs. 86 [27.9%]). There were not any significant differences between the two ethnicities in mild depression. Also, of all the subjects, moderate-to-sever FI was more prevalent in Kurds (28.5%), compared to Azeri group (17.3%) [P < 0.01]. Kurdish ethnic group living in food security or mild FI households had lower chance to have symptom of severe depression in comparison to those with sever FI (OR=0.097; 95% CI: 0.02-0.47). However, there was no significant association between depression and HFI in Azeri group. Findings revealed that the severity of HFI was related with severity depression in minor studied ethnic groups. However, in Azeri ethnicity as a major group, other confounders may have influence on the relation with depression and FI, that were not studied in the present study.

Keywords: Depression, ethnicity, food security status, Iran.

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53 The Affect of Ethnic Minority People: A Prediction by Gender and Marital Status

Authors: A. K. M. Rezaul Karim, Abu Yusuf Mahmud, S. H. Mahmud

Abstract:

The study aimed to investigate whether the affect (experience of feeling or emotion) of ethnic minority people can be predicted by gender and marital status. Toward this end, positive affect and negative affect of 103 adult indigenous persons were measured. Analysis of data in multiple regressions demonstrated that both gender and marital status are significantly associated with positive affect (Gender: β=.318, p<.001; Marital status: β=.201, p<.05), but not with negative affect. Results indicated that the indigenous males have 0.32 standard deviations increased positive affect as compared to the indigenous females and that married individuals have 0.20 standard deviations increased positive affect as compared to their unmarried counterparts. These findings advance our understanding that gender and marital status inequalities in the experience of emotion are not specific to the mainstream society; rather it is a generalized picture of all societies. In general, men possess more positive affect than females; married persons possess more positive affect than the unmarried persons.

Keywords: Positive Affect, Negative Affect, Ethnic Minority, Gender, Marital Status.

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52 Citizenship Norms and the Participation of Young Adults in a Democracy

Authors: Samsudin A. Rahim, Latiffah Pawanteh, Ali Salman

Abstract:

This paper explores the changing trend in citizenship norms among young citizens from various ethnic groups in Malaysia and the extent to which it influences the participation of young citizens in political and civil issues. Embedded in democratic constitutions are the rights and freedoms that accompany citizenship, and these rights and freedoms include participation. Participation in democracies should go beyond voting; it should include taking part in the governance process. The political process is not at risk even though politics does not work as it did in the past. A national sample of 1697 respondents between the ages of 21 and 40 years were interviewed in January 2011. The findings show that respondents embrace an engaged-citizenship norm more than they do the traditional duty-citizen norm. Among the ethnic groups, the Chinese show lower means in both citizenship norms compared with other ethnic groups, namely, the Malays and the Indians. The duty-citizen norm correlates higher with political participation than with civic participation. On the other hand, the engaged-citizen norm correlates higher with civic participation than with political participation.

Keywords: citizenship norms, political participation, civic participation, youths, globalization

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51 Is the Sense of Community towards Participation in Tourism Development among the Minorities in Multiracial Countries the Same?

Authors: Nur Shahirah Mior Sharifuddin, Mohd Salehuddin Mohd Zahari, Muaz Aizuddin, Mohd Hafiz Hanafiah

Abstract:

This paper investigates and compares the community support for tourism development between two groups of minority ethnic descendants in Malacca, Malaysia, namely the Baba-Nyonya and Portuguese. A descriptive research design using a quantitative method with self-reported and self-administered questionnaires through across-sectional approach was applied. Through the descriptive and inferential statistics, some significantly useful insights pertaining to the issue investigated were obtained. The research outcomes indicate that the sense of community is somewhat more effective in small communities in terms of togetherness, closeness and a sense of belonging compared to the slightly bigger minority group. In addition, the sense of community attributes through membership, influence, integration and shared emotional connections contributes to community participation in tourism development regardless of which ethnic group one belongs to.

Keywords: Participation, minority, tourism, development.

