Commenced in January 2007
Paper Count: 30318
The Effect of Parents' Ethnic Socialization Practices on Ethnic Identity, Self-Esteem and Psychological Adjustment of Multi Ethnic Children in Malaysia
Abstract:The present study aims to explore the role of parents' ethnic socialization practices contributes to the ethnic identity development, self-esteem and psychological adjustment of multi ethnic children in Sabah, Malaysia. A total of 342 multi ethnic children (age range = 10 years old to 14 years old; mean age = 12.65 years, SD = 0.88) and their parents participated in the present study. The modified version of Multi group Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM), The Familial Ethnic Socialization Measure (FESM). The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE) and Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale Edition 2 (BERS-2) were used in this study. The results showed that: i) parents' ethnic socialization practice was a strong predictor of ethnic identity development of multi ethnic children; ii) parents' ethnic socialization practice also was a significant predictor of self-esteem of multi ethnic children; iii) parents' ethnic socialization practice was not a significant predictor of psychological adjustment of multi ethnic children. The results of this study showed the implications parents' ethnic socialization practices and ethnic identity development in successful multi ethnic families.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1061501Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1651
 Hughes, D., Rodriquez, J., Smith, E. P., Johnson, D. J., Stevenson, H. C., & Spicer, P. (2006). Parents- ethnic-racial socialization practices: A review of research and directions for future study. Developmental Psychology, 42, 5, 747-770.
 Umana-Taylor, A. J. (2004). Ethnic identity and self-esteem: Examining the role of social context. Journal of Adolescence, 27, 139-146.
 Uma├▒a-Taylor, A.J., Bhanot, R., & Shin, N. (2006). Ethnic identity formation during adolescence. The critical role of families. Journal of Family Issues, 27, 390-414.
 Fuligni, A., Hughes, D., & Way, N. (2009). Ethnicity and immigration. In R. M. Lerner & L. Steinberg (Eds.), Handbook of adolescent psychology, contextual influences on adolescent development (3rd ed., Vol. 2). New Jersey: Wiley. (in press).
 Phinney, J., Cantu, C., & Kurtz, D. (1997). Ethnic and American identity as predictors of self-esteem among African American, Latino, and While adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 26, 165-185.
 Phinney, J. S. (1992). The multi-group ethnic identity measure: A new scale for diverse groups. Journal of Adolescent Research, 7(2), 156-176.
 Kiang, L., Yip, T., Gonzales-Backen, M., Witkow, M., & Fuligni, A. J. (2006). Ethnic identity and the daily psychological well-being of adolescents from Mexican and Chinese backgrounds. Child Development, 77, 1338-1350.
 Lee, R. M.,& Yoo, H. C. (2004). Structure and measurement of ethnic identity for Asian American college students. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 51, 263-269.
 Herring, P. D. (1992) Biracial children: An increasing concern for elementary and middle school counselors. Elementary School Guidance and Counseling, 27, 123-130.
 Bowles, D.D. (1993). Bi-racial identity: Children born to African American and white couples. Clinical Social Work Journal, 21(4), 417- 428.
 Gibbs, J. T. (1987). Identity and Marginauty: Issues in the Treatment of Biracial Adolescents. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 57(2), 265- 278.
 Poston, W. S.C. (1990). The biracial identity model: A needed addition. Journal of Counseling and Development, 69, 152-155.
 Cruz-Janzen, M. (1997). Curriculum and the ethnic and racial selfconcept of bi-ethnic and bi-racial persons. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Denver, University of Denver.
 Daniel, G.R. (1996). Black and white identity in the new millennium. In M.P.P. Root (Ed), The multi-racial experience. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
 Morrison, J.W. and Rodgers, L.S. (1996). Being responsive to the needs of children from dual heritage backgrounds. Young Children, 52(1), 29- 33.
 Roberts, R., Phinney, J., Masse, L., Chen, Y., Roberts, C., & Romero, A. (1999). The structure of ethnic identity in young adolescents from diverse ethnocultural groups. Journal of Early Adolescence, 19(3), 301- 322.
 Umana-Taylor, A.J. & Fine, M.A. (2001). Methodological implications of grouping Latino adolescents into one collective ethnic group. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 23, 347-362.
 Epstein, M. H., & Sharma, J. M. (1998). Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale, a Strength-Based Approach to Assessment: Examiner-s Manual. Texas: PRO-ED.
 Spencer, M. B. (1988). African American adolescents: Adaptational processes and socioeconomic diversity in behavioral outcomes. Journal of Adolescence, 11, 117-137. doi:10.1016/S0140-1971 (88)80048-4.