Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 862

Search results for: Distributed ontologies

862 Parallel Querying of Distributed Ontologies with Shared Vocabulary

Authors: Sharjeel Aslam, Vassil Vassilev, Karim Ouazzane

Abstract:

Ontologies and various semantic repositories became a convenient approach for implementing model-driven architectures of distributed systems on the Web. SPARQL is the standard query language for querying such. However, although SPARQL is well-established standard for querying semantic repositories in RDF and OWL format and there are commonly used APIs which supports it, like Jena for Java, its parallel option is not incorporated in them. This article presents a complete framework consisting of an object algebra for parallel RDF and an index-based implementation of the parallel query engine capable of dealing with the distributed RDF ontologies which share common vocabulary. It has been implemented in Java, and for validation of the algorithms has been applied to the problem of organizing virtual exhibitions on the Web.

Keywords: Distributed ontologies, parallel querying, semantic indexing, shared vocabulary, SPARQL.

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861 Storing OWL Ontologies in SQL Relational Databases

Authors: Irina Astrova, Nahum Korda, Ahto Kalja

Abstract:

Relational databases are often used as a basis for persistent storage of ontologies to facilitate rapid operations such as search and retrieval, and to utilize the benefits of relational databases management systems such as transaction management, security and integrity control. On the other hand, there appear more and more OWL files that contain ontologies. Therefore, this paper proposes to extract ontologies from OWL files and then store them in relational databases. A prerequisite for this storing is transformation of ontologies to relational databases, which is the purpose of this paper.

Keywords: Ontologies, relational databases, SQL, and OWL.

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860 The Role of Contextual Ontologies in Enterprise Modeling

Authors: Ahmed Arara

Abstract:

Information sharing and exchange, rather than information processing, is what characterizes information technology in the 21st century. Ontologies, as shared common understanding, gain increasing attention, as they appear as the most promising solution to enable information sharing both at a semantic level and in a machine-processable way. Domain Ontology-based modeling has been exploited to provide shareability and information exchange among diversified, heterogeneous applications of enterprises. Contextual ontologies are “an explicit specification of contextual conceptualization". That is: ontology is characterized by concepts that have multiple representations and they may exist in several contexts. Hence, contextual ontologies are a set of concepts and relationships, which are seen from different perspectives. Contextualization is to allow for ontologies to be partitioned according to their contexts. The need for contextual ontologies in enterprise modeling has become crucial due to the nature of today's competitive market. Information resources in enterprise is distributed and diversified and is in need to be shared and communicated locally through the intranet and globally though the internet. This paper discusses the roles that ontologies play in an enterprise modeling, and how ontologies assist in building a conceptual model in order to provide communicative and interoperable information systems. The issue of enterprise modeling based on contextual domain ontology is also investigated, and a framework is proposed for an enterprise model that consists of various applications.

Keywords: Contextual ontologies, Enterprise model, domainontology.

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859 An Interactive Ontology Visualization Approach for the Networked Home Environment

Authors: Ilkka Niskanen, Jarmo Kalaoja, Julia Kantorovitch, Toni Piirainen

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Ontologies are broadly used in the context of networked home environments. With ontologies it is possible to define and store context information, as well as to model different kinds of physical environments. Ontologies are central to networked home environments as they carry the meaning. However, ontologies and the OWL language is complex. Several ontology visualization approaches have been developed to enhance the understanding of ontologies. The domain of networked home environments sets some special requirements for the ontology visualization approach. The visualization tool presented here, visualizes ontologies in a domain-specific way. It represents effectively the physical structures and spatial relationships of networked home environments. In addition, it provides extensive interaction possibilities for editing and manipulating the visualization. The tool shortens the gap from beginner to intermediate OWL ontology reader by visualizing instances in their actual locations and making OWL ontologies more interesting and concrete, and above all easier to comprehend.

Keywords: Ontologies, visualization, interaction.