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50 Venice 17th Century: The Greek Ethnic Identity in Danger

Authors: T. Roussopoulos

Abstract:

At the end of the 17th Century the Greek orthodox Archbishop in Venice -Meletios Typaldos- decided to turn the doctrine of the orthodox Greeks into Catholicism. More than 5.000 Greeks were living in Venice then. Their leadership -the Greek confraternity- fought against Meletios. Participants in this conflict were the Pope, the ecumenical Patriarch in Constantinople and Peter the Great of Russia. All the play according to my opinion -which is followed by evidence and theoretical support is a strong conflict between the two actors -the Archbishop and the Confraternity- and the object of conflict is the change of the Greek orthodox beliefs to Catholicism. Ethnicity especially for Greeks of the era is identified with orthodoxy. So this was a conflict of identity. The results of that conflict were of tremendous importance to the Greeks in Venice and affected them for long.

Keywords: Greek ethnic identity, Meletios Typaldos, Confraternity, Venice Pope, Patriarch Constantinople Peter the Great Russia.

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49 Identity Politics of Former Soviet Koreans: One of the Most Prominent Heritages of the 1988 Seoul Olympics

Authors: Soon-ok Myong, B.G. Nurzhanov

Abstract:

This paper applies an anthropological approach to illuminate the dynamic cultural geography of Kazakhstani Korean ethnicity focusing on its turning point, the historic “Seoul Olympic Games in 1988." The Korean ethnic group was easily considered as a harmonious and homogeneous community by outsiders, but there existed deep-seated conflicts and hostilities within the ethnic group. The majority-s oppositional dichotomy of superiority and inferiority toward the minority was continuously reorganized and reinforced by difference in experience, memory and sentiment. However, such a chronic exclusive boundary was collapsed following the patriotism ignited by the Olympics held in their mother country. This paper explores the fluidity of subject by formation of the boundary in which constructed cultural differences are continuously essentialized and reproduced, and by dissolution of cultural barrier in certain contexts.

Keywords: Former Soviet Korean's Russianization, inferior/superior dichotomy, Seoul Olympic Games, subject's fluidity.

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48 Hair Mechanical Properties Depending on Age and Origin

Authors: Meriem Benzarti, Mohamed Ben Tkaya, Cyril Pailler Mattei, Hassan Zahouani

Abstract:

Hair is a non homogenous complex material which can be associated with a polymer. It is made up 95% of Keratin. Hair has a great social significance for human beings. In the High Middle Ages, for example, long hairs have been reserved for kings and nobles. Most common interest in hair is focused on hair growth, hair types and hair care, but hair is also an important biomaterial which can vary depending on ethnic origin or on age, hair colour for example can be a sign of ethnic ancestry or age (dark hair for Asiatic, blond hair for Caucasian and white hair for old people in general). In this context, different approaches have been conducted to determine the differences in mechanical properties and characterize the fracture topography at the surface of hair depending on its type and its age. A tensile testing machine was especially designed to achieve tensile tests on hair. This device is composed of a microdisplacement system and a force sensor whose peak load is limited to 3N. The curves and the values extracted from each experiment, allow us to compare the evolution of the mechanical properties from one hair to another. Observations with a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and with an interferometer were made on different hairs. Thus, it is possible to access the cuticle state and the fracture topography for each category.

Keywords: Hair, relaxation test, SEM, interferometer, mechanical properties.

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47 Reviewing the Relation of Language and Minorities' Rights

Authors: Mohsen Davarzani, Ehsan Lame, Mohammad Taghi Hassan Zadeh

Abstract:

Language is considered as a powerful and outstanding feature of ethnicity. However, humiliating and prohibiting using human language is one the most heinous and brutal acts in the form of racism. In other words, racism can be a product of physiological humiliations and discrimination, such as skin color, and can also be resulted from ethnic humiliation and discrimination such as language, customs and so on. Ethnic and racial discrimination is one of the main problems of the world that minorities and occasionally the majority have suffered from. Nowadays, few states can be found in which all individuals and its citizens are of the same race and ethnicity, culture and language. In these countries, referred to as the multinational states, (eg, Iran, Switzerland, India, etc.), there are the communities and groups which have their own linguistic, cultural and historical characteristics. Characteristics of human rights issues, diversity of issues and plurality of meanings indicate that they appear in various aspects. The states are obliged to respect, as per national and international obligations, the rights of all citizens from different angles, especially different groups that require special attention in order of the particular aspects such as ethnicity, religious and political minorities, children, women, workers, unions and in case the states are in breach of any of these items, they are faced with challenges in local, regional or international fields.

