Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1837

Search results for: Distribution substation

1837 Application of Neuro-Fuzzy Dynamic Programming to Improve the Reactive Power and Voltage Profile of a Distribution Substation

Authors: M. Tarafdar Haque, S. Najafi

Abstract:

Improving the reactive power and voltage profile of a distribution substation is investigated in this paper. The purpose is to properly determination of the shunt capacitors on/off status and suitable tap changer (TC) position of a substation transformer. In addition, the limitation of secondary bus voltage, the maximum allowable number of switching operation in a day for on load tap changer and on/off status of capacitors are taken into account. To achieve these goals, an artificial neural network (ANN) is designed to provide preliminary scheduling. Input of ANN is active and reactive powers of transformer and its primary and secondary bus voltages. The output of ANN is capacitors on/off status and TC position. The preliminary schedule is further refined by fuzzy dynamic programming in order to reach the final schedule. The operation of proposed method in Q/V improving is compared with the results obtained by operator operation in a distribution substation.

Keywords: Neuro-fuzzy, Dynamic programming, Reactive power, Voltage profile.

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1836 Safety Compliance of Substation Earthing Design

Authors: A. Hellany, M.Nagrial, M. Nassereddine, J. Rizk

Abstract:

As new challenges emerge in power electrical workplace safety, it is the responsibility of the systems designer to seek out new approaches and solutions that address them. Design decisions made today will impact cost, safety and serviceability of the installed systems for 40 or 50 years during the useful life for the owner. Studies have shown that this cost is an order of magnitude of 7 to 10 times the installed cost of the power distribution equipment. This paper reviews some aspects of earthing system design in power substation surrounded by residential houses. The electrical potential rise and split factors are discussed and a few recommendations are provided to achieve a safety voltage in the area beyond the boundary of the substation.

Keywords: EPR, Split Factor, Earthing Design

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1835 Optimal Analysis of Grounding System Design for Distribution Substation

Authors: T. Lantharthong, N. Rugthaicharoencheep, A. Phayomhom

Abstract:

This paper presents the electrical effect of two neighboring distribution substation during the construction phase. The size of auxiliary grounding grid have an effect on entire grounding system. The bigger the size of auxiliary grounding grid, the lower the GPR and maximum touch voltage, with the exception that when the two grids are unconnected, i.e. the bigger the size of auxiliary grounding grid, the higher the maximum step voltage. The results in this paper could be served as design guideline of grounding system, and perhaps remedy of some troublesome grounding grids in power distribution’s system. Modeling and simulation is carried out on the Current Distribution Electromagnetic interference Grounding and Soil structure (CDEGS) program. The simulation results exhibit the design and analysis of power system grounding and perhaps could be set as a standard in grounding system design and modification in distribution substations.

Keywords: Grounding System, Touch Voltage, Step Voltage, Safety Criteria.

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1834 Power Frequency Magnetic Field Survey in Indoor Power Distribution Substation in Egypt

Authors: Ahmed Hossam_ ElDin, Ahmed Farag, Ibrahim Madi., Hanaa Karawia

Abstract:

In our modern society electricity is vital to our health, safety, comfort and well-being. While our daily use of electricity is often taken for granted, public concern has arisen about potential adverse health effects from electric and magnetic – electromagnetic – fields (EMFs) produced by our use of electricity. This paper aims to compare between the measured magnetic field values and the simulated models for the indoor medium to low voltage (MV/LV) distribution substations. To calculate the magnetic flux density in the substations, interactive software SUBCALC is used which is based on closed form solution of the Biot-Savart law with 3D conductor model. The comparison between the measured values and the simulated models was acceptable. However there were some discrepancies, as expected, may be due to the current variation during measurements.

Keywords: Distribution substation, magnetic field, measurement, simulation.

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1833 Optimal Design of Substation Grounding Grid Based on Genetic Algorithm Technique

Authors: Ahmed Z. Gabr, Ahmed A. Helal, Hussein E. Said

Abstract:

With the incessant increase of power systems capacity and voltage grade, the safety of grounding grid becomes more and more prominent. In this paper, the designing substation grounding grid is presented by means of genetic algorithm (GA). This approach purposes to control the grounding cost of the power system with the aid of controlling grounding rod number and conductor lengths under the same safety limitations. The proposed technique is used for the design of the substation grounding grid in Khalda Petroleum Company “El-Qasr” power plant and the design was simulated by using CYMGRD software for results verification. The result of the design is highly complying with IEEE 80-2000 standard requirements.