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858 A Validation Technique for Integrated Ontologies

Authors: Neli P. Zlatareva

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Ontology validation is an important part of web applications’ development, where knowledge integration and ontological reasoning play a fundamental role. It aims to ensure the consistency and correctness of ontological knowledge and to guarantee that ontological reasoning is carried out in a meaningful way. Existing approaches to ontology validation address more or less specific validation issues, but the overall process of validating web ontologies has not been formally established yet. As the size and the number of web ontologies continue to grow, more web applications’ developers will rely on the existing repository of ontologies rather than develop ontologies from scratch. If an application utilizes multiple independently created ontologies, their consistency must be validated and eventually adjusted to ensure proper interoperability between them. This paper presents a validation technique intended to test the consistency of independent ontologies utilized by a common application.

Keywords: Knowledge engineering, ontological reasoning, ontology validation, semantic web.

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857 Proposition of an Ontology of Diseases and Their Signs from Medical Ontologies Integration

Authors: Adama Sow, Abdoulaye Guiss´e, Oumar Niang

Abstract:

To assist medical diagnosis, we propose a federation of several existing and open medical ontologies and terminologies. The goal is to merge the strengths of all these resources to provide clinicians the access to a variety of shared knowledges that can facilitate identification and association of human diseases and all of their available characteristic signs such as symptoms and clinical signs. This work results to an integration model loaded from target known ontologies of the bioportal platform such as DOID, MESH, and SNOMED for diseases selection, SYMP, and CSSO for all existing signs.

Keywords: Medical decision, medical ontologies, ontologies integration, linked data, knowledge ingeneering, e-health system.

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856 Temporal Extension to OWL Ontologies

Authors: Sudeep Marwaha, Punam Bedi

Abstract:

Ontologies play an important role in semantic web applications and are often developed by different groups and continues to evolve over time. The knowledge in ontologies changes very rapidly that make the applications outdated if they continue to use old versions or unstable if they jump to new versions. Temporal frames using frame versioning and slot versioning are used to take care of dynamic nature of the ontologies. The paper proposes new tags and restructured OWL format enabling the applications to work with the old or new version of ontologies. Gene Ontology, a very dynamic ontology, has been used as a case study to explain the OWL Ontology with Temporal Tags.

Keywords: Frame and slot Versioning, OWL, OntologyVersioning, Semantic Web.

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855 Resources-Based Ontology Matching to Access Learning Resources

Authors: A. Elbyed

Abstract:

Nowadays, ontologies are used for achieving a common understanding within a user community and for sharing domain knowledge. However, the de-centralized nature of the web makes indeed inevitable that small communities will use their own ontologies to describe their data and to index their own resources. Certainly, accessing to resources from various ontologies created independently is an important challenge for answering end user queries. Ontology mapping is thus required for combining ontologies. However, mapping complete ontologies at run time is a computationally expensive task. This paper proposes a system in which mappings between concepts may be generated dynamically as the concepts are encountered during user queries. In this way, the interaction itself defines the context in which small and relevant portions of ontologies are mapped. We illustrate application of the proposed system in the context of Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) where learners need to access to learning resources covering specific concepts.

Keywords: Resources query, ontologies, ontology mapping, similarity measures, semantic web, e-learning.

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854 Ontologies for Complex Event Processing

Authors: Irina Astrova, Arne Koschel, Jan Lukanowski, Jose Luis Munoz Martinez, Valerij Procenko, Marc Schaaf

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In this paper, five ontologies are described, which include the event concepts. The paper provides an overview and comparison of existing event models. The main criteria for comparison are that there should be possibilities to model events with stretch in the time and location and participation of objects; however, there are other factors that should be taken into account as well. The paper also shows an example of using ontologies in complex event processing.

Keywords: Ontologies, events, complex event processing (CEP).