Keywords: Law, language, minorities, ethnicity.

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46 Interethnic and Interconfessional Agreements are Major Factors of the Political Stability in the Republic of Kazakhstan

Authors: Zhengisbek Tolen, Kubash Mengdigali, Dinara Akbolat, Elnura Assyltaeva, Aliya Alimzhanova

Abstract:

In the article the historical formation of interethnic and interconfessional agreement policy in Kazakhstan and their developing features at present time will be analyzed. The successfully pursued by Kazakhstan at the present in the direction of ethnic and confessional policy is regarded as a major factor in promoting stability for the country.

Keywords: Political stability, interethnic relationship, interconfessional agreement, tolerance.

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45 Contemporary Anti-Gypsyism in European Mass Media

Authors: E. Di Giovanni

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the contemporary phenomenon of Anti-Gypsyism which diffused widely throughout social representations of the so called “Gypsies”. In Europe and especially in Italy, the media tends to reproduce racist stereotypes and prejudices through a xenophobic depiction of this ethnic group, often offering an ethnocentric point of view. From an anthropological perspective, Roma people are a minority group facing diasporic phenomena across Europe, produced by the host societies.

Keywords: Roma people, Anty-Gypsyism, Ethnocentrism, Mass Media.

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44 Turkey in Minds: Cognitive and Social Representations of "East" and "West"

Authors: Feyzan Tuzkaya, Nihan S. Soylu, Çağlar Solak, Hilal Peker, Mehmet Peker, Kemal Özeralp, Ceren Mete, Ezgi Mehmetoğlu, Mehmet Karasu, Cihan Elçi, Ece Akca, Melek Göregenli

Abstract:

Perception, evaluation and representation of the environment have been the subject of many disciplines including psychology, geography and architecture. In environmental and social psychology literature there are several evidences which suggest that cognitive representations about a place consisted of not only geographic items but also social and cultural. Mental representations of residence area or a country are influenced and determined by social-demographics, the physical and social context. Thus, all mental representations of a given place are also social representations. Cognitive maps are the main and common instruments that are used to identify spatial images and the difference between physical and subjective environments. The aim of the current study is investigating the mental and social representations of Turkey in university students’ minds. Data was collected from 249 university students from different departments (i.e. psychology, geography, history, tourism departments) of Ege University. Participants were requested to reflect Turkey in their mind onto the paper drawing sketch maps. According to the results, cognitive maps showed geographic aspects of Turkey as well as the context of symbolic, cultural and political reality of Turkey. That is to say, these maps had many symbolic and verbal items related to critics on social and cultural problems, ongoing ethnic and political conflicts, and actual political agenda of Turkey. Additionally, one of main differentiations in these representations appeared in terms of the East and West side of the Turkey, and the representations of the East and West was varied correspondingly participants’ cultural background, their ethnic values, and where they have born. The results of the study were discussed in environmental and social psychological perspective considering cultural and social values of Turkey and current political circumstances of the country.

Keywords: Cognitive maps, East and West, politics, social representations, Turkey.

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43 Cross-cultural Analysis of the Strategy of Tolerance in the Republic of Kazakhstan

Authors: N. K. Satybaldina, A. G. Karabayeva, Z. N. Ismagambetova

Abstract:

The modern Kazakh society is characterized by strengthen cross-cultural communication, the emergence of new powerful subcultures, accelerated change in social systems and values. The socio-political reforms in all fields have changed the quality of social relationships and spiritual life.Cross-cultural approach involves the analysis of different types of behavior and communication, including the manifestation of the conflict, and the formation of marginal destructive stereotypes.

Keywords: Attitudes, Ethnic, Communication, Cross-cultural, Multiethnic, Multicultural, Society, Stereotype, Strategy, Tolerance

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