Keywords: Genetic algorithm, optimum grounding grid design, power system analysis, power system protection, single layer model, substation.

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1832 Effect of Distributed Generators on the Optimal Operation of Distribution Networks

Authors: J. Olamaei , T. Niknam, M. Nayeripour

Abstract:

This paper presents an approach for daily optimal operation of distribution networks considering Distributed Generators (DGs). Due to private ownership of DGs, a cost based compensation method is used to encourage DGs in active and reactive power generation. The objective function is summation of electrical energy generated by DGs and substation bus (main bus) in the next day. A genetic algorithm is used to solve the optimal operation problem. The approach is tested on an IEEE34 buses distribution feeder.

Keywords: Distributed Generator, Daily Optimal Operation, Genetic Algorithm.

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1831 Impact of Harmonic Resonance and V-THD in Sohar Industrial Port–C Substation

Authors: R. S. Al Abri, M. H. Albadi, M. H. Al Abri, U. K. Al Rasbi, M. H. Al Hasni, S. M. Al Shidi

Abstract:

This paper presents an analysis study on the impacts of the changes of the capacitor banks, the loss of a transformer, and the installation of distributed generation on the voltage total harmonic distortion and harmonic resonance. The study is applied in a real system in Oman, Sohar Industrial Port–C Substation Network. Frequency scan method and Fourier series analysis method are used with the help of EDSA software. Moreover, the results are compared with limits specified by national Oman distribution code.

Keywords: Power quality, capacitor bank, voltage total harmonics distortion, harmonic resonance, frequency scan.

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1830 Interoperability and Performance Analysis of IEC61850 Based Substation Protection System

Authors: Ming-Ta Yang, Jyh-Cherng Gu, Po-Chun Lin, Yen-Lin Huang, Chun-Wei Huang, Jin-Lung Guan

Abstract:

Since IEC61850 substation communication standard represents the trend to develop new generations of Substation Automation System (SAS), many IED manufacturers pursue this technique and apply for KEMA. In order to put on the market to meet customer demand as fast as possible, manufacturers often apply their products only for basic environment standard certification but claim to conform to IEC61850 certification. Since verification institutes generally perform verification tests only on specific IEDs of the manufacturers, the interoperability between all certified IEDs cannot be guaranteed. Therefore the interoperability between IEDs from different manufacturers needs to be tested. Based upon the above reasons, this study applies the definitions of the information models, communication service, GOOSE functionality and Substation Configuration Language (SCL) of the IEC61850 to build the concept of communication protocols, and build the test environment. The procedures of the test of the data collection and exchange of the P2P communication mode and Client / Server communication mode in IEC61850 are outlined as follows. First, test the IED GOOSE messages communication capability from different manufacturers. Second, collect IED data from each IED with SCADA system and use HMI to display the SCADA platform. Finally, problems generally encountered in the test procedure are summarized.

Keywords: GOOSE, IEC61850, IED, SCADA.

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1829 Using Game Engines in Lightning Shielding: The Application of the Rolling Spheres Method on Virtual As-Built Power Substations

Authors: Yuri A. Gruber, Matheus Rosendo, Ulisses G. A. Casemiro, Klaus de Geus, Rafael T. Bee

Abstract:

Lightning strikes can cause severe negative impacts to the electrical sector causing direct damage to equipment as well as shutdowns, especially when occurring in power substations. In order to mitigate this problem, a meticulous planning of the power substation protection system is of vital importance. A critical part of this is the distribution of shielding wires through the substation, which creates a 3D imaginary protection mesh similar to a circus tarpaulin. Equipment enclosed in the volume defined by that 3D mesh is considered protected against lightning strikes. The use of traditional methods of longitudinal cutting analysis based on 2D CAD tools makes the process laborious and the results obtained may not guarantee satisfactory protection of electrical equipment. This work describes the application of a Game Engine to the problem of lightning protection of power substations providing the visualization of the 3D protection mesh, the amount of protected components and the highlight of equipment which remain unprotected. In addition, aspects regarding the implementation and the advantages of approaching the problem using Unreal® Engine 4 are described. In order to validate results, a comparison with traditional 2D methods is applied to the same case study to which the proposed technique has been applied. Finally, a comparative study involving different levels of protection using the technique developed in this work is presented, showing that modern game engines can be a powerful accessory for simulations in several areas of engineering.