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853 Versioning OWL Ontologies using Temporal Tags

Authors: Punam Bedi, Sudeep Marwaha

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Ontologies play an important role in semantic web applications and are often developed by different groups and continues to evolve over time. The knowledge in ontologies changes very rapidly that make the applications outdated if they continue to use old versions or unstable if they jump to new versions. Temporal frames using frame versioning and slot versioning are used to take care of dynamic nature of the ontologies. The paper proposes new tags and restructured OWL format enabling the applications to work with the old or new version of ontologies. Gene Ontology, a very dynamic ontology, has been used as a case study to explain the OWL Ontology with Temporal Tags.

Keywords: Frame and slot Versioning, OWL, OntologyVersioning, Semantic Web.

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852 Self-adaptation of Ontologies to Folksonomies in Semantic Web

Authors: Francisco Echarte, José Javier Astrain, Alberto Córdoba, Jesús Villadangos

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Ontologies and tagging systems are two different ways to organize the knowledge present in the current Web. In this paper we propose a simple method to model folksonomies, as tagging systems, with ontologies. We show the scalability of the method using real data sets. The modeling method is composed of a generic ontology that represents any folksonomy and an algorithm to transform the information contained in folksonomies to the generic ontology. The method allows representing folksonomies at any instant of time.

Keywords: Folksonomies, ontologies, OWL, semantic web.

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851 Consolidating Service Engineering Ontologies Building Service Ontology from SOA Modeling Language (SoaML)

Authors: Purnomo Yustianto, Robin Doss, Suhardi, Novianto Budi Kurniawan

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As a term for characterizing a process of devising a service system, the term ‘service engineering’ is still regarded as an ‘open’ research challenge due to unspecified details and conflicting perspectives. This paper presents consolidated service engineering ontologies in collecting, specifying and defining relationship between components pertinent within the context of service engineering. The ontologies are built by way of literature surveys from the collected conceptual works by collating various concepts into an integrated ontology. Two ontologies are produced: general service ontology and software service ontology. The software-service ontology is drawn from the informatics domain, while the generalized ontology of a service system is built from both a business management and the information system perspective. The produced ontologies are verified by exercising conceptual operationalizations of the ontologies in adopting several service orientation features and service system patterns. The proposed ontologies are demonstrated to be sufficient to serve as a basis for a service engineering framework.

Keywords: Engineering, ontology, service, SoaML.

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850 Domain Knowledge Representation through Multiple Sub Ontologies: An Application Interoperability

Authors: Sunitha Abburu, Golla Suresh Babu

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The issues that limit application interoperability is lack of common vocabulary, common structure, application domain knowledge ontology based semantic technology provides solutions that resolves application interoperability issues. Ontology is broadly used in diverse applications such as artificial intelligence, bioinformatics, biomedical, information integration, etc. Ontology can be used to interpret the knowledge of various domains. To reuse, enrich the available ontologies and reduce the duplication of ontologies of the same domain, there is a strong need to integrate the ontologies of the particular domain. The integrated ontology gives complete knowledge about the domain by sharing this comprehensive domain ontology among the groups. As per the literature survey there is no well-defined methodology to represent knowledge of a whole domain. The current research addresses a systematic methodology for knowledge representation using multiple sub-ontologies at different levels that addresses application interoperability and enables semantic information retrieval. The current method represents complete knowledge of a domain by importing concepts from multiple sub ontologies of same and relative domains that reduces ontology duplication, rework, implementation cost through ontology reusability.

Keywords: Knowledge acquisition, knowledge representation, knowledge transfer, ontologies, semantics.

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849 Utilizing Ontologies Using Ontology Editor for Creating Initial Unified Modeling Language (UML)Object Model

Authors: Waralak Vongdoiwang Siricharoen

Abstract:

One of object oriented software developing problem is the difficulty of searching the appropriate and suitable objects for starting the system. In this work, ontologies appear in the part of supporting the object discovering in the initial of object oriented software developing. There are many researches try to demonstrate that there is a great potential between object model and ontologies. Constructing ontology from object model is called ontology engineering can be done; On the other hand, this research is aiming to support the idea of building object model from ontology is also promising and practical. Ontology classes are available online in any specific areas, which can be searched by semantic search engine. There are also many helping tools to do so; one of them which are used in this research is Protégé ontology editor and Visual Paradigm. To put them together give a great outcome. This research will be shown how it works efficiently with the real case study by using ontology classes in travel/tourism domain area. It needs to combine classes, properties, and relationships from more than two ontologies in order to generate the object model. In this paper presents a simple methodology framework which explains the process of discovering objects. The results show that this framework has great value while there is possible for expansion. Reusing of existing ontologies offers a much cheaper alternative than building new ones from scratch. More ontologies are becoming available on the web, and online ontologies libraries for storing and indexing ontologies are increasing in number and demand. Semantic and Ontologies search engines have also started to appear, to facilitate search and retrieval of online ontologies.

Keywords: Software Developing, Ontology, Ontology Library, Artificial Intelligent, Protégé, Object Model.

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848 Automatic Generation of OWL Ontologies from UML Class Diagrams Based on Meta- Modelling and Graph Grammars

Authors: Aissam Belghiat, Mustapha Bourahla

Abstract:

Models are placed by modeling paradigm at the center of development process. These models are represented by languages, like UML the language standardized by the OMG which became necessary for development. Moreover the ontology engineering paradigm places ontologies at the center of development process; in this paradigm we find OWL the principal language for knowledge representation. Building ontologies from scratch is generally a difficult task. The bridging between UML and OWL appeared on several regards such as the classes and associations. In this paper, we have to profit from convergence between UML and OWL to propose an approach based on Meta-Modelling and Graph Grammars and registered in the MDA architecture for the automatic generation of OWL ontologies from UML class diagrams. The transformation is based on transformation rules; the level of abstraction in these rules is close to the application in order to have usable ontologies. We illustrate this approach by an example.

Keywords: ATOM3, MDA, Ontology, OWL, UML

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847 Semantic Web Agent Communication Capable of Reasoning with Ontology and Agent Locations

Authors: Visit Hirankitti, Vuong Tran Xuan

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Multi-agent communication of Semantic Web information cannot be realized without the need to reason with ontology and agent locations. This is because for an agent to be able to reason with an external semantic web ontology, it must know where and how to access to that ontology. Similarly, for an agent to be able to communicate with another agent, it must know where and how to send a message to that agent. In this paper we propose a framework of an agent which can reason with ontology and agent locations in order to perform reasoning with multiple distributed ontologies and perform communication with other agents on the semantic web. The agent framework and its communication mechanism are formulated entirely in meta-logic.

Keywords: Semantic Web, agent communication, ontologies.

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846 Restructuring of XML Documents in the Form of Ontologies

Authors: Jamal Bakkas, Mohamed Bahaj, Abdellatif Soklabi

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The intense use of the web has made it a very changing environment, its content is in permanent evolution to adapt to the demands. The standards have accompanied this evolution by passing from standards that regroup data with their presentations without any structuring such as HTML, to standards that separate both and give more importance to the structural aspect of the content such as XML standard and its derivatives. Currently, with the appearance of the Semantic Web, ontologies become increasingly present on the web and standards that allow their representations as OWL and RDF/RDFS begin to gain momentum. This paper provided an automatic method that converts XML schema document to ontologies represented in OWL.

Keywords: XML Schema, OWL, RDB, Mapping, Ontology.

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845 Designing Ontology-Based Knowledge Integration for Preprocessing of Medical Data in Enhancing a Machine Learning System for Coding Assignment of a Multi-Label Medical Text

Authors: Phanu Waraporn

Abstract:

This paper discusses the designing of knowledge integration of clinical information extracted from distributed medical ontologies in order to ameliorate a machine learning-based multilabel coding assignment system. The proposed approach is implemented using a decision tree technique of the machine learning on the university hospital data for patients with Coronary Heart Disease (CHD). The preliminary results obtained show a satisfactory finding that the use of medical ontologies improves the overall system performance.

