Commenced in January 2007
Paper Count: 30127
Turkey in Minds: Cognitive and Social Representations of "East" and "West"
Abstract:Perception, evaluation and representation of the environment have been the subject of many disciplines including psychology, geography and architecture. In environmental and social psychology literature there are several evidences which suggest that cognitive representations about a place consisted of not only geographic items but also social and cultural. Mental representations of residence area or a country are influenced and determined by social-demographics, the physical and social context. Thus, all mental representations of a given place are also social representations. Cognitive maps are the main and common instruments that are used to identify spatial images and the difference between physical and subjective environments. The aim of the current study is investigating the mental and social representations of Turkey in university students’ minds. Data was collected from 249 university students from different departments (i.e. psychology, geography, history, tourism departments) of Ege University. Participants were requested to reflect Turkey in their mind onto the paper drawing sketch maps. According to the results, cognitive maps showed geographic aspects of Turkey as well as the context of symbolic, cultural and political reality of Turkey. That is to say, these maps had many symbolic and verbal items related to critics on social and cultural problems, ongoing ethnic and political conflicts, and actual political agenda of Turkey. Additionally, one of main differentiations in these representations appeared in terms of the East and West side of the Turkey, and the representations of the East and West was varied correspondingly participants’ cultural background, their ethnic values, and where they have born. The results of the study were discussed in environmental and social psychological perspective considering cultural and social values of Turkey and current political circumstances of the country.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1107519Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1740
 S. Milgram, J. Greenwald, S. Kessler, W. McKenna, and J. Waters. “A psychological map of New York City,” American Scientists, vol. 60, pp. 194-204, 1972.
 M. Göregenli. Çevre Psikolojisi: İnsan-Mekan İlişkileri. Istanbul: Bilgi University Press, 2010.
 S. Milgram and D. Jodelet. “Psychological maps of Paris,” in Environmental psychology: People and their physical settings, H.M. Proshansky, W.H. Ittelson & L.G. Rivlin, Eds., New York: Holt Rinehart & Winston, pp. 104-124, 1976.
 C. Andressen. “Mental maps of Asia: The geographical knowledge of Australian university students,” Asian Studies Review, vol. 21, pp. 115- 130, 1997.
 M. Yeğen. “Prospective-Turks" or "Pseudo-Citizens" Kurds in Turkey,” The Middle East Journal, vol. 63, pp. 597-615, 2009.
 D. Kurban, D. Yukseker, A. B. Celik, T. Unalan, and A. T. Aker. “Introduction to the Turkish Edition,” in Coming to Terms With Forced Migration: Post-Displacement Restitution of Citizenship Rights in Turkey, D. Kurban, D. Yukseker, A. B. Celik, T. Unalan & A. T. Aker, Eds., Istanbul: TESEV publications, pp. 21-27, 2007.
 Turkish Economic and Social Studies Foundation (TESEV). A roadmap for a solution to the Kurdish Question: Policy proposals from the region for the government.Istanbul: TESEV Publications, p. 11, 2008.
 R. Cohen. “Foreword to the English edition,” in Coming to Terms With Forced Migration: Post-Displacement Restitution of Citizenship Rights in Turkey, D. Kurban, D. Yukseker, A. B. Celik, T. Unalan, and A. T. Aker, Eds., Istanbul: TESEV publications, pp. 1-5, 2007.
 M. Göregenli. “Psikolojinin Kürt sorunuyla imtihanı,” Eleştirel Psikoloji Bülteni 3-4, pp. 3-11, 2010.
 H. Pope. “Turkey and the democratic opening for the Kurds,” in Understanding Turkey’s Kurdish Question, F. Bilgin & A. Sarıhan, Eds., Lexington Books:UK, pp. 117-140, 2013.
 Supreme Electoral Council of Turkey. “Archive of general elections of Turkey,” (Online), Available http://www.ysk.gov.tr/ysk/faces/GenelSecimler?_afrLoop=7851470143 63920&_afr WindowMode=0&_afrWindowId=19vmii0okj_28#%40%3F_afrWindo wId%3D19vmii0okj_28%26_afrLoop%3D785147014363920%26_afrW indowMode%3D0%26_adf.ctrl-state%3D19vmii0okj_40 (Accessed: Mar. 15, 2015).
 C. Boyraz and Ö. Turan. “Silent violence: Neoliberalism, Islamist politics and the AKP years in Turkey,” Turkish Studies, vol. 14, pp. 186- 192, 2013.
 Amnesty International USA."Gezi Park Protests ,” (Online), Available https://www.amnestyusa.org/sites/default/files/eur440222013en.pdf (Accessed: Apr. 05, 2015).