Keywords: Game engine, rolling spheres method, substation protection, UE4, Unreal® Engine 4.

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1828 A Novel Method to Evaluate Line Loadability for Distribution Systems with Realistic Loads

Authors: K. Nagaraju, S. Sivanagaraju, T. Ramana, V. Ganesh

Abstract:

This paper presents a simple method for estimation of additional load as a factor of the existing load that may be drawn before reaching the point of line maximum loadability of radial distribution system (RDS) with different realistic load models at different substation voltages. The proposed method involves a simple line loadability index (LLI) that gives a measure of the proximity of the present state of a line in the distribution system. The LLI can use to assess voltage instability and the line loading margin. The proposed method also compares with the existing method of maximum loadability index [10]. The simulation results show that the LLI can identify not only the weakest line/branch causing system instability but also the system voltage collapse point when it is near one. This feature enables us to set an index threshold to monitor and predict system stability on-line so that a proper action can be taken to prevent the system from collapse. To demonstrate the validity of the proposed algorithm, computer simulations are carried out on two bus and 69 bus RDS.

Keywords: line loadability index, line loading margin, maximum line loadability, system stability, radial distribution system

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1827 Role of GIS in Distribution Power Systems

Authors: N. Rezaee, M Nayeripour, A. Roosta, T. Niknam

Abstract:

With the prevalence of computer and development of information technology, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have long used for a variety of applications in electrical engineering. GIS are designed to support the analysis, management, manipulation and mapping of spatial data. This paper presents several usages of GIS in power utilities such as automated route selection for the construction of new power lines which uses a dynamic programming model for route optimization, load forecasting and optimizing planning of substation-s location and capacity with comprehensive algorithm which involves an accurate small-area electric load forecasting procedure and simulates the different cost functions of substations.

Keywords: Geographic information systems (GIS), optimallocation and capacity, power distribution planning, route selection, spatial load forecasting.

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1826 Lightning Protection Systems Design for Substations by Using Masts and Matlab

Authors: Le Viet Dung, K. Petcharaks

Abstract:

The economical criterion is accounted as the objective function to develop a computer program for designing lightning protection systems for substations by using masts and Matlab in this work. Masts are needed to be placed at desired locations; the program will then show mast heights whose sum is the smallest, i.e. satisfies the economical criterion. The program is helpful for engineers to quickly design a lightning protection system for a substation. To realize this work, methodology and limited conditions of the program, as well as an example of the program result, were described in this paper.

Keywords: lightning, protection, substation, computer.

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1825 Reduction of Power Losses in Distribution Systems

Authors: Y. Al-Mahroqi, I.A. Metwally, A. Al-Hinai, A. Al-Badi

Abstract:

Losses reduction initiatives in distribution systems have been activated due to the increasing cost of supplying electricity, the shortage in fuel with ever-increasing cost to produce more power, and the global warming concerns. These initiatives have been introduced to the utilities in shape of incentives and penalties. Recently, the electricity distribution companies in Oman have been incentivized to reduce the distribution technical and non-technical losses with an equal annual reduction rate for 6 years. In this paper, different techniques for losses reduction in Mazoon Electricity Company (MZEC) are addressed. In this company, high numbers of substation and feeders were found to be non-compliant with the Distribution System Security Standard (DSSS). Therefore, 33 projects have been suggested to bring non-complying 29 substations and 28 feeders to meet the planed criteria and to comply with the DSSS. The largest part of MZEC-s network (South Batinah region) was modeled by ETAP software package. The model has been extended to implement the proposed projects and to examine their effects on losses reduction. Simulation results have shown that the implementation of these projects leads to a significant improvement in voltage profile, and reduction in the active and the reactive power losses. Finally, the economical analysis has revealed that the implementation of the proposed projects in MZEC leads to an annual saving of about US$ 5 million.