Keywords: Medical Ontology, Knowledge Integration, Machine Learning, Medical Coding, Text Assignment.

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844 An Approach to Integrate Ontologies of Open Educational Resources in Knowledge Based Management Systems

Authors: Firas A. Al Laban, Mohamed Chabi, Sammani Danwawu Abdullahi

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There are real needs to integrate types of Open Educational Resources (OER) with an intelligent system to extract information and knowledge in the semantic searching level. The needs came because most of current learning standard adopted web based learning and the e-learning systems do not always serve all educational goals. Semantic Web systems provide educators, students, and researchers with intelligent queries based on a semantic knowledge management learning system. An ontology-based learning system is an advanced system, where ontology plays the core of the semantic web in a smart learning environment. The objective of this paper is to discuss the potentials of ontologies and mapping different kinds of ontologies; heterogeneous or homogenous to manage and control different types of Open Educational Resources. The important contribution of this research is that it uses logical rules and conceptual relations to map between ontologies of different educational resources. We expect from this methodology to establish an intelligent educational system supporting student tutoring, self and lifelong learning system.

Keywords: Knowledge Management Systems, Ontologies, Semantic Web, Open Educational Resources.

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843 Meta-reasoning for Multi-agent Communication of Semantic Web Information

Authors: Visit Hirankitti, Vuong Tran Xuan

Abstract:

Meta-reasoning is essential for multi-agent communication. In this paper we propose a framework of multi-agent communication in which agents employ meta-reasoning to reason with agent and ontology locations in order to communicate semantic information with other agents on the semantic web and also reason with multiple distributed ontologies. We shall argue that multi-agent communication of Semantic Web information cannot be realized without the need to reason with agent and ontology locations. This is because for an agent to be able to communicate with another agent, it must know where and how to send a message to that agent. Similarly, for an agent to be able to reason with an external semantic web ontology, it must know where and how to access to that ontology. The agent framework and its communication mechanism are formulated entirely in meta-logic.

Keywords: Semantic Web, agent communication, ontologies.

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842 Reverse Logistics Information Management Using Ontological Approach

Authors: F. Lhafiane, A. Elbyed, M. Bouchoum

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Reverse Logistics (RL) Network is considered as complex and dynamic network that involves many stakeholders such as: suppliers, manufactures, warehouse, retails and costumers, this complexity is inherent in such process due to lack of perfect knowledge or conflicting information. Ontologies on the other hand can be considered as an approach to overcome the problem of sharing knowledge and communication among the various reverse logistics partners. In this paper we propose a semantic representation based on hybrid architecture for building the Ontologies in ascendant way, this method facilitates the semantic reconciliation between the heterogeneous information systems that support reverse logistics processes and product data.

Keywords: Reverse Logistics, information management, heterogeneity, Ontologies, semantic web.

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841 Ontology-based Domain Modelling for Consistent Content Change Management

Authors: Muhammad Javed, Yalemisew M. Abgaz, Claus Pahl

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Ontology-based modelling of multi-formatted software application content is a challenging area in content management. When the number of software content unit is huge and in continuous process of change, content change management is important. The management of content in this context requires targeted access and manipulation methods. We present a novel approach to deal with model-driven content-centric information systems and access to their content. At the core of our approach is an ontology-based semantic annotation technique for diversely formatted content that can improve the accuracy of access and systems evolution. Domain ontologies represent domain-specific concepts and conform to metamodels. Different ontologies - from application domain ontologies to software ontologies - capture and model the different properties and perspectives on a software content unit. Interdependencies between domain ontologies, the artifacts and the content are captured through a trace model. The annotation traces are formalised and a graph-based system is selected for the representation of the annotation traces.