 I. Sudas and C. Gokten. “Cognitive maps of Europe: Geographical knowledge of Turkish geography students,” European Journal of Geography, vol. 3, pp. 41-56, 2012.
 A. Medzini. “The war of the maps: The political use of maps and atlases to shape national consciousness – Israel versus the Palestinian authority,” European Journal of Geography, vol. 3, pp. 23-40, 2012.
 N. Collins-Kreiner, Y. Mansfeld, and N. Kliot. “The reflection of a political conflict in mapping: The case of Israel's borders and frontiers,” Middle Eastern Studies, vol. 42, pp. 381-408, 2006.
 H. Heft. “Environment, cognition, and culture: Reconsidering the cognitive map,” Journal of Environmental Psychology, vol. 33, pp. 14- 25, 2013.
 I. Sudas and M. Göregenli. “Türkiye’nin Modernleşme Macerasında Üniversite Öğrencilerinin Avrupa Temsilleri,” presented at the Ege University 12th International Cultural Studies Symposium: Redefining Modernism & Postmodernism,Izmir, Turkey, 2009.
 A. Karadag and H. Turut. “Üniversite öğrencilerinin kentsel çevre algısı üzerine bir araştırma: İzmir örneği,” Coğrafi Bilimler Dergisi, vol. 11, pp. 31-51, 2013.
 S. Moscovici and I. Markova. “Presenting social representation: A conversation,” Culture & Psychology, vol. 4, pp. 371-410, 1998.
 F. G. Cirhinoğlu, V. Aktas, and B. Öner Özkan. “Sosyal temsil kuramına genel bir bakış,”C.Ü. Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, vol. 30, pp. 163-174, 2006.
 B. Öner. “Sosyal temsiller,” Kriz Dergisi, vol. 10, pp. 29-35, 2002.
 N. Bilgin. “Sosyal Temsiller Açısından Ermeni Soykırım İddiaları ve Tarihin İnşası,” presented at the Turkey Armenian Researches Congress, Ankara, 2002.
 S. Moscovici. “Foreword,” in Health and Illness: A Social Psychological Analysis, C. Herzlich, Ed., London: Academic Press, pp. x-xiv, 1973.
 B. Höijer. “Social representations theory: A new theory for media research,” Nordicom Review, vol. 32, pp. 3-16, 2011.
 I. Sudas and M. Göregenli. “Europe in mind: Social representations of Turkey-Europe relations in case of Turkish university students,” European Journal of Geography, vol. 4, pp. 36-47, 2013.
 R. M. Farr. “Social Representations: Their role in the design and execution of laboratory experiments,” in Social Representations, R.M. Farr and S. Moscovici, Eds., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp.125-147, 1984.
 J. Potter. “Discourse analysis and constructionist approaches: Theoretical background,” in Handbook of Qualitative Research Methods for Psychology and the Social Sciences, J. T. E. Richardson, Ed., Leicester: British Psychological Society, pp.125-140, 1996.
 J. Potter. “Discourse analysis as a way of analyzing naturally occurring talk,” in Qualitative research: Theory, method and practice, D. Silverman, Ed., London: Sage, pp. 144-160, 1997.
 C. Hardy, B. Harley, and N. Phillips. “Discourse analysis and content analysis: Two solitudes?” Qualitative methods, vol. 2, pp. 19-22, 2004.
 M. Göregenli. “Kentsel Alanların Algılanması ve Kentsel İmajlar,” M. S. thesis, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey, 1985.
 S. Moscovici. “The phenomenon of social representations,” in Social Representations, R. M. Farr and S. Moscovici, Eds., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 1-35, 1984.
 N. Bilgin. Sosyal psikoloji, 6sted. Izmir: Ege University Press, 2014.
 Ç. Kağıtçıbaşı and J. W. Berry. “Cross-cultural psychology: Current research and trends,” Annual Review of Psychology, vol. 40, pp. 493- 531, 1989.
 M. Göregenli. “Kültürümüz açısından bireycilik-toplulukçuluk eğilimleri: Bir başlangıç çalışması,” Türk Psikoloji Dergisi, vol. 10, pp. 1-14, 1994.
 H. C. Triandis. Individualism & collectivism. USA: Western Press, 1995.
 N. Bilgin. Sosyal psikoloji sözlüğü. Istanbul: Bağlam Yayıncılık, 2003.
 H. Yavuz. “Batılılaşma değil, oryantalistleşme,” Doğu Batı, vol. 1, pp. 100-103, 1998.