Keywords: Losses Reduction, Technical Losses, Non-Technical Losses, Cost Analysis

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1824 Earth Grid Safety Consideration: Civil Upgrade Works for an Energised Substation

Authors: M. Nassereddine, A. Hellany, M. Nagrial, J. Rizk

Abstract:

The demand on High voltage (HV) infrastructures is growing due to the corresponding growth in industries and population. Many areas are being developed and therefore require additional electrical power to comply with the demand. Substation upgrade is one of the rapid solutions to ensure the continuous supply of power to customers. This upgrade requires civil modifications to structures and fences. The civil work requires excavation and steel works that may create unsafe touch conditions. This paper presents a brief theoretical overview of the touch voltage inside and around substations and uses CDEGS software to simulate a case study.

Keywords: Earth safety, High Voltage, AC interference, Earthing Design.

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1823 Investigation and Congestion Management to Solvethe Over-Load Problem of Shiraz Substation in FREC

Authors: M Nayeripour, E. Azad, A. Roosta, T. Niknam

Abstract:

In this paper, the transformers over-load problem of Shiraz substation in Fars Regional Electric Company (FREC) is investigated for a period of three years plan. So the suggestions for using phase shifting transformer (PST) and unified power flow controller (UPFC) in order to solve this problem are examined in details and finally, some economical and practical designs will be given in order to solve the related problems. Practical consideration and using the basic and fundamental concept of powers in transmission lines in order to find the economical design are the main advantages of this research. The simulation results of the integrated overall system with different designs compare them base on economical and practical aspects to solve the over-load and loss-reduction.

Keywords: Congestion management, Phase shifting transformer(PST), Unified power flow controller (UPFC), Transmission lines.

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1822 Loss Analysis by Loading Conditions of Distribution Transformers

Authors: A. Bozkurt, C. Kocatepe, R. Yumurtaci, İ. C. Tastan, G. Tulun

Abstract:

Efficient use of energy, the increase in demand of energy and also with the reduction of natural energy sources, has improved its importance in recent years. Most of the losses in the system from electricity produced until the point of consumption is mostly composed by the energy distribution system. In this study, analysis of the resulting loss in power distribution transformer and distribution power cable is realized which are most of the losses in the distribution system. Transformer losses in the real distribution system are analyzed by CYME Power Engineering Software program. These losses are disclosed for different voltage levels and different loading conditions.

Keywords: Distribution system, distribution transformer, power cable, technical losses.

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1821 Reliability Evaluation of Distribution System Considering Distributed Generation

Authors: Raju Kaduru, Narsaiah Srinivas Gondlala

Abstract:

This paper presents an analytical approach for evaluating distribution system reliability indices in the presence of distributed generation. Modeling distributed generation and evaluation of distribution system reliability indices using the frequency duration technique. Using model implements and case studies are discussed. Results showed that location of DG and its effect in distribution reliability indices. In this respect, impact of DG on distribution system is investigated using the IEEE Roy Billinton test system (RBTS2) included feeder 1. Therefore, it will help to the distribution system planners in the DG resource placement.

Keywords: Distributed Generation, DG Location, Distribution System, Reliability Indices.

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1820 Exponentiated Transmuted Weibull Distribution A Generalization of the Weibull Distribution

Authors: Abd El Hady N. Ebraheim

Abstract:

This paper introduces a new generalization of the two parameter Weibull distribution. To this end, the quadratic rank transmutation map has been used. This new distribution is named exponentiated transmuted Weibull (ETW) distribution. The ETW distribution has the advantage of being capable of modeling various shapes of aging and failure criteria. Furthermore, eleven lifetime distributions such as the Weibull, exponentiated Weibull, Rayleigh and exponential distributions, among others follow as special cases. The properties of the new model are discussed and the maximum likelihood estimation is used to estimate the parameters. Explicit expressions are derived for the quantiles. The moments of the distribution are derived, and the order statistics are examined.

Keywords: Exponentiated, Inversion Method, Maximum Likelihood Estimation, Transmutation Map.

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1819 Efficient Design of Distribution Logistics by Using a Model-Based Decision Support System

Authors: J. Becker, R. Arnold

Abstract:

The design of distribution logistics has a decisive impact on a company's logistics costs and performance. Hence, such solutions make an essential contribution to corporate success. This article describes a decision support system for analyzing the potential of distribution logistics in terms of logistics costs and performance. In contrast to previous procedures of business process re-engineering (BPR), this method maps distribution logistics holistically under variable distribution structures. Combined with qualitative measures the decision support system will contribute to a more efficient design of distribution logistics.

Keywords: Decision support system distribution logistics, potential analyses, supply chain management.