Keywords: Consistent Content Management, Impact Categorisation, Trace Model, Ontology Evolution

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840 Ontologies for Social Media Digital Evidence

Authors: Edlira Kalemi, Sule Yildirim-Yayilgan

Abstract:

Online Social Networks (OSNs) are nowadays being used widely and intensively for crime investigation and prevention activities. As they provide a lot of information they are used by the law enforcement and intelligence. An extensive review on existing solutions and models for collecting intelligence from this source of information and making use of it for solving crimes has been presented in this article. The main focus is on smart solutions and models where ontologies have been used as the main approach for representing criminal domain knowledge. A framework for a prototype ontology named SC-Ont will be described. This defines terms of the criminal domain ontology and the relations between them. The terms and the relations are extracted during both this review and the discussions carried out with domain experts. The development of SC-Ont is still ongoing work, where in this paper, we report mainly on the motivation for using smart ontology models and the possible benefits of using them for solving crimes.

Keywords: Criminal digital evidence, social media, ontologies, reasoning.

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839 Semantic Web Technologies in e - Government

Authors: Stamatios A. Theocharis, George A. Tsihrintzis

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e-Government is already in its second decade. Prerequisite for further development and adaptation to new realities is the optimal management of administrative information and knowledge production by those involved, i.e. the public sector, citizens and businesses. Nowadays, the amount of information displayed or distributed on the Internet has reached enormous dimensions, resulting in serious difficulties when extracting and managing knowledge. The semantic web is expected to play an important role in solving this problem and the technologies that support it. In this article, we address some relevant issues.

Keywords: e-Government, semantic web, ontologies

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838 A Collaborative Platform for Multilingual Ontology Development

Authors: Ahmed Tawfik, Fausto Giunchiglia, Vincenzo Maltese

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Ontologies provide a common understanding of a specific domain of interest that can be communicated between people and used as background knowledge for automated reasoning in a wide range of applications. In this paper, we address the design of multilingual ontologies following well-defined knowledge engineering methodologies with the support of novel collaborative development approaches. In particular, we present a collaborative platform which allows ontologies to be developed incrementally in multiple languages. This is made possible via an appropriate mapping between language independent concepts and one lexicalization per language (or a lexical gap in case such lexicalization does not exist). The collaborative platform has been designed to support the development of the Universal Knowledge Core, a multilingual ontology currently in English, Italian, Chinese, Mongolian, Hindi and Bangladeshi. Its design follows a workflow-based development methodology that models resources as a set of collaborative objects and assigns customizable workflows to build and maintain each collaborative object in a community driven manner, with extensive support of modern web 2.0 social and collaborative features.

Keywords: Knowledge Diversity, Knowledge Representation, Ontology Development.

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837 A Temporal QoS Ontology for ERTMS/ETCS

Authors: Marc Sango, Olimpia Hoinaru, Christophe Gransart, Laurence Duchien

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Ontologies offer a means for representing and sharing information in many domains, particularly in complex domains. For example, it can be used for representing and sharing information of System Requirement Specification (SRS) of complex systems like the SRS of ERTMS/ETCS written in natural language. Since this system is a real-time and critical system, generic ontologies, such as OWL and generic ERTMS ontologies provide minimal support for modeling temporal information omnipresent in these SRS documents. To support the modeling of temporal information, one of the challenges is to enable representation of dynamic features evolving in time within a generic ontology with a minimal redesign of it. The separation of temporal information from other information can help to predict system runtime operation and to properly design and implement them. In addition, it is helpful to provide a reasoning and querying techniques to reason and query temporal information represented in the ontology in order to detect potential temporal inconsistencies. To address this challenge, we propose a lightweight 3-layer temporal Quality of Service (QoS) ontology for representing, reasoning and querying over temporal and non-temporal information in a complex domain ontology. Representing QoS entities in separated layers can clarify the distinction between the non QoS entities and the QoS entities in an ontology. The upper generic layer of the proposed ontology provides an intuitive knowledge of domain components, specially ERTMS/ETCS components. The separation of the intermediate QoS layer from the lower QoS layer allows us to focus on specific QoS Characteristics, such as temporal or integrity characteristics. In this paper, we focus on temporal information that can be used to predict system runtime operation. To evaluate our approach, an example of the proposed domain ontology for handover operation, as well as a reasoning rule over temporal relations in this domain-specific ontology, are presented.