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1818 Design of Distribution Network for Gas Cylinders in Jordan

Authors: Hazem J. Smadi

Abstract:

Performance of a supply chain is directly related to a distribution network that entails the location of storing materials or products and how products are delivered to the end customer through different stages in the supply chain. This study analyses the current distribution network used for delivering gas cylinders to end customer in Jordan. Evaluation of current distribution has been conducted across customer service components. A modification on the current distribution network in terms of central warehousing in each city in the country improves the response time and customer experience. 

Keywords: Distribution network, gas cylinder, Jordan, supply chain.

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1817 A New Distribution and Application on the Lifetime Data

Authors: Gamze Ozel, Selen Cakmakyapan

Abstract:

We introduce a new model called the Marshall-Olkin Rayleigh distribution which extends the Rayleigh distribution using Marshall-Olkin transformation and has increasing and decreasing shapes for the hazard rate function. Various structural properties of the new distribution are derived including explicit expressions for the moments, generating and quantile function, some entropy measures, and order statistics are presented. The model parameters are estimated by the method of maximum likelihood and the observed information matrix is determined. The potentiality of the new model is illustrated by means of a simulation study. 

Keywords: Marshall-Olkin distribution, Rayleigh distribution, estimation, maximum likelihood.

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1816 The Calculation of Electromagnetic Fields (EMF) in Substations of Shopping Centers

Authors: Adnan Muharemovic, Hidajet Salkic, Mario Klaric, Irfan Turkovic, Aida Muharemovic

Abstract:

In nature, electromagnetic fields always appear like atmosphere static electric field, the earth's static magnetic field and the wide-rang frequency electromagnetic field caused by lightening. However, besides natural electromagnetic fields (EMF), today human beings are mostly exposed to artificial electromagnetic fields due to technology progress and outspread use of electrical devices. To evaluate nuisance of EMF, it is necessary to know field intensity for every frequency which appears and compare it with allowed values. Low frequency EMF-s around transmission and distribution lines are time-varying quasi-static electromagnetic fields which have conservative component of low frequency electrical field caused by charges and eddy component of low frequency magnetic field caused by currents. Displacement current or field delay are negligible, so energy flow in quasi-static EMF involves diffusion, analog like heat transfer. Electrical and magnetic field can be analyzed separately. This paper analysis the numerical calculations in ELF-400 software of EMF in distribution substation in shopping center. Analyzing the results it is possible to specify locations exposed to the fields and give useful suggestion to eliminate electromagnetic effect or reduce it on acceptable level within the non-ionizing radiation norms and norms of protection from EMF.

Keywords: Electromagnetic Field, Density of Electromagnetic Flow, Place of Proffesional Exposure, Place of Increased Sensitivity

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1815 Minimization of Power Loss in Distribution Networks by Different Techniques

Authors: L.Ramesh, S.P.Chowdhury, S.Chowdhury, A.A.Natarajan, C.T.Gaunt

Abstract:

Accurate loss minimization is the critical component for efficient electrical distribution power flow .The contribution of this work presents loss minimization in power distribution system through feeder restructuring, incorporating DG and placement of capacitor. The study of this work was conducted on IEEE distribution network and India Electricity Board benchmark distribution system. The executed experimental result of Indian system is recommended to board and implement practically for regulated stable output.

Keywords: Distribution system, Distributed Generation LossMinimization, Network Restructuring

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1814 A Note on Negative Hypergeometric Distribution and Its Approximation

Authors: S. B. Mansuri

Abstract:

In this paper, at first we explain about negative hypergeometric distribution and its properties. Then we use the w-function and the Stein identity to give a result on the poisson approximation to the negative hypergeometric distribution in terms of the total variation distance between the negative hypergeometric and poisson distributions and its upper bound.

Keywords: Negative hypergeometric distribution, Poisson distribution, Poisson approximation, Stein-Chen identity, w-function.

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1813 Applications of Stable Distributions in Time Series Analysis, Computer Sciences and Financial Markets

Authors: Mohammad Ali Baradaran Ghahfarokhi, Parvin Baradaran Ghahfarokhi

Abstract:

In this paper, first we introduce the stable distribution, stable process and theirs characteristics. The a -stable distribution family has received great interest in the last decade due to its success in modeling data, which are too impulsive to be accommodated by the Gaussian distribution. In the second part, we propose major applications of alpha stable distribution in telecommunication, computer science such as network delays and signal processing and financial markets. At the end, we focus on using stable distribution to estimate measure of risk in stock markets and show simulated data with statistical softwares.

Keywords: stable distribution, SaS, infinite variance, heavy tail networks, VaR.

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1812 The Current Situation of Ang Thong Province’s Court Doll Distribution

Authors: P. Waiyawuththanapoom

Abstract:

This research is objected to study the pattern and channel of distribution of Ang Thong’s court doll OTOP product and try to develop the quality of distribution of the court doll product. The population of this research is 50 court doll manufacturers of Ang Thong’s court doll. The data and information was collected by using the questionnaire and use percentage, mean and standard deviation as an analysis tools. The distribution channel of Ang Thong’s court doll can be separated into 3 channels which are direct distribution from the manufacturer, via the middleman and via the co-operated manufacturing group. In the direct distribution from the manufacturer channel, it was found that the manufacturer is given the highest rate of importance to how they keep the inventory. In the distribution via the middleman channel, it was found that the manufacturer is given the highest rate of importance to the distribution efficiency. But in the distribution via the co-operated manufacturing group, it was found that the manufacturer is given the highest rate of importance to the public relationship.

Keywords: Distribution, Court Doll, Ang Thong Province.

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1811 Technique for Voltage Control in Distribution System

Authors: S. Thongkeaw, M. Boonthienthong

Abstract:

This paper presents the techniques for voltage control in distribution system. It is integrated in the distribution management system. Voltage is an important parameter for the control of electrical power systems. The distribution network operators have the responsibility to regulate the voltage supplied to consumer within statutory limits. Traditionally, the On-Load Tap Changer (OLTC) transformer equipped with automatic voltage control (AVC) relays is the most popular and effective voltage control device. A static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) may be equipped with several controllers to perform multiple control functions. Static Var Compensation (SVC) is regulation slopes and available margins for var dispatch. The voltage control in distribution networks is established as a centralized analytical function in this paper. 

Keywords: Voltage Control, Reactive Power, Distribution System.

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1810 Landslide and Debris Flow Characteristics during Extreme Rainfall in Taiwan

Authors: C. Y. Chen

Abstract:

As the global climate changes, the threat from landslides and debris flows increases. Learning how a watershed initiates landslides under abnormal rainfall conditions and predicting landslide magnitude and frequency distribution is thus important. Landslides show a power-law distribution in the frequency-area distribution. The distribution curve shows an exponent gradient 1.0 in the Sandpile model test. Will the landslide frequency-area statistics show a distribution similar to the Sandpile model under extreme rainfall conditions? The purpose of the study is to identify the extreme rainfall-induced landslide frequency-area distribution in the Laonong River Basin in southern Taiwan. Results of the analysis show that a lower gradient of landslide frequency-area distribution could be attributed to the transportation and deposition of debris flow areas that are included in the landslide area.

Keywords: Landslide, power-law distribution, GIS.

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1809 Techniques for Reliability Evaluation in Distribution System Planning

Authors: T. Lantharthong, N. Phanthuna

Abstract:

This paper presents reliability evaluation techniques which are applied in distribution system planning studies and operation. Reliability of distribution systems is an important issue in power engineering for both utilities and customers. Reliability is a key issue in the design and operation of electric power distribution systems and load. Reliability evaluation of distribution systems has been the subject of many recent papers and the modeling and evaluation techniques have improved considerably.

Keywords: Reliability Evaluation, Optimization Technique, Reliability Indices

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1808 Reliability Improvement with Optimal Placement of Distributed Generation in Distribution System

Authors: N. Rugthaicharoencheep, T. Langtharthong

Abstract:

This paper presents the optimal placement and sizing of distributed generation (DG) in a distribution system. The problem is to reliability improvement of distribution system with distributed generations. The technique employed to solve the minimization problem is based on a developed Tabu search algorithm and reliability worth analysis. The developed methodology is tested with a distribution system of Roy Billinton Test System (RBTS) bus 2. It can be seen from the case study that distributed generation can reduce the customer interruption cost and therefore improve the reliability of the system. It is expected that our proposed method will be utilized effectively for distribution system operator.

Keywords: Distributed generation Optimization technique Reliability improvement, Distribution system.

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