Keywords: System Requirement Specification, ERTMS/ETCS, Temporal Ontologies, Domain Ontologies.

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836 Target Tracking in Sensor Networks: A Distributed Constraint Satisfaction Approach

Authors: R.Mostafaei, A.Habiboghli, M.R.Meybodi

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In distributed resource allocation a set of agents must assign their resources to a set of tasks. This problem arises in many real-world domains such as distributed sensor networks, disaster rescue, hospital scheduling and others. Despite the variety of approaches proposed for distributed resource allocation, a systematic formalization of the problem, explaining the different sources of difficulties, and a formal explanation of the strengths and limitations of key approaches is missing. We take a step towards this goal by using a formalization of distributed resource allocation that represents both dynamic and distributed aspects of the problem. In this paper we present a new idea for target tracking in sensor networks and compare it with previous approaches. The central contribution of the paper is a generalized mapping from distributed resource allocation to DDCSP. This mapping is proven to correctly perform resource allocation problems of specific difficulty. This theoretical result is verified in practice by a simulation on a realworld distributed sensor network.

Keywords: Distributed CSP, Target Tracking, Sensor Network

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835 A Preliminary Conceptual Scale to Discretize the Distributed Manufacturing Continuum

Authors: Ijaz Ul Haq, Fiorenzo Franceschini

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The distributed manufacturing methodology brings a new concept of decentralized manufacturing operations close to the proximity of end users. A preliminary scale, to measure distributed capacity and evaluate positioning of firms, is developed in this research. In the first part of the paper, a literature review has been performed which highlights the explorative nature of the studies conducted to present definitions and classifications due to novelty of this topic. From literature, five dimensions of distributed manufacturing development stages have been identified: localization, manufacturing technologies, customization and personalization, digitalization and democratization of design. Based on these determinants a conceptual scale is proposed to measure the status of distributed manufacturing of a generic firm. A multiple case study is then conducted in two steps to test the conceptual scale and to identify the corresponding level of distributed potential in each case study firm.

Keywords: Conceptual scale, distributed manufacturing, firm’s distributed capacity, manufacturing continuum.

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834 A Generic, Functionally Comprehensive Approach to Maintaining an Ontology as a Relational Database

Authors: Jennifer Leopold, Alton Coalter, Leong Lee

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An ontology is a data model that represents a set of concepts in a given field and the relationships among those concepts. As the emphasis on achieving a semantic web continues to escalate, ontologies for all types of domains increasingly will be developed. These ontologies may become large and complex, and as their size and complexity grows, so will the need for multi-user interfaces for ontology curation. Herein a functionally comprehensive, generic approach to maintaining an ontology as a relational database is presented. Unlike many other ontology editors that utilize a database, this approach is entirely domain-generic and fully supports Webbased, collaborative editing including the designation of different levels of authorization for users.

Keywords: Ontology Editor, Relational Database, CollaborativeCuration.

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833 Experimental Parallel Architecture for Rendering 3D Model into MPEG-4 Format

Authors: Ajay Joshi, Surya Ismail

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This paper will present the initial findings of a research into distributed computer rendering. The goal of the research is to create a distributed computer system capable of rendering a 3D model into an MPEG-4 stream. This paper outlines the initial design, software architecture and hardware setup for the system. Distributed computing means designing and implementing programs that run on two or more interconnected computing systems. Distributed computing is often used to speed up the rendering of graphical imaging. Distributed computing systems are used to generate images for movies, games and simulations. A topic of interest is the application of distributed computing to the MPEG-4 standard. During the course of the research, a distributed system will be created that can render a 3D model into an MPEG-4 stream. It is expected that applying distributed computing principals will speed up rendering, thus improving the usefulness and efficiency of the MPEG-4 standard

Keywords: Cluster, parallel architecture, rendering, MPEG-4